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On October 23 in Space History

1906 October 23 - .
  • Birth of Hermann E Lange - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Lange. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1917 October 23 - .
  • Birth of Mikhail Grigoryev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grigoryev. Russian officer. First Commander of Plesetsk 1957-1962..

1930 October 23 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 4.
  • Goddard begins rocket tests at Roswell - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard.

    Goddard first begins a series of thorough static tests in which the operating conditions were varied. The combustion chamber decided upon for use in flight tests was 5.75 inches in diameter and weighed 5 lb. In these static tests the maximum lift was 289 lb; duration 20+ sec; lifting force steady; jet velocities over 5000 ft/sec.


1944 October 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1946 October 23 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Groettrup team transported to Soviet Union. - . Nation: Russia. In overnight roundup, 20,000 Germans transported to USSR to transfer technology on aerospace and other technical fields..

1947 October 23 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Payload destroyed, leading to rocket disintegration..
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 14 km (8 mi). Range achieved 29.4 km..

1948 October 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 October 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Last and 20th launch in second R-1 test series..

1951 October 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 155 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 74. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 54. Engine cut out after two ignition attempts; propellants jettisoned and flight completed as glide flight. Plane subsequently grounded because of possibility of fatigue failure of nitrogen spheres..

1952 October 23 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee XASR-SC-2.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 112 km (69 mi). Temperature, winds research. Launched at 2045 local time. Reached 111.1 km..

1953 October 23 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Corporal.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1956 October 23 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee AJ10-34.
  • Pressure Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi). Pressure, temperature, density research. Launched at 0240 local time. Reached 145 km..

1957 October 23 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-1.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 23 - . 01:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    The fifth Jupiter was fired from the AMR at 2007 hours EST. This was the first flight with a heat protected nose cone. The ST-90 inertial guidance stabilised platform was operated with partially closed circuits. Cut-off was effected by the guidance system at 170.37 seconds. Since fuel was not depleted, flight time was 9.5 seconds longer than had been predicted for an approximate 1,100 nm range. The range error was 10.2 nm with a 3.4 nm lateral error. The nose cone survived re-entry and impacted in the general vicinity of the predicted impact point. Again, a successful flight.


1957 October 23 - . 19:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC18A. Launch Pad: LC18A. Launch Vehicle: Vanguard.
  • Vanguard TV2 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi). IGY Vanguard prototype (TV-2) with simulated second and third stage successfully met test objectives, by reaching 109-mile altitude and 4,250 mph..

1958 October 23 - .
  • Preliminary specifications for Mercury manned spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury. Preliminary specifications for a manned spacecraft were established with industry. These specifications outlined the program and suggested methods of analysis and construction..

1958 October 23 - . LV Family: Titan.
  • Titan missile A-3, now scheduled for the first Titan flight test, was delivered to the Air Force by the Martin Company. - .

1958 October 23 - .
  • The first of a series of meetings between the Space Task Group and Air Force Ballistic Missile Division was held to define support required by the civilian space agency. - . Spacecraft: Man-In-Space-Soonest.

    The scope of the manned space effort, its booster requirements, procurement procedures, launch schedules and facilities, were defined. The missile division also needed to define the extent of its own role in the. Mercury program. Control of booster procurement, scheduling use of scarce ground and launch facilities in the face of possible interference with ballistic missile development, and the desire to use the existing Air Force Ballistic Missile Division/ Space Technology Laboratories management structure in carrying out the support role were some of the questions and policies to be resolved. Th3 first meeting was exploratory in nature; the missile division indicated its complete support of the Mercury program insofar as it did not interfere with the missile development effort; the space agency indicated its desire to procure boosters through, and use as much of Air Force Ballistic Missile Division's resources and capabilities as possible. (Rpt, AFBMD Support, Project Mercury, Dec 1960, prep by AFBMD Space Div (WDZ.)


1958 October 23 - . 03:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter C. FAILURE: Upper stages separated prior to burnout. Structural failure after 149 sec due to vibration disturbances generated by the spinning payload.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Beacon 1 - . Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Beacon 1. Decay Date: 1958-10-22 .

    NASA¾with the Army as executive agent¾attempted to launch a 12-foot-diameter inflatable satellite of micro-thin plastic covered with aluminum foil known as BEACON. Launched from AMR by a Juno I¾a modified Redstone, the payload prematurely separated prior to booster burnout.


