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1981 Chronology

1981 - . Launch Vehicle: Babylon Gun.
  • Gerard Bull was first contracted by the Iraqi government - . Nation: Iraq.

1981 January - .
  • FLTSATCOM constellation declared operational - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: FLTSATCOM. The FLTSATCOM system provided world-wide, high-priority UHF communications between naval aircraft, ships, submarines, and ground stations and between the Strategic Air Command and the national command authority network..

1981 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-R.
  • Vertikal-10 Ionosphere/Solar mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Vehicle: UR-100N.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Gladkaya/Krasnoyarsk. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Gladkaya/Krasnoyarsk. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL81-05 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL81-11 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL81-01 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL81-02 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL81-04 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL81-06 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL81-07 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL81-08 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL81-10 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL81-09 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL81-03 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 January 1 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1981 January 2 - . 15:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1981 January 4 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1981 January 5 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1981 January 6 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1237 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 12130 . COSPAR: 1981-001A. Apogee: 382 km (237 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 January 7 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1981 January 8 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1981 January 9 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-14 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 25. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1999-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 12133 . COSPAR: 1981-002A. Apogee: 39,863 km (24,769 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 717.70 min.

    Replaced Molniya 3-10. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).


1981 January 10 - . 18:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Siple. Launch Complex: Siple RAG. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1981 January 11 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1981 January 12 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1981 January 13 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1981 January 14 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: JCR. Launch Vehicle: TT-500A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1981 January 15 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1981 January 16 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1238 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. USAF Sat Cat: 12138 . COSPAR: 1981-003A. Apogee: 1,706 km (1,060 mi). Perigee: 395 km (245 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 106.20 min. Radar calibration mission..

1981 January 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1239 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-01-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 12140 . COSPAR: 1981-004A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy..

1981 January 17 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle MPTA-098 625-second firing. - . Nation: USA. This firing used the three flight engines, which had been removed from Columbia..

1981 January 18 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 January 19 - . 03:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • Upper atmosphere Composition Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi).

1981 January 20 - . 04:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • NRL far ultraviolet Spectrograph Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1981 January 20 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1240 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 975. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 28.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-02-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 12143 . COSPAR: 1981-005A. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 January 21 - . 00:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • SPAR 9 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1981 January 21 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1241 - . Payload: DS-P1-M. Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-M. USAF Sat Cat: 12149 . COSPAR: 1981-006A. Apogee: 995 km (618 mi). Perigee: 989 km (614 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. ASAT target for Cosmos 1243 and Cosmos 1258 interceptors..

1981 January 21 - . 21:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1981 January 22 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1981 January 23 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Payload shroud failed to separate.. Failed Stage: S.
  • Geo-IK no. 1 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 1. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. Decay Date: 1981-01-23 .

1981 January 24 - . 14:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 12 - . Payload: Progress s/n 113. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 55.11 days. Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-20 16:58:58 . Decay Date: 1981-03-20 16:58:58 . USAF Sat Cat: 12152 . COSPAR: 1981-007A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 26 Jan 1981 15:56:00 GMT. Undocked on 19 Mar 1981 18:14:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Mar 1981 16:59:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.02 days. Total docked time 52.10 days.


1981 January 25 - . 20:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1981 January 26 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVB.
  • Substorm Auroral mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 584 km (362 mi).

1981 January 27 - . 14:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1242 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 28. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2014-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 12154 . COSPAR: 1981-008A. Apogee: 584 km (362 mi). Perigee: 568 km (352 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 96.20 min.

1981 January 28 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1981 January 29 - . 04:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • UM Airglow payload Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi).

1981 January 29 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. Launch Vehicle: S-520.
  • TPE-2 Ionosphere / tether mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 323 km (200 mi).

1981 January 30 - . 16:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-49 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 12156 . COSPAR: 1981-009A. Apogee: 38,759 km (24,083 mi). Perigee: 1,571 km (976 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 717.30 min. Replaced Molniya 1-41. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1981 February 1 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 2 - . 02:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1243 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1981-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 12160 . COSPAR: 1981-010A. Apogee: 1,013 km (629 mi). Perigee: 294 km (182 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 97.80 min. ASAT interceptor. Approached within 50 m of target, but explosive charge did not go off as planned. Deorbited to destructive reentry in the atmosphere..

1981 February 3 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1981 February 4 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 4 - . 01:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • IRBS (BMP) ABM infrared sensor limb characterization technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 387 km (240 mi).

1981 February 5 - . Launch Vehicle: Buran.
  • Decree for Gerkules nuclear-electric interorbital tug - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: TMK. Spacecraft: Mars 1986.

    NPO Energia developed for the Ministry of Defence the interorbital tug Gerkules with 550 kW maximum output and continuous operation in the 50-150 kW range for 3 to 5 years. In 1986 an interorbital tug was studied to solve the specific application of transporting heavy satellites of 100 tonnes to geostationary orbit, launched by Energia.


