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1996 Chronology

1996 During the Year - .
  • Athena Mars flyby mission proposed - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Athena. Unlike previous fly-by concepts, Robert Zubrin's Athena would remain in the vicinity of Mars for a year while the crew remotely operated probes of the Martian surface and atmosphere..

1996 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz 11A511U2 booster abandoned due to Sintin production stoppage - . Nation: Russia. Soyuz 11A511U2 used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') in the first stage for launch of premium reconnaisance satellite and manned payloads requiring just a bit more payload than the standard 11A511..

1996 - . Launch Vehicle: Jules Verne Launcher.
  • Jules Verne Launcher Company founded - . Nation: USA. The company proposed commercial funding of a super light gas for launches into high-inclination orbits. JVL was apparently still operating in 1998, but no investors came forward to finance the multi-billion dollar development cost..

1996 January 1 - .
  • China to dominate space in 21st Century - . Nation: Russia. Chertok predicted that China would replace Russia as the space superpower within ten to fifteen years..

1996 January 1 - .
  • Ukrainian Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: Ukraine. Related Persons: Adamchuk, Meytarchan. Ukrainian astronauts trained for flights to the Mir space station..

1996 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Oka. Launch Vehicle: Iskander-M.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1996 January 9 - . 18:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1996 January 10 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 January 11 - . 09:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-72 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Barry, Chiao, Duffy, Jett, Scott, Winston, Wakata. Payload: Endeavour F10 / OAST / FSU. Mass: 6,510 kg (14,350 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Barry, Chiao, Duffy, Jett, Scott, Winston, Wakata. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-72. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 8.92 days. Decay Date: 1996-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23762 . COSPAR: 1996-001A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 302 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Deployed and retrieved OAST Flyer; retrieved SFU Space Flyer Unit. Beside the two satellite retrievals, the mission included two spacewalks..
  • SLA-1/GAS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: GAS. Decay Date: 1996-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23762 . COSPAR: 1996-001xx. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 302 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.
  • OAST-Flyer - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: OAST-Flyer. Decay Date: 1996-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23763 . COSPAR: 1996-001B. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. GPS receiver, amateur radio tests; examined effect of solar radiation on satellite explosive devices; deployed from STS 72 1/14/96; retrieved 1/16/96..

1996 January 12 - .
  • STS-72 - Wakeup Song: Star Wars - . Flight: STS-72. "Star Wars" by John Williams..

1996 January 12 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Panamsat 3R - . Payload: PAS K4. Mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Panamsat. Program: Panamsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23764 . COSPAR: 1996-002A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Geostationary at 43.0W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 43 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 42.97 deg W drifting at 0.008 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 42.99W drifting at 0.012W degrees per day..
  • Measat 1 - . Mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Nation: Malaysia. Agency: Binarian. Program: Measat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23765 . COSPAR: 1996-002B. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 91.4E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 91 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 91.49 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 91.50E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day..

1996 January 13 - .
  • STS-72 - Wakeup Song: Sea in Springtime - . Flight: STS-72. "Sea in Springtime" (traditional Japanese song) for Koichi Wakata and SFU retrieval..

1996 January 14 - .
  • STS-72 - Wakeup Song: Godzilla - . Flight: STS-72. "Godzilla" original film theme.

1996 January 14 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • Koreasat 2 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: Korea South. Agency: KT. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Koreasat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 3000. Completed Operations Date: 2000-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 23768 . COSPAR: 1996-003A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Geostationary at 116.0E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 116 deg E in 1996-2000 As of 5 September 2001 located at 113.02 deg E drifting at 0.017 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 116.35E drifting at 0.013W degrees per day..

1996 January 15 - .
  • STS-72 - Wakeup Song: Star Trek Next Generation - . Flight: STS-72. "Star Trek Next Generation" theme by James Horner..

1996 January 15 - . 05:35 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-72-1 - . Crew: Barry, Chiao. EVA Duration: 0.26 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Barry, Chiao. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-72. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity..

1996 January 16 - .
  • STS-72 - Wakeup Song: Smallest Astronaut - . Flight: STS-72. "Smallest Astronaut" by The Royal Guardsmen..

1996 January 16 - . 15:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2327 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 23773 . COSPAR: 1996-004A. Apogee: 1,020 km (630 mi). Perigee: 950 km (590 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Military navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 1 of constellation..

1996 January 17 - .
  • STS-72 - Wakeup Song: Heigh-Ho, Heigh-Ho, It's Off To Work We Go - . Flight: STS-72. "Heigh-Ho, Heigh-Ho, It's Off To Work We Go" from movie"Snow White.".

1996 January 17 - . 05:40 GMT - .
1996 January 18 - .
  • STS-72 - Wakeup Song: All I Wanna Do - . Flight: STS-72. "All I Wanna Do" by Sheryl Crow..

1996 January 18 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1996 January 19 - .
  • STS-72 - Wakeup Song: Darth Vader's Theme - . Flight: STS-72. "Darth Vader's Theme" from"Star Wars" film..

1996 January 20 - .
  • STS-72 - Wakeup Song: The Dream is Alive - . Flight: STS-72. "The Dream is Alive" Theme from the IMAX film.

1996 January 20 - .
1996 January 24 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1996 January 25 - . 09:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 31 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 43L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 23775 . COSPAR: 1996-005A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 39.8E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 40 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 40.11 deg E drifting at 0.042 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.36E drifting at 1.416W degrees per day..

1996 January 26 - .
  • Death of Mikhail Fedorovich Reshetnev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Reshetnev. Russian engineer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1961-1996 of OKB-10, primary Soviet designer of communications and navigation satellites..

1996 January 27 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: Prithvi. Launch Vehicle: Prithvi 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1996 January 29 - .
  • France announces end to nuclear tests - . Nation: France.

1996 January 30 - . 18:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1996 January 31 - . 02:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1996 February 1 - . 01:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS.
  • Palapa C-1 - . Payload: Palapa C1. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Satelind. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23779 . COSPAR: 1996-006A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    30 C-band, 6 Ku-band transponders. Geostationary at 150.4E. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR/MRS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 113 deg E in 1996; 150 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 50.03 deg E drifting at 0.006 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 38.04E drifting at 0.007E degrees per day.


1996 February 2 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC94. Launch Pad: FIX. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Hera.
  • BRV/Piledriver Demo Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1996 February 5 - . 07:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P.
  • N-STAR b - . Mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NTT. Program: N-STAR. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 23781 . COSPAR: 1996-007A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Geostationary at 128.9E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 136 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 136.01 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 136.04E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day..

1996 February 8 - . 14:03 GMT - .
1996 February 9 - .
  • Energia Engineer Cosmonaut Training Group 13 selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kozeyev, Revin.

1996 February 11 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • NTV-1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 199 km (123 mi).

1996 February 11 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. Launch Vehicle: J-1.
  • Hyflex Spacecraft test - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

1996 February 14 - . 19:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3B. FAILURE: Guidance failure resulted in launch vehicle crashing 22 seconds after launch, killing or injuring 59 people.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Intelsat 708 - . Mass: 4,180 kg (9,210 lb). Nation: International. Agency: PRC. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300.

    First attempted launch of a new version in the Long March family. Began to experience an anomaly in attitude about 2 seconds after launch, pitching down and yawing to the right. It augured in nose down at T+22 seconds and exploded violently, utterly destroying the launcher and its payload. The Chief-Designer of the launch vehicle organised an analysis team on the same day of the accident. Interpretation and analysis of the telemetered data indicated that the crash was caused by a change in the inertial reference. The explosion killed six and injured 57. Two of the killed were senior engineers with CASC.


1996 February 17 - . 20:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-8.
  • NEAR - . Payload: Discovery 1. Mass: 818 kg (1,803 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Discovery series. Class: Asteroids. Type: Asteroid probe. Spacecraft: NEAR. Decay Date: 2001-02-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 23784 . COSPAR: 1996-008A.

    Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission was the first of NASA's Discovery missions, a series of small-scale spacecraft designed to proceed from development to flight in under three years for a cost of less than $150 million. The spacecraft's mission was to rendezvous with and achieve orbit around the asteroid Eros in January 1999, and study the asteroid for one year. However as it flew by the Earth on 23 January 1998, a problem caused an abort of the first encounter burn. The mission had to be rescoped for a later encounter but successfully entered orbit around Eros on Valentine's Day 2000 and ended the mission by gently landing on its surface on 12 February 2001.


1996 February 19 - . 00:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2328 - . Payload: Gonets-D1 No. 1. Mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-3. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 23787 . COSPAR: 1996-009A. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,399 km (869 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.90 min. LEO. Carried photo-surveillance system for disaster monitoring; also carried communications package .
  • Cosmos 2329 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 106. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23791 . COSPAR: 1996-009E. Apogee: 1,421 km (882 mi). Perigee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.20 min.
  • Cosmos 2328 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 105. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23790 . COSPAR: 1996-009D. Apogee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Perigee: 1,408 km (874 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.10 min.
  • Cosmos 2330 - . Payload: Gonets-D1 No. 3. Mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-3. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 23789 . COSPAR: 1996-009C. Apogee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Perigee: 1,410 km (870 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.10 min. LEO. Carried photo-surveillance system for disaster monitoring; also carried communications package .
  • Cosmos 2329 - . Payload: Gonets-D1 No. 2. Mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-3. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 23788 . COSPAR: 1996-009B. Apogee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Perigee: 1,406 km (873 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min. LEO. Carried photo-surveillance system for disaster monitoring; also carried communications package .
  • Cosmos 2330 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 107. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23792 . COSPAR: 1996-009F. Apogee: 1,427 km (886 mi). Perigee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.20 min.

1996 February 19 - . 08:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: No second Block DM-2 ignition (blocked LOX valve). Block DM-2 propellant automatically jettisoned.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Raduga s/n 44L - . Payload: Raduga s/n 44L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga. Decay Date: 2004-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 23794 . COSPAR: 1996-010A. Apogee: 36,582 km (22,730 mi). Perigee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 47.2000 deg. Period: 646.10 min. Secret military name for Raduga program is Gran'..

1996 February 20 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1996 February 21 - . 12:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-23 - . Call Sign: Skif (Roman-age tribe). Crew: Onufrienko, Usachyov. Backup Crew: Lazutkin, Tsibliyev. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 72. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lazutkin, Onufrienko, Tsibliyev, Usachyov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-22, Soyuz TM-23. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 193.80 days. Decay Date: 1996-09-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 23798 . COSPAR: 1996-011A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 375 km (233 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Mir Expedition EO-21. Soyuz TM-23 docked with Mir at 14:20:35 on February 23..

1996 February 22 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-75 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Allen, Andy, Chang-Diaz, Cheli, Guidoni, Hoffman, Horowitz, Nicollier. Payload: Columbia F19 / USMP-3 Aft. Mass: 10,592 kg (23,351 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen, Andy, Chang-Diaz, Cheli, Guidoni, Hoffman, Horowitz, Nicollier. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-75. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.74 days. Decay Date: 1996-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 23801 . COSPAR: 1996-012A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.

    Carried TSS-1R tether satellite; satellite tether broke during deployment, making TSS-1R an unintentional free flyer

    Payloads: Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Reflight (1R); Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) (part of United States Microgravity Payload 3); USMP-3; Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) 09, Block IV; Middeck Glovebox Experiment (MGBX) (part of USMP-3). During the deployment of TSS, the tether broke and the satellite was lost.

  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: EDO. Decay Date: 1996-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 23801 . COSPAR: 1996-012xx. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.
  • TSS-1R Deployer - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: TSS. Decay Date: 1996-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 23801 . COSPAR: 1996-012xx. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.
  • USMP-3 Fwd - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: USMP. Decay Date: 1996-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 23801 . COSPAR: 1996-012xx. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.
  • TSS-1R MPESS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1996-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 23801 . COSPAR: 1996-012xx. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.
  • USMP-3 Aft - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: USMP. Decay Date: 1996-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 23801 . COSPAR: 1996-012xx. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.
  • TSS-1 - . Payload: TSS-1R. Nation: Italy. Agency: ASI. Program: STS. Class: Technology. Type: Tether technology satellite. Spacecraft: TSS. Decay Date: 1996-03-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 23805 . COSPAR: 1996-012B. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 88.10 min. LEO. Tether deployment test; 20 km long tether; satellite unintentionally deployed when tether broke 2/25/96 Reentered Mar 19..

1996 February 23 - . 19:17 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 February 23 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 February 24 - . 11:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-10.
  • Polar - . Mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Polar. USAF Sat Cat: 23802 . COSPAR: 1996-013A. Apogee: 50,423 km (31,331 mi). Perigee: 5,554 km (3,451 mi). Inclination: 86.3000 deg. Period: 1,070.20 min. HEO. Fields and particles, auroral studies; part of International Solar Terrestrial Physics program..

