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1988 Chronology

1988 - . LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G.
  • Full scale development of Ariane 5 launch vehicle authorised. - . Nation: France. The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, with a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Full scale development cost $ 8 billion..

1988 During the Year - .
  • MAKS draft project completed - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: MAKS series. Spacecraft: MAKS Orbiter.

    The MAKS spaceplane draft project consisted of 220 volumes, generated by NPO Molniya and 70 sub-contractors and government institutes. Development of MAKS was authorised but cancelled after Perestroika. At the time of the cancellation, mock-ups of both the MAKS orbiter and the external tank had been finished. Since it was expected that MAKS could reduce the cost of transport to earth orbit by a factor of ten, it was hoped in the 1990ís that development funding could be found. However this has not happened to date.


1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988? - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: DF-15. Launch Vehicle: DF-15.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 January 1 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho II.
  • Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-27. Launch Vehicle: Zyb.
  • Final OT operational test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1988? - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein RN. Launch Pad: RN?. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Talos Sergeant Hydac.
  • HAVE JEEP VII-C Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF BMD. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU 15A35.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: Perimetr 15A11.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-39. Launch Vehicle: RT-23U 15Zh60.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988? - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-519? - . Nation: USA. Agency: US7A. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1988? - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-518? - . Nation: USA. Agency: US7A. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1988? - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-517? - . Nation: USA. Agency: US7A. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-39. Launch Vehicle: RT-23U 15Zh60.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-39. Launch Vehicle: RT-23U 15Zh60.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-39. Launch Vehicle: RT-23U 15Zh60.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-39. Launch Vehicle: RT-23U 15Zh60.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 January 6 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 January 6 - . 07:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1908 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 64. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-D. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 18748 . COSPAR: 1988-001A. Apogee: 626 km (388 mi). Perigee: 600 km (370 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.00 min.

1988 January 8 - .
  • Death of Frank Pace at Greenwich, Fairfield, CT. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Pace. American manager, Secretary of the Army, 1950-1953, president of General Dynamics 1953-1962. During his tenure General Dynamics acquired Convair and other companies and became a leading defense and space contractor..

1988 January 11 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1988 January 12 - . 16:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1988 January 13 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 January 13 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1988 January 14 - . 11:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1988 January 15 - . 03:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1909 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 23. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 18788 . COSPAR: 1988-002A. Apogee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Perigee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min. Military store-dump communications satellite. Six satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1911 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 25. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 18790 . COSPAR: 1988-002C. Apogee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Perigee: 1,400 km (800 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.90 min.
  • Cosmos 1910 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 24. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 18789 . COSPAR: 1988-002B. Apogee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Perigee: 1,407 km (874 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.
  • Cosmos 1912 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 26. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 18791 . COSPAR: 1988-002D. Apogee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Perigee: 1,395 km (866 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.90 min.
  • Cosmos 1914 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 28. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 18793 . COSPAR: 1988-002F. Apogee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Perigee: 1,383 km (859 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.70 min.
  • Cosmos 1913 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 27. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 18792 . COSPAR: 1988-002E. Apogee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Perigee: 1,390 km (860 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.80 min.

1988 January 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 January 18 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • RSLP TDMaRV re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1988 January 18 - . 09:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Third stage malfunction.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Gorizont s/n 25L - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 25L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont.

1988 January 19 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant X.
  • TOPAZ II Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 926 km (575 mi).

1988 January 20 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 January 20 - . 22:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 34 - . Payload: Progress s/n 142. Mass: 7,078 kg (15,604 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4. Spacecraft Bus: Progress. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 43.36 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-03-05 07:29:36 . Decay Date: 1988-03-05 07:29:36 . USAF Sat Cat: 18795 . COSPAR: 1988-003A. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 329 km (204 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked on 23 Jan 1988 00:09:09 GMT. Undocked on 4 Mar 1988 03:40:09 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 4 Mar 1988 07:29:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.21 days. Total docked time 41.15 days..

1988 January 21 - . 16:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1988 January 22 - . 23:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1988 January 23 - .
  • Death of Georgi Maksimiliyanovich Malenkov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Malenkov. Russian politician. First Chairman of Special Committee 2 1946-1947. Oversaw missile program..

1988 January 23 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 January 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 January 25 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • COREX Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi).

1988 January 26 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1915 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 18809 . COSPAR: 1988-004A. Apogee: 372 km (231 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 73.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 January 27 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 74 km (45 mi).

1988 January 28 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 January 28 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. LV Family: S-310. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • D-region Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 202 km (125 mi).

1988 January 29 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT125GB-1 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1988 January 29 - . 19:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 January 30 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Meteor 2-17 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 17. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 18820 . COSPAR: 1988-005A. Apogee: 958 km (595 mi). Perigee: 934 km (580 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 104.00 min. Gathering meteorological information and data on penetrating radiation fluxes in circumterrestrial space..

1988 February - .
  • STS-81-G (cancelled) - . Crew: Mohri, Mukai. Backup Crew: Doi. Payload: Spacelab-J. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Doi, Mohri, Mukai. Program: STS. Flight: STS-81-G. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger. Planned Spacelab-J shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. .

1988 February 1 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1988 February 2 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 77 km (47 mi).

1988 February 3 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 February 3 - . 05:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • USA 29 - . Payload: DMSP S-8/Star 37S S/N 15021. Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DMSP Block 5D-2. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5D-2. USAF Sat Cat: 18822 . COSPAR: 1988-006A. Apogee: 817 km (507 mi). Perigee: 807 km (501 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 101.10 min. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program..

1988 February 3 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1916 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 24.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-02-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 18823 . COSPAR: 1988-007A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance. Spacecraft failed. Blown up in orbit on February 27..

1988 February 5 - . 14:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1988 February 6 - . 20:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1988 February 8 - . 22:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3910.
  • USA 30 - . Payload: Delta 181 Canister Cluster. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. Decay Date: 1988-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 18847 . COSPAR: 1988-008A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 225 km (139 mi). Inclination: 28.6000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Military tracking exercise; released subsatellites. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .
  • Delta 181 Subsatellite 7 - . Payload: Group 2 Test Object. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. COSPAR: 1988-008xx.
  • Delta 181 Sensor Module - . Payload: Thrusted Vector Sensor Mo. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. Decay Date: 1988-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 18848 . COSPAR: 1988-008B. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 287 km (178 mi). Inclination: 30.7000 deg. Period: 90.53 min.
  • SPX - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. COSPAR: 1988-008xx.
  • Delta 181 Subsatellite 1 - . Payload: Group 1 Test Object. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. Decay Date: 1988-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 18847 . COSPAR: 1988-008xx. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 28.6000 deg. Period: 88.10 min.
  • Delta 181 Subsatellite 2 - . Payload: Group 1 Test Object. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. COSPAR: 1988-008xx.
  • Delta 181 Subsatellite 3 - . Payload: Group 1 Test Object. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. COSPAR: 1988-008xx.
  • Delta 181 Subsatellite 4 - . Payload: Group 1 Test Object. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. COSPAR: 1988-008xx.
  • Sensor Cal Reference Subsat - . Payload: Group 1 Cal Object. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. COSPAR: 1988-008xx.
  • Delta 181 Subsatellite 8 - . Payload: Group 2 Test Object. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. COSPAR: 1988-008xx.
  • Delta 181 Subsatellite 9 - . Payload: Group 2 Test Object. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. COSPAR: 1988-008xx.
  • Delta 181 Subsatellite 10 - . Payload: Group 2 Test Object. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. Decay Date: 1988-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 18847 . COSPAR: 1988-008xx. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 28.6000 deg. Period: 88.10 min.
  • Delta 181 Subsatellite 11 - . Payload: Group 2 Test Object. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. Decay Date: 1988-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 18847 . COSPAR: 1988-008xx. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 28.6000 deg. Period: 88.10 min.
  • Solid Motor Subsatellite - . Payload: Group 2 Test Object. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. COSPAR: 1988-008xx.
  • Delta 181 Subsatellite 5 - . Payload: Group 1 Test Object. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft Bus: SDI. Spacecraft: SDI. COSPAR: 1988-008xx.

1988 February 9 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC1. Launch Pad: LC1?. LV Family: Strypi. Launch Vehicle: Strypi XI.
  • Reentry test - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1988 February 9 - . 08:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • ECHO VII Plasma / tether mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi).

1988 February 10 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 February 10 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1988 February 12 - .
  • International Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: Afghanistan. Related Persons: Masum, Mohmand. Training group of Afghan 'guest cosmonauts' for a propaganda flight to the Mir space station..

1988 February 15 - . 13:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 February 16 - . 13:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 N. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SXS? X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 February 17 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 February 17 - . 00:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Block DM-2 failure, remained in LEO.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 1917 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 38L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass . Decay Date: 1988-02-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 18857 . COSPAR: 1988-009A. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi). Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 87.30 min.

    Triple Glonass launch; three satellites (Cosmos 1917, 1918, 1919) failed to separate. A Proton carrier rocket was put into staging orbit to test components, also apparatus for a space navigation system. The satellites were not put into their designed orbit owing to a malfunction in the separation assembly controls.

  • Cosmos 1918 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 37L. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. COSPAR: 1988-009xx.
  • Cosmos 1919 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 36L. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. COSPAR: 1988-009xx.
  • Cosmos 1918 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 37L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. Decay Date: 1988-02-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 18857 . COSPAR: 1988-009B. Apogee: 194 km (120 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 87.90 min.

    Triple Glonass launch; three satellites (Cosmos 1917, 1918, 1919) failed to separate. A Proton carrier rocket was put into staging orbit to test components, also apparatus for a space navigation system. The satellites were not put into their designed orbit owing to a malfunction in the separation assembly controls.

  • Cosmos 1919 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 36L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. Decay Date: 1988-02-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 18857 . COSPAR: 1988-009C. Apogee: 194 km (120 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 87.90 min.