1981 February 5 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant.
  • FWIF IV Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1981 February 6 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Intercosmos 21 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-R-P-IK. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1982-06-02 . Decay Date: 1982-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 12162 . COSPAR: 1981-011A. Apogee: 506 km (314 mi). Perigee: 469 km (291 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 94.40 min.

    Oceanographic, terrestrial studies. Development of methods for comprehensive study of the oceans and the surface of the earth, and testing of the experimental system of automatic gathering of scientific information from sea and land stations. Launched under the INTERCOSMOS programme by the USSR together with the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic and the Socialist Republic of Romania.


1981 February 7 - . 20:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 2.
  • Atomic oxygen Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1981 February 7 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • OXYGEN Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1981 February 9 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT79GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 February 9 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT80GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 February 10 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 February 10 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1981 February 11 - .
  • Production of the Production of four 37KS modules for Mir approved - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Mir. Spacecraft: 37KS.

    Production of the four 37KS modules was approved following review of the draft projects. The four modules would be placed into orbit by a Proton launch vehicle. An FGO tug section, connected to the 37KS module by a light lattice structure, would rendezvous with the Mir station and dock the module to one of the radial ports of the Mir station. It would then separate and deorbit itself into the earth's atmosphere. The plan was that production of all of the modules would be completed in 1984. They would be assembled with the Mir base block in one year and have an operational lifetime of five years.


1981 February 11 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 February 11 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: N-2.
  • Kiku 3 - . Payload: ETS 4. Mass: 640 kg (1,410 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ETS. USAF Sat Cat: 12295 . COSPAR: 1981-012A. Apogee: 16,237 km (10,089 mi). Perigee: 305 km (189 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 294.10 min.

    Kiku 3 (ETS-IV). Launching organization NASDA. Acquisition of the technology to handle a large-scale heavy satellite and test of the functions of on-board equipment and devices, as well as confirmation of the launching capacity of the N-II launch vehicle. Also tested ion thruster.


1981 February 12 - . 18:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1244 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 12297 . COSPAR: 1981-013A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 960 km (590 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Military navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 1104..

1981 February 13 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1245 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-02-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 12299 . COSPAR: 1981-014A. Apogee: 374 km (232 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 February 13 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi).

1981 February 15 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 February 16 - .
  • Death of Ivan Dmitryevich Serbin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Serbin. Russian government official. Chief of Defence lndustries Department 1958-1981..

1981 February 17 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 February 18 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES IRS-1 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 February 18 - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. Launch Vehicle: INTA-300.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Spain. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). First completely successful launch..

1981 February 18 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 18 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1246 - . Payload: Yantar-1KFT no. 1. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Duration: 23.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-03-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 12301 . COSPAR: 1981-015A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Military topographic / cartographic satellite..

1981 February 19 - . 04:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 19 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 19 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 19 - . 06:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 19 - . 07:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 19 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1247 - . Payload: Oko #19. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 12303 . COSPAR: 1981-016A. Apogee: 35,529 km (22,076 mi). Perigee: 4,493 km (2,791 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 711.10 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 77 degree longitude of ascending node. First space launch from LC16/2, which had been cannabalised in the 1960's to reconstruct LC31 at Baikonur after the on-pad explosion of the second Soyuz in December 1966..

1981 February 20 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle flight readiness firing - . Nation: USA. The 20 second test on the pad at Cape Canaveral finally cleared the engines for the first shuttle launch..

1981 February 20 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 20 - . 05:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 20 - . 06:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 20 - . 07:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT81GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 February 21 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 February 21 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S.
  • SS-07 Hinotori - . Payload: Astro A. Mass: 185 kg (407 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Astro. Decay Date: 1991-07-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 12307 . COSPAR: 1981-017A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 31.3000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Hinotori (ASTRO-A). Launching organisation: Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. Investigation of solar flare by X-ray telescope and spectrograph. .

1981 February 21 - . 23:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • Comstar 4 - . Payload: Comstar 1D. Mass: 1,520 kg (3,350 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Comsat. Program: Comstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 312 / HS 351 / HS 353. Spacecraft: Intelsat 4A. USAF Sat Cat: 12309 . COSPAR: 1981-018A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 7.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 142 deg W in 1981; 127 deg W in 1981-1985; 76 deg W in 1985-on. As of 31 August 2001 located at 25.65 deg W drifting at 1.067 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 78.95E drifting at 0.039W degrees per day.