1996 February 25 - .
  • TSS tether breaks - . Nation: Italy. Spacecraft: TSS. Test from shuttle of 20 km long tether; satellite unintentionally deployed when tether broke. Re-entered March 19..

1996 February 29 - .
1996 March - .
  • XMM Development begins - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: XMM.

1996 March 2 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 34 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DASA. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi).

1996 March 6 - . 03:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
1996 March 6 - . 20:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT161GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1996 March 7 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Leping. Launch Vehicle: DF-15.
  • Near Taiwan - . Nation: China. Agency: PLA2AC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1996 March 7 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Leping. Launch Vehicle: DF-15.
  • Near Taiwan - . Nation: China. Agency: PLA2AC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1996 March 7 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Leping. Launch Vehicle: DF-15.
  • Near Taiwan - . Nation: China. Agency: PLA2AC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1996 March 9 - . 01:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • REX-II - . Mass: 85 kg (187 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: GemStar. Spacecraft: REX. USAF Sat Cat: 23814 . COSPAR: 1996-014A. Apogee: 835 km (518 mi). Perigee: 799 km (496 mi). Inclination: 90.0000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. LEO Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1996 March 9 - .
1996 March 13 - . Launch Site: Leping. Launch Vehicle: DF-15.
  • Near Taiwan - . Nation: China. Agency: PLA2AC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1996 March 14 - . 07:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Intelsat 707 - . Mass: 4,175 kg (9,204 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 23816 . COSPAR: 1996-015A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    GEO. 26 C-band, 14 K-band transponders. Geostationary at 0.9W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 1 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 0.97 deg W drifting at 0.001 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 53.03W drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.


1996 March 14 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2331 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 89.00 days. Decay Date: 1996-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23818 . COSPAR: 1996-016A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1996 March 15 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-X.
  • DC-XA Rollout - . Nation: USA.

1996 March 15 - . 01:04 GMT - .
1996 March 21 - . 04:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV.
  • IRS-P3 - . Mass: 930 kg (2,050 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 23827 . COSPAR: 1996-017A. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 819 km (508 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. LEO .

1996 March 22 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-X.
  • DC-XA arrives at White Sands - . Nation: USA.

1996 March 22 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: THAAD.
  • ABM test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1996 March 22 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC94. Launch Pad: FIX. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Hera.
  • BRV/THAAD Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 March 22 - . 08:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-76 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Chilton, Clifford, Godwin, Lucid, Searfoss, Sega. Payload: Atlantis F16 / Spacehab-SM. Mass: 6,753 kg (14,887 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Chilton, Clifford, Godwin, Lucid, Searfoss, Sega. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76, STS-76 Mir NASA-1. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 9.22 days. Decay Date: 1996-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 23831 . COSPAR: 1996-018A. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Shuttle-Mir Mission 3. Docked with the Mir space station 24 March 1996; Shannon Lucid was left on Mir for an extended stay. First American EVA on Mir. Payloads: SPACEHAB/Mir 03; KidSat; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Configuration M; RME 1304óMir/ Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP); orbiter docking system RME 1315; Trapped Ions in Space Experiment (TRIS); Extravehicular Activity Development Flight Test (EDFT) 04.

  • Spacehab-SM - . Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76, STS-76 Mir NASA-1. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1996-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 23831 . COSPAR: 1996-018xx. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 34 km (21 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

1996 March 23 - .
  • Astronaut Robert Franklin (Bob) Overmyer dies at age of 59 -- Crash of a light private aircraft he was testing. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Overmyer. Chinese Engineer. Metallurgist, developed materials for China's first recoverable satellites..

1996 March 23 - .
  • STS-76 - Wakeup Song: Anywhere is by Enya - . Flight: STS-76. "Anywhere is by Enya" for Rick Searfoss..

1996 March 24 - .
  • STS-76 - Wakeup Song: When the Roll is Called Up Yonder - . Flight: STS-76. "When the Roll is Called Up Yonder" referring to Shannon Lucid's arrival the next day..

1996 March 25 - .
  • Comet Hyakutake Near-Earth Flyby (0.10 AU) - .

1996 March 25 - .
  • STS-76 - Wakeup Song: Awake, the Harp - . Flight: STS-76. "Awake, the Harp" by Haydn, recorded by the Houston Choral Society for Mission Specialist Ron Sega..

1996 March 26 - .
  • STS-76 - Wakeup Song: Another Saturday Night - . Flight: STS-76. "Another Saturday Night" by Max Q.

1996 March 27 - .
  • STS-76 - Wakeup Song: Free Flying - . Flight: STS-76. "Free Flying" written by Brandon and Richard Clifford for father Michael Clifford's spacewalk that day..

1996 March 27 - . 06:34 GMT - .
1996 March 28 - .
  • STS-76 - Wakeup Song: Jumpin' at the Woodside - . Flight: STS-76. "Jumpin' at the Woodside" by Brass, Rhythm and Reed..

1996 March 28 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 117 - . Payload: GPS 2A-25 / GPS SVN 33. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 23833 . COSPAR: 1996-019A. Apogee: 20,257 km (12,587 mi). Perigee: 20,106 km (12,493 mi). Inclination: 54.6000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Placed in Plane C Slot 2 of the constellation..

1996 March 29 - .
  • STS-76 - Wakeup Song: Stars and Stripes Forever - . Flight: STS-76. "Stars and Stripes Forever" by John Philip Sousa..

1996 March 31 - .
1996 April 2 - .
  • Mir News 296: American EVA outside Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    The EVA made by Clifford and Godwin on 27.03.96 lasted 6 hrs and 2 mins. The Mir crew experienced this EVA passively: their involvement consisted of observing and filming the event through some portholes. It was not easy to cover all activities of the American astronauts fully. They could see a part of the EVA through a porthole in de airlock of Module-D. The best view they got was through the porthole of the cabin of the board engineer in the Base Block. During the EVA the communications went via American channels. On the EVA frequency 279.000 mc Clifford and Godwin could be heard now and then. The same transmissions could be heard via the CNN relay from a TDRS. The Americans installed the experiments on the outer surface of the Docking Compartment at the Kristall-module. (The Russians speak about the 'SO'. The 'O' stands for Otsek, which means 'compartment'. So the do not speak about 'module'.) Atlantis-Mir-combination: During the period in which Atlantis and Mir were linked together many activities took place during the night in our area. We were lucky that this was not so during the EVA, which took place during our morning hours. The operations during the precursor flights cast a gloom over the future. It becomes obvious who will be in command during the flight of the International Space Station: undoubtedly this will be the Americans. Immediately after the docking the Americans took over the attitude control of the whole complex, and most of the communications and the control of the operations were theirs. Undocking of Atlantis. This took place on 29.03.96 at 0108 UTC. After the undocking Atlantis made a flight around the Mir complex and moved away at abt 1 hour later. Onufriyenko could be heard on the Mir-frequencies 130.625 and 143.625mc speaking about the attitude (movements-) control of the Mir station which was now under full control of FCC Kalingrad again. (TsUP-M). The transmissions of the images from Mir about the Atlantis were relayed by tracking stations inside Russian territory.

    Mir: The passes of Mir for our area take place during the night hours and so there is not much to report about the life on board. Module Priroda: The launch of this module has been put back again. Latest available planned launch date: 23.04.1996. Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1996 April 3 - . 15:59 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • CONQUEST 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SSI. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi).

1996 April 3 - . 23:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA.
  • Inmarsat 3 F1 - . Mass: 2,068 kg (4,559 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Inmarsat. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 23839 . COSPAR: 1996-020A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,767 km (22,224 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Geostationary at 64.1E. Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with RAAN Cntl trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 64 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 63.98 deg E drifting at 0.003 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 64.52E drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.


1996 April 8 - . 23:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Astra 1F - . Mass: 3,010 kg (6,630 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23842 . COSPAR: 1996-021A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 19.3E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.16 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 19.18E drifting at 0.016W degrees per day..

1996 April 15 - .
  • Mir News 297: Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    Plans for the near future:

    The first operation will be the launch of the module Priroda. The Russians want to launch this module on 23.04.1996, but further delay might be possible. In fact all is ready for that launch, but specialists responsible for the power supply of that module want to be sure that the accumulators are fully reliable if unexpected the Priroda has to fly longer than the estimated period between launch and docking. The Priroda has not been equipped with solar panels and if the accumulators show failures there are no alternatives. That is why the experts responsible for the power systems and energy consumption take more time for tests. The dates for some important operations can be set only after the launch and successful docking of Priroda and the redocking thereafter. Priroda has to dock to the forward axial port (-X axis) and will be repositioned from there to the radial port (+Z axis). After this the date for the launch of the freighter Progress-M31 can be determined.

    2d Spacewalk (EVA) 21st Main Expedition Mir: Possibly this operation will be executed in May this year. The cosmonauts will have to transfer one of the solar panels which have been brought to Mir by Atlantis (STS-74) and who are still attached at the outer surface of the Docking Compartment (SO - so not Docking Module. SO stands for 'Stykovochnyy Otsek'). They will have to transfer that solar panel to the astrophysical module Kvant-1 (Module-E). During this operation they will use the 2d Strela, which they installed during their first EVA. With this 2d Strela-crane they have the possibility for movements between the SO and the Kvant-1. Originally the Russians planned to install on Kvant-1 the solar panel which is still at the outer surface of the Kristall-module, but they preferred the installation on Kvant-1 of a brand new one. The Russians hope to accomplish this task during that 2nd EVA, but they are ready to insert a 3rd EVA if necessary. The solar panels which have been brought to Mir on the outer surface of the SO will not be deployed from there, but will be used on parts of the Mir-complex.

    VDU: This abbreviation stands for External Engine Installation. This is the box, which can be seen in the top of the long Sofora mast which has been erected on Kvant-1. Nobody was sure about the use or the usefulness of that engine. In an interview Thomas Reiter told me that this VDU often is used for the orientation of the complex during periods in which the gyrodynes have to be silenced for repositioning. These gyrodynes cannot turn through 360 degrees and so now and then repositioning is necessary. There is a problem for the future: when the fuel of the VDU has been spent refuelling will not be possible. Perhaps the Russians hoped that fuel would be sufficient for the VDU at least until the end of the operational life of Mir in 1997 or 1998. So if they want to prolong the use of Mir by some years they will have to find a way to refuel that VDU or to install a new one.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 April 17 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 April 20 - . 22:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P.
  • M-SAT 1 - . Mass: 2,830 kg (6,230 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: TMI. Program: M-SAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23846 . COSPAR: 1996-022A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 106.5W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 106 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 106.55 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 106.48W drifting at 0.004W degrees per day..

1996 April 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 738. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 April 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 738. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 April 22 - .
  • Mir News 298: Launch Priroda - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    The planned launch date/time for the Module Priroda is 23.04. 1996 at 11hrs 48mins 43secs UTC. If all goes according to plan the Priroda will dock to Mir (forward docking port transition section -P.Kh.O.-, -X axis) on 26.04.1996 at 1203 UTC.

    Priroda: The module for remote sensing Priroda is also known as TsM-I and 77KSI. In space Priroda has a mass of 19.5 tons. The mass of the payload is 10.5 tons, among which 1.2 tons as a supplement for the equipment of the Mir-complex, the remote sensing equipment has a mass of 4.7 tons and Priroda can transport 1.8 tons cargo. The original planning foresaw in a solar array in the front of Priroda (axial), but the place of the array is now used for the installation of extra equipment and experiments. So during the autonomous flight Priroda has to depend on the nickel cadmium accumulators for her power supply. Priroda must have an active lifetime of more than 3 years.

    Cargo: Priroda will also deliver additional equipment to the Mir station, experiments for Shannon Lucid and the SAFEX-2 transceiver for radio-amateur activities.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 April 23 - . 11:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Priroda - . Payload: 77KSI s/n 17401. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1. Spacecraft Bus: Mir. Spacecraft: Priroda. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 23848 . COSPAR: 1996-023A. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Inclination: 51.6700 deg. Period: 89.89 min. LEO. Remote sensing module for Mir space station Docked with Mir Apr 26. .

1996 April 24 - . 12:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-10.
  • MSX - . Mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: MSX. USAF Sat Cat: 23851 . COSPAR: 1996-024A. Apogee: 907 km (563 mi). Perigee: 897 km (557 mi). Inclination: 99.4000 deg. Period: 103.10 min. LEO. Midcourse Space eXperiment; missile detection technology tests; also used for auroral and atmospheric studies .

1996 April 24 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2332 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1Yu. Decay Date: 2005-01-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 23853 . COSPAR: 1996-025A. Apogee: 1,548 km (961 mi). Perigee: 294 km (182 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Radar calibration mission..

1996 April 24 - . 23:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 401A/Centaur.
  • USA 118 - . Payload: Mercury ELINT 2. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: ELINT. Spacecraft: Mercury ELINT. USAF Sat Cat: 23855 . COSPAR: 1996-026A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Second launch of Mercury ELINT satellite..