1961 October 23 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone MRLV.
  • Mercury Freedom 7 presented to the Smithsonian - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Flight: Mercury MR-3. Spacecraft: Mercury. Freedom 7, the Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) spacecraft, was presented by NASA to the National Air Museum of the Smithsonian Institution..

1961 October 23 - .
  • Freedom 7 deposited in Smithsonian. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury.

    The Freedom 7 Mercury capsule in which Alan B. Shepard, Jr., made the first suborbital space flight, was presented to the National Air Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. In his presentation, NASA Administrator Webb said: "To Americans seeking answers, proof that man can survive in the hostile realm of space is not enough. A solid and meaningful foundation for public support and the basis for our Apollo man-in-space effort is that U.S. astronauts are going into space to do useful work in the cause of all their fellow men."


1961 October 23 - . 16:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 608. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). First underwater launching of Navy Polaris A-2, and first firing from submarine, U.S.S. Ethan Allen..

1961 October 23 - . 19:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena B. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Discoverer 33 - . Payload: KH-3 s/n 9026. Mass: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-3. Decay Date: 1961-10-23 . KH-3; Mission failed..
  • SRV 513 - . Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-3.

1962 October 23 - .
  • Gemini ground support equipment for Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Gemini. At the request of NASA, about 300 pieces of Gemini ground support equipment were examined by NAA engineers. It appeared that about 190 items would be usable on the Apollo program..

1962 October 23 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Blandine. Launch Vehicle: Veronique.
  • Airglow Aeronomy /ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi). Diffuse solar radiation mission..

1962 October 23 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike Nike.
  • Firefly III ETHEL Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1962 October 23 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Mud Lake DZ. Launch Pad: Edwards RW04/22. Launch Platform: NB-52 008.
  • X-15A VO Stability test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA, USAF. Spacecraft: X-15A. Apogee: 41 km (25 mi). Maximum Speed - 6056 kph. Maximum Altitude - 41000 m. Air dropped in Mud Lake DZ..

1963 October 23 - . Launch Site: Ellsworth AFB. LV Family: Minuteman.
  • With the turnover of the 68th Strategic Missile Squadron, the second Minuteman wing, the 44th Strategic Missile Wing at Ellsworth AFB, was completed and transferred entirely to SAC. - .

1963 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 October 23 - .
  • Surveyor Block II study related to the Apollo landing aid problem - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft Bus: Surveyor. Spacecraft: Surveyor Block II.

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory proposed a meeting on October 29 between representatives of NASA Headquarters, Bellcomm, MSC, MIT, and JPL to present the requirements and status of projects underway as they related to the landing aid problem. The Surveyor Block II study effort was concentrating on determining needs of obtaining data on the lunar surface and environment for Apollo. Additional Details: here....


1964 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65S3. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
1964 October 23 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Javelin.
  • RAE development Radio astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,100 km (600 mi).

1964 October 23 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D.
  • KH 7-13 - . Payload: KH-7 no. 13 / OPS 4384. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-7. Decay Date: 1964-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 912 . COSPAR: 1964-068A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 140 km (80 mi). Inclination: 95.5000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. KH-7 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • SRV - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: P 11. Spacecraft: SSF. Decay Date: 1965-02-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 914 . COSPAR: 1964-068xx. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 95.4000 deg. Period: 88.20 min.
  • OPS 5063 - . Payload: EHH A4. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-7. Decay Date: 1965-02-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 914 . COSPAR: 1964-068B. Apogee: 344 km (213 mi). Perigee: 311 km (193 mi). Inclination: 95.5000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Radar monitoring..

1965 October 23 - .
1965 October 23 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S112.
  • Essai 1 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1965 October 23 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi).

1965 October 23 - . 16:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1965 October 23 - . 16:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1966 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Palma-2 operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 October 23 - .
  • Soyuz launches delayed. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. The Soyuz launches have been delayed two to three days because of rain. In any case a membrane in an orientation system propellant tank burst during fuelling of spacecraft number 6..

1967 October 23 - . 16:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • DLR K-NA-7 Aeronomy / ionosphere / Fields mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi).

1968 October 23 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 12 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. First powered flight. Premature shutdown. Maximum Speed - 722 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12100 m. Flight Time - 189 sec..

1968 October 23 - .
  • Two failures of Apollo LM propellant tanks fail during testing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 13. Spacecraft: Apollo LM, LM Weight. LeRoy E. Day, Apollo Test Director, NASA Hq., informed Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips of two failures of LM propellant tanks during testing, a problem that might have significant program impact on LMs 6 and 7 and subsequent vehicles. . Additional Details: here....