1981 February 22 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: VOLNA. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1981 February 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1981 February 24 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1981 February 25 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant Hydac.
  • HAVE SLED test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF BMO. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1981 February 26 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1981 February 27 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1981 February 28 - . 19:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 24B.
  • OPS 1166 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 51 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1981-06-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 12315 . COSPAR: 1981-019A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 138 km (85 mi). Inclination: 96.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. KH-8 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1981 March 1 - .
  • Death of James A Chamberlin - . Nation: Canada. Related Persons: Chamberlin. Canadian-American engineer. Lead at Avro for fighters, 1945-1959. Lead positions at NASA, 1959-1970. Conceived modular design for Gemini and pushed its use for lunar mission. At McDonnell-Douglas 1970-1981; headed their shuttle bid..

1981 March 1 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 March 2 - . 00:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 March 3 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1981 March 4 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1981 March 5 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 March 5 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 March 5 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1248 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 940. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-04-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 12317 . COSPAR: 1981-020A. Apogee: 531 km (329 mi). Perigee: 112 km (69 mi). Inclination: 68.1000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 March 5 - . 16:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant Hydac.
  • HAVE SLED test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF BMO. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1981 March 5 - . 18:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1249 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1981-07-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 12552 . COSPAR: 1981-021D. Apogee: 976 km (606 mi). Perigee: 904 km (561 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 103.90 min. Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered..

1981 March 6 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 March 6 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1250 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 209. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12320 . COSPAR: 1981-022A. Apogee: 1,471 km (914 mi). Perigee: 1,390 km (860 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.50 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1256 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 215. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12326 . COSPAR: 1981-022G. Apogee: 1,476 km (917 mi). Perigee: 1,457 km (905 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.30 min.
  • Cosmos 1255 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 214. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12325 . COSPAR: 1981-022F. Apogee: 1,472 km (914 mi). Perigee: 1,445 km (897 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1251 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 210. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12321 . COSPAR: 1981-022B. Apogee: 1,473 km (915 mi). Perigee: 1,403 km (871 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min.
  • Cosmos 1253 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 212. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12323 . COSPAR: 1981-022D. Apogee: 1,497 km (930 mi). Perigee: 1,468 km (912 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.60 min.
  • Cosmos 1252 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 211. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12322 . COSPAR: 1981-022C. Apogee: 1,472 km (914 mi). Perigee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.80 min.
  • Cosmos 1254 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 213. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12324 . COSPAR: 1981-022E. Apogee: 1,472 km (914 mi). Perigee: 1,431 km (889 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.90 min.
  • Cosmos 1257 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 216. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12327 . COSPAR: 1981-022H. Apogee: 1,479 km (919 mi). Perigee: 1,469 km (912 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.40 min.

1981 March 7 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Auroral E3 Aeronomy / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1981 March 7 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • AURORAL E1 Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 156 km (96 mi).

1981 March 7 - . 08:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • AURORAL E2 Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1981 March 7 - . 08:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Paiute Tomahawk.
  • AURORAL E4 Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1981 March 8 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1981 March 9 - . 16:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1981 March 10 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1981 March 11 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1981 March 12 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant Hydac.
  • HAVE SLED test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF BMO. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1981 March 12 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz T-4 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon ). Crew: Kovalyonok, Savinykh. Backup Crew: Andreyev, Zudov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 10L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Andreyev, Kovalyonok, Savinykh, Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 74.73 days. Decay Date: 1981-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 12334 . COSPAR: 1981-023A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station cosmonauts V V Kovalenok and V P Savinykh to carry out repairs and preventive maintenance and scientific and technical investigations and experiments..

1981 March 13 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1981 March 14 - . 16:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1258 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1981-03-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12337 . COSPAR: 1981-024A. Apogee: 1,022 km (635 mi). Perigee: 299 km (185 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 97.90 min. ASAT interceptor. Failed to intercept Cosmos 1241 target. Deorbited to destructive reentry in the atmosphere..

1981 March 15 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES TDV-4 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 March 16 - . 19:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • IMEWS 11 - . Payload: DSP MOS/PIM s/n 10 / OPS 7350. Mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. Completed Operations Date: 1992-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12339 . COSPAR: 1981-025A. Apogee: 35,527 km (22,075 mi). Perigee: 35,463 km (22,035 mi). Inclination: 2.0000 deg. Period: 1,421.20 min.

    Multi-Orbit Satellite / Performance Improvement ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for nearly eleven years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 69 deg W in 1981-1982; 135 deg W in 1982-1984; 75 deg E in 1984-1985. As of 2003 Mar 6 located at 40.27E drifting at 0.598E degrees per day.


1981 March 17 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1259 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 12341 . COSPAR: 1981-026A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 70.3000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 March 18 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 8 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 18L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1981-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 12351 . COSPAR: 1981-027A. Apogee: 36,115 km (22,440 mi). Perigee: 35,411 km (22,003 mi). Inclination: 10.8000 deg. Period: 1,434.90 min.

    Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. As of 3 September 2001 located at 8.37 deg E drifting at 0.322 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 69.95E drifting at 0.520E degrees per day.