1996 April 26 - .
  • Mir News 300: Priroda successfully docked with Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    After an automatic approach guided by the system Kurs Priroda linked up with Mir complex on 26.04.1996 at 1243 UTC. Quite an achievement to aim and dock a mass of 20 tons (like a huge locomotive) with a precision of less than millimetres. Priroda can take a breath for a while at the forward axial docking port of the transition section (P.Kh.O.). During the first pass of both objects for our position in Mir orbit 58195, 1235-1239 UTC, it was obvious that there were no intentions to switch over to the manual remote control TORU. At 123530 UTC Onufriyenko reported that Priroda was hovering for a while in a distance of 182 M and that all was going well. From that distance Priroda started the final stage of the approach and flawlessly docked with Mir. Just like during the whole autonomous flight the Telemetry transmitters of Priroda in het UHF band could be monitored. During the passes after the docking these transmitters remained active. Reason for this is the fact that Priroda will remain electrically autonomous until the accomplishment of the repositioning to the +Z axis.

    On 27.04.1996 at 0800 UTC Priroda will remove itself with a manipulator arm (the Lyappa) to the +Z axis. After that operation the airseal can be checked before the opening of the hatches. The repositioning will take place out of our range.

    A part of the cargo of Priroda consists of biological experiments for the production of clean medical preparations and 900 KG equipment and experiments for the American astronaut Shannon Lucid. Priroda has been equipped by a lot of equipment for scientific research of the earth (all kinds of devices and camera's for remote sensing) and the atmosphere.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 April 30 - . 04:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas I.
  • Beppo SAX - . Payload: BeppoSAX. Nation: Italy. Agency: ASI. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: SAX. Decay Date: 2003-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23857 . COSPAR: 1996-027A. Apogee: 601 km (373 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 4.0000 deg. Period: 96.50 min. LEO. Satellite per Astronomia a raggi X; X-ray celestial observatory Launch vehicle put payload into low earth orbit with IFR trajectory option. 100th Atlas-Centaur flight..

1996 May 3 - . 04:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • MASER 7 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi).

1996 May 4 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-X.
  • DC-XA Engine Test 1 - . Nation: USA.

1996 May 5 - . 07:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-31 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 231. Mass: 7,140 kg (15,740 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 88.56 days. Completed Operations Date: 1996-08-01 20:32:45 . Decay Date: 1996-08-01 20:32:45 . USAF Sat Cat: 23860 . COSPAR: 1996-028A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 376 km (233 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered 1,140 kg of fuel and 1,700 kg of cargo to the Mir complex. Docked with Mir on 7 May 1996 08:54:19 GMT. Undocked on 1 Aug 1996 16:44:54 GMT. Destroyed in reentry over the Pacific on 1 Aug 1996 20:33:03 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.23 days. Total docked time 86.33 days.


1996 May 7 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-X.
  • DC-XA Engine Test 2 - . Nation: USA.

1996 May 8 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 May 12 - . 21:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 403A.
  • USA 119 - . Payload: SDS B-2. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, NRO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 381 / HS 386. Spacecraft: SDS-2. USAF Sat Cat: 23893 . COSPAR: 1996-029A. Apogee: 1,165 km (723 mi). Perigee: 1,051 km (653 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.44 min. Unknown orbit.
  • USA 124 - . Payload: TIPS Norton. Mass: 54 kg (119 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, NRO. Class: Technology. Type: Tether technology satellite. Spacecraft: TIPS. USAF Sat Cat: 23937 . COSPAR: 1996-029F. Apogee: 1,032 km (641 mi). Perigee: 1,010 km (620 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg.
  • USA 121 - . Payload: Intruder 4. Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Intruder. USAF Sat Cat: 23908 . COSPAR: 1996-029C. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi). Perigee: 1,055 km (655 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.40 min.
  • USA 120 - . Payload: Intruder 4. Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Intruder. USAF Sat Cat: 23907 . COSPAR: 1996-029B. Apogee: 1,157 km (718 mi). Perigee: 1,058 km (657 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.40 min.
  • USA 122 - . Payload: Intruder 4. Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Intruder. USAF Sat Cat: 23862 . COSPAR: 1996-029D. Apogee: 1,156 km (718 mi). Perigee: 1,060 km (650 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.40 min.
  • USA 123 - . Payload: TIPS Ralph. Mass: 54 kg (119 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, NRO. Class: Technology. Type: Tether technology satellite. Spacecraft: TIPS. USAF Sat Cat: 23936 . COSPAR: 1996-029E. Apogee: 1,032 km (641 mi). Perigee: 1,010 km (620 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. ??? .

1996 May 14 - . 08:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB. FAILURE: Shroud broke up at T+49 seconds.. Failed Stage: S.
  • Kometa - . Payload: Yantar-1KFT no. 18. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Topographic mapping satellite failed to reach orbit..

1996 May 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 726. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 May 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 726. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 May 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 726. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 May 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 726. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 May 16 - . 01:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Palapa C2 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: PSN. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23864 . COSPAR: 1996-030A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. 34 transponders; Geostationary at 113.0E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 113 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 112.95 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 112.97E drifting at 0.011W degrees per day..
  • Amos 1 - . Mass: 996 kg (2,195 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Program: Amos. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Amos. USAF Sat Cat: 23865 . COSPAR: 1996-030B. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. 7 Ku-band transponders Geostationary at 4.1W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 4 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 4.04 deg W drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 4.01W drifting at 0.004W degrees per day..

1996 May 17 - . 02:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus H.
  • MSTI-3 - . Payload: MSTI 3. Mass: 170 kg (370 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SA-200. Spacecraft: MSTI. Decay Date: 1997-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23868 . COSPAR: 1996-031A. Apogee: 432 km (268 mi). Perigee: 420 km (260 mi). Inclination: 97.1000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. LEO. Sensor technology tests Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1996 May 18 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-XA.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). First flight of the DC-XA; aeroshell caught fire during slow landing. Reached altitude of 244 m during a 62 second flight..

1996 May 19 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-77 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Brown, Bursch, Casper, Garneau, Runco, Thomas, Andrew. Payload: Endeavour F11 / GBA-9. Mass: 12,233 kg (26,969 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown, Bursch, Casper, Garneau, Runco, Thomas, Andrew. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-77. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 10.03 days. Decay Date: 1996-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23870 . COSPAR: 1996-032A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.10 min.

    Deployed and retrieved Spartan 2; deployed PAMS-STU; carried Spacehab module. Payloads: Shuttle Pointed Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE); Technology Experiments Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS) 01 (includes Vented Tank Resupply Experiment (VTRE), Global Positioning System (GPS) Attitude and Navigation Experiment (GANE) (RME 1316), Liquid Metal Test Experiment (LMTE) and Passive Aerodynami-cally Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite (PAMS) Satellite Test Unit (STU); SPACEHAB-4; Brilliant Eyes Ten-Kelvin Sorption Cryocooler Experiment (BETSCE); 12 getaway specials attached to a GAS bridge assembly (GAS 056, 063, 142, 144, 163, 200, 490, 564, 565, 703, 741 and the Reduced-Fill Tank Pressure Control Experiment (RFTPCE); Aquatic Research Facility (ARF) 01; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) 07, Block III.

  • TEAMS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: TEAMS. Decay Date: 1996-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23870 . COSPAR: 1996-032xx. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Time-of-flight/energy/angle mass spectrograph to study electrons and ions. Instrument mounted in shuttle bay..
  • Spacehab 4 - . Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1996-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23870 . COSPAR: 1996-032xx. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.10 min.
  • GBA-9 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: GBA. Decay Date: 1996-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23870 . COSPAR: 1996-032xx. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.10 min.
  • IAE - . Payload: Inflatable Antenna Experiment. Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: IAE satellite. Decay Date: 1996-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 23872 . COSPAR: 1996-032C. Apogee: 201 km (124 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 39.1000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. LEO. Inflatable Antenna Experiment; deployed from Spartan 207 5/20/96; test of inflatable antenna technology. Reentered May 22..
  • PAMS STU - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: PAMS. Decay Date: 1996-10-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 23876 . COSPAR: 1996-032D. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi). Perigee: 132 km (82 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 87.20 min. LEO. Passive Aerodynamically Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite; deployed from STS 77 5/22/96; attitude control technology test. Reentered Oct 26..
  • Spartan 207 - . Mass: 1,195 kg (2,634 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1996-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23871 . COSPAR: 1996-032B. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 278 km (172 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. LEO. Deployed from STS 77 on 5/20/96; retrieved 5/21/96; deployed IAEsatellite during free flight..

1996 May 20 - .
  • STS-77 - Wakeup Song: Off We Go Into the Wild Blue Yonder - . Flight: STS-77. "Off We Go Into the Wild Blue Yonder" - The Air Force Song - in honor of Commander John H. Casper, an Air Force Colonel, and pilot Curtis L. Brown, an Air Force Lieutenant Colonel..

1996 May 21 - .
  • STS-77 - Wakeup Song: Up, Up and Away - . Flight: STS-77. "Up, Up and Away" by The Fifth Dimension in honor of the Inflatable Antenna Experiment conducted yesterday as part of the Spartan mission..

1996 May 21 - . 22:50 GMT - .
1996 May 22 - .
  • STS-77 - Wakeup Song: Anchors Aweigh - . Flight: STS-77. "Anchors Aweigh".

1996 May 23 - .
  • STS-77 - Wakeup Song: Milky Way - . Flight: STS-77. "Milky Way" , a children's song provided by Casper's wife, Chris..

1996 May 24 - .
  • STS-77 - Wakeup Song: Hold Me, Thrill Me, Kiss Me - . Flight: STS-77. "Hold Me, Thrill Me, Kiss Me" by Gloria Estefan requested by Curt Brown's fiancee..

1996 May 24 - . 01:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • Galaxy 9 - . Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23877 . COSPAR: 1996-033A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Geostationary at 123.0W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 123 deg W in 1996-2000; 127 deg W in 2000.- As of 5 September 2001 located at 126.96 deg W drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.14W drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.


1996 May 25 - .
  • STS-77 - Wakeup Song: Down Under - . Flight: STS-77. "Down Under" by Men At Work, in honor of Australian-born Mission Specialist Andy Thomas.

1996 May 25 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 32 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 44L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 23880 . COSPAR: 1996-034A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 3.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 53.2E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 53.25 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 14.58W drifting at 0.023W degrees per day..

1996 May 25 - . 20:47 GMT - .
1996 May 26 - .
  • STS-77 - Wakeup Song: Up Down, and Touch the Ground - . Flight: STS-77. "Up Down, and Touch the Ground" Tigger and his friends from "Winnie the Pooh" sing-a long.

1996 May 27 - .
  • STS-77 - Wakeup Song: Light My Fire - . Flight: STS-77. "Light My Fire" by The Doors. (Pre-sleep music:"Good Night Sweetheart" by The Spaniels..

1996 May 28 - .
  • STS-77 - Wakeup Song: Start Me Up - . Flight: STS-77. "Start Me Up" by The Rolling Stones.

1996 May 29 - .
  • STS-77 - Wakeup Song: I Can See Clearly Now - . Flight: STS-77. "I Can See Clearly Now" by Jimmy Cliff .

1996 May 29 - .
1996 May 30 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 May 30 - . 18:20 GMT - .
1996 May 31 - .
  • Mir News 307: 4th Spacewalk (EVA) Onufriyenko and Usachov - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    This EVA started on 30.05 at 1820 UTC (opening of the hatch) and ended on 30.05. at 2240 UTC (closing of the hatch). The MOMS-2 camera (Modular Opto-electronic Multi-spectral/ Stereo scanner has been installed on the outer surface of the module Priroda. The 2d task was the installation of an extra handrail outside Priroda to facilitate EVA's. The EVA passed without problems.


1996 June - .
  • Soyuz TMA, X-38 selected as ISS lifeboat over Alpha Lifeboat - . Nation: Russia. Program: ISS. Spacecraft: Alpha Lifeboat, ISS, Soyuz TMA, X-38. The Alpha lifeboat was based on the Zarya reentry vehicle with a solid retrofire motor and cold gas thruster package. The design was rejected in favor of use of modified Soyuz TM in short term, US X-38 in long term..

1996 June 4 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: LC36 Athena. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • XQC F2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1996 June 4 - . 12:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. FAILURE: Vehicle went off course and was destroyed by range safety. Reuse of flight software from Ariane 4 was the cause (faulty program logic that only took effect on Ariane 5 launch trajectory).. Failed Stage: G.
  • Cluster F1 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster.

    The Cluster satellites were a series of sophisticated earth-observation platforms that were to be launched aboard the first Ariane 5. The explosion of the booster led to a costly setback for European space science. There were no back-up spacecraft. Some instruments may fly on other future satellites.