1968 October 23 - .
  • Soyuz 2/3 State Commission. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Volynov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 3. State Commission meets again and finds all is ready. Word is received that the Central Committee is opposed to Volynov as back-up..

1968 October 23 - . 04:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC10W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Burner 2.
  • DMSP-Block-4A F12 - . Payload: DAPP 6422 (FTV-7) / OPS 4078. Mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DMSP Block 4/5 satellites. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 4A. USAF Sat Cat: 3510 . COSPAR: 1968-092A. Apogee: 828 km (514 mi). Perigee: 783 km (486 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.00 min. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program..

1969 October 23 - .
  • Czech delegation visits Baikonur - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Brezhnev.

    A Czech delegation to Baikonur was shown the Vostok and Proton launch vehicles, Zenit-2, Ye-8, 7K-L1 spacecraft, a Vostok re-entry capsule, and the N1 moon launcher mock-up mounted on the remaining left launch pad. They were the first non-Russians to see evidence of the Russian manned lunar program. This was also Brezhnev's first view of Soviet moon-landing hardware. He proudly told the Czechs that 'this rocket will take us to the limits of the solar system'.


1969 October 23 - .
  • Cosmonauts feted at TsKBEM - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Kubasov, Mishin, Shatalov, Shonin, Volkov, Yeliseyev. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 6, Soyuz 7, Soyuz 8. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    Traditional meeting between the cosmonauts and the engineers and workers at TsKBEM. They are quizzed on the flight failures, followed by dinner and toasts. Kamanin tells Afanasyev that instead of messing about with the N1-L3, they should build 8 to 10 more Soyuz and fly, fly, fly -- it is the only way to develop reliable systems. The Ministry of Defence needs a long-range plan of sustained flights of 5 to 6 spacecraft per year. All 300 present applaud the speech, except Mishin, who is against a new series of Soyuz spacecraft.


1969 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • RVSN Command operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 October 23 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Canopus 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1969 October 23 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Infrared airglow profile Aurora infrared mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1970 October 23 - .
  • Mishin still fighting for an ocean landing for the L3. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. He has recruited some cosmonauts and admirals to fight for the concept..

1970 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 October 23 - . 04:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 374 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1970-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4594 . COSPAR: 1970-089A. Apogee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Perigee: 531 km (329 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 105.10 min. ASAT interceptor. Intercepted Cosmos 374 on second orbit. Blown up on instructions from ground..

1970 October 23 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 23B.
  • OPS 7568 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 29 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1970-11-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 4596 . COSPAR: 1970-090A. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 135 km (83 mi). Inclination: 111.1000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1970 October 23 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 627. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 October 23 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170A.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 October 23 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC19. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • LRL ACS-4C X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi).

1971 October 23 - . 17:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 24B.
  • OPS 7616 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 33 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1971-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 5575 . COSPAR: 1971-092A. Apogee: 369 km (229 mi). Perigee: 135 km (83 mi). Inclination: 110.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • SRV-2 - . Payload: SRV-2 / OPS 7616 DEB. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1971-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 5606 . COSPAR: 1971-092B. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Perigee: 93 km (57 mi). Inclination: 110.9000 deg. Period: 88.73 min.

1972 October 23 - . 11:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6 AC.
  • Soft X-ray / Lunar ultraviolet X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1972 October 23 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Electron analyser Aurora mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1973 October 23 - . 12:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1974 October 23 - .
  • A contract for the development of ground stations and user equipment for the Global Positioning System was awarded to General Dynamics. The value of the ' contract was $29,509,671. - . Spacecraft: Navstar.

1974 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 October 23 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Alfa.
  • Nation: Italy. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1976 October 23 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 64 km (39 mi).

1978 October 23 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1979 October 23 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi).

1979 October 23 - . 21:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 628. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1980 October 23 - .
  • Death of Hans Gruene - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Gruene. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1980 October 23 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 October 23 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi).

1982 October 23 - . 06:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. Launch Complex: Andoya Haugnes. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Hero 3 Ionosphere / active mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: NTNF. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi).

1982 October 23 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi).

1985 October 23 - . 00:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-65 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1999-02-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 16187 . COSPAR: 1985-099A. Apogee: 39,239 km (24,381 mi). Perigee: 1,104 km (685 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Replaced Molniya 1-58. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1985 October 23 - . 17:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Parus - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus.