1981 March 19 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1981 March 20 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1260 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1982-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 12364 . COSPAR: 1981-028A. Apogee: 444 km (275 mi). Perigee: 425 km (264 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Ocean monitoring..

1981 March 22 - . 14:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 39 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov, Gurragcha. Backup Crew: Ganzorig, Lyakhov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 55. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov, Ganzorig, Gurragcha, Lyakhov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 39, Soyuz T-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.86 days. Decay Date: 1981-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 12366 . COSPAR: 1981-029A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station the eighth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising V A Dzhanibekov (USSR) and Z. Gurragchi (Mongolian People's Republic) to conduct scientific investigations and experiments.


1981 March 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: PRILIV. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1981 March 24 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Extreme ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi).

1981 March 24 - . 03:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-15 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 24. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1992-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 12368 . COSPAR: 1981-030A. Apogee: 40,052 km (24,887 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 715.70 min.

    Replace Molniya 3-11. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).


1981 March 25 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 March 26 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1981 March 27 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 March 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U. FAILURE: Failure of launch vehicle.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Yantar-2K s/n 979 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 979. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Yantar Area survey photo reconnaissance spacecraft failed to achieve orbit..

1981 March 28 - . 01:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVB.
  • FALCONS Ionosphere / plasma / fields mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1981 March 28 - . 01:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • FALCONS Ionosphere / plasma / fields mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi).

1981 March 29 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1981 March 30 - . 05:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • LADY LOU Ba Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1981 March 30 - .
1981 March 31 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1261 - . Payload: Oko #20. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 12376 . COSPAR: 1981-031A. Apogee: 35,583 km (22,110 mi). Perigee: 4,742 km (2,946 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 717.20 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 6 - 115 degree longitude of ascending node..

1981 April 1 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT75GM-2 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kartaly. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 April 1 - . 09:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 April 1 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 641. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • DASO-7? demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 April 2 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1981 April 3 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1981 April 3 - . Launch Site: Tatishchevo. Launch Vehicle: UR-100N.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 April 3 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • KLONDIKE KATE Barium release Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1981 April 4 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES Mk500-PAS-1 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 April 5 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: PRILIV. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1981 April 6 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1981 April 7 - . 10:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1262 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-04-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 12385 . COSPAR: 1981-032A. Apogee: 372 km (231 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1981 April 8 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1981 April 9 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1263 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. USAF Sat Cat: 12388 . COSPAR: 1981-033A. Apogee: 1,684 km (1,046 mi). Perigee: 387 km (240 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 105.90 min. Radar calibration mission..

1981 April 10 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1981 April 12 - . Launch Site: Tatishchevo. Launch Vehicle: UR-100N.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 April 12 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-1 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Crippen, Young. Payload: Columbia F01 / DFI. Mass: 4,909 kg (10,822 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen, Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-1. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 2.26 days. Decay Date: 1981-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12399 . COSPAR: 1981-034A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 240 km (140 mi). Inclination: 40.3000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. First flight of Space Transportation System (aka Space Shuttle).. Payloads: Development Flight Instrumentation and Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package..
  • DFI - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: DFI. Decay Date: 1981-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12399 . COSPAR: 1981-034xx. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 260 km (160 mi). Inclination: 40.3000 deg. Period: 89.80 min.

1981 April 13 - .
  • STS-1 - Wakeup Song: Blast-Off Columbia - . Flight: STS-1. "Blast-Off Columbia" Roy McCall.

1981 April 13 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1981 April 14 - .
  • STS-1 - Wakeup Song: Reveille - . Flight: STS-1. "Reveille" ; preceded by comic tape with voices of Houston DJs Hudson and Harrigan kidding Young and Crippen..

1981 April 14 - . 20:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 95 km (59 mi).

1981 April 14 - .
1981 April 15 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1264 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 12400 . COSPAR: 1981-035A. Apogee: 382 km (237 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 April 16 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1265 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 12402 . COSPAR: 1981-036A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1981 April 17 - . 20:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1981 April 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC172. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100U 15A16.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 April 20 - . 20:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 95 km (59 mi).

1981 April 21 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1266 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1981-05-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 12429 . COSPAR: 1981-037B. Apogee: 941 km (584 mi). Perigee: 911 km (566 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 103.60 min. Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered..

1981 April 22 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1981 April 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1981 April 24 - . 21:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34B.
  • Jumpseat 6 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Jumpseat. USAF Sat Cat: 12418 . COSPAR: 1981-038A. Apogee: 708 km (439 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 62.7000 deg. Period: 93.00 min. SDS 4 not deployed..

1981 April 25 - . 02:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmos 1267 - . Payload: TKS s/n 16301. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 459.91 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 12419 . COSPAR: 1981-039A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    TKS space station ferry. Flown unmanned to the Salyut 6 space station after the Almaz military station program was cancelled. Capsule recovered 24 May 1981. Docked with Salyut 6 on June 19 at 10:52 AM MT after 57 days autonomous flight. Deorbited and destroyed with Salyut July 29, 1982. Additional Details: here....