  • Cluster F2 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster.
  • Cluster F3 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster.
  • Cluster F4 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster.

1996 June 5 - .
  • Mir News 308: 5th Spacewalk (EVA) Onufriyenko and Usachov - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    This EVA is planned for 6.06.1996 between 1655 UTC (opening hatch) and 1930 UTC (closing hatch). During this EVA the cosmonauts will work at the outer surface of module Spektr and module Kvant-2 ('D'). On Spektr they will replace the cassette of the Komza-experiment. Then they will retrieve some American and Russian dust collectors from Module Kvant-2 ('D').

    6th EVA Onufriyenko and Usachov:

    This EVA will take place on 13.06.1996. Times not decided yet. During this EVA the cosmonauts will install Ferma-3 (a girder or truss construction) at the outer surface of the astrophysical module Kvant-1. Experience with constructions like these are very important for the future. They will be used for the building and exploitation of the International Space Station Alpha.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 June 6 - .
  • China agrees to world ban on atomic testing - . Nation: China.

1996 June 6 - . 16:56 GMT - .
1996 June 7 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-XA.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Maximum structural stresses with 50% full LOX tank. Reached altitude of 590 m during a 64 second flight..

1996 June 8 - . 18:17 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-XA.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi). 26-hour rapid turnaround demostration; new altitude and duration record. Reached altitude of 3140 m during a 142 second flight..

1996 June 10 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1996 June 13 - . 12:45 GMT - .
1996 June 15 - .
  • Death of Gerhardt Drawe - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Drawe. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1996 June 15 - . 06:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P.
  • Intelsat 709 - . Mass: 3,694 kg (8,143 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 23915 . COSPAR: 1996-035A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. 36 transponders Geostationary at 50.0W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 50 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 49.96 deg W drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 85.17E drifting at 0.004W degrees per day..

1996 June 17 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Radio astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 June 20 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • DARTFire 1 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 June 20 - . 14:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-78 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Brady, Favier, Helms, Henricks, Kregel, Linnehan, Thirsk. Payload: Columbia F20 / EDO. Mass: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brady, Favier, Helms, Henricks, Kregel, Linnehan, Thirsk. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-78. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 16.91 days. Decay Date: 1996-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 23931 . COSPAR: 1996-036A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.

    Columbia carried Terence T Henricks, Kevin R Kregel, Susan J Helms, Richard M Linnehan, Charles E Brady, Jr, Jean-Jacques Favier, and Robert Brent Thirsk to orbit. Main payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab for conducting human biological and microgravity experiments. Columbia landed safely at Kennedy Space Center on July 7.

  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: EDO. Decay Date: 1996-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 23931 . COSPAR: 1996-036xx. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.
  • Spacelab LMS 1 - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1996-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 23931 . COSPAR: 1996-036xx. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.

1996 June 20 - . 18:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB. FAILURE: Shroud broke up at T+50seconds.. Failed Stage: S.
  • Yantar-4K1 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1996 June 21 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Free Fallin' - . Flight: STS-78. "Free Fallin'" by Tom Petty. CAPCOM: Kay Hire.

1996 June 22 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Bad to the Bone - . Flight: STS-78. "Bad to the Bone" by George Thorogood & the Destroyers referring to musculoskeletal science experiments. CAPCOM: Kay Hire.

1996 June 23 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Flight of the Bumblebee - . Flight: STS-78. "Flight of the Bumblebee" performed by the 1980 U.S. Air Force Academy Drum and Bugle Corps. Payload commander Susan Helms played xylophone on the recording. CAPCOM: Kay Hire.

1996 June 24 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Space Oddity - . Flight: STS-78. "Space Oddity" by David Bowie. The"Major Tom" reference is to Tom Henricks. CAPCOM: Kay Hire.

1996 June 25 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: She Blinded Me With Science - . Flight: STS-78. "She Blinded Me With Science" by Thomas Dolby CAPCOM: Kay Hire.

1996 June 26 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Back on the Chain Gang - . Flight: STS-78. "Back on the Chain Gang" by The Pretenders. The crew went back to work after a day off. CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1996 June 26 - . 12:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF10. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT162GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1996 June 26 - . 14:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT160GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1996 June 26 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • USC-1 SOHO Cal Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi).

1996 June 27 - .
1996 June 27 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Every Breath You Take - . Flight: STS-78. "Every Breath You Take" by The Police. Refers to lung function experiment. CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1996 June 28 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Carolina in My Mind - . Flight: STS-78. "Carolina in My Mind" by James Taylor. Charles Brady considers Robbins, NC his home. CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1996 June 28 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 June 28 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 June 28 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 June 29 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Another Saturday Night - . Flight: STS-78. "Another Saturday Night" by Max Q, the all-astronaut band, with Susan Helms on keyboards CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1996 June 30 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Les Murs De Poussiere (Dusty Walls) - . Flight: STS-78. "Les Murs De Poussiere (Dusty Walls)" by Francis Cabrel for Favier. CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1996 July 1 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: O, Canada - . Flight: STS-78. "O, Canada" the Canadian National Anthem for Brent Thirsk CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1996 July 2 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Closer to Free - . Flight: STS-78. "Closer to Free" by The BoDeans for Linnehan. CAPCOM: Bill Gregory.

1996 July 2 - . 07:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • TOMS-EP - . Mass: 248 kg (546 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: T100. Spacecraft: TOMS-EP. USAF Sat Cat: 23940 . COSPAR: 1996-037A. Apogee: 746 km (463 mi). Perigee: 705 km (438 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. LEO. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe; atmospheric ozone mapping. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1996 July 3 - .
  • Death of Hans Henning Hosenthien - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Hosenthien. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1996 July 3 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Wake Up Little Susie - . Flight: STS-78. "Wake Up Little Susie" by The Everly Brothers for Helms. CAPCOM: Bill Gregory.

1996 July 3 - . 00:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 405A.
  • USA 125 - . Payload: SDS B-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Quasar. USAF Sat Cat: 23945 . COSPAR: 1996-038A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,440.00 min. Unknown orbit.

1996 July 3 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3.
  • Apstar 1A - . Mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Nation: China. Agency: APT Satellite Company. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23943 . COSPAR: 1996-039A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. 24 C-band transponders; Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 134 deg E in 1996-1999. As of 6 September 2001 located at 134.02 deg E drifting at 0.013 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 129.99E drifting at 0.007E degrees per day..

1996 July 4 - .
  • Mir News 311: Progress-M32 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    The launch of this freighter has been put back again and is now on schedule for 22.07.1996. The Progress-M32 has to deliver new supplies of water, fuel, oxygen, food, etc. to the Mir-space station. The reason for this delay are two failures with the Soyuz-U rocket, which also is used for the launches of Progress-M ships.

    Soyuz-U: Within the period of some weeks 2 launches of reconnaissance satellites with the carrier Soyuz-U failed. The first time this was on Baykonur on 13.05. 49 seconds after lift off the payload fairing came loose and the control-system gave the command for self-destruction. The commission to investigate the accident failed to find a unanimous conclusion. 4 different possibilities had been suggested even the rather bizarre idea that a big bird collided with the rocket. Normally all launches of analogue rockets are suspended until the experts know for sure the cause of the accident. This time they did not wait until a definite conclusion and launched another spy-satellite, now from Plesetsk using the rocket Soyuz-U. And again exactly after 49 seconds the fairing came loose and rocket and satellite were destroyed. This time the commission started a thorough investigation, which is still going on. So possibly the launch of the freighter Progress-M32 will be put back again.

    Mir-routine: Life goes on: the 2 Russians and Shannon Lucid are still in a very good mood. They do not seem to worry about the 'rocket' problems. The relief crew for Onufriyenko and Usachov has to fly with the Soyuz-TM24 on 14.08.1996. This crew consists of the Russians Manakov and Vinogradov and de French cosmonaut Claudie Andree-Deshays. For this launch a modified rocket, the Soyuz-U2 is needed. Financial problems might put a spoke in the wheel. During the last week Shannon Lucid worked with the Glove box. She met some problems with contacts and switches but resolved these by the help of an expert at TsUP Moscow. Shannon Lucid will be relieved by John Blaha during the 4th Shuttle-Mir docking mission STS-79 by Atlantis in the beginning of August.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 July 4 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: God Bless the U.S.A - . Flight: STS-78. "God Bless the U.S.A" by Lee Greenwood;"Born in the USA" by Bruce Springsteen for the 4th of July. CAPCOM: Blaine Hammond.

1996 July 5 - .
  • Flight: STS-78. "Birthday" by The Beatles for Henricks 44th birthday. CAPCOM: Blaine Hammond.

1996 July 6 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Don't Bring Me Down - . Flight: STS-78. "Don't Bring Me Down" by The Electric Light Orchestra CAPCOM: Blaine Hammond.

1996 July 7 - .
  • Russian Air Force Cosmonaut Training Group 11 Supplemental selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kotov.

1996 July 7 - .
  • STS-78 - Wakeup Song: Time For Me to Fly - . Flight: STS-78. "Time For Me to Fly" by REO Speedwagon. .

1996 July 7 - .
1996 July 9 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • TBM tracking test target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SM. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

    The Airborne Interceptor Experiment) was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of intercepting enemy theater ballistic missiles during early-boost. The Aries Target Launch Vehicle was launched from Wallops Island, flying a boost trajectory similar to a real theater ballistic missile. The missile was detected and tracked by Air Force F-15s, Navy F-14s, an Air Force infrared sensor tracking platform and by fleet surface ships of the US Atlantic Command. The data collected was used to develop an air-launched anti-ballistic missile system.


1996 July 9 - . 22:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Arabsat 2A - . Payload: Spacebus 3000A. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Arab States. Agency: Arabsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Arabsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 23948 . COSPAR: 1996-040A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Geostationary at 26.0E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 26 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 29 August 2001 located at 25.92 deg E drifting at 0.000 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 166.53W drifting at 3.749W degrees per day..
  • Turksat 1C - . Mass: 1,890 kg (4,160 lb). Nation: Turkey. Agency: Turk Tel. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Turksat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 23949 . COSPAR: 1996-040B. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    22 Ku band and 12 C band transponders. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 31 deg E in 1996; 42 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 42.02 deg E drifting at 0.003 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 42.00E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day.


1996 July 14 - . 07:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • NUVIEWS 1 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 July 15 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: DELTA3. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 July 15 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: DELTA4. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Shtil'.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 July 15 - . 11:28 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC94. Launch Pad: FIX. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Hera.
  • BRV/THAAD Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 July 15 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: THAAD.
  • ABM test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1996 July 15 - . 18:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Wake Island. LV Family: Castor 4A. Launch Vehicle: Castor 4B.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi).

1996 July 16 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 126 - . Payload: GPS 2A-26 / GPS SVN 40. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 23953 . COSPAR: 1996-041A. Apogee: 20,237 km (12,574 mi). Perigee: 20,127 km (12,506 mi). Inclination: 55.1000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Placed in Plane E Slot 3 of the constellation..

1996 July 18 - .
  • Death of Martin Summerfield - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Summerfield. American scientist. Early American rocket pioneer; co-founder of Aerojet in 1943; American inventor of regenerative cooling for liquid rocket engines. Left in 1944 for theoretical studies and academia, teaching at Princetone 1949-1994..

1996 July 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 July 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 July 22 - .
  • Mir News 316: CORRECTION - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1. Ref. MirNWS.315: The planned launch time of Progress-M32 is on 24.07.1996 at 2247 UTC. The time in Moscow Summertime is 25.07.1996 at 0247.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202..


1996 July 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 July 25 - . 12:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas II.
  • USA 127 - . Payload: UHF F/O F7-EHF. Mass: 3,015 kg (6,646 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: UHF. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23967 . COSPAR: 1996-042A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 4.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 170 deg W in 1996; 23 deg W in 1996-1999; 100 deg W in 1999. As of 29 July 1999) 99.21 deg W drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 22 located at 21.85W drifting at 0.014W degrees per day..

1996 July 26 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • EUVS Venus Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 July 27 - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Mini-DUSTY MD01 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: ARR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1996 July 30 - .
  • Mir News 318: Progress-M32 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    The launch of this freighter is now on schedule for 31.07.1996 at 20.00.04 UTC (For Moscow summertime 4 seconds after midnight on 1.08.96). The decision to give the green light for this launch has been taken on 29.07.1996 during a meeting of the state committee. The first attempt to launch the Progress-M32 failed due to a tank pressurisation problem. During the inspection afterwards a problem was revealed in one of the engines of a booster. The possibility to change that engine has been considered but finally the decision was taken to replace the whole booster. If all goes according to plan we might be able to hear the signals of the beacon- and telemetry transmitters of Progress-M32 at abt. 3 hrs after launch in the 922, 166 and 165 mc bands.