    Triple Glonass launch; three satellites (Cosmos 1917, 1918, 1919) failed to separate. A Proton carrier rocket was put into staging orbit to test components, also apparatus for a space navigation system. The satellites were not put into their designed orbit owing to a malfunction in the separation assembly controls.


1988 February 18 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1920 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F40. Duration: 20.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 18860 . COSPAR: 1988-010A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1988 February 19 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1921 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 18875 . COSPAR: 1988-011A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 February 19 - . 10:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: H-1.
  • Sakura 3A - . Payload: CS-3A. Mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Nation: Japan. Program: CS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: CS-3. Spacecraft: CS-3. Completed Operations Date: 1996-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 18877 . COSPAR: 1988-012A. Apogee: 36,415 km (22,627 mi). Perigee: 36,376 km (22,602 mi). Inclination: 4.9000 deg. Period: 1,467.30 min.

    Stationed at 132 deg E. CS-3A (Sakura 3-A). To continue communications services provided by the communications satellite 2 (CS-2). To meet increasing and diversifying demands for communications. To develop technologies for communications satellites. Launch vehicle H18F. Launchin g organization NASDA. Launch time 1005 GMT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 132 deg E in 1988-1996 As of 2 September 2001 located at 85.60 deg E drifting at 7.699 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 71.73E drifting at 7.700W degrees per day.


1988 February 22 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1988 February 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 February 24 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 February 24 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1988 February 25 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: S-75. Launch Vehicle: Prithvi.
  • Test mission - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1988 February 26 - . 09:00 GMT - .
1988 February 26 - . 09:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1922 - . Payload: Oko #56. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Oko. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 18881 . COSPAR: 1988-013A. Apogee: 34,181 km (21,239 mi). Perigee: 6,225 km (3,868 mi). Inclination: 67.6000 deg. Period: 718.80 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 75 degree longitude of ascending node..

1988 February 27 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 634. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 February 28 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 N. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 February 29 - . 08:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi).

1988 March - . LV Family: Babylon Gun. Launch Vehicle: Iraqi Gun Projectile.
  • Iraq contracts with Gerard Bull for a space-launch supergun. - . Nation: Iraq.

    Bull received a contract to build two full sized 'Project Babylon' 1000 mm superguns and one 'Baby Babylon' 350 mm prototype for a total of $25 million. The project was given the cover designation 'PC-2' (Petrochemical Complex-2). British engineer Christopher Cowley was the project manager.


1988 March 2 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 March 2 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1988 March 3 - . 11:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1988 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 March 4 - . 06:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant X.
  • UCB Alaska '88 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 March 7 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein RN. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Talos Sergeant Hydac. FAILURE: Failure.
  • HAVE JEEP VII-B Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF BMD. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1988 March 7 - . 12:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3.
  • Zhongxing 1 - . Payload: STTW 2 / Chinasat 1. Mass: 1,024 kg (2,257 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DFH-2. Spacecraft: DFH-2. Completed Operations Date: 1997-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 18922 . COSPAR: 1988-014A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 87 deg E in 1988-1997. As of 28 August 2001 located at 87.94 deg E drifting at 0.038 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 64.00E drifting at 0.067E degrees per day..

1988 March 8 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1988 March 9 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 March 9 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 77 km (47 mi).

1988 March 10 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1923 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-03-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 18931 . COSPAR: 1988-015A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 March 11 - . 00:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1924 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 321. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 18937 . COSPAR: 1988-016A. Apogee: 1,514 km (940 mi). Perigee: 1,461 km (907 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.70 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1931 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 328. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 18944 . COSPAR: 1988-016H. Apogee: 1,461 km (907 mi). Perigee: 1,398 km (868 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.40 min.
  • Cosmos 1930 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 327. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 18943 . COSPAR: 1988-016G. Apogee: 1,460 km (900 mi). Perigee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min.
  • Cosmos 1929 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 326. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 18942 . COSPAR: 1988-016F. Apogee: 1,461 km (907 mi). Perigee: 1,429 km (887 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.80 min.
  • Cosmos 1928 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 325. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 18941 . COSPAR: 1988-016E. Apogee: 1,461 km (907 mi). Perigee: 1,444 km (897 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.90 min.
  • Cosmos 1927 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 324. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 18940 . COSPAR: 1988-016D. Apogee: 1,467 km (911 mi). Perigee: 1,455 km (904 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1926 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 323. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 18939 . COSPAR: 1988-016C. Apogee: 1,479 km (919 mi). Perigee: 1,460 km (900 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.30 min.
  • Cosmos 1925 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 322. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 18938 . COSPAR: 1988-016B. Apogee: 1,497 km (930 mi). Perigee: 1,460 km (900 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.50 min.

1988 March 11 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-71 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 18946 . COSPAR: 1988-017A. Apogee: 39,149 km (24,326 mi). Perigee: 1,199 km (745 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1988 March 11 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3.
  • Spacenet F3R - . Payload: Spacenet 3R. Mass: 1,212 kg (2,672 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: France Telecom. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: GTE. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AS 3000. Spacecraft: AS 3000. Completed Operations Date: 1999-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 18951 . COSPAR: 1988-018A. Apogee: 35,980 km (22,350 mi). Perigee: 35,935 km (22,328 mi). Inclination: 2.4000 deg. Period: 1,444.90 min.

    US domestic communications; 87 deg W. C, Ku band communications satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 87 deg W in 1988-1997; 83 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 107.85 deg W drifting at 2.220 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 153.60E drifting at 2.179W degrees per day.

  • Telecom 1C - . Mass: 1,210 kg (2,660 lb). Nation: France. Agency: GTE. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Telecom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Eurostar 2000. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. Completed Operations Date: 1996-03-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 18952 . COSPAR: 1988-018B. Apogee: 36,860 km (22,900 mi). Perigee: 36,037 km (22,392 mi). Inclination: 5.5000 deg. Period: 1,470.10 min.

    French domestic communications; 5 deg E. Communications satellite. Registration France 1984-2.B (Telecom 1A) 1985-2.B (Telecom 1B). 1988-1-C (Telecom 1C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 5 deg W in 1988-1992; 3 deg E in 1992-1996 As of 5 September 2001 located at 109.19 deg W drifting at 8.404 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 34.65E drifting at 8.341W degrees per day.


1988 March 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 March 13 - . 13:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 N. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 March 14 - . 14:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1932 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1988-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 19160 . COSPAR: 1988-019B. Apogee: 1,008 km (626 mi). Perigee: 920 km (570 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 104.40 min. Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered - last launch of the US-AM. Programme cancelled by Gorbachev..

1988 March 15 - . 18:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1933 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 65. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-D. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 18958 . COSPAR: 1988-020A. Apogee: 629 km (390 mi). Perigee: 605 km (375 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.10 min.

1988 March 16 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 March 16 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1988 March 17 - . 06:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • IRS-1A - . Payload: IRS 1A. Mass: 975 kg (2,149 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: IRS. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 18960 . COSPAR: 1988-021A. Apogee: 917 km (569 mi). Perigee: 897 km (557 mi). Inclination: 99.0000 deg. Period: 103.10 min.

    Indian remote sensing; 1st Soviet commercial launch. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-1A). Operational remote sensing of the Earth for natural resources management applications. Also registered by the USSR as object no. 2387 in ST/SG/SER.E/182 and orbital parameters 102.7 min, 863 x 917 km x 99.01 deg.


1988 March 17 - . 20:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 March 17 - . 20:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-72 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 2001-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 18980 . COSPAR: 1988-022A. Apogee: 38,228 km (23,753 mi). Perigee: 2,121 km (1,317 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1988 March 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1988 March 20 - . 16:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 74 km (45 mi).

1988 March 21 - . 13:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 March 21 - . 13:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 March 21 - . 14:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 March 21 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 March 21 - . 16:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 March 22 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1934 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 18985 . COSPAR: 1988-023A. Apogee: 1,009 km (626 mi). Perigee: 947 km (588 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.60 min. Military navigation satellite..

1988 March 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 March 23 - .
  • Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) broke ground for permanent National Test Facility (NTF) at Falcon AFB, Colorado. - . Nation: USA.

1988 March 23 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 March 23 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 35 - . Payload: Progress s/n 143. Mass: 7,037 kg (15,513 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4. Spacecraft Bus: Progress. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 42.41 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-05-06 06:56:07 . Decay Date: 1988-05-06 06:56:07 . USAF Sat Cat: 18992 . COSPAR: 1988-024A. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked on 25 Mar 1988 22:21:35 GMT. Undocked on 5 May 1988 01:36:03 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 May 1988 06:56:19 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.28 days. Total docked time 40.14 days..

1988 March 24 - . 14:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1935 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 19011 . COSPAR: 1988-025A. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1988 March 25 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout G-1.
  • San Marco D/L - . Payload: San Marco 5. Mass: 236 kg (520 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: ASI. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: San Marco satellite. Spacecraft: San Marco satellite. Decay Date: 1988-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 19013 . COSPAR: 1988-026A. Apogee: 625 km (388 mi). Perigee: 268 km (166 mi). Inclination: 3.0000 deg. Period: 93.50 min. Upper atmosphere studies; US, France, Italy participation. .

1988 March 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 March 30 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 March 30 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1936 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 49.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 19015 . COSPAR: 1988-027A. Apogee: 266 km (165 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Photo/digital surveillance..

1988 March 31 - . 04:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 15 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 26L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1992-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19017 . COSPAR: 1988-028A. Apogee: 36,630 km (22,760 mi). Perigee: 36,343 km (22,582 mi). Inclination: 3.7000 deg. Period: 1,472.00 min.

    Stationed at 346 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1988-1991; 11 deg W in 1991-1992 As of 31 August 2001 located at 29.28 deg W drifting at 8.804 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 152.02W drifting at 8.807W degrees per day.