1986 October 23 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1987 October 23 - . 18:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • MSSTA 0 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1988 October 23 - . LV Family: Buran. Launch Vehicle: Buran launch vehicle.
  • Buran moved to the launch pad - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Buran.

1989 October 23 - .
  • STS-34 - Wakeup Song: Fly Like An Eagle - . Flight: STS-34. "Fly Like An Eagle" Steve Miller Band CAPCOM: Ken Cameron.

1989 October 23 - . 01:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NICARE 1 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi).

1989 October 23 - .
1991 October 23 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 24 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 35L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1998-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21759 . COSPAR: 1991-074A. Apogee: 36,394 km (22,614 mi). Perigee: 36,220 km (22,500 mi). Inclination: 6.5000 deg. Period: 1,462.80 min.

    Stationed at 80 deg E. Maintenance of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television broadcasts. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1991-1998 As of 28 August 2001 located at 158.79 deg E drifting at 6.583 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 172.52W drifting at 6.586W degrees per day.


1992 October 23 - .
  • STS-52 - Wakeup Song: Wake Up Columbia - . Flight: STS-52. "Wake Up Columbia" an original composition by Crow Carroll.

1993 October 23 - .
  • Mir News 195: 4th Spacewalk (EVA) Mir-crew on 22.10.93 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    This EVA started earlier than was expected. The hatch swung open at abt. 1535 UTC. During the first half hour of this EVA the cosmonauts spoke with the Russian premier-minister Chernomyrdin who visited TsUP. Regretfully this EVA ended earlier than planned due to a malfunction of a life system Serebrov's spacesuit. The EVA took place between (plus/min) 1535-1615 UTC and had a duration of only 38 minutes. The crew succeeded in installing on the outer surface of the complex a device for measurements of the micro-meteorite flux and the salvaging of materials which had been exposed to the influence of outer space. Serebrov made some images in the framework of the Panorama experiment, but for the conclusion of that experiment another EVA will be necessary. Our good friend OM Peter observed via Altair that the cosmonauts had left the airlock. After a while the transmission of images switched over to the system Orbita and only the speech could be monitored. Soon we derived from this traffic that the cosmonauts were in the airlock, that they had closed the exit hatch and were equalising the pressures between the airlock (S.Sh.O.) and the instrument- and scientific compartment (P.N.O.). For that purpose they had opened the valve K.V.D. and via the downlink the sound of streaming air could be heard. During the first pass within VHF-range (in orbit 43902, 1932- 1937 UTC) the cosmonauts reported that all was well. The possible date of the 5th EVA also was mentioned. This might be 29.10.93 depending on further analyses of the emerged problems.

    Information: The English service of Radio Moscow slightly paid attention to this EVA, but did not speak about the cause of the premature return on board of the crew. For the first time in the history of spaceflight Radio Moscow spoke about the Russian crew as 'astronauts' instead of 'cosmonauts'.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 October 23 - .
  • STS-58 - Wakeup Song: I Know You're Out There, Somewhere - . Flight: STS-58. "I Know You're Out There, Somewhere" by The Moody Blues.

1994 October 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 726. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1995 October 23 - . 22:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA0A. LV Family: Conestoga. Launch Vehicle: Conestoga 1620. FAILURE: Noise in guidance system led to excessive steering of one of the booster motors and finally depletion of the motor's hydraulic fluid. The vehicle went out of control at T+46 seconds.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Meteor - . Nation: USA. Agency: EER. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

    At T+44.4 seconds the vehicle started a turn to the south and pitched down. The ISDS destruct system commanded the destruct packages at T+46.202 seconds. The ISDS failed to operate on two Castor 4 stage 1 motors but operated on the other four. At T+47.67 sec the ISDS destroyed a non-burning Castor 4B motor. The third stage Castor 4B and fourth stage Star 48 were not destroyed and impacted in the ocean. Cause of the failure was identified as the flight control system attempting to respond to noise being received on a data line, resulting in early depletion of hydraulic control steering fluid on stage 1 motor 6.


1996 October 23 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: TK-20. LV Family: R-39. Launch Vehicle: Rif.
  • Arms control - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1998 October 23 - . 00:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Mayport DZ. Launch Pad: 29.0 N x 78.3 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus H.
  • SCD-2 - . Mass: 110 kg (240 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: McLean. Manufacturer: INPE. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SCD. USAF Sat Cat: 25504 . COSPAR: 1998-060A. Apogee: 760 km (470 mi). Perigee: 736 km (457 mi). Inclination: 25.0000 deg. Period: 99.80 min.