1981 April 26 - . 21:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1981 April 27 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • JHU Aries-UVT Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi).

1981 April 28 - . Launch Site: Kartaly. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 April 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1268 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 12423 . COSPAR: 1981-040A. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1981 April 29 - . Launch Site: Kartaly. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 April 29 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 April 30 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 3B Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi).

1981 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 May 2 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 May 3 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 May 4 - . 07:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Soft XRB 2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi).

1981 May 5 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1981 May 6 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi).

1981 May 7 - . 13:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1269 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 12442 . COSPAR: 1981-041A. Apogee: 798 km (495 mi). Perigee: 781 km (485 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 100.70 min.

1981 May 8 - . 05:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 4 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi).

1981 May 9 - . 18:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 May 11 - . 15:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1981 May 12 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1981 May 13 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 May 14 - . 17:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 40 - . Call Sign: Dnepr (Dnieper ). Crew: Popov, Prunariu. Backup Crew: Dediu, Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 56. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dediu, Popov, Prunariu, Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 40, Soyuz T-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.86 days. Decay Date: 1981-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 12454 . COSPAR: 1981-042A. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station the ninth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising L I Popov (USSR), and D. Prunariu (Romania), to conduct scientific research and experiments..

1981 May 14 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-07 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 7. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 12456 . COSPAR: 1981-043A. Apogee: 888 km (551 mi). Perigee: 835 km (518 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Gathering meteorological information and data on penetrating radiation fluxes in circumterrestrial space..

1981 May 15 - . 06:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout G-1.
  • Nova 1 - . Mass: 170 kg (370 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: TIP. USAF Sat Cat: 12458 . COSPAR: 1981-044A. Apogee: 1,185 km (736 mi). Perigee: 1,165 km (723 mi). Inclination: 90.2000 deg. Period: 108.90 min. Improved Transit..

1981 May 17 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1981 May 18 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1270 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 980. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 12461 . COSPAR: 1981-045A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 May 19 - . 03:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1271 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 29. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2013-05-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 12464 . COSPAR: 1981-046A. Apogee: 582 km (361 mi). Perigee: 565 km (351 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 96.20 min. Replaced Cosmos 1077..

1981 May 20 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1981 May 21 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1272 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-06-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 12466 . COSPAR: 1981-047A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 May 22 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1273 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 17. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-06-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 12469 . COSPAR: 1981-048A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1981 May 22 - . 22:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3914.
  • GOES 5 - . Payload: GOES E. Mass: 836 kg (1,843 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: GOES. Completed Operations Date: 1990-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12472 . COSPAR: 1981-049A. Apogee: 35,810 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 6.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg W in 1981; 75 deg W in 1981-1987; 106 deg W in 1987-1988; 65 deg W in 1988-1989 As of 31 August 2001 located at 107.28 deg W drifting at 0.248 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 110.88W drifting at 0.246W degrees per day.


1981 May 22 - .
1981 May 23 - . 22:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • Intelsat 5 F-1 - . Payload: Intelsat 501. Mass: 1,928 kg (4,250 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Intelsat 5. Completed Operations Date: 1997-02-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 12474 . COSPAR: 1981-050A. Apogee: 36,224 km (22,508 mi). Perigee: 36,151 km (22,463 mi). Inclination: 10.1000 deg. Period: 1,456.60 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1981; 60 deg E in 1982-1984; 57 deg E in 1984-1986; 174 deg E in 1986-1988; 177 deg E in 1988-1990; 177 deg W in 1990-1992; 91 deg E in 1993-1996; 72 deg E in 1996-1997 As of 4 September 2001 located at 169.69 deg W drifting at 5.095 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 13.28E drifting at 5.096W degrees per day.


1981 May 24 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1981 May 25 - . 15:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1981 May 26 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 77 km (47 mi).

1981 May 26 - .
1981 May 27 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 May 27 - . 04:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • JHU FOT 4 (Io) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1981 May 28 - . 00:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1981 May 29 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 May 29 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1981 May 30 - . 00:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1981 May 31 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLV. LV Family: SLV. Launch Vehicle: SLV-3. FAILURE: Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Rohini 2 - . Payload: Rohini RS-D-1. Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Rohini 2. Decay Date: 1981-05-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 12491 . COSPAR: 1981-051A. Apogee: 374 km (232 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 46.2000 deg. Period: 90.06 min. Orbit too low..

1981 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 June 2 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1981 June 3 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 June 3 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1274 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 942. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 12495 . COSPAR: 1981-052A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 144 km (89 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 June 4 - . 15:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1275 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. Decay Date: 1981-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 12504 . COSPAR: 1981-053A. Apogee: 1,005 km (624 mi). Perigee: 954 km (592 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 1141..