    The estimated docking time of Progress-M32 at Mir: 2.08.1996 at abt. 2159 UTC.

    Soyuz-TM24: The launch of this ship with the relief crew and the French spacionaute is now on schedule for 20.08.1996. We hope to get an eventual confirmation or additional information by CNES during this week.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 July 31 - . 19:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-XA. FAILURE: Landing strut 2 failed to extend; vehicle tipped over and LOX tank exploded; vehicle destroyed..
  • Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Reached altitude of 1250 m during a 140 second flight..

1996 July 31 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-32 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 232. Mass: 7,130 kg (15,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 96.11 days. Completed Operations Date: 1996-11-04 22:47:04 . Decay Date: 1996-11-04 22:47:04 . USAF Sat Cat: 24071 . COSPAR: 1996-043A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 371 km (230 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. This was the first successful launch of a Soyuz-U after two failures. Docked with Mir at the forward docking port on 2 Aug 1996 22:03:40 GMT. Undocked on 18 Aug 1996 09:33:45 GMT in order to free up the docking port. By 29 August 1994 Mir was in a 375 x 390 km x 51.6 deg orbit; the Progress M-32 cargo ship, flying separately, was in a 375 x 392 km x 51.6 deg orbit. Redocked with Mir on 3 Sep 1996 09:35:00 GMT at the rear port of the Kvant module. Finally undocked from Mir on 20 Nov 1996 19:51:20 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Nov 1996 22:42:25 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.20 days. Total docked time 93.91 days.


1996 August 1 - .
  • Mir News 319: Progress-M32 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    This freighter was launched from Baykonur on 31.07.1996 at 20.00.06 UTC. All went well and during passes within our range the signals of the beacon- and telemetry transmitters in the 166, 165 and 922.755mc could be monitored. During the pass in orbit 4, 020700-021220 UTC TCA (Time Closest Approach) for the Hague was 020808 UTC (922.755 mc Doppler dip).

    If all continues to go according to plan the Progress-M32 will link up with Mir on 2.08.1996 at 2158 UTC. The first pass (of that sequence) of Mir and Progress-M32 in Mir's orbit 59727, will last from 2147 until 2154 UTC. So during this pass the final approach is going on and radio communications regarding this operation possibly can be monitored in the VHF-band.

    The Progress-M32 will deliver to the Mir-station a cargo of 2478 KG. 328 KG of this cargo consists of experiments and equipment to be used by the French spacionaute Claudie Andre-Deshays during her Cassiopeia mission to Mir this month. The cargo further consists of water, food, fuel, oxygen, letters, equipment, software, spare parts etc.

    Progress-M31: This freighter is still docked at the forward (-X axis) port of the Mir-station and this port has to be free for the arrival of Progress-M31's successor Progress-M32. For that reason Progress-M31 will separate from Mir on 1.08.1996 at 1642 UTC and after a short autonomous flight this freighter will be put on a destruction course and burn up in the atmosphere over a designated area of the Pacific East of New-Zealand.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK-3202.


1996 August 2 - .
  • Death of Aleksandr Emmanuelovich Nudelman - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nudelman. Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1965-1987 of OKB8-16. Pre-eminent designer of aircraft guns in the Soviet Union. Adapted his aircraft designs for self-defence space guns for Kozlov's Soyuz VI and Chelomei's Almaz spacecraft..

1996 August 2 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Standard-ER. Launch Vehicle: SM-2-IV.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1996 August 3 - .
  • Mir News 320: Progress-M32 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    Docking at Mir:

    Progress-M32 docked at the Mir-station (-X axis, forward port transition section) on 2.08.1996 at 22.03.44 UTC. So 6 minutes later than planned. Approach and docking were executed in the automatic mode by the use of the system Kurs.

    Radio traffic: As always during such operations the radio traffic was very interesting. During the pass in orb. 59727, 2149-2156 UTC , the approach was still going on. The crew just accomplished a test of the TORU-system (for eventual manual guidance by the Mir-crew). They did not use this system. At 215520 UTC the distance between Progress-M32 and Mir was 180 M. The cosmonauts monitored the images made from Progress-M32 of the station on their displays. They also observed the approaching Progress-M32 via illuminators. The traffic revealed that, though somewhat slower than planned, the operation was proceeding well. During the next pass in orb. 59728, 2327-2333 UTC, radio traffic revealed that Progress-M32 had docked at Mir. The preparations for the opening of the hatches were going on, i.e. airseal checks, the equalisation of the pressures in Progress-M32 and Mir, deployment of an air hose, and so on. During the pass in orb. 59729, on 3.08.1996 from 0057-0107 UTC, the hatches were open and de cosmonauts already had entered the freighter to remove things which had to be transferred to the complex as soon as possible. After checks of the systems of Progress-M32 and the work to be sure that Progress-M32 was fixed at the station tight and safely the crew could go asleep. And so did, tired but satisfied, your 'observer'.

    The Progress-M32, will -relatively- remain a part of the Mir-complex for a short period: If the operations with Soyuz-TM24 (relief crew) will proceed according to plan (of this moment) Progress-M32 has to depart on 20.08.1996 to free the forward docking port for the Soyuz-TM24, which has to be launched on 19.08.1996. Progress-M31: This old freighter separated from Mir on 1.08.1996 at 16.44.54 UTC. and burnt up in the atmosphere. (Further details in a next Mir-report.)

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 August 4 - .
  • Cosmonaut Mikhail Vladimirovich Sologub dies at age of 59 -- Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Sologub. Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1968..

1996 August 6 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Endeavour OMDP-1 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Shuttle Endeavour undergoes its OMDP-1 Orbiter Maintenance Down Period at Palmdale, returning to service on 4 April 1997. These overhauls are undertaken every 10 to 12 shuttle missions..

1996 August 7 - .
  • Announcement of Possible Microfossils Found in ALH84001 Martian Meteorite - . Nation: USA.

1996 August 8 - . 22:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Italsat F2 - . Mass: 1,865 kg (4,111 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: ASI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Italsat. USAF Sat Cat: 24208 . COSPAR: 1996-044A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1996-1998; 16 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 16.38 deg E drifting at 0.010 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 94.10W drifting at 1.863E degrees per day..
  • Telecom 2D - . Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: France. Agency: France Telecom. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Telecom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 24209 . COSPAR: 1996-044B. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 3 deg E in 1996; 5 deg W in 1996-2000; 8 deg W in 2000.- As of 5 September 2001 located at 7.90 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 7.85W drifting at 0.005W degrees per day..

1996 August 12 - . 18:58 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • HOMER Aeronomy / education mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1996 August 13 - .
  • Mir News 321: 22d Main Expedition to Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    Due to serious hearth rhythm problems Manakov, the commander of the main crew, had to be hospitalised. So the core crew has been replaced by the stand ins. The French spacionaute Claudie Andre-Deshays will stay in the main crew. The crew of the 22d ME will consist of: Valeriy Grigoryevich Korzun (Commander), Aleksandr Yuryevich Kaleri (board engineer) and Claudie Andre-Deshays, (cosmonaut-researcher, guest cosmonaut CNES. ) Vinogradov and Leopold Eyharts remain available for the eventual replacement of respectively Kaleri and/or Andre-Deshays. There is no reserve commander available.

    Launch of Soyuz-TM24: The launch of this ship with the above mentioned crew members has been put forward and will now take place from Baykonur on 17.08.1996 at abt 1317 UTC.

    The service call sign of the crew is FREGAT, so resp. Fregat-1. -2 and -3).

    The names of the new crew and the earlier launch date had been given by a recorded message of Shannon Lucid transmitted from Mir on 437.925 mc.

    Progress-M31: As already has been reported this freighter ceased her existence on 1.08.1996. The exact times of this operation were: Separation from Mir: 16.44.45 UTC, start reentry burn: 19.44.30 UTC and burning up over a designated area in the Pacific East of New Zealand: 2033 UTC.

    Progress-M32: This freighter is still docked at Mir. If the launch and first part of the flight of Soyuz-TM24 will proceed as planned Progress-32 will undock from Mir on 18.08.1996 and burn up in the atmosphere.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 August 13 - .
  • Death of DeMarquis D Wyatt - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Wyatt. American engineer, at NASA 1944-1973, specialized in supersonic research in propulsion system installations, from 1958 management positions at headquarters..

1996 August 14 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-1T - . Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 2012-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24273 . COSPAR: 1996-045A. Apogee: 39,391 km (24,476 mi). Perigee: 968 km (601 mi). Inclination: 64.1000 deg. Period: 717.90 min.

1996 August 16 - .
  • Mir News 322: Soyuz-TM24 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    The most recent information from Moscow confirms that the launch of this ship with the relief-crew for the 22d Main Expedition to Mir is still planned for 17.08.1996 at 1317 UTC. If all goes according to plan Soyuz-TM24 will dock at Mir on 19.08.1996 at 1449 UTC.

    Progress-M32: This freighter will separate from Mir on 18.08.1996 at 0931 UTC. In contradiction to the supposition in MirNEWS.321 Progress-M32 will not be brought on a destruction course, but stay in orbit in an autonomous flight. The Progress-M32 will redock to Mir after the departure of Soyuz-TM23 with the relieved crew. The redocking has to take place on 3.09.1996. Progress-M32 will be used to reboost the Mir-complex in the original somewhat higher orbit after the return to earth of Atlantis (STS-79) in September.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 August 17 - . 01:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima Y. LV Family: H-2. Launch Vehicle: H-II.
  • ADEOS - . Mass: 135 kg (297 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ADEOS. USAF Sat Cat: 24277 . COSPAR: 1996-046A. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi). Perigee: 799 km (496 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.90 min.
  • JAS-2 - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JARL. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Fuji. USAF Sat Cat: 24278 . COSPAR: 1996-046B. Apogee: 1,323 km (822 mi). Perigee: 801 km (497 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 106.50 min. Japanese amateur radio satellite..

1996 August 17 - . 13:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-24 - . Call Sign: Fregat (Frigate ). Crew: Andre-Deshays, Kaleri, Korzun. Backup Crew: Eyharts, Lazutkin, Tsibliyev. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 73. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Andre-Deshays, Eyharts, Kaleri, Korzun, Lazutkin, Tsibliyev. Agency: RAKA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, Soyuz TM-24, Soyuz TM-24 Cassiopee, STS-76 Mir NASA-1. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 196.73 days. Decay Date: 1997-03-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 24280 . COSPAR: 1996-047A. Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Perigee: 378 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.30 min.

    Mir Expedition EO-22. Valeriy Korzun and Aleksandr Kaleri of the Russian Space Agency (RKA) Claudie Andre-Deshays of the French space agency CNES. This launch was the first of the Soyuz-U booster with a crew aboard following two launch failures of on unmanned flights. Soyuz docked with Mir's front port at 14:50:21 GMT on August 19; Mir was in a 375 x 390 km x 51.6 deg orbit.

    On Feb 7 at 16:28:01 GMT the EO-22 crew and American astronaut Linenger undocked the Soyuz TM-24 ferry from the front docking port, flew it around to the far side of the complex and redocked at the rear Kvant port at 16:51:27 GMT. This cleared the forward port for the arrival of the EO-23 crew, who brought with them German astronaut Reinhold Ewald on Feb 12.


1996 August 18 - . 10:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3.
  • Zhongxing 7 - . Payload: Zhongxing 7. Mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Program: Chinasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 24282 . COSPAR: 1996-048A. Apogee: 46,499 km (28,893 mi). Perigee: 21,674 km (13,467 mi). Inclination: 26.3000 deg. Period: 1,350.20 min.

1996 August 19 - .
  • Mir News 324: Soyuz-TM24 docked at Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, Soyuz TM-24, Soyuz TM-24 Cassiopee, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    The Soyuz-TM24 docked at Mir on 19.08.1996 at 14.50.21 UTC. Approach and docking took place in the automatic mode with the system Kurs. This in contradiction to the information about Kurs in MirNEWS.323. This information came from a usually reliable source who possibly misinterpreted a message of a press-agency. Radio traffic during the passes after the successful docking revealed that the new crew and Claudie Andre-Deshays still were in good health and mood after the 2-days flight. A very cheerful Claudie told a countryman at TsUP that she will use the module Priroda as her guest-room. Shannon Lucid is staying in the module Spektr.

    Soyuz-TM23: This ship will return to earth on 2.09.1996 with the relieved crew of ME 21 and Claudie.

    Progress-M32: This freighter is flying in a somewhat higher orbit than Mir. Progress-M32 will redock at Mir on 3.09.1996.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 August 20 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • SEEK-1 Plasma mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1996 August 20 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 August 21 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • FAST - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Small Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: FAST. USAF Sat Cat: 24285 . COSPAR: 1996-049A. Apogee: 4,163 km (2,586 mi). Perigee: 353 km (219 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 132.70 min. Second Small Explorer mission. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1996 August 22 - .
  • Death of Wilhelm Angele - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Angele. German-American engineer. Avid amateur astronomer, control specialist in von Braun's Rocket Team. Became Head of Pilot Manufacturing Development Branch, Guidance and Control Division, Huntsville..