    Brazil's SCD-2 satellite was aboard Orbital Science's L-1011 Stargazer aircraft when it took off from the Cape Canaveral Air Station's Skid Strip (Runway 02/20, 28.2N 80.6W) at 23:05 GMT on Oct 22 and flew to the drop zone near Cape Canaveral (in the Mayport, Florida, Warning Area) at 29.0N 78.3W. The Pegasus ignited 5 seconds after drop. The first stage carried a NASA experiment attached to its right wing, to study hypersonic boundary layer separation. The 115 kg Satelite de Coleta de Dados (Data Collection Satellite) relays data from environmental monitoring stations. Air dropped in Mayport DZ.


2000 October 23 - .
  • STS-92 Mission Status Report #25 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-92.

    After an additional day in space, Space Shuttle Discovery and the seven-member STS-92 crew are scheduled to return to Earth later today, weather conditions permitting. Landing opportunities exist at both the prime landing site at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida and the alternate landing site at Edwards Air Force Base in California. Additional Details: here....


2000 October 23 - .
  • STS-92 - Wakeup Song: Bad Bad Leroy Brown - . Flight: STS-92. "Bad Bad Leroy Brown" by Jim Croce.

2001 October 23 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS 01-40 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Culbertson, Dezhurov, Tyurin. Program: ISS. Flight: Soyuz TM-33 ISS EP-2, STS-105 ISS EO-3. Two Russian cosmonauts and a French researcher arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) this morning, delivering a fresh Soyuz return vehicle for the residents on board to begin eight days of joint operations and research.. Additional Details: here....

2004 October 23 - . 16:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VSB-30.
  • Cajuana test - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: AEB. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi).

    Unguided test launch. During the 45 seconds total burn time of both motors the vehicle was accelerated to a final velocity of 1676 m/s. The payload segment with an approximate weight of 400 kg was carried to an apogee height of almost 240 km, which was reached 252 seconds after lift-off. At T+650 seconds the payload landed 190 km northeast of the launch site in the ocean, only 700 meters from the nominal impact point.


2006 October 23 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-58 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 358. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-8. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 155.38 days. Decay Date: 2007-03-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 29503 . COSPAR: 2006-045A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 321 km (199 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min.

    The Progress docked with the Zvezda module of the ISS at 14:29 GMT on October 26. There were indications that the Kurs rendezvous antenna on the forward docking ring had not retracted correctly, but this proved not to be the case. Hard dock was commanded at 18:06 GMT. Progress M-58 undocked from the Zvezda module on 27 March 2007 at 18:11 GMT and was deorbited at 22:44 GMT.


2006 October 23 - . 23:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 4B.
  • SJ-6-02A SJ-6C - . Mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: SJ-6. USAF Sat Cat: 29505 . COSPAR: 2006-046A. Apogee: 598 km (371 mi). Perigee: 594 km (369 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 96.60 min. Replaced the SJ-6 Group 1 satellites A and B. Official purpose was to measure the space environment, but foreign analysts suspected a SIGINT role..
  • SJ-6-02B SJ-6D - . Mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: CAST2000. USAF Sat Cat: 29506 . COSPAR: 2006-046B. Apogee: 599 km (372 mi). Perigee: 598 km (371 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.

2007 October 23 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2430 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 32268 . COSPAR: 2007-049A. Apogee: 39,175 km (24,342 mi). Perigee: 520 km (320 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 704.50 min. Missile early warning satellite.

2007 October 23 - . 15:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-120 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Melroy, Nespoli, Parazynski, Tani, Wheelock, Wilson, Zamka. Return Crew: Anderson, Clayton, Melroy, Nespoli, Parazynski, Wheelock, Wilson, Zamka. Payload: Discovery F33 / Harmony / ISS-10A. Mass: 123,400 kg (272,000 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Anderson, Clayton, Melroy, Nespoli, Parazynski, Tani, Wheelock, Wilson, Zamka. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: Soyuz TMA-10, Soyuz TMA-11, STS-117 ISS EO-15, STS-120, STS-120 ISS EO-16. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 15.10 days. Decay Date: 2007-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 32272 . COSPAR: 2007-050A. Apogee: 344 km (213 mi). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min.