1981 June 5 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1981 June 7 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: OTRAG.
  • Otrag Flight 5 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. High acceleration test, 20 % propellant loading.

1981 June 8 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1981 June 9 - . 03:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-16 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 30. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1998-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 12512 . COSPAR: 1981-054A. Apogee: 40,027 km (24,871 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 63.2000 deg. Period: 715.50 min.

    Replaced Molniya 3-14. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation.


1981 June 10 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 June 11 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 June 12 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein RN. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: DOT.
  • DOT 4 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi).

1981 June 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT82GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 June 13 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1981 June 14 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1981 June 15 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 June 16 - . Launch Site: Kostroma. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 June 16 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1276 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 18. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 12517 . COSPAR: 1981-055A. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 82.4000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1981 June 17 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 June 17 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1277 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12520 . COSPAR: 1981-056A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 June 18 - . 15:59 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi).

1981 June 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 644. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-43? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 June 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 644. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-43? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 June 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 644. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-43? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 June 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 644. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-43? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 June 19 - . 12:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1.
  • Meteosat 2 - . Mass: 697 kg (1,536 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteosat. Completed Operations Date: 1991-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 12544 . COSPAR: 1981-057A. Apogee: 36,329 km (22,573 mi). Perigee: 36,124 km (22,446 mi). Inclination: 11.1000 deg. Period: 1,458.60 min.

    Meteosat 2 is a geostationary meteorological satellite, operating within the world wide network of the World Weather Watch of WMO. Its main missions are: Imaging in the visible, IR and water vapour region of the spectrum; data reception from so-called dat a collection platforms (DCPs); data distribution to meteorological services and other interested parties (research institutes etc). Launch time 1233:03 UT. Geostationary position 0 deg E. Designator ESA/81/03. As of 3 September 2001 located at 58.52 deg W drifting at 5.577 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 125.67W drifting at 5.583W degrees per day.

  • Apple - . Mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 1. Completed Operations Date: 1983-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 12545 . COSPAR: 1981-057B. Apogee: 35,945 km (22,335 mi). Perigee: 35,752 km (22,215 mi). Inclination: 10.0000 deg. Period: 1,439.30 min.

    Experimental communications satellite. Geosynchronous altitude, longitude 10 deg East. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 102 deg E in 1981-1982 As of 31 August 2001 located at 42.73 deg W drifting at 0.834 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 39.31E drifting at 0.875W degrees per day.

  • CAT 3 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CAT. USAF Sat Cat: 12546 . COSPAR: 1981-057C. Apogee: 26,528 km (16,483 mi). Perigee: 261 km (162 mi). Inclination: 10.7000 deg. Period: 461.20 min.

    Launch vehicle test payload. Technological capsule. ESA registration ESA/81/02. Launch time 1233:03 UT. The technological capsule, equipped with batteries for a lifetime of about six orbital revolutions, transmits to earth technological data about test flight L-03 of ARIANE. After di scharge of the battery the capsule will stop its transmissions and remain in orbit on inactive status. Frequency 136-138 MHz (transmission until 65h after launch only). Projected time of reentry 1986.


1981 June 19 - . 19:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1278 - . Payload: Oko #21. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2000-09-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 12547 . COSPAR: 1981-058A. Apogee: 37,962 km (23,588 mi). Perigee: 2,452 km (1,523 mi). Inclination: 67.0000 deg. Period: 719.00 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 3 - 357 degree longitude of ascending node..

1981 June 21 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1981 June 22 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1981 June 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • Final launch of an Atlas F booster from Vandenberg - . Nation: USA. Final launch of an Atlas F booster from Vandenberg AFB (first launch on 1 August 1962)..

1981 June 23 - . 10:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F.
  • NOAA 7 - . Payload: NOAA C. Mass: 1,405 kg (3,097 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 12553 . COSPAR: 1981-059A. Apogee: 847 km (526 mi). Perigee: 828 km (514 mi). Inclination: 98.9000 deg. Period: 101.70 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1981 June 24 - . 17:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-50 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1991-12-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12556 . COSPAR: 1981-060A. Apogee: 39,708 km (24,673 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 708.60 min.

    Replaced Molniya 1-42. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


1981 June 25 - . 23:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 7 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 21L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1982-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12564 . COSPAR: 1981-061A. Apogee: 35,819 km (22,256 mi). Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 10.5000 deg. Period: 1,437.00 min.

    Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1981-1982 As of 1 September 2001 located at 78.87 deg E drifting at 0.201 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 66.59E drifting at 0.197W degrees per day.


1981 June 26 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT83GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 June 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1981 June 29 - . 13:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 48 km (29 mi).

1981 June 30 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1981 July 1 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1279 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-07-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 12571 . COSPAR: 1981-062A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1981 July 2 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1280 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-17F41. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-07-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 12577 . COSPAR: 1981-063A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.