1988 April 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 628. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1988 April 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 628. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1988 April 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 628. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1988 April 1 - . 20:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 628. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1988 April 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 April 4 - . 06:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: PASSAT. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1988 April 5 - . 14:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1937 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 19038 . COSPAR: 1988-029A. Apogee: 797 km (495 mi). Perigee: 761 km (472 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.40 min.

1988 April 6 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 April 6 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1988 April 7 - . 16:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 77 km (47 mi).

1988 April 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 April 9 - . 00:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • ERRRIS I Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1988 April 10 - . 10:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: PRILIV. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1988 April 11 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1938 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-04-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 19041 . COSPAR: 1988-030A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 April 12 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1988 April 13 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 April 13 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1988 April 14 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Foton 4 - . Payload: Foton s/n 4L. Mass: 6,200 kg (13,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Foton. Duration: 13.62 days. Decay Date: 1988-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 19043 . COSPAR: 1988-031A. Apogee: 372 km (231 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. 218 orbits. Materials processing experiments; extremely pure and semiconductor materials. Research in material science in space (production of semiconductor materials with improved properties and very pure biologically active substances).

1988 April 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
  • Buran Analog BST-02 flight 25 - . Crew: Stankevicius, Volk. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Stankevicius, Volk. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran Analogue. Time 19 minutes. Final Buran Analog flight test. At the same time development of the auto-land system aboard the Tu-154 test bed is completed as well..

1988 April 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 April 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 April 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 April 15 - . 04:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 April 16 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: PRILIV. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1988 April 17 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: PRILIV. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1988 April 18 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: PRILIV. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1988 April 20 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 April 20 - . 05:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1939 - . Payload: Resurs-O1 no. 2. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Resurs-O1. Decay Date: 2014-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 19045 . COSPAR: 1988-032A. Apogee: 602 km (374 mi). Perigee: 570 km (350 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. Stayed in operation for six years, six months, far beyond its rated life of 3 to 5 years..

1988 April 21 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1988 April 22 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1988 April 26 - . 01:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout G-1.
  • Transit O-23 - . Mass: 64 kg (141 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Transit. Spacecraft: Transit. USAF Sat Cat: 19070 . COSPAR: 1988-033A. Apogee: 1,301 km (808 mi). Perigee: 1,016 km (631 mi). Inclination: 90.4000 deg. Period: 108.50 min. Dual launch of operational Transits manufactured in the 1960's to replenish the constellation..
  • Transit O-32 - . Mass: 64 kg (141 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Transit. Spacecraft: Transit. USAF Sat Cat: 19071 . COSPAR: 1988-033B. Apogee: 1,298 km (806 mi). Perigee: 1,017 km (631 mi). Inclination: 90.4000 deg. Period: 108.50 min.

1988 April 26 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1940 - . Payload: SPRN No. 5. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Prognoz SPRN. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1988-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19073 . COSPAR: 1988-034A. Apogee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Perigee: 35,590 km (22,110 mi). Inclination: 9.0000 deg. Period: 1,430.50 min.

    Given on Western lists as a geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. However not listed as such in Russian lists, and officially ...'conducted atmospheric, ocean studies. Investigation of the seas and oceans and the processes occurring in the earth's atmosphere'. So may have carried test instruments for second generation SPRN or had other purposes. Stationed initially at 12 deg E; Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1988 As of 1 September 2001 located at 49.66 deg W drifting at 1.409 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 70.52W drifting at 1.424E degrees per day.


1988 April 27 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 April 27 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1941 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-05-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 19079 . COSPAR: 1988-035A. Apogee: 266 km (165 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 70.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 April 28 - . 04:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC46. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 April 29 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 April 30 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1988 May 1 - .
  • Death of Robert A Heinlein - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Heinlein. Leading American writer of technical science fiction, inspired many engineers that would later make space travel a reality. Major corporations, the military, and nuclear power were key aspects of the colonization of space in his stories..

1988 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 May 2 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8B.
  • TEXUS 17 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: MBB. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi).

1988 May 3 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 15 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1988 May 4 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 77 km (47 mi).

1988 May 6 - . 02:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 18 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 31L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1990-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 19090 . COSPAR: 1988-036A. Apogee: 37,337 km (23,200 mi). Perigee: 37,236 km (23,137 mi). Inclination: 4.5000 deg. Period: 1,513.40 min.

    Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1988-1990 As of 2 September 2001 located at 7.21 deg E drifting at 18.450 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 80.93W drifting at 18.443W degrees per day.


1988 May 6 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8B.
  • TEXUS 18 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: MBB. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi).

1988 May 9 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • Testflug (BAE 1) test - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi).

1988 May 10 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 16 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1988 May 11 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 May 11 - . 11:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1988 May 12 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1942 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 53.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 19115 . COSPAR: 1988-037A. Apogee: 356 km (221 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.

1988 May 13 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • SLC-6 ordered to be mothballed - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Air Force Secretary Edward C. Aldridge, Jr., directed the Air Force to begin mothballing the Space Shuttle program at Vandenberg AFB..

1988 May 13 - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 2.
  • P-532? - . Nation: USA. Agency: US7A. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1988 May 13 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 36 - . Payload: Progress s/n 144. Mass: 7,077 kg (15,602 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4. Spacecraft Bus: Progress. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 23.87 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-06-05 21:18:15 . Decay Date: 1988-06-05 21:18:15 . USAF Sat Cat: 19117 . COSPAR: 1988-038A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Rendezvous transfer orbits 185x246 km, 51. 66 deg; 223x334 km; 331x357 km. Docked with Mir on 15 May 1988 02:13:26 GMT. Undocked on 5 Jun 1988 11:11:55 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 Jun 1988 21:18:40 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.49 days. Total docked time 21.37 days.


1988 May 14 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN UNK. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 May 15 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1943 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 7. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-2. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 19119 . COSPAR: 1988-039A. Apogee: 851 km (528 mi). Perigee: 837 km (520 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 101.80 min.

1988 May 17 - . 23:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 2.
  • Intelsat 5A F-13 - . Mass: 2,013 kg (4,437 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Intelsat 5. Spacecraft: Intelsat 5A. USAF Sat Cat: 19121 . COSPAR: 1988-040A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Replaced Intelsat 5 F-3; 53 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg W in 1988-1995; 177 deg W in 1995-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 177.08 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 44.56W drifting at 6.109W degrees per day.


1988 May 18 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1944 - . Payload: Yantar-1KFT no. 9. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Duration: 36.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 19123 . COSPAR: 1988-041A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Military topographic / cartographic satellite..

1988 May 19 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1945 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-05-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 19131 . COSPAR: 1988-042A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 May 21 - . 17:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1946 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 39L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 19163 . COSPAR: 1988-043A. Apogee: 19,149 km (11,898 mi). Perigee: 19,109 km (11,873 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and systems for a space-based navigation system being constructed to track Soviet civil aircraft and naval and fishing vessels. .
  • Cosmos 1948 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 41L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19165 . COSPAR: 1988-043C. Apogee: 19,133 km (11,888 mi). Perigee: 19,127 km (11,884 mi). Inclination: 66.1000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and systems for a space-based navigation system being constructed to track Soviet civil aircraft and naval and fishing vessels..
  • Cosmos 1947 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 40L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19164 . COSPAR: 1988-043B. Apogee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Perigee: 19,117 km (11,878 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and systems for a space-based navigation system being constructed to track Soviet civil aircraft and naval and fishing vessels..

1988 May 24 - . 13:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1988 May 25 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 May 25 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1988 May 26 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-32 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 49. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2002-03-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 19189 . COSPAR: 1988-044A. Apogee: 38,104 km (23,676 mi). Perigee: 2,066 km (1,283 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 714.10 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. .

1988 May 27 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: USHAKOV. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1988 May 28 - . 02:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1949 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1990-04-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 19193 . COSPAR: 1988-045A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Ocean surveillance..

1988 May 29 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: USHAKOV. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1988 May 30 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1950 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 10. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Geo-IK. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 19195 . COSPAR: 1988-046A. Apogee: 1,522 km (945 mi). Perigee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.10 min. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1988 May 31 - .
  • Buran certified ready for flight. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Buran. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran. All flight and development tests having been completed, Buran is certified as ready for spaceflight..

1988 May 31 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1951 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19197 . COSPAR: 1988-047A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1988 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 June 1 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 2 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT127GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1988 June 4 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 5 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 6 - .
  • Mir News 035: Progress-56 undocked on June 5. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-4.

    PROGRESS-56: This cargo ship was separated from the Mir station and destroyed. It was expected that this would happen before the launch of Soyuz-TM5, estimated for tomorrow. During the last operation there have been, deviations from schedules used before. Normally the period between the undockng of a freighter and the next launch is longer. During the radio conversation with TsUP during the pass in orbit 13202/13203 from 1849-1854 UTC they spoke about the departure of the Progress-36. Titov reported that they had been able to observe it until the attitude change of the station. Now this was difficult and they had to look for a suitable porthole. Manarov explained that they were positioned on one side. A few minutes later they saw the Progress-36. Titov said that it looked like Venus, even somewhat clearer. At 1853 UTC Manarov made a photograph of the freighter. He did this on a request of TsUP and used a computer for aiming the camera. At 195220 UTC he entered the command via the "display" and made the shot at 1853 UTC sharp. It was a pity that the sky was overcast over here during the periods that the 2 objects were passing. This must have been so the next pass just before the start of the Progress-36 engine at 2028 UTC to reduce its speed for decay in the atmosphere. which followed a few minutes later. Undoubtedly Moscow will speak about 6 June as for Moscow time it was already 6 June., for UTC still 5 June. A few days ago -probably with the use of the Progress engine- they changed altitude. (Somewhat higher, but enough to corrupt all prediction programs). A manoeuvre necessary for a good ballistic configuration for the rendezvous soon to follow.