    Main mission objectives were delivery of the Harmony module to the station, and external work to move the P6 truss to its final location and put the ISS into its full-power configuration for the first time. Discovery docked with the ISS at the Destiny module at 12:40 GMT on 25 October. The cargo of 17,390 kg was as follows:

    • Orbiter Docking System - Bay 1-2 - 1800 kg
    • Spacesuit EMU 3004 - 130 kg
    • Spacesuit EMU 3003 - 130 kg
    • Station Power Distribution Unit SPDU - Bay 3P - 100 kg
    • Fixture for return of S-band Antenna - SASA FSE - Bay 3P - 4S - 100 kg
    • Power/Data Grapple Fixture for Node-2 - PDGF - Bay 5P - 50 kg
    • Main Bus Switching Unit - MBSU - Bay 6S - 238 kg
    • MBSU adapter - Bay 6S - 122 kg
    • Station Power Distribution Unit - SPDU - Bay 6S - 7P - 100 kg
    • Node-2 Harmony module - Bays 8-12 - 14,300 kg
    • OBSS 203 - Sill 450 kg
    • RMS 301 - Sill 410 kg

2012 October 23 - . Launch Site: Semnan. LV Family: Unha. Launch Vehicle: Unha-3. FAILURE: Launch vehicle exploded on pad, causing extensive damage..
  • Fajr - . Nation: Iran. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Payload of the failed launch was a 50 kg satellite built by Iran Electronics Industry, with an imaging sensor and a small thruster..

2012 October 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: UK S30. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • - (143ss) - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2012 October 23 - . 10:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-06M - . Call Sign: Kazbek. Crew: Ford, Kevin, Novitskiy, Tarelkin. Backup Crew: Cassidy, Misurkin, Vinogradov. Payload: ISS-32S. Soyuz TMA s/n 707. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-06M. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 143.68 days. Decay Date: 2013-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 38871 . COSPAR: 2012-058A. Apogee: 422 km (262 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Docked with the Poisk module of the ISS at 12:29 GMT on 25 October. Undocked at 23:43 GMT on 15 March 2013. Retrofire at 02:13 GMT the next day,followed by landing in Kazakhstan at about 03:06 GMT on 16 March..

2014 October 23 - . 13:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Spaceport America. LV Family: SpaceLoft. Launch Vehicle: SpaceLoft XL.
  • SL-9 - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 124 km (77 mi). Microgravity payload..

2014 October 23 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3C/G2.
  • Chang'e-5 RRFV - . Payload: CHANG E 5-T1. Nation: China. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: DFH-3. Spacecraft: Chang'e-5 RRFV. Decay Date: 2014-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 40283 . COSPAR: 2014-065A. Apogee: 404,729 km (251,486 mi). Perigee: -1,281 km (-1,281 mi). Inclination: 30.5000 deg. Reentry vehicle portion of Chang'e-5. The craft made an 8-day flight to loop around the Moon and return to Earth. The reentry vehicle separated from the main bus at 21:53 GMT and landed north of Hohhot at 22:42 GMT..
  • Chang'e-5 Flight Test Vehicle - . Payload: RRFV. Nation: China. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: Chang'e. Spacecraft: Chang'e-5. COSPAR: 2014-065.

    Chang'e-5 Flight Test Vehicle, also called the Reentry Return Flight Test Mission. The spacecraft was launched into a 209 km x 413,000 km lunar transfer orbit. The vehicle was a precursor to the planned Chang'e-5 mission and consisted of a satellite bus similar to the Chang'e-2 lunar orbiter, topped with a reentry vehicle, a subscale version of the Shenzhou landing module. The craft made an 8-day flight to loop around the Moon and return to Earth. It passed 11,300 km from the Moon on October 27 and returned to Earth on October 31. The descent capsule separated from the main vehicle at 21:53 GMT and landed north of Hohhot at 22:42 GMT. The service module made a burn at 21:56 GMT to avoid reentry and swung past the Earth to head out towards the Earth-Moon L2 point. Stationed at L2 Lagrangian point.

  • 4M - . Payload: CZ-3C R/B. Nation: Germany. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: 4M. Decay Date: 2015-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 40284 . COSPAR: 2014-065B. Apogee: 381,280 km (236,910 mi). Perigee: 86,169 km (53,542 mi). Inclination: 61.7000 deg. LuxSpace Manfred Memorial Moon Mission, an amateur radio payload attached to the third stage of the CZ-3C that launched the Chang'e-5 flight test vehicle. Following lunar flyby on October 27, the stage was in a 141,090 km x 416,326 km x 54.2 deg orbit..


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