    High resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.


1981 July 3 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 July 4 - .
  • Death of Viktor Pavlovich Morozov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Morozov. Russian officer. Chaired the Scientific-Technical Committee of the Strategic Missile Fortes 1962-1967..

1981 July 6 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 July 7 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1281 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 12583 . COSPAR: 1981-064A. Apogee: 389 km (241 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 July 8 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 77 km (47 mi).

1981 July 9 - . Launch Site: Kostroma. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 July 9 - . 12:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 July 10 - . 05:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-31 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. USAF Sat Cat: 12585 . COSPAR: 1981-065A. Apogee: 612 km (380 mi). Perigee: 574 km (356 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 96.50 min.

    Also performed earth resources tasks. Acquisition of information required for continued investigation of the natural resources of the earth; development of remote sensing methods for measuring the parameters of the atmosphere and the earth's surface beneath the satellite. Carried scientific i nstruments developed in the People's Republic of Bulgaria, as well as Soviet equipment. Objects 1595 and 1596 launched by a single rocket.

  • Iskra - . Payload: RK-01. Mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft: Iskra. Decay Date: 1990-04-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 19236 . COSPAR: 1981-065D. Apogee: 645 km (400 mi). Perigee: 618 km (384 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 97.34 min. Conduct of scientific experiments to study diffusion and heat processes in weightlessness..

1981 July 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 654. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-44? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 July 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 654. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-44? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 July 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 654. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-44? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 July 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 654. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-44? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 July 13 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1981 July 14 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1981 July 15 - . Launch Site: Kostroma. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 July 15 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1282 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 951. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-08-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12588 . COSPAR: 1981-066A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 July 16 - . 18:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1981 July 17 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1283 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-07-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 12598 . COSPAR: 1981-067A. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 82.4000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Medium resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1981 July 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 July 21 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1981 July 22 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1981 July 23 - . Launch Site: Kostroma. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 July 23 - . 14:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 July 24 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1981 July 25 - . 00:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1981 July 26 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1981 July 27 - . 14:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 49 km (30 mi).

1981 July 28 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1981 July 29 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1284 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-08-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 12614 . COSPAR: 1981-068A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Medium resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1981 July 30 - . 21:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 9 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 19L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1986-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12618 . COSPAR: 1981-069A. Apogee: 35,828 km (22,262 mi). Perigee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Inclination: 13.8000 deg. Period: 1,437.20 min.

    Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1981-1986 As of 30 August 2001 located at 112.14 deg E drifting at 0.090 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 76.83E drifting at 0.307W degrees per day.


1981 July 31 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • ZIP II (BMP) Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi).

1981 August 1 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: JCR. Launch Vehicle: TT-500A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1981 August 3 - . 09:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3913. FAILURE: Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Dynamics Explorer 1 - . Payload: DE A. Mass: 403 kg (888 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Dynamics Explorer. USAF Sat Cat: 12624 . COSPAR: 1981-070A. Apogee: 23,232 km (14,435 mi). Perigee: 528 km (328 mi). Inclination: 88.6000 deg. Period: 409.20 min. Dynamics Explorer 1..
  • Dynamics Explorer 2 - . Payload: DE B. Mass: 403 kg (888 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Dynamics Explorer. Decay Date: 1983-02-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 12625 . COSPAR: 1981-070B. Apogee: 1,002 km (622 mi). Perigee: 304 km (188 mi). Inclination: 90.0000 deg. Period: 97.80 min. Dynamics Explorer 2..

1981 August 4 - . 00:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1285 - . Payload: Oko #22. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 12627 . COSPAR: 1981-071A. Apogee: 36,086 km (22,422 mi). Perigee: 4,721 km (2,933 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 727.00 min. Replaced Cosmos 1261. Covered Oko constellation plane 6 - 116 degree longitude of ascending node..

1981 August 4 - . 08:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1286 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1982-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 12631 . COSPAR: 1981-072A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 430 km (260 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Ocean monitoring..

1981 August 5 - . Launch Site: Matagorda Island. Launch Vehicle: Percheron. FAILURE: Exploded on launch pad due to liquid oxygen tank overpressurization.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Percheron Research and Development Flight - . Nation: USA. Decay Date: 1981-08-05 . COSPAR: F810805A.

    Failure of a liquid oxygen valve led to the oxidiser tank over-pressurising, collapse of the liquid oxygen to kerosene tank bulkhead; intermixing of the propellants, and finally an on-pad explosion without lift-off. The vehicle was funded by Space Services, Inc of Houston, Texas and was built by GCH, Inc (Gary C. Hudson). The booster featured a modular design using liquid oxygen-kerosene stages 18 m long and 1.2 m in diameter, with an engine producing 27,300 kgf of thrust.