    SOYUZ-TM5: The last preparations are in progress now on Baykonur . If all goes well the take off will be on 7 June 1988 at 1405 UTC (1805Msc Time) The independent flight will last 2 days and my own calculation (so might deviate much or somewhat) tells me that the docking might take place on 9 June at 1538 UTC. While editing this story the commission did not yet appoint the crew which will fly. Yesterday they all were in good health and so probably the Soyuz will be flown by Solovyov, Savinykh and the Bulgarian Aleksandrov: if not so Lyakhov, Zaytsev and the Bulgarian will have to postpone terrestrial activities for 10 days. During the flight of Soyuz-TM5 there will be radio traffic on 121.750 Mc, (FM) so several ground services on West European airfields can expect funny sounds during there wok. During a previous occasion. Titov reacted on radio traffic of the Airport Rotterdam. (Until now they do not believe that!) After docking with Mir (Kvant port )the main channel for radio traffic will be 143.625 mc again. In Bulgaria there is a lot of enthusiasm and the Observatory of Stara Zagora will act as a sub control station.

    Greetings and radio amateurs 73-s,

    Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1988 June 7 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-5 - . Call Sign: Rodnik (Spring - water spring). Crew: Aleksandrov, Aleksandr, Savinykh, Solovyov. Backup Crew: Lyakhov, Serebrov, Stoyanov. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 55. Mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Aleksandrov, Aleksandr, Lyakhov, Savinykh, Serebrov, Solovyov, Stoyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4, Soyuz TM-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 91.45 days. Decay Date: 1988-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 19204 . COSPAR: 1988-048A. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

    Transported to the Mir orbital station a Soviet/Bulgarian crew comprising cosmonauts A Y Solovyev, V P Savinykh and A P Aleksandrov (Bulgaria) to conduct joint research and experiments with cosmonauts V G Titov and M K Manarov. Interim orbit 343 x 282 km. Maneuvered to Mir's 355 x 349 km orbit. Docked 15:57 GMT 9 June to Mir's aft port. Moved to forward port 18 June.


1988 June 8 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 8 - . 08:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1988 June 9 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 10 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: USHAKOV. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1988 June 11 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1952 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 19206 . COSPAR: 1988-049A. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 June 12 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 13 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 14 - . 03:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1953 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 66. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-D. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 19210 . COSPAR: 1988-050A. Apogee: 637 km (395 mi). Perigee: 604 km (375 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. Outer space research. .

1988 June 15 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 15 - . 11:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Meteosat 3 - . Mass: 696 kg (1,534 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eumetsat. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteosat. Spacecraft: Meteosat. Completed Operations Date: 1995-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 19215 . COSPAR: 1988-051A. Apogee: 36,766 km (22,845 mi). Perigee: 36,723 km (22,818 mi). Inclination: 7.5000 deg. Period: 1,485.30 min.

    Stationed at 0 deg. Meteosat P2 is a geostationary meteorological satellite operating within the world wide network of the World Weather Watch of the World Meteorological Organization. Its main missions are: Imaging in the visible, IR and water vapour region of the spectrum; data reception from so-called Data Collection Platforms (DCPs); data distribution to meteorological services and other interested parties (research institutes, etc). Geostationary position 0 deg E. ESA designator ESA/88/02. Launch time 1119:33 UT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 1 deg E in 1988-1989; 49 deg W in 1989; 4 deg W in 1990-1991; 49 deg W in 1991-1993; 75 deg W in 1993-1995; 70 deg W in 1995 As of 5 September 2001 located at 175.17 deg W drifting at 11.970 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 140.75W drifting at 11.975W degrees per day.

  • Oscar 13 - . Payload: Phase 3C. Mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: AmSat. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Oscar. Spacecraft: Oscar. Decay Date: 1996-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 19216 . COSPAR: 1988-051B. Apogee: 37,995 km (23,608 mi). Perigee: 809 km (502 mi). Inclination: 57.9000 deg. Period: 686.60 min.

    AMSAT-OSCAR 13 was launched by the first test flight of the Ariane 4 launcher. Size 600 x 40 x 200 mm. AO-13 was the third in a series of Phase-3 type high-altitude, elliptical orbit amateur communications satellites. It was built by an international team of radio amateurs led by Dr. Karl Meinzer of AMSAT-Germany. It carried four beacon transmitters and four linear transponders. AO-13 also contained a digital communications transponder called RUDAK-1. However attempts to get the experiment operating failed. Operational life span was 8 years. Careful analysis of AO-13's orbit in early 1990 by Victor Kudelka, OE2VKW revealed that resonant perturbations exist which lead the satellite into a negative perigee altitude. The perigee was down to 150 km by August 1996 which drastically increased atmospheric drag on the satellite until it reentered the Earth's atmosphere December 5, 1996.

  • Panamsat 1 - . Payload: PAS 1. Mass: 1,220 kg (2,680 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Panamsat. Program: Panamsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ASC. Spacecraft: ASC. USAF Sat Cat: 19217 . COSPAR: 1988-051C. Apogee: 36,043 km (22,396 mi). Perigee: 36,028 km (22,386 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,448.90 min. Stationed at 45 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg W in 1988-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 139.29 deg E drifting at 3.164 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 114.72W drifting at 3.187W degrees per day..

1988 June 16 - . 06:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout G-1.
  • Nova 2 - . Mass: 174 kg (383 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIP. Spacecraft: TIP. USAF Sat Cat: 19223 . COSPAR: 1988-052A. Apogee: 1,198 km (744 mi). Perigee: 1,154 km (717 mi). Inclination: 90.1000 deg. Period: 108.90 min. Improved Transit. Pulsed plasma thruster.

1988 June 17 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1988 June 17 - .
1988 June 18 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 19 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 20 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1988 June 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • BOR-5 sn 505 subscale 1:8 Buran reentry test - . Mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Buran. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: BOR-5. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). Range: 2,000 km (1,200 mi). Suborbital test of 1/8 scale model of Buran. Typical trajectory: ascent to 210 km; pitch down to drive model in atmosphere at 45 degree at Mach 18.5. None were reflown but at least 4 were recovered..

1988 June 21 - . 16:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1954 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 19256 . COSPAR: 1988-053A. Apogee: 796 km (494 mi). Perigee: 772 km (479 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.50 min. Outer space research. .

1988 June 22 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 22 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1955 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 19258 . COSPAR: 1988-054A. Apogee: 357 km (221 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1988 June 23 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1956 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 19263 . COSPAR: 1988-055A. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 June 23 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NIXT Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 June 24 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: USHAKOV. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1988 June 25 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 26 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 27 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1988 June 28 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 29 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 June 29 - . 17:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1988 June 30 - . 05:33 GMT - .
1988 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 July 2 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 July 3 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 July 4 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1988 July 5 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 July 5 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Okean 1 - . Payload: Okean-O1 no. 3. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Okean-O1. Spacecraft: Okean-O1. Completed Operations Date: 1990-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19274 . COSPAR: 1988-056A. Apogee: 633 km (393 mi). Perigee: 606 km (376 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. Oceanographic. Gathering of up-to-date oceanographic information and data on ice conditions in the interests of the Soviet economy and international cooperation. .

1988 July 6 - . 11:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1988 July 7 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 July 7 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1957 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 29. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Decay Date: 1988-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 19276 . COSPAR: 1988-057A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1988 July 7 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-2.
  • Phobos 1 - . Payload: 1F s/n 101. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. USAF Sat Cat: 19281 . COSPAR: 1988-058A. Apogee: 130,504 km (81,091 mi). Perigee: 2,628 km (1,632 mi). Inclination: 50.8000 deg. Period: 3,267.73 min.

    Second of two missions to Mars' moon Phobos; carried 2 landers; planned to enter Mars orbit. Phobos 1 operated nominally until an expected communications session on 2 September 1988 failed to occur. The failure of controllers to regain contact with the spacecraft was traced to an error in the software uploaded on 29/30 August which had deactivated the attitude thrusters. This resulted in a loss of lock on the Sun, resulting in the spacecraft orienting the solar arrays away from the Sun, thus depleting the batteries. Left in solar Orbit (Heliocentric).

  • 1F DPS - . Payload: Dolgozhivushchaya PS. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. COSPAR: 1988-058xx.

1988 July 8 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 July 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
1988 July 10 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 July 11 - . 22:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1988 July 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT128GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1988 July 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT126GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1988 July 12 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-2.
  • Phobos 2 - . Payload: 1F s/n 102. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. USAF Sat Cat: 19287 . COSPAR: 1988-059A. Apogee: 79,750 km (49,550 mi). Perigee: 850 km (520 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 4,590.00 min.

    First of two Mars missions to Mars' moon Phobos; carried two landers; entered Mars orbit 1/29/89; failed 3/27/89; extremely limited science data. Phobos 2 operated nominally throughout its cruise and Mars orbital insertion phases, gathering data on the Sun, interplanetary medium, Mars, and Phobos. Shortly before the final phase of the mission, during which the spacecraft was to approach within 50 m of Phobos' surface and release two landers, one a mobile 'hopper', the other a stationary platform, contact with Phobos 2 was lost. The mission ended when the spacecraft signal failed to be successfully reacquired on 27 March 1989. The cause of the failure was determined to be a malfunction of the on-board computer.

  • 1F DPS - . Payload: Dolgozhivushchaya PS. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. COSPAR: 1988-059xx.
  • 1F PPS - . Payload: Prigayushchaya PS. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. COSPAR: 1988-059xx.

1988 July 13 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 July 13 - . 09:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLV. LV Family: ASLV. Launch Vehicle: ASLV. FAILURE: First stage failure. Insufficient control gain.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • SROSS B - . Mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SROSS. Spacecraft: SROSS. Decay Date: 1988-07-13 . Apogee: 25 km (15 mi).

1988 July 14 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1958 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: Taifun-1. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. Decay Date: 1989-03-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 19320 . COSPAR: 1988-060A. Apogee: 411 km (255 mi). Perigee: 360 km (220 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Radar calibration mission..