1996 August 22 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Lance.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1996 August 26 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • SEEK-1 Plasma mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1996 August 28 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 2.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE, INPE. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1996 August 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Lance.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1996 August 29 - . 05:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Microsat - . Payload: Victor. Mass: 32 kg (70 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Cordoba. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: MuSat. Decay Date: 1999-11-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 24291 . COSPAR: 1996-050A. Apogee: 19,176 km (11,915 mi). Perigee: 804 km (499 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 94.70 min.

    MuSat-1 Victor separated from the launch vehicle at 05:31 GMT, becoming the first Argentine-built satellite. Measuring 340 x 340 x 450mm."Victor " was an experimental vehicle, intended to evaluate in-orbit behaviour of low-cost space technologies. It carried two video cameras, oriented for earth-imaging, as well as transceivers in both UHF and S bands. The beacon could be heard every 90 seconds at 137.95 MHz as a brief burst of CW ("Hi hi de MUSAT"). Electrical power was provided by four 88-Si cells solar panels, with an end-of-life electrical power of 8 W. Its position was determined by means of a 3-axis, flux-gate magnetometer, as well as both solar and horizon sensors, while its attitude was 3-axis controlled by magnetic coils and reaction wheels, with a pointing precision of 0.5 deg. MuSat-1 was developed and built by a 25-person team at the Instituto Universitario Aeronautico, under the sponsorship of the government of the province of Cordoba, in a 3.5 year, $1.2 million effort.

  • Interbol 2 - . Payload: SO-M2 s/n 512. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz-M. USAF Sat Cat: 24293 . COSPAR: 1996-050C. Apogee: 18,604 km (11,559 mi). Perigee: 1,369 km (850 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 347.20 min. Auroral research. Paired with Magion 5 subsatellite..
  • Magion 5 - . Payload: S2. Mass: 58 kg (127 lb). Nation: Czech Republic. Agency: RAKA. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magion. USAF Sat Cat: 24292 . COSPAR: 1996-050B. Apogee: 18,608 km (11,562 mi). Perigee: 1,366 km (848 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 347.20 min. The S2-A Magion 5 sub-satellite deployed from Interbol-2 on 30 August 1996 and conducted auroral studies in conjunction with Interbol-2. It was believed lost due to a solar panel failure until it was revived on the 14 May 1998..

1996 August 29 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1996 August 31 - . 15:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC42. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: STARS.
  • ODES/MSX MDT-2 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SDC. Apogee: 909 km (564 mi).

1996 September 2 - .
  • Mir News 325: Soyuz-TM23 returned to earth - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-23, Soyuz TM-24, Soyuz TM-24 Cassiopee, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    The descent module of the ship Soyuz-TM23 with on board the crew of the 21st ME and the 'spacionaute' Claudie Andre-Deshays landed safely on 2.09.1996 at 07.41.40 UTC in a position 105 KM South West of Akmola in Kazakhstan. The condition of the 3 cosmonauts was excellent and they will fly to Chkalovo (near Starcity, Moscow) today.

    0110 UTC: The hatch behind the departing cosmonauts was closed.

    0417 UTC: Soyuz-TM23 separated from Mir to begin a short autonomous flight.

    The aimed landing position was in a distance of 107 KM from Tselinograd in Kazakhstan with an estimated landing time of 07.41.03 UTC. (So they landed 37 sec. later in another position).

    Progress-M32: This freighter is still flying autonomously. Redocking to the Mir complex is on schedule for 3.09.1996 at abt. 0755 UTC.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK320.


1996 September 2 - .
1996 September 3 - .
  • Mir News 326: Progress-M32 redocked at the Mir space station. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-24, STS-76 Mir NASA-1.

    Today Progress-M32 concluded her autonomous flight. This flight began on 18.08.1996 , so 1 day before the docking of Soyuz-TM24. Approach and docking took place 1 orbit later than originally planned and was executed in the automatic mode with the system Kurs. The docking at the aft docking port (Kvant, +X-axis) was accomplished on 3.09 at 09.35.21 UTC. For those monitoring operations like this the delay of this operation until orbit 60212 from 0927-0932 UTC was a piece of good luck because of the fact that they could monitor the final phase of the operation. Commander Korzun observed the approach via the displays of the systems LIV and TORU and reported distances, approach speeds and manoeuvres around the X-axis. When both objects disappeared behind the horizon the distance was 95 meters and the appr. speed 0.8 M/sec. During the pass in orb. 60213 from 1102-1108 UTC it was obvious that Progress-M32 was a part of the Mir-complex again. Meanwhile Korzun had corrected the attitude of the complex. He got orders not to carry out the airseal checks and the opening of the hatch today.

    (So in a relative short period the Russians successfully accomplished crucial operations. As far as Russian spaceflight is concerned Aleksandr Lebedj has nothing to worry about!!)

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 September 4 - . 09:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2333 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 20. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 24297 . COSPAR: 1996-051A. Apogee: 852 km (529 mi). Perigee: 849 km (527 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 101.90 min. New heavy ELINT class..

1996 September 5 - . 12:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2334 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 24304 . COSPAR: 1996-052A. Apogee: 1,011 km (628 mi). Perigee: 966 km (600 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Military navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 1 of constellation. Signals at 150.03 MHz and 400.08 MHz..
  • Oscar 30 - . Payload: UNAMSAT B. Nation: Mexico. Agency: UNAM. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 24305 . COSPAR: 1996-052B. Apogee: 1,010 km (620 mi). Perigee: 966 km (600 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.90 min.

1996 September 6 - .
1996 September 6 - . 17:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Inmarsat 3 F2 - . Mass: 1,021 kg (2,250 lb). Nation: International. Agency: INMARSAT. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 24307 . COSPAR: 1996-053A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,766 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 2.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 15.5W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 15 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 15.48 deg W drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 7 located at 15.47W drifting at 0.007W degrees per day..

1996 September 8 - . 21:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA.
  • GE 1 - . Payload: A2100A. Mass: 2,783 kg (6,135 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: GE Americom. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Americom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 2100. USAF Sat Cat: 24315 . COSPAR: 1996-054A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Geostationary at 103.0W. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR/MRS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 103.06 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 103.03W drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.


1996 September 11 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P.
  • Echostar 2 - . Mass: 3,415 kg (7,528 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: PanAmSat. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Echostar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 7000. USAF Sat Cat: 24313 . COSPAR: 1996-055A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 119.0W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 119 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 119.39 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 147.94W drifting at 0.004E degrees per day..

1996 September 11 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 September 12 - . 08:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 128 - . Payload: GPS 2A-27 / GPS SVN 30. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 24320 . COSPAR: 1996-056A. Apogee: 20,320 km (12,620 mi). Perigee: 20,042 km (12,453 mi). Inclination: 54.7000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Placed in Plane B Slot 2 of the constellation..

1996 September 15 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: MT-135.
  • NNP-O3 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1996 September 16 - .
  • Death of McGeorge Bundy at New York, NY. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bundy. American Bureaucrat. McGeorge Bundy was a professor of government before serving as the national security adviser to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson from 1961-1966..

1996 September 16 - .
  • STS-79 - Wakeup Song: Duke of Earl - . Flight: STS-79.

    "Duke of Earl" by Gene Chandler."Song was up linked in honor of Carl Walz's 20th anniversary. The song is one he performed for his wife, Pam, before they were married while he was a member of an Ohio band called"The Blue Moons". This is the second time Walz has spent his anniversary in orbit" CAPCOM: Kay Hire


1996 September 16 - . 08:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-79 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Akers, Apt, Blaha, Readdy, Walz, Wilcutt. Payload: Atlantis F17 / External Airlock/ODS. Mass: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Akers, Apt, Blaha, Readdy, Walz, Wilcutt. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: Soyuz TM-24, STS-76 Mir NASA-1, STS-79, STS-79 Mir NASA-2. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 10.14 days. Decay Date: 1996-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 24324 . COSPAR: 1996-057A. Apogee: 386 km (239 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.10 min.

    On September 19 Atlantis docked with the Russian Mir space station. Aboard Atlantis in the payload bay were the Orbiter Docking System, the modified Long Tunnel, and the Spacehab Double Module, containing supplies for the Mir. Astronaut John Blaha relieved Shannon Lucid as NASA resident on the complex. Atlantis undocked from the Mir complex on September 23 at 23:33 GMT. Valeriy Korzun, Aleksandr Kaleri and John Blaha remain on Mir. On September 26 Atlantis closed its payload bay doors, and at 11:06 GMT fired its OMS engines for a three minute long deorbit burn. After entry interface at 11:42 GMT the spaceship flew across Canada and the US for a landing at the Kennedy Space Center's Runway 15 at 12:13 GMT.

  • External Airlock/ODS - . Payload: Orbiter Docking System. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: EAL/ODS. Decay Date: 1996-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 24324 . COSPAR: 1996-057xx. Apogee: 386 km (239 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.10 min.
  • Spacehab Double Module - . Payload: Spacehab FU2/STA. Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1996-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 24324 . COSPAR: 1996-057xx. Apogee: 386 km (239 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Remained attached to OV-104.

1996 September 17 - .
  • Mir News 328: Start Atlantis - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-24, STS-76 Mir NASA-1, STS-79, STS-79 Mir NASA-2.

    Within 20 minutes after the launch of Atlantis on mission STS-79 on 16.09.1996 at 08.54.49 UTC commander Readdy could be heard in a contact with Houston via a relay station in Spain. This was on 259.700 mc (AM) between 0913-0919 UTC. For ballistic reasons lift-off took place 46 seconds later than originally planned.

    Rendezvous and docking operations:

    Begin Mir rendezvous operation: 18.09 2134 UTC TI Burn 19.09 0003 Arrival on R-bar (Earth radius vector) 0153 Hovering at 170 feet from Mir 0235 Begin final approach 0310 Atlantis docks with Mir 0317 Hardmate Atlantis/Mir 0337

    For observers in Western-Europe the passes of Mir (and -the then being in a short distance- of Atlantis) begin during Mir's orbit nr. 60468 with a pass between 0307-0315 UTC, maximum elevation 11 degrees. So communications between Mir and Atlantis might be possible on the well known VHF frequencies. Whether there will be TV-images -for instance via CNN- or not is not sure at this point. If the Russians use Altair-1 (Cosmos-2054) over 16 dgs West images seen by Mir of the approaching Atlantis might be possible between 0230-0324 UTC. During the last docking mission of Atlantis (STS-76) those images could be seen via CNN together with images of Mir seen by a camera in Atlantis. It is also possible that the Russians will use Altair-2 (over 96 dgs East) during the window from 0306-0402 UTC.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1996 September 17 - .
  • Death of Spiro T Agnew - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Agnew. American politician. Vice President of the United States, 1968-1973..

1996 September 17 - .
  • STS-79 - Wakeup Song: Rescue Me - . Flight: STS-79. "Rescue Me" by Fontella Bass."Capcom Kay Hire called the wakeup music"a message from Shannon" referring to U.S. astronaut Dr. Shannon Lucid who has spent approximately six months aboard Mir" CAPCOM: Kay Hire.

1996 September 18 - .
  • STS-79 - Wakeup Song: Hold On (I'm Coming) - . Flight: STS-79. "Hold On (I'm Coming)" performed by Sam and Dave referring to the return of Shannon Lucid..

1996 September 19 - .
  • Mir News 329: Atlantis docked at Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-24, STS-76 Mir NASA-1, STS-79, STS-79 Mir NASA-2.