1981 August 6 - . 08:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur. FAILURE: Failure of the fiberglass fairing during ascent.. Failed Stage: S.
  • Fltsatcom 5 - . Mass: 1,884 kg (4,153 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Fltsatcom. Completed Operations Date: 1986-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 12635 . COSPAR: 1981-073A. Apogee: 36,300 km (22,500 mi). Perigee: 36,221 km (22,506 mi). Inclination: 8.9000 deg. Period: 1,460.40 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit. The Atlas G Centaur delivered a badly damaged but operating FLTSATCOM spacecraft to its correct orbit. Investigation showed that the most likely cause was failure of the fiberglass fairing during ascent. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg W in 1981; 90-114 deg W in 1982; 44 deg W in 1982-1986 As of 5 September 2001 located at 140.32 deg W drifting at 6.003 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 31.85E drifting at 6.002W degrees per day.


1981 August 6 - . 11:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1287 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 217. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12636 . COSPAR: 1981-074A. Apogee: 1,513 km (940 mi). Perigee: 1,465 km (910 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.70 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1288 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 218. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12637 . COSPAR: 1981-074B. Apogee: 1,492 km (927 mi). Perigee: 1,465 km (910 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.50 min.
  • Cosmos 1294 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 224. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12643 . COSPAR: 1981-074H. Apogee: 1,465 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,392 km (864 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.40 min.
  • Cosmos 1293 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 223. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12642 . COSPAR: 1981-074G. Apogee: 1,465 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,409 km (875 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min.
  • Cosmos 1292 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 222. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12641 . COSPAR: 1981-074F. Apogee: 1,477 km (917 mi). Perigee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.30 min.
  • Cosmos 1291 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 221. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12640 . COSPAR: 1981-074E. Apogee: 1,465 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,458 km (905 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1289 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 219. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12638 . COSPAR: 1981-074C. Apogee: 1,465 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,426 km (886 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.80 min.
  • Cosmos 1290 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 220. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12639 . COSPAR: 1981-074D. Apogee: 1,465 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,442 km (896 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.

1981 August 7 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Intercosmos 22 - . Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IK-B-1300. Completed Operations Date: 1983-08-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 12645 . COSPAR: 1981-075A. Apogee: 881 km (547 mi). Perigee: 789 km (490 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 101.60 min.

    Ionosphere and magnetosphere studies. Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300. Comprehensive investigation of physical processes in the earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere. Carried scientific equipment developed and manufactured in the People's Republic of Bulgaria with the assistance of Soviet scientists .


1981 August 9 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1981 August 9 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1981 August 10 - . 20:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: N-2.
  • Himawari 2 - . Payload: GMS 2. Mass: 670 kg (1,470 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Himawari. Completed Operations Date: 1988-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12677 . COSPAR: 1981-076A. Apogee: 36,034 km (22,390 mi). Perigee: 35,943 km (22,333 mi). Inclination: 12.9000 deg. Period: 1,446.40 min.

    Geostationary meteorological satellite. N launch vehicle flight number 8 (N-II launch vehicle). Launch time 2003 UT. Launching organization: National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Geostationary longitude 140 deg E. Function: 1) Observation of meteorological phenomena by the visible and infra-red spin scan radiometer. 2) Collection of weather data from various stations. 3) Distribution of weather data to earth stations. 4) Monitoring of solar particles. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 160 deg E in 1981; 140 deg E in 1981-1984; 145 deg E in 1984-1985; 120 deg E in 1985-1988 As of 31 August 2001 located at 33.93 deg E drifting at 2.598 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 153.66W drifting at 2.594W degrees per day.


1981 August 11 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1981 August 12 - . 05:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1295 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 12681 . COSPAR: 1981-077A. Apogee: 1,009 km (626 mi). Perigee: 947 km (588 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 1181..

1981 August 13 - . 02:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 630. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-6 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 August 13 - . 02:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 630. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-6 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 August 13 - . 03:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 630. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-6 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 August 13 - . 03:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 630. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-6 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 August 13 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1296 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 943. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 31.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 12687 . COSPAR: 1981-078A. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 August 14 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant X.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 625 km (388 mi).

1981 August 17 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1981 August 18 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1297 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-08-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 12716 . COSPAR: 1981-079A. Apogee: 360 km (220 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1981 August 19 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1981 August 20 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1981 August 21 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1298 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 42.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 12776 . COSPAR: 1981-080A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 August 22 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 636. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 August 24 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • Test / aurora / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1981 August 24 - . 16:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1299 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1981-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 12809 . COSPAR: 1981-081E. Apogee: 962 km (597 mi). Perigee: 926 km (575 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 103.90 min. Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered..

1981 August 24 - . 21:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1300 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 30. Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 12785 . COSPAR: 1981-082A. Apogee: 609 km (378 mi). Perigee: 589 km (365 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.

1981 August 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1981 August 26 - .
  • Voyager 2, Saturn Flyby - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