1988 July 18 - . Launch Site: Derzhavinsk. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 July 18 - . 21:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 37 - . Payload: Progress s/n 145. Mass: 7,065 kg (15,575 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4. Spacecraft Bus: Progress. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 24.69 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-08-13 13:45:31 . Decay Date: 1988-08-13 13:45:31 . USAF Sat Cat: 19322 . COSPAR: 1988-061A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Rendezvous transfer orbits 187x256 km, 51. 62 deg; 235 x 319 km; 343 x 347 km. Docked with Mir on 20 Jul 1988 22:33:40 GMT. Refuelling operations on 7,8, and 9 August 1998. Undocked on 12 Aug 1988 08:31:54 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 12 Aug 1988 13:45:40 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.27 days. Total docked time 22.42 days.


1988 July 18 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1959 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 19324 . COSPAR: 1988-062A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 953 km (592 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite..

1988 July 20 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 July 20 - . 15:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1988 July 21 - . 23:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3.
  • Insat 1C - . Mass: 1,190 kg (2,620 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Insat 1. Spacecraft: Insat 1. Completed Operations Date: 1989-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19330 . COSPAR: 1988-063A. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 9.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Stationed at 93.5 deg E; also performed communications tasks. Operational multipurpose satellite for telecommunications, meteorological imaging and data relay, radio and television programme distribution and direct television broadcasting for community reception. Geosynchronous orbit longitude 93.5 +/- 0.1 deg east. Launch vehicle Ariane 3 launch vehicle of Arianespace, 24th flight of Ariane and 9th flight of the Ariane 3 version. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1988-1989 As of 4 September 2001 located at 58.51 deg E drifting at 0.073 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 80.89E drifting at 0.154W degrees per day.

  • Eutelsat I F5 - . Payload: ECS 5. Mass: 1,185 kg (2,612 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ECS/OTS. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 2000-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19331 . COSPAR: 1988-063B. Apogee: 36,456 km (22,652 mi). Perigee: 36,321 km (22,568 mi). Inclination: 6.1000 deg. Period: 1,466.90 min.

    European communications; 13 deg E. ECS-5/Eutelsat I F5 is a regional geostationary telecommunications satellite for European countries. It is operated by the EUTELSAT organization. Frequency plan 136-138 MHz (S-E), 148-149.9 MHz (E-S), 10.7-11.7 GHz (S-E), 14.0-14.5 GHz (E-S). Launch time 2334:00 UT. ESA designator ESA/88/03. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1989-1991; 21 deg E in 1991-1998; 12 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 48.15 deg E drifting at 7.596 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 102.26W drifting at 7.597W degrees per day.


1988 July 25 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1988 July 26 - . 05:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Meteor 3-02 - . Payload: Meteor-3 s/n 3. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-3. USAF Sat Cat: 19336 . COSPAR: 1988-064A. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi). Perigee: 1,182 km (734 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 109.30 min. Continued improvement of the meteorological system using artificial earth satellites, including the testing of information-gathering and measuring apparatus and of remote sensing methods. .

1988 July 27 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 July 27 - . 05:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • TR 2 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1988 July 27 - . 05:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1988 July 27 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
1988 July 28 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1960 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: Taifun-2. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1990-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 19338 . COSPAR: 1988-065A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 369 km (229 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1988 August 1 - . Launch Site: Eareckson. LV Family: Aries. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • Recovery failed ABM infrared sensor technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 August 1 - . 21:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1961 - . Payload: Potok no. 5 s/n 16L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Potok. Completed Operations Date: 1993-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 19344 . COSPAR: 1988-066A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 8.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Stationed at 13.5 deg W; later moved to 80 deg E. Investigation of outer space and relay of telegraph and telephone messages. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1988-1992; 80 deg E in 1992-1993. In September, 1993, Cosmos 1961 began drifting off station after a mission of five years had apparently been terminated. As of 4 September 2001 located at 80.01 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.58E drifting at 0.039E degrees per day.


1988 August 3 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 August 3 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1988 August 4 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1988 August 5 - . 07:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2C.
  • FSW-1 No. 2 - . Payload: FSW-1 No. 02. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FSW. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-08-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 19368 . COSPAR: 1988-067A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. German crystal growth experiment in recoverable capsule. Results marred by hard landing..

1988 August 6 - .
  • Cosmonaut Anatoli Semyonovich Levchenko dies at age of 47 -- Natural causes - Brain tumor - at Nikolai Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute in Moscow. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Levchenko. Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir LII-1. Graduated from Chernigov Higher Air Force School, 1964. Buran test pilot; cosmonaut training December 1978 - July 1980. Later a civil test pilot for the Soviet Air Force Ministry..

1988 August 8 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1962 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 19372 . COSPAR: 1988-068A. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 August 10 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 August 10 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1988 August 11 - . 17:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1988 August 12 - . 12:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-73 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1999-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 19377 . COSPAR: 1988-069A. Apogee: 38,629 km (24,002 mi). Perigee: 1,726 km (1,072 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1988 August 15 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1988 August 16 - .
  • Death of Albin Wittmann - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Wittmann. German-American engineer. Member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. As of 1960, Head of Electrical Systems Analsyis Branch, Quality Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Huntsville, Alabama..

1988 August 16 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1963 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 47.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 19384 . COSPAR: 1988-070A. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1988 August 17 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 August 17 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1988 August 18 - .
  • Death of Alexandr Vladimirovich Shchukin at Zhukovsky Flight Research Center, Russia. Crash of a Su-26M aerobatic aircraft on LII (Zhukovsky Flight Research Center - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Shchukin. Belarusian test pilot cosmonaut, 1980-1988..

1988 August 18 - . 19:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 16 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 28L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1992-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 19397 . COSPAR: 1988-071A. Apogee: 35,919 km (22,318 mi). Perigee: 35,816 km (22,254 mi). Inclination: 3.2000 deg. Period: 1,440.30 min.

    Stationed at 80 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1988-1992 As of 28 August 2001 located at 176.78 deg W drifting at 1.036 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 169.61W drifting at 1.046W degrees per day.


1988 August 23 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1964 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 19412 . COSPAR: 1988-072A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 August 23 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1965 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F2. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 19414 . COSPAR: 1988-073A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1988 August 24 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1988 August 25 - .
  • Kvant FGB Tug re-enters - . Nation: Russia. Flight: Soyuz TM-4. Spacecraft Bus: 37K. Spacecraft: Kvant.

    The FGB tug's multiple docking manoeuvres in April 1987 had cut into its already-reduced propellant supply. Unable to deorbit itself to a controlled burn-up in the atmosphere, the FGB was instead commanded to boost itself into a storage orbit 40 km above Mir. From there its orbit decayed until it made an uncontrolled re-entry.


1988 August 25 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout G-1.
  • Transit O-25 - . Mass: 59 kg (130 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Transit. Spacecraft: Transit. USAF Sat Cat: 19419 . COSPAR: 1988-074A. Apogee: 1,176 km (730 mi). Perigee: 1,032 km (641 mi). Inclination: 89.8000 deg. Period: 107.30 min. Dual launch of operational Transits manufactured in the 1960's to replenish the constellation..
  • Transit O-31 - . Mass: 59 kg (130 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Transit. Spacecraft: Transit. USAF Sat Cat: 19420 . COSPAR: 1988-074B. Apogee: 1,174 km (729 mi). Perigee: 1,032 km (641 mi). Inclination: 89.8000 deg. Period: 107.30 min.

1988 August 26 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 August 26 - . Launch Site: Drovyanaya. LV Family: Temp-2S. Launch Vehicle: Pioner UTTKh.
  • INF Destruct 1 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1988 Aug 26? - . Launch Site: Kansk. LV Family: Temp-2S. Launch Vehicle: Pioner UTTKh.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1988 August 27 - . 20:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC46. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 August 28 - . 06:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: USHAKOV. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1988 August 29 - . 04:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-6 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Crew: Lyakhov, Mohmand, Polyakov. Backup Crew: Arzamazov, Berezovoi, Masum. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 56. Mass: 7,070 kg (15,580 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Arzamazov, Berezovoi, Lyakhov, Masum, Mohmand, Polyakov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4, Soyuz TM-6, Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 114.23 days. Decay Date: 1988-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 19443 . COSPAR: 1988-075A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Transported to the Mir orbital station a Soviet-Afghan crew comprising the cosmonauts V A Lyakhov, V V Polyakov and A A Momand (Afghanistan) to conduct joint research and experiments with the cosmonauts V G Titov and M K Manarov. Returned Manarov, Titov (Soyuz TM-4), Chretien (Soyuz TM-7) to Earth. Initial orbit 195 X 228 km at 51. 57 deg. Maneuvered to a 235 x 259 km orbit, then docked with Mir at 05:41 GMT on 31 August at its 339 x 366 km orbit. Moved from aft to forward port 8 Sept 88.


1988 August 30 - . 14:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1966 - . Payload: Oko #57. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Oko. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2005-11-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 19445 . COSPAR: 1988-076A. Apogee: 37,970 km (23,590 mi). Perigee: 2,436 km (1,513 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 718.80 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 3 - 355 degree longitude of ascending node..

1988 August 31 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 August 31 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1988 September 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-51-K (cancelled) - . Payload: Spacelab-D1 . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-51-K. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger. Planned Spacelab-D1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. No crew selected; renamed STS-61A.

1988 Sep - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Tochka. Launch Vehicle: Tochka-U.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 26 km (16 mi).

1988 September 2 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34D/Transtage. FAILURE: Broken Transtage pressurization feed lines prevented the geosynchronous orbit apogee burn from taking place.. Failed Stage: U.
  • USA 31 - . Payload: Chalet 5. Mass: 1,045 kg (2,303 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Chalet. Spacecraft: Chalet. USAF Sat Cat: 19458 . COSPAR: 1988-077A. Apogee: 14,103 km (8,763 mi). Perigee: 151 km (93 mi). Inclination: 29.3000 deg. Period: 99.80 min. Chalet ELINT satellite; upper stage failure left in lower than planned orbit..