    'Readdy was ready' and he controlled the free drift with a speed of appr. 2.5 cm/sec of Atlantis to Mir during the final phase of the approach. The result was a perfect soft docking on 19.09.96 at 0313 UTC. The original operation schedule was almost executed on the minute, except for the time of the 'touch', which had been put forward by 4 minutes. For friends in Western Europa who use to monitor radio transmissions during such operations this was a blessing for it meant that the docking could take place within the window for both objects on Mir's orbit nr. 60468, 0307-0315 UTC. So at 031330 UTC they could hear Readdy reporting in Russian: 'KASANIYE' (touch). For this report he used the 130.165 mc FM and immediately after his report commander Korzun in Mir reported on 143.625 mc that he had a positive indication about the docking. Monitoring people always hope that they can pick up that important word 'kasaniye' during dockings of Soyuz- and Progress-ships, but mostly the moment of that touch takes place just a few minutes after LOS of their position, in the past this occurred a few times during Soyuz-TM dockings. Of course it is always possible to log the traffic during such dockings in the final phase of the approach. This time there was not much radio traffic before the 'touch' for Readdy had to do his job with concentration and everybody was watching the operation silently. TV-images transmitted by TV-stations revealed that there were no direct images from camera's on board Mir. So possibly the geostationary Luches: Altair-1 and 2 were not in use. During the first 3 docking missions these images could be seen simultaneously with the images from Atlantis , relayed by TDRS-s. Certainly we will get images made from inside Mir during the docking operation, but these were recorded and transmitted to earth later. During the next pass of the enormous space-complex (in orb. Mir nr. 60469, 0441-0453 UTC) the Mir-crew already had accomplished the air-seal checks and opened 2 hatches of the SO (docking compartment). They also had removed things which had been necessary during the docking and now had to be stowed away. Just before LOS for our position Korzun tried to communicate via 130.165 mc with Atlantis to get information about the proceedings there. Opening of the hatches from Atlantis to Mir took place at 0539 UTC, so not in our VHF-range. Via TV-stations receiving relays via a TDRS we could see nice images of the meeting of both crews and the first gathering on board Mir.

    SAREX STS-79: During this mission there might be radio-amateur activities by the astronauts-radio-amateurs Jay Apt (N5QWL), Carl Walz (KC5TIE) and John Blaha (KC5TZQ). Sarex VHF downlink is 145.840 mc FM with uplink frequencies: 144.450 and 144.470 mc FM. Please do not use 145.840 mc FM for 'uplink' or -during Atlantis passes -local bragging. Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1996 September 19 - .
  • STS-79 - Wakeup Song: Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On - . Flight: STS-79. "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On" by Jerry Lee Lewis referring to the ARIS experiment. ARIS = Active Rack Isolation System, a set of sensors and actuators which dampen out vibrations for ultra-sensitive microgravity experiments..

1996 September 19 - . Launch Site: Bay of Biscay Launch Area. Launch Pad: 47.5 N x 4.5 W. Launch Platform: S616. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: MSBS M45.
  • Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1996 September 20 - .
  • STS-79 - Wakeup Song: Cheeseburger in Paradise - . Flight: STS-79. "Cheeseburger in Paradise" by Jimmy Buffett referring to Shannon Lucid's thoughts of her diet after returning to Earth..

1996 September 21 - .
  • STS-79 - Wakeup Song: Another Saturday Night - . Flight: STS-79. "Another Saturday Night" By Max Q. Carl Walz is a member..

1996 September 22 - .
  • STS-79 - Wakeup Song: Got Me Under Pressure - . Flight: STS-79. "Got Me Under Pressure" by ZZ Top referring to the raising of cabin pressure to 15.5 psi to transfer oxygen and nitrogen to Mir..

1996 September 23 - .
  • STS-79 - Wakeup Song: Please Don't Leave Me - . Flight: STS-79. "Please Don't Leave Me" by Fats Domino. Some music for undocking day.

1996 September 24 - .
  • Death of Henry Charles Gordon - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gordon, Henry. American pilot astronaut, 1962-1963..

1996 September 24 - .
  • STS-79 - Wakeup Song: Only Wanna Be With You - . Flight: STS-79. "Only Wanna Be With You" by Hootie and the Blowfish referring to the impending return of Lucid to her family..

1996 September 24 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: TR-1. Launch Vehicle: TR-1A.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1996 September 25 - .
  • STS-79 - Wakeup Song: Danger Zone - . Flight: STS-79. "Danger Zone" by Kenny Loggins. Played in honor of the two Navy crewmen on board, Bill Readdy and Terrence Wilcutt. Wilcutt's a Marine, not Navy. (The Navy trains the Marine pilots so it's still a valid connection.).

1996 September 26 - . 17:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Ekspress No. 12 - . Payload: Ekspress s/n 12L. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: AO Infor. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Gals. USAF Sat Cat: 24435 . COSPAR: 1996-058A. Apogee: 35,809 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 3.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min. Stationed at 80.0 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 103.84 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.98E drifting at 0.225W degrees per day..

1996 September 26 - .
1996 September 27 - . 16:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • MSLS - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFMC. Apogee: 1,600 km (900 mi).

1996 October 2 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 728. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 October 3 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Shtil'.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 October 3 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 October 6 - .
  • Death of Richard W Porter - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Porter. American engineer; his 400-strong GE team at Malta, NY, built US versions of the V-2 and Wasserfall, and engine for Vanguard. Influential, on many committees, but Malta was a dead-end, and closed in 1984..

1996 October 7 - .
  • Mir News 330: Progress-M33 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-24, STS-79 Mir NASA-2.

    The launch of this freighter was planned for 15.10.1996. Due to problems with the carrier-rocket the launch has been put back possibly to 2.11.1996.

    Mir-routine: Mir's passes for our position are gradually shifting from the night to the late evening hours. So still not much traffic via VHF. Now and then the Russians use the geostationary Altair-1 (Cosmos-2054) for Mir-communications. On 5.10.1996 the crew spoke with TsUP about a lot of condenstation in a cable compartment. Possibly this problem has been resolved as they did not mention it the next day. During conversations with TsUP on 6.10.1996 the cosmonauts mentioned the dismissal of Gen. Ivanov from his command of the VKS (space forces). They supposed that this also means that Gen. Ivanov also has been relieved of his chairmanship of the State Committee for Spaceflight. This committee always selects which crew will fly and the chairman takes the oath of departing crews. General Ivanov has a long and excellent career in spaceflight and the relinquishment of his command must be a heavy blow for Russian spaceflight. At least this is my opinion, but I am sure that the cosmonauts will share this opinion with me. John Blaha: He is like his predecessor very active and from conversations in Russian as well in English with specialists on earth can be derived that he is very enthusiastic. He still has to accustom himself to the differences between his training in replicas on earth and the practice in space. On earth things in training modules have been put straight in contradiction to the situation on board. Often it takes him a long time and consultations with the earth to find things he needs for his experiments. During passes of the Mir-station during working hours it might be possible that Blaha uses the 130.165 mc while his Russian colleagues use 143.625 mc. The arrangement for the use of 130.165 mc will be made on 143.625 mc. They speak about UKW-dva , they mean 130.165 mc.

    Radio-amateur traffic: The 145.550 mc is fully in use for Packet radio and often Korzun can be heard in phone with amateurs on earth. Korzun is a skilled and enthusiastic radio-amateur. It is also worth while to monitor the 437.925 and 437.950 mc for traffic via the Safex installation in the Priroda module. The 437 mc band is primary for ISM-purposes (Industrial, Scientific and Medical). In my neighbourhood this band is fully blocked by a hospital using that band for health monitoring equipment. I would be very pleased to hear experiences in this field from friends in other parts of our globe.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 October 9 - .
  • Death of Herbert R Bergeler - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Bergeler. German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Peenemuende, Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama..

1996 October 9 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC94. Launch Pad: FIX. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Hera.
  • BRV/THAAD RST-1 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi).

1996 October 16 - . 10:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Talos. Launch Vehicle: Space Data LCLV.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1996 October 16 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • DARTFire 2 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 October 20 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2D.
  • FSW-2 No. 3 - . Payload: FSW-2 No. 03. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1996-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 24634 . COSPAR: 1996-059A. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi). Perigee: 121 km (75 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 87.00 min. Final launch in the FSW series. Landed in China on November 4 after 15 days in orbit..

1996 October 21 - .
  • Death of Emerson W Conlon - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Conlon. American engineer. Directed development of the D-558 transonic research aircraft for the Navy. Later Chair of the Aeronautical Engineerng Department at Michigan, holding several USAF and NASA management positions on leaves of absence..

1996 October 21 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • JHU FPT 1 (Jupiter) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 October 23 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: TK-20. LV Family: R-39. Launch Vehicle: Rif.
  • Arms control - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1996 October 24 - . 11:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-3-48 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 62. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2007-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 24640 . COSPAR: 1996-060A. Apogee: 38,520 km (23,930 mi). Perigee: 1,837 km (1,141 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min.

1996 October 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 734. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 October 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 734. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 October 29 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
1996 November - .
  • X-38 Rollout - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Spacecraft Bus: Rescue. Spacecraft: X-38. Roll out of first of two slightly subscale 7.31 m long atmospheric test vehicles for use in parafoil landing tests was in November 1996..

1996 November 4 - .
1996 November 4 - . 17:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island DZ. Launch Pad: RW04/22. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. FAILURE: The rocket functioned perfectly but the separation system failed to release the payload.. Failed Stage: P.
  • HETE - . Mass: 124 kg (273 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STEDI. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: HETE. Decay Date: 2002-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24645 . COSPAR: 1996-061A. Apogee: 555 km (344 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 95.00 min.

    The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) was an international mission led by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Its prime objective was to carry out the first multiwavelength study of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) with UV, X-ray, and gamma ray instruments. A unique feature of the mission was its capability to localise bursts with several arcsecond accuracy, in near real-time aboard the spacecraft. These positions were to be transmitted to the ground, and picked up by a global network of primary and secondary ground stations (SGS), enabling sensitive follow-up studies. However the satellite was never released from its payload fitting. Although signals were received, the solar panels could not deploy, and it went silent after a few days when its batteries ran down. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ.

  • SAC-B - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Program: SAC. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SAC-B. Decay Date: 2002-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24645 . COSPAR: 1996-061A. Apogee: 555 km (344 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 95.00 min. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..

1996 November 6 - . 13:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 November 7 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • Mars Global Surveyor - . Payload: MGS / Leros 1B LAE. Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Program: Mars Surveyor. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars Global Surveyor. USAF Sat Cat: 24648 . COSPAR: 1996-062A.

    Mars Global Surveyor entered a 258 x 54021 km x 93.3 deg polar orbit around Mars on 12 September 1997 after a 22 minute burn of its main engine. After a long aerobraking phase to a lower circular orbit, the spacecraft began its primary mission of photographing and observing changes on the Martian surface in March 1999. After nearly ten years of service, the last signals from MGS were received on 3 November 2006. The spacecraft went silent after an incorrect software upload caused its solar arrays to lose power.


1996 November 9 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 November 13 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SERTS-96 (07) Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 November 13 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Arabsat 2B - . Payload: Spacebus 3000A. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Arab States. Agency: Arabsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Arabsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 24652 . COSPAR: 1996-063A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 21.9E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 30 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 30.46 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 30.52E drifting at 0.005E degrees per day..
  • Measat 2 - . Mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Nation: Malaysia. Agency: Binarian. Program: Measat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 24653 . COSPAR: 1996-063B. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 148.0E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 148 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 148.00 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 147.98E drifting at 0.007W degrees per day..

1996 November 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: AMROC. Launch Vehicle: Hyperion.
1996 November 16 - . 20:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-2. FAILURE: No second Block D-2 ignition.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Mars-96 (Mars 8) - . Payload: M1 s/n 520. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. Decay Date: 1996-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 24656 . COSPAR: 1996-064A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 110 km (60 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg.

    The Mars 96 spacecraft was launched into Earth orbit, but failed to achieve insertion into Mars cruise trajectory and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere at about 00:45 to 01:30 GMT on 17 November 1996 and crashed within a presumed 320 km by 80 km area which includes parts of the Pacific Ocean, Chile, and Bolivia. The Russian Mars 96 mission was designed to send an orbiter, two small autonomous stations, and two surface penetrators to Mars.

  • Penetrator 1 - . Payload: PN s/n 520/4. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.
  • Penetrator 2 - . Payload: PN s/n 520/5. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.
  • MAS 2 - . Payload: MAS s/n 520/2. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.
  • MAS 1 - . Payload: MAS s/n 520/1. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.

1996 November 17 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
1996 November 19 - . 19:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-80 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Cockrell, Jernigan, Jones, Musgrave, Rominger. Payload: Columbia F21 / Orfeus / WSF. Mass: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cockrell, Jernigan, Jones, Musgrave, Rominger. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-80. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 17.66 days. Decay Date: 1996-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24660 . COSPAR: 1996-065A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 318 km (197 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.

    Mission STS-80 carried the Orfeus astronomy satellite, the Wake Shield Facility, and spacewalk equipment. The Orfeus satellite was deployed on November 20. It carried an ultraviolet telescope and spectrographs. Wake Shield Facility was deployed on November 22 and retrieved on November 26 . On 1996 Nov 29, crewmembers Tamara Jernigan and Thomas Jones were to conduct the first of several planned EVAs. However the shuttle's exit hatch would not open and NASA cancelled this and the other planned spacewalks of the mission. On December 4 at the astronauts retrieved the Orfeus satellite using the RMS arm. Reentry attempts on Dec 5 and Dec 6 were called off due to bad weather. Columbia finally landed at 11:49 GMT December 7 on Runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center, making STS-80 the longest shuttle mission to that date .