1988 September 3 - . 14:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 12.
  • Interzodiak 2 Extreme ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 857 km (532 mi).

1988 September 5 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • First Titan 2 standard launch vehicle launch - . Nation: USA. First Titan II standard launch vehicle (SLV), a refurbished and modified Titan II ICBM, launched from Vandenberg AFB..

1988 September 5 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II SLV.
  • USA 32 - . Payload: SBWASS R1. Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Singleton. Spacecraft: Singleton. USAF Sat Cat: 19460 . COSPAR: 1988-078A. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 85.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. New class of signals intelligence satellite; possibly some kind of imaging also done. On-board propulsion boosts spacecraft to 800 km operating orbit..

1988 September 5 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: TR-1. Launch Vehicle: TR-1.
  • H-II 1/4 Scale model test flight - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1988 September 6 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1967 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 19462 . COSPAR: 1988-079A. Apogee: 380 km (230 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 September 6 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 4.
  • FY-1A - . Payload: Feng Yun 1A. Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Weather technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FY-1. Spacecraft: FY-1. USAF Sat Cat: 19467 . COSPAR: 1988-080A. Apogee: 895 km (556 mi). Perigee: 875 km (543 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Experimental weather satellite. First use of new launch site and launch vehicle. Failed after 38 days due to problems with attitude control system..

1988 September 7 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 September 7 - . 11:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1988 September 7 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz TM-5 - . Return Crew: Lyakhov, Mohmand. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lyakhov, Mohmand. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-4, Soyuz TM-6, Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2.

    Undocked 22:55 GMT 5 September. Jettisoned Orbital Module 23:35 GMT 5 September. Planned landing 02:15 September 6 1988 failed due to confusion of infrared horizon sensors. Repeat retrofire attempt one orbit later resulted in a partial burn only. The crew had to spend a tense 24 hours in the cramped Descent Module (the Orbital Module having already been jettisoned before the retrofire burn) before making last chance deorbit. Finally Lyakhov and Afghani cosmonaut Mohmand (Soyuz TM-6) returned safely to Earth and landed September 7, 1988 00:50 GMT, 160 km SE Dzhezkazgan.


1988 September 8 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3.
  • GStar 3 - . Mass: 1,270 kg (2,790 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: GTE. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: GTE. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AS 3000. Spacecraft: AS 3000. Completed Operations Date: 1998-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19483 . COSPAR: 1988-081A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 5.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    AKM malfunctioned, but orbit achieved using on-board propulsion system. Ku band communications satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg W in 1989-1996; 105 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 105.39 deg W drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 105.31W drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.

  • SBS 5 - . Mass: 1,241 kg (2,735 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: STLC. Program: SBS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 376. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 2000-03-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 19484 . COSPAR: 1988-081B. Apogee: 35,937 km (22,330 mi). Perigee: 35,909 km (22,312 mi). Inclination: 2.0000 deg. Period: 1,443.10 min. Stationed at 122 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 123 deg W in 1988-2000 As of 5 September 2001 located at 22.98 deg E drifting at 1.728 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 147.52E drifting at 1.709W degrees per day..

1988 September 9 - .
  • Death of Erich Kaschig - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Kaschig. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1988 September 9 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1968 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 19488 . COSPAR: 1988-082A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1988 September 9 - . 23:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 38 - . Payload: Progress s/n 146. Mass: 7,027 kg (15,491 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4, Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2. Spacecraft Bus: Progress. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 74.81 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-11-24 19:07:18 . Decay Date: 1988-11-24 19:07:18 . USAF Sat Cat: 19486 . COSPAR: 1988-083A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. During launch first test of Buran ejection seat was made during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Rendezvous orbits 186 X 246 km, 51. 63 deg; 234 X 332 km, 337 X 363 km. Docked with Mir on 12 Sep 1988 01:22:28 GMT. Delivered 2,000 kg supplies including 300 kg of food. Refuelled Mir. Undocked on 23 Nov 1988 12:12:46 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Nov 1988 19:06:58 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.36 days. Total docked time 72.45 days.


1988 September 10 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • ERIC III Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 September 11 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 September 14 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 September 14 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1988 September 15 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1988 September 15 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1969 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 19495 . COSPAR: 1988-084A. Apogee: 344 km (213 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1988 September 16 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1970 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 42L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 19501 . COSPAR: 1988-085A. Apogee: 19,150 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1972 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 43L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19503 . COSPAR: 1988-085C. Apogee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,123 km (11,882 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1971 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 44L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19502 . COSPAR: 1988-085B. Apogee: 19,157 km (11,903 mi). Perigee: 19,101 km (11,868 mi). Inclination: 65.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1988 September 16 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: H-1.
  • Sakura 3B - . Payload: CS-3B. Mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Nation: Japan. Program: CS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: CS-3. Spacecraft: CS-3. Completed Operations Date: 1997-11-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 19508 . COSPAR: 1988-086A. Apogee: 36,093 km (22,427 mi). Perigee: 36,071 km (22,413 mi). Inclination: 4.0000 deg. Period: 1,451.20 min.

    Telephone communications; 136 deg E. CS-3B (Sakura 3-B). To continue communications services provided by the communications satellite 2 (CS-2). To meet increasing and diversifying demands for communications; to develop technologies for communications satellites. Launch vehicle H-I (H19F). La unching organization NASDA. Launch time 0959 GMT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 149 deg E in 1988; 136 deg E in 1988-1997; 154 deg E in 1997 As of 28 August 2001 located at 128.96 deg W drifting at 3.783 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 177.82E drifting at 3.765W degrees per day.


1988 September 18 - .
  • Death of Friedrich Dhom - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Dhom. German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Brownsboro, Texas..

1988 September 19 - . 09:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Shaviyt.
  • Ofeq-1 - . Mass: 155 kg (341 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Ofeq. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Ofeq. Spacecraft: Ofeq 1-2. Decay Date: 1989-01-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19519 . COSPAR: 1988-087A. Apogee: 1,149 km (713 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 142.9000 deg. Period: 98.80 min.

    First Israeli launch; possibly experimental surveillance mission. Experimental satellite 'Offeq-1'. Launch time 0934 GMT. Location: site on the coast south of Tel-Aviv. Launching organization: Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd (IAI) and Israeli Space Agency (ISA). Function: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field.


1988 September 21 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 September 21 - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: HIMES Rockoon.
  • HIMES RFT-1 - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 18 km (11 mi).

1988 September 21 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1988 September 22 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1973 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 18.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-10-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 19521 . COSPAR: 1988-088A. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 September 23 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: USHAKOV. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1988 September 24 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • NOAA 11 - . Payload: NOAA H. Mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Tiros N. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 19531 . COSPAR: 1988-089A. Apogee: 854 km (530 mi). Perigee: 838 km (520 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 101.90 min. Carried search & rescue package. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1988 September 26 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-39. Launch Vehicle: RT-23U 15Zh60.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 September 27 - . Launch Site: Yellow Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 35.0 N x 125.0 E. Launch Platform: XIA. LV Family: DF-21. Launch Vehicle: JL-1.
  • First successful JL-1 SLBM launch. - . Nation: China. Program: Long March. First successful JL-1 launch, impacting 123.53 deg N, 28.13 deg E..

1988 September 28 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 September 28 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Genie. Launch Vehicle: Genie.
  • RSP-101/Genie - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1988 September 28 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1988 September 29 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-33 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 51. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2002-02-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 19541 . COSPAR: 1988-090A. Apogee: 38,414 km (23,869 mi). Perigee: 1,867 km (1,160 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 716.30 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. .

1988 September 29 - . 15:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-26 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Covey, Hauck, Hilmers, Lounge, Nelson. Payload: Discovery F07 / PDP. Mass: 21,082 kg (46,477 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Covey, Hauck, Hilmers, Lounge, Nelson. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-26. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 4.04 days. Decay Date: 1988-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 19547 . COSPAR: 1988-091A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Manned five crew. First shuttle reflight after Challenger disaster. Deployed TDRS 3. Payloads: Deploy IUS (lnertial Upper Stage) with Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-C. 3M's Physical Vapor Transport Organics Solids 2 experiment (PVTOS), Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF), Infrared Communi-cations Flight Experiment (lRCFE), Protein Crystal Growth Il (PCG), Isoelectric Focusing (ISF)-2, Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE), Aggrega-tion of Red Blood Cells (ARC)-2, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE)-1, Earth Limb Radiance (ELRAD), Orbiter Experiments (OEX), Autonomous Supporting Instrumentation System (OASlS)-I, two Shuttle Student Involvement Project (SSIP) experiments.

  • TDRS 3 - . Payload: TDRS C. Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TDRS. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 19548 . COSPAR: 1988-091B. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NASA communications; 171 deg W; deployed from STS-26 . Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 151 deg W in 1988; 171 deg W in 1989-1990; 174 deg W in 1990-1991; 62 deg W in 1991-1994;171 deg W in 1994-1995; 85 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 26 August 2001 located at 85.17 deg E drifting at 0.007 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 84.98E drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.


1988 September 30 - .
  • STS-26 - Wakeup Song: Good Morning Vietnam - . Flight: STS-26.

    "Good Morning Vietnam" style - Robin Williams opened with"Gooooooood Morning Discovery!!!"

    The original recording produced by Houston area DJ from KKBQ, Mike Cahill, also included original lyrics recorded to the theme music of the TV show"Green Acres". Robin Williams was approached by Cahill about doing the tape. NASA knew nothing of the tape until it was offered as a gift by Cahill. Mike Cahill, writer, producer for KKBQ Radio, Houston and a part-time on-call tour guide at JSC, said he had listened to some wake-up calls a year and a half ago and some of them were,"You know, kind of awful. So what I did was thought gee it would be nice to write, produce and custom design songs for the astronauts. I picked three tunes that were pretty catchy, that were very short and upbeat. Green Acres was the first one. I thought gosh that would be the last thing they'll expect to hear" Pat Mattingly, who works in Mission Control, found out Cahill was doing them and said they were looking for new stuff. She gave a tape to CAPCOM Kathy Sullivan. Mike wrote the lyrics in early 1987. Threw in Discovery because knew it would be next Orbiter to fly. He collaborated with Mark Richardson, the leader of a band named"Eclipse" Mike and Mark worked on putting the music together. Richardson played keyboard, guitars, drum machine. Mike called on Patrick Brennan who used to be with now-defunct group"Popkorn" that played in clubs around Clear Lake to do the vocals. Mike and Mark helped out on the chorus for Green Acres. Green Acres was Mike's favorite."It was as dopey and stupid and corny as I had hoped it would be" He said he wanted to show that NASA people have a sense of humor."It's the closest I'll ever get to going to space"


1988 September 30 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant XII.
  • BEARS Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 950 km (590 mi).

1988 October 1 - .
  • STS-26 - Wakeup Song: I Get Around - . Flight: STS-26. "I Get Around" Parody of Beach Boys with lyrics"We orbit 'round" was provided by radio disc jockey Mike Cahill..

1988 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 Oct - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 October 2 - .
  • STS-26 - Wakeup Song: Harvey Mudd College Claremont Fight Song - . Flight: STS-26.

    "Harvey Mudd College Claremont Fight Song" , sung to tune of"Mickey Mouse Club" by eight HMC students with intro by Robin Williams. Harvey Mudd is the alma mater of mission specialist Pinky Nelson. He commented afterwards:"There isn't a dry eye in the house"


1988 October 3 - .
  • STS-26 - Wakeup Song: Fun, Fun, Fun.. - . Flight: STS-26. "Fun, Fun, Fun.." Beach Boys parody with original lyrics..

1988 October 3 - . 22:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1974 - . Payload: Oko #58. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Oko. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 19554 . COSPAR: 1988-092A. Apogee: 33,413 km (20,761 mi). Perigee: 6,942 km (4,313 mi). Inclination: 68.0000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 7 - 157 degree longitude of ascending node..

1988 October 3 - .
1988 October 4 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-560.
  • ESF Ionosphere mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi).

1988 October 5 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 October 5 - . 11:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1988 October 7 - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-533? 88 Fall 01 - . Nation: USA. Agency: FKG. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1988 October 7 - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-534? 88 Fall 02 - . Nation: USA. Agency: FKG. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1988 October 11 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1975 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 67. Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-D. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 19573 . COSPAR: 1988-093A. Apogee: 636 km (395 mi). Perigee: 604 km (375 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. Investigation of outer space. .

1988 October 12 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 October 12 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1988 October 13 - . 11:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1976 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-10-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 19582 . COSPAR: 1988-094A. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 October 18 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1988 October 19 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein RN. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike Hydac.
  • HAVE JEEP II-C Reentry test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF BMD. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1988 October 20 - . 05:59 GMT - .
1988 October 20 - . 15:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 22 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 34L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1998-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19596 . COSPAR: 1988-095A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 2.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min.

    Stationed at 35 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 34 deg E in 1988-1992; 12 deg E in 1992-1998 As of 3 September 2001 located at 8.88 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 67.55E drifting at 0.412W degrees per day.


1988 October 20 - . 20:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1988 October 21 - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-536? 88 Fall 04 - . Nation: USA. Agency: FKG1. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1988 October 21 - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-535? 88 Fall 03 - . Nation: USA. Agency: FKG1. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1988 October 21 - . 14:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Zingst. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06. FAILURE: Failure..
  • MMR06-M Zingst launch 1 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Test launch. Earth impacted at 8 seconds. AES - R defective.

1988 October 23 - . LV Family: Buran. Launch Vehicle: Buran launch vehicle.
  • Buran moved to the launch pad - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran.

1988 October 24 - . 18:03 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SOLLY Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 October 25 - . 18:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1977 - . Payload: Oko #59. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Oko. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 19608 . COSPAR: 1988-096A. Apogee: 33,805 km (21,005 mi). Perigee: 6,559 km (4,075 mi). Inclination: 67.7000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 6 - 116 degree longitude of ascending node..

1988 October 26 - . LV Family: Buran. Launch Vehicle: Buran launch vehicle.
  • Buran launch commission meets - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran. The launch commission met on 26 October 1988 and set 29 October 06:23 Moscow time for the first flight of the first Buran orbiter (Flight 1K1)..

1988 October 26 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 October 27 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1978 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-11-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 19612 . COSPAR: 1988-097A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 October 27 - . 15:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF10. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT130GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1988 October 28 - . 02:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 2.
  • TDF-1 - . Payload: TDF 1. Mass: 2,136 kg (4,709 lb). Nation: France. Agency: France Telecom. Program: TDF. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Spacebus 300. Spacecraft: Spacebus 300. Completed Operations Date: 1996-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 19621 . COSPAR: 1988-098A. Apogee: 36,129 km (22,449 mi). Perigee: 36,051 km (22,401 mi). Inclination: 4.8000 deg. Period: 1,451.60 min.

    French DBS; 19 deg W. Direct broadcasting satellite. French registration: TDF-1, 1988-5-B. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg W in 1988-1996 As of 1 September 2001 located at 139.53 deg W drifting at 3.885 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 5 located at 16.35W drifting at 3.870W degrees per day.


1988 October 29 - . LV Family: Buran. Launch Vehicle: Buran launch vehicle.
  • Buran first launch attempt - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran.

    51 seconds before the launch, when control of the countdown switched to automated systems, a software problem led the computer program to abort the lift-off. The problem was found to be due to late separation of a gyro update umbilical. The software problem was rectified and the next attempt was set for 15 November at 06:00 (03:00 GMT).


1988 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 November 2 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 November 2 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1988 November 3 - .
  • Death of Ira H Abbott - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Abbott. American aerodynamicist, at NASA 1929-1962; supervised the X-15, supersonic transport, nuclear rocket, and advanced reentry programs..

1988 November 4 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Zingst. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • MMR06-M Zingst launch 3 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 43 km (26 mi). Test launch. Earth impacted at 250 seconds. Reached 43.1 km. Probe crashed without parachute..

1988 November 6 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34D.
  • Final Titan 34D launch from Vandenberg AFB - . Nation: USA. Final Titan 34D launch from Vandenberg AFB (first launch on 20 June 1983)..

1988 November 6 - . 18:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34D.
  • USA 33 - . Payload: KH-11 no. 9. Mass: 13,500 kg (29,700 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KH-11. Spacecraft: KH-11. USAF Sat Cat: 19625 . COSPAR: 1988-099A. Apogee: 1,012 km (628 mi). Perigee: 156 km (96 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1988 November 7 - . 19:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • NEED I(Ferdinand 79) Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi).

1988 November 8 - . 14:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Zingst. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • MMR06-M Zingst launch 4 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi). Test launch. Earth impacted at 637 seconds. Reached 78.3 km. Probe crashed with no braking..

1988 November 9 - .
  • Death of Charles Stuart 'Charlie' Ames - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ames, Charles. American engineer, son of an iron works machinist, Project Engineer on the MX-774 and early Atlas programs. He was remembered as rock-solid, smart, practical, able to obtain the best designs by trading off inter-departmental concepts..

1988 November 9 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1988 November 10 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 November 10 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • NCAR / CU-1 Aeronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 November 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
1988 November 14 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: PASSAT. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1988 November 15 - . LV Family: Buran. Launch Vehicle: Buran launch vehicle.
  • Buran - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran.

    The weather was snow flurries with 20 m/s winds. Launch abort criteria were 15 m/s. The launch director decided to press ahead anyway. After 12 years of development everything went perfectly. Buran, with a mass of 79.4 tonnes, separated from the Block Ts core and entered a temporary orbit with a perigee of -11.2 km and apogee of 154.2 km. At apogee Burn executed a 66.6 m/s manoeuvre and entered a 251 km x 263 km orbit of the earth. In the payload bay was the 7150 kg module 37KB s/n 37071. 140 minutes into the flight retrofire was accomplished with a total delta-v of 175 m/s. 206 minutes after launch, accompanied by Igor Volk in a MiG-25 chase plane, Buran touched down at 260 km/hr in a 17 m/s crosswind at the Jubilee runway, with a 1620 m landing rollout. The completely automatic launch, orbital manoeuvre, deorbit, and precision landing of an airliner-sized spaceplane on its very first flight was an unprecedented accomplishment of which the Soviets were justifiably proud. It completely vindicated the years of exhaustive ground and flight test that had debugged the systems before they flew.


1988 November 15 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: Buran. Launch Vehicle: Buran launch vehicle.
  • Buran - . Payload: Buran OK-1K s/n 711. Mass: 79,400 kg (175,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran. Duration: 0.14 days. Decay Date: 1988-11-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 19637 . COSPAR: 1988-100A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min.

    Unmanned test of Soviet shuttle. Landed November 15, 1988 06:25 GMT. Buran was first moved to the launch pad on 23 October 1988. The launch commission met on 26 October 1988 and set 29 October 06:23 Moscow time for the first flight of the first Buran orbiter (Flight 1K1). 51 seconds before the launch, when control of the countdown switched to automated systems, a software problem led the computer program to abort the lift-off. The problem was found to be due to late separation of a gyro update umbilical. The software problem was rectified and the next attempt was set for 15 November at 06:00 (03:00 GMT). Came the morning, the weather was snow flurries with 20 m/s winds. Launch abort criteria were 15 m/s. The launch director decided to press ahead anyway. After 12 years of development everything went perfectly. Buran, with a mass of 79.4 tonnes, separated from the Block Ts core and entered a temporary orbit with a perigee of -11.2 km and apogee of 154.2 km. At apogee Burn executed a 66.6 m/s manoeuvre and entered a 251 km x 263 km orbit of the earth. In the payload bay was the 7150 kg module 37KB s/n 37071. 140 minutes into the flight retrofire was accomplished with a total delta-v of 175 m/s. 206 minutes after launch, accompanied by Igor Volk in a MiG-25 chase plane, Buran touched down at 260 km/hr in a 17 m/s crosswind at the Jubilee runway, with a 1620 m landing rollout. The completely automatic launch, orbital manoeuvre, deorbit, and precision landing of an airliner-sized spaceplane on its very first flight was an unprecedented accomplishment of which the Soviets were justifiably proud. It completely vindicated the years of exhaustive ground and flight test that had debugged the systems before they flew.