  • WSF - . Payload: Wake Shield Facility. Mass: 1,935 kg (4,265 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SII. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: WSF. Decay Date: 1996-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24662 . COSPAR: 1996-065C. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 347 km (215 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Retrieved Nov 26.
  • ORFEUS - . Payload: ASTRO-SPAS. Nation: USA. Agency: DLR. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: ORFEUS. Decay Date: 1996-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24661 . COSPAR: 1996-065B. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 346 km (214 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Retrieved Dec 4.
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: EDO. Decay Date: 1996-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24660 . COSPAR: 1996-065xx. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 318 km (197 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.

1996 November 19 - . 23:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-33 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 233. Mass: 7,190 kg (15,850 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-24, STS-79 Mir NASA-2. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 112.17 days. Completed Operations Date: 1997-03-12 03:22:59 . Decay Date: 1997-03-12 03:22:59 . USAF Sat Cat: 24663 . COSPAR: 1996-066A. Apogee: 387 km (240 mi). Perigee: 361 km (224 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.00 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 22 Nov 1996 01:01:30 GMT. Undocked on 6 Feb 1997 12:13:53 GMT. Thereafter in independent orbital flight in a 377 x 395 km x 51.65 deg orbit. Failed to redock with Mir on 4 Mar 1996. Destroyed in reentry on 12 Mar 1997 03:23:37 GMT. Total free-flight time 35.70 days. Total docked time 76.47 days.


1996 November 20 - .
  • Mir News 334: Successful launch freighter Progress-M33 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-24, STS-79 Mir NASA-2.

    This long-expected freighter blasted off from Baykonur on 19.11.1996 at 23 hrs 20 mins and 35 seconds UTC (for Moscow-time and for MEWT already on 20.11.1996). After some orbits the beacon- and TLM-transmissions could be monitored over here. The cargo of Progress-M33 consisting of post, food, spare-parts, containers for human waste and materials for experiments weighs 1650 KG. In the tank-compartment of Progress-M33 547 KG oxygen, fuel and water has been stored. Fuel for the Mir-complex itself weighs 2462 KG. Also among the 547 KG a new supply of nitrogen for the pressurising and purging of the oxygen-producing Elektron systems. Because of the fact that there will be no further deliveries of supplies before New Year the mail-bag also contains the Christmas- and New Year post for the crew.

    Progress-M32: This old freighter has to free the port at which she is docked now for the arrival of the Progress-M33. This is the aft docking port (Kvant-1, +X-axis). Progress-M32 can abandon the Mir-station for the systems of her successor are working normally. This will take place on 20.11.1996 at 1945 UTC. After a few orbits Progress-M32's engines will be fired for the de-orbit manoeuvre after which Progress-M32 will burn up over a designated area in the Pacific East of New Zealand.

    Expected time of arrival and docking Progress-M33 at Mir:

    This will be on 22.11.1996 at 0100 UTC. Progress-M33 has to approach and dock in the automatic mode by the system Kurs. If this system fails commander Korzun is ready to conduct the freighter manually with the system TORU.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 November 20 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: I Can See For Miles - . Flight: STS-80. "I Can See For Miles" by The Who CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1996 November 21 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Theme From Fireball XL5 - . Flight: STS-80. "Theme From Fireball XL5" CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1996 November 21 - . 20:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA.
  • Hot Bird 2 - . Payload: Eurostar 2000+. Mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb). Nation: France. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 24665 . COSPAR: 1996-067A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Geostationary at 13.0E. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR/MRS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 12.95 deg E drifting at 0.024 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 4 located at 13.07E drifting at 0.011E degrees per day.


1996 November 22 - .
  • Mir News 335: Progress-M33 successfully docked at Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-24, STS-79 Mir NASA-2.

    The Progress-M33 linked up with Mir on 22.11.1996 at 010130 UTC. Approach and docking were executed in the automatic mode with the system Kurs. Until the soft mate Korzun was prepared to take over manually with TORU if necessary. During the first pass of Mir in orbit 61467 from 0050-0056 UTC Korzun reported about the approaching freighter. At 0556 UTC TsUP gave permission for the docking. Already during the pass in orb. 61468 from 0223-0234 UTC the crew reported that they had opened the hatch and that they enjoyed the fresh air which flowed in and the smell of apples.

    Progress-M32: This old freighter separated from Mir on 20.11.1996 at 194414 UTC. The same day at 224218 UTC the de-orbit burn took place and she burnt up over the Pacific East from New Zealand.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 November 22 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Roll With the Changes - . Flight: STS-80. "Roll With the Changes" by REO Speedwagon; Some Phil Collins/Genesis CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1996 November 23 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Reelin' and Rockin' - . Flight: STS-80. "Reelin' and Rockin'" by Chuck Berry CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1996 November 24 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Roll With It - . Flight: STS-80. "Roll With It" by Steve Winwood CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1996 November 24 - . 11:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 35 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DASA. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi).

1996 November 25 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Good Times Roll - . Flight: STS-80. "Good Times Roll" by The Cars CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1996 November 26 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Red Rubber Ball - . Flight: STS-80. "Red Rubber Ball" by Cyrkle CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1996 November 27 - .
  • Mir News 336: 1st Spacewalk (EVA) crew 22d Main Expedition to MI - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-24, STS-79 Mir NASA-2.

    The crew of the 22d M.E. to Mir, Korzun and Kaleri, will do this EVA on 2.12.1996 between 1550 UTC (opening hatch) and 2130 UTC (closure hatch). During this EVA they will have to install extra cables and contacts for a solar panel on the outer surface of the astrophysical module Kvant-1 (Module-E). This solar panel had been installed over there in May 1996 by Onufriyenko and Usachov. This panel had been delivered to Mir by Atlantis on 15.11.1995 during mission STS-74 as cargo on the docking compartment. At the outer surface of that compartment 2 solar batteries had been stowed, 1 Russian and 1 American. In May 1996 the American one had been installed and partly connected. That is why the solar panel could deliver not more than 3 kW. If the work during the 1st EVA will be accomplished successfully the panel can deliver 6 kW electrical power. During the EVA John Blaha will remain inside the complex to assist and take care for the communications.

    Radio communications during this EVA:

    During passes on 143 mc, but somewhat lower than 143.625 mc and possibly via the 2 available geostationary Altair-satellites.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 November 27 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Alice's Restaurant - . Flight: STS-80. "Alice's Restaurant" by Arlo Guthrie CAPCOM: Dom Gorie.

1996 November 28 - .
  • Death of Cai Jintao - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Cai Jintao. Chinese Engineer. Chinese communications and telemetry systems engineer..

1996 November 28 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Some Guys Have All the Luck - . Flight: STS-80. "Some Guys Have All the Luck" by Robert Palmer CAPCOM: Dom Gorie.

1996 November 29 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Changes - . Flight: STS-80. "Changes" by David Bowie CAPCOM: Dom Gorie.

1996 November 29 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-39. Launch Vehicle: RT-23U 15Zh61.
  • rail - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 November 30 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Break On Through - . Flight: STS-80. "Break On Through" by The Doors CAPCOM: Dom Gorie.

1996 December 1 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Shooting Star - . Flight: STS-80. "Shooting Star" by Bad Company CAPCOM: Dom Gorie.

1996 December 2 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Stay - . Flight: STS-80. "Stay" by Jackson Browne CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1996 December 2 - . 15:54 GMT - .
1996 December 3 - .
  • Mir News 337: 1st Spacewalk (EVA) crew 22d Main Expedition - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-24, STS-79 Mir NASA-2.

    Korzun and Kaleri did this EVA on 2.12.1996 between 1554 and 2151 UTC (duration 5 hrs. 57 mins). They had to deploy and connect cables to the American solar panel on the outer surface of Kvant-1. They accomplished their task successfully and without problems. The solar panel has been checked and can deliver a current of 80 Amperes. When Mir for the first time came within our range (orbit 61636, 2015-2022 UTC) the cosmonauts were still working near the Sofora girder. Somewhat later they returned to the airlock. During the 2d pass for our position (orb. 61637, 2149-2159 UTC) Korzun reported the closure of the hatch at 2157 UTC. Regularly John Blaha could be heard in contacts with TsUP and the cosmonauts. Inside the Mir- complex he assisted the cosmonauts, checked systems and executed commands given to him by TsUP. While Korzun and Kaleri were still in the airlock to equalise the air pressure Blaha in co-ordination with TsUP loaded control-data in the central computer. On 3.12.1996 at abt. 0108 UTC, everybody, your scribe inclusive, though tired but satisfied, went to sleep. 2d EVA 22d M.E.: This EVA is on schedule for 9.12.1996. During this EVA Korzun and Kaleri will have to accomplish the following tasks: 1st: The mounting of Rapana on the 3d truss construction at the outer surface of the Kvant-1 module: 2d: The installation of a new Kurs-antenna on the transition section (P.Kh.O.). Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1996 December 3 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Return to Sender - . Flight: STS-80. "Return to Sender" by Elvis Presley CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1996 December 4 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Should I Stay or Should I Go - . Flight: STS-80. "Should I Stay or Should I Go" by The Clash CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1996 December 4 - . 06:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
1996 December 5 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Nobody Does It Better - . Flight: STS-80. "Nobody Does It Better" by Carly Simon CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1996 December 6 - .
  • STS-80 - Wakeup Song: Please Come Home For Christmas - . Flight: STS-80. "Please Come Home For Christmas" by Sawyer Brown CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1996 December 7 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Lance.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1996 December 7 - .
1996 December 9 - . 13:50 GMT - .
1996 December 10 - .
  • Mir News 338: 2d Spacewalk (EVA) 22d Main expedition - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-24, STS-79 Mir NASA-2.

    This EVA took place on 9.12.1996 between 1352 UTC (opening hatch) and 2028 UTC (closing hatch). So a duration of 6 hrs 36 mins. The EVA lasted longer for Korzun wished to accomplish all what had to be done and there also was a problem with something which bungled loose. Before return they restored the connection of the radio-amateur antenna for the 145 mc. Probably this antenna had been disconnected by accident during the 1st EVA. They connected the antenna again and while they were flying over Chile and Brazil they asked John Blaha to listen out on the 145.800 mc to check whether the antenna was working or not. There was no traffic on that frequency in that area and so they had to wait until they came in range of European amateurs. I asked the English radio-amateur Pat Gowen (G3IOR) to give calls on 145.800 mc as soon as Mir would come in range (at abt. 1934 UTC). So he did and these signals could be heard by John Blaha while Mir was flying over France. He reported this to the still being on EVA Korzun and Kaleri and congratulated them with their success. Korzun urged John not to transmit, but to listen only. The cosmonauts fully accomplished their tasks: installing the truss construction Rapana at the truss Ferma-3 and the replacement of the Kurs-antenna on the outer surface of the P.Kh.O. (transition section). John Blaha who stayed inside the complex took care of the communications and executed commands given to him by TsUP. He gave the cosmonauts all possible moral and technical help. The cosmonauts and Blaha did an excellent job during this EVA, they gave an example of fruitful international co-operation and so they all deserve a loud: 'MOLODTSY' (very well done). Of course the cosmonauts were very tired after the EVA and back in the airlock they had to do hard labour to put off their spacesuits. Just before midnight Korzun could be heard in a contact with a Portuguese radio-amateur via the repaired antenna for the 145 mc.

    Thus far there are no more EVA's on schedule for this crew.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1996 December 11 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2335 - . Payload: US-PM s/n 8. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-PU. Decay Date: 1999-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 24670 . COSPAR: 1996-069A. Apogee: 418 km (259 mi). Perigee: 403 km (250 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. EORSAT, second of three to be stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 143 degree ascending node. However cutbacks in program resulted in the constellation not being completed. Still in operation as of December 1997..

1996 December 18 - . 01:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA.
  • Inmarsat 3 F3 - . Mass: 1,021 kg (2,250 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Inmarsat. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 24674 . COSPAR: 1996-070A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Geostationary at 157.6E. Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with RAAN Cntl trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 178 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 178.02 deg E drifting at 0.006 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 178.19E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day.


1996 December 19 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1996 December 20 - . 06:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2336 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 24677 . COSPAR: 1996-071A. Apogee: 1,012 km (628 mi). Perigee: 979 km (608 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Military navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 4 of constellation. Signals at 149.97 and 399.92 MHz..

1996 December 20 - . 18:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 404A.
  • USA 129 - . Payload: EIS-3. Mass: 19,600 kg (43,200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: EIS. USAF Sat Cat: 24680 . COSPAR: 1996-072A. Apogee: 949 km (589 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Optical reconnaisance satellite built for the US National Reconnaissance Office..

1996 December 24 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Bion No. 11 - . Payload: Bion No. 11. Mass: 5,400 kg (11,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1997-01-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24701 . COSPAR: 1996-073A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Biological research. Carried monkeys Lalik and Multik..

1996 December 25 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1996 December 28 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).


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