  • 37KB module s/n 37070 - . Payload: 37KB s/n 37070. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Buran. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: 37K. Spacecraft: 37KB. COSPAR: 1988-100xx.

1988 November 16 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 November 16 - . 14:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1988 November 17 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1988 November 18 - . 00:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1979 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1989-12-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 19647 . COSPAR: 1988-101A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Ocean surveillance..

1988 November 20 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • HRTS 6 / ASL-San Marco Test / solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 November 22 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. LV Family: Hades. Launch Vehicle: Hades.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: DGA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1988 November 23 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1980 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 8. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-2. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 19649 . COSPAR: 1988-102A. Apogee: 849 km (527 mi). Perigee: 841 km (522 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 101.80 min.

1988 November 24 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 November 24 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1981 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 19651 . COSPAR: 1988-103A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 237 km (147 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 November 26 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1988 November 26 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ROSE I Aeronomy / ionosphere / Fields mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1988 November 28 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 19 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi).

1988 November 29 - . 22:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1988 November 30 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 November 30 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1982 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-12-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19662 . COSPAR: 1988-105A. Apogee: 377 km (234 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 December 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 December 2 - . 10:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 20 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi).

1988 December 2 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-27 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Gardner, Guy, Gibson, Mullane, Ross, Shepherd. Payload: Atlantis F03 / Lacrosse 1. Mass: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gardner, Guy, Gibson, Mullane, Ross, Shepherd. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-27. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.38 days. Decay Date: 1988-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 19670 . COSPAR: 1988-106A. Apogee: 447 km (277 mi). Perigee: 437 km (271 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 93.40 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Orbits of Earth: 68. Landed at: Runway 17 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Landing Speed: 359 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 447.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,171.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission.

  • USA 34 - . Payload: Lacrosse 1. Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Manufacturer: Martin. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Lacrosse satellite. Spacecraft: Lacrosse satellite. Decay Date: 1997-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 19671 . COSPAR: 1988-106B. Apogee: 447 km (277 mi). Perigee: 437 km (271 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 93.40 min. Deployed from STS-27. Operations completed March 1997..

1988 December 3 - .
  • STS-27 - Wakeup Song: Army Fight Song - . Flight: STS-27. "Army Fight Song" and Navy"Fight Song" because"Hoot" Gibson and Bill Shepherd were Navy grads and Mike Mullane graduated from West Point..

1988 December 4 - .
  • STS-27 - Wakeup Song: Rawhide - . Flight: STS-27. "Rawhide" TV show theme with satirical lyrics based on an inside joke between the Atlantis crew and CAPCOM members of the astronaut class of 1984..

1988 December 4 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1988 December 5 - .
  • STS-27 - Wakeup Song: Star Wars - . Flight: STS-27.

    "Star Wars" theme music as background, Darth Vader's voice awoke the crew with a message followed by satirical lyrics sung to The Beatles tune,"Do You Want to Know a Secret?" The recording was produced by Houston radio station KKBQ's Mike Cahill, Pat Brennan, and Mark Richardson.


1988 December 5 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ROSE II Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1988 December 6 - . 14:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1988 December 6 - .
1988 December 7 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 December 7 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1988 December 8 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1983 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 19672 . COSPAR: 1988-107A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 243 km (150 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 December 9 - . 09:57 GMT - .
1988 December 10 - . 11:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Ekran 19 - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 12L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran-M . Completed Operations Date: 1997-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19683 . COSPAR: 1988-108A. Apogee: 36,980 km (22,970 mi). Perigee: 36,684 km (22,794 mi). Inclination: 8.8000 deg. Period: 1,489.90 min.

    Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1988-1996 As of 28 August 2001 located at 156.78 deg W drifting at 13.031 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 173.37E drifting at 13.036W degrees per day.


1988 December 11 - . 00:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Skynet 4B - . Mass: 1,433 kg (3,159 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: MoD. Program: Skynet. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ECS/OTS. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1988-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 19687 . COSPAR: 1988-109A. Apogee: 35,967 km (22,348 mi). Perigee: 35,933 km (22,327 mi). Inclination: 7.5000 deg. Period: 1,444.40 min.

    British military communications; 1 deg W. Military communications. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 1 deg W in 1989-1990; 53 deg E in 1990-1998 As of 4 September 2001 located at 60.05 deg E drifting at 2.136 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 126.32E drifting at 2.116W degrees per day.

  • Astra 1A - . Mass: 1,780 kg (3,920 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AS 4000. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 19688 . COSPAR: 1988-109B. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    European TV broadcast; 19.2 deg W. Astra 1A provides TV coverage to Western Europe. The satellite is owned and operated by Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES), a private company formed in 1985. Astra 1A is based in the GE 4000 series platform, and was the first in a network of four satellites. Spacecraft: GE 4000 platform.3-axis stabilisation with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. Solar arrays provide 2800 W BOL, 3 50 Ahr NiH batteries. GEO insertion by Star 37XFP solid rocket motor. Payload: 16 Ku-band transponders (with six spares) . Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1989-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.38 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 13.01E drifting at 6.968W degrees per day.


1988 December 14 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 December 14 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1988 December 15 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1988 December 16 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1984 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-02-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 19705 . COSPAR: 1988-110A. Apogee: 323 km (200 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1988 December 17 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant X.
  • CUSP Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 515 km (320 mi).

1988 December 18 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: PRILIV. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1988 December 19 - . Launch Site: Haikou. LV Family: Zhinui. Launch Vehicle: Zhinui.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 December 19 - . Launch Site: Derzhavinsk. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 December 20 - . Launch Site: Haikou. LV Family: Zhinui. Launch Vehicle: Zhinui.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 December 21 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 December 21 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1988 December 21 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz TM-6 - . Return Crew: Chretien, Manarov, Titov, Vladimir. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chretien, Manarov, Titov, Vladimir. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-4, Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2, Soyuz TM-7, Soyuz TM-7 Aragatz.

    Soyuz TM-6 landed at 09:57 GMT with the crew of Chretien, Manarov and Titov Vladimir aboard. Undocked from Mir 21 December 1989 at 03:33 GMTwith the crew of Chretien, Manarov and Titov Vladimir aboard. Revised software installed as a result of TM-5 abort overloaded computer. Landing planned for 06:48 aborted. Backup program used. Orbital Module retained through retrofire. Landed December 21, 1988 09:57 GMT, 180 km SE of Dzhezkazgan.


1988 December 22 - .
  • Discovery of LEW 88516 (Mars Meteorite) - . Nation: USA.

1988 December 22 - .
  • Death of John Donald 'Jack' Young - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Young, Jack. American manager, at NASA 1960-1966..

1988 December 22 - . Launch Site: Haikou. LV Family: Zhinui. Launch Vehicle: Zhinui.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 December 22 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3.
  • Zhongxing 2 - . Payload: STTW 3 / Chinasat 2. Mass: 1,024 kg (2,257 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DFH-2. Spacecraft: DFH-2. USAF Sat Cat: 19710 . COSPAR: 1988-111A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 1989-1999. As of 27 August 2001 located at 91.92 deg E drifting at 0.244 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 83.40E drifting at 0.283W degrees per day..

1988 December 22 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-34 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 52. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2007-05-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 19713 . COSPAR: 1988-112A. Apogee: 39,481 km (24,532 mi). Perigee: 899 km (558 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 718.30 min.

    Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. First launch from LC43/3 since it was damaged by a booster accident in June 1987.


1988 December 23 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1985 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: Taifun-3. Spacecraft: Taifun-3. Decay Date: 1992-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 19720 . COSPAR: 1988-113A. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 73.5000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Radar calibration mission. Believed to be a modernised version of the Taifun-1 satellite. Released 36 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1988 December 24 - . Launch Site: Haikou. LV Family: Zhinui. Launch Vehicle: Zhinui.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 December 25 - . 04:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 39 - . Payload: Progress s/n 147. Mass: 7,015 kg (15,465 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2, Soyuz TM-7. Spacecraft Bus: Progress. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 44.40 days. Completed Operations Date: 1989-02-07 13:49:23 . Decay Date: 1989-02-07 13:49:23 . USAF Sat Cat: 19728 . COSPAR: 1988-114A. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Made second test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Rendezvous orbits 187 X 237 km, 51.63 deg; 236 X 338 km; 325 X 353 km at Mir. Delivered 1,300 kg cargo. Docked with Mir on 27 Dec 1988 05:35:10 GMT. Undocked on 7 Feb 1989 06:45:34 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 Feb 1989 13:49:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 42.05 days.


1988 December 27 - . 11:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1988 December 28 - . 05:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-74 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1998-07-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 19730 . COSPAR: 1988-115A. Apogee: 39,002 km (24,234 mi). Perigee: 1,358 km (843 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. .

1988 December 29 - . Launch Site: Kansk. LV Family: Temp-2S. Launch Vehicle: Pioner UTTKh.
  • INF Destruct 72 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1988 December 29 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 December 29 - . Launch Site: Drovyanaya. LV Family: Temp-2S. Launch Vehicle: Pioner UTTKh.
  • INF Destruct 71 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1988 December 29 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1986 - . Payload: Yantar-1KFT no. 10. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Duration: 44.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 19734 . COSPAR: 1988-116A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Topographic mapping for the Army General Staff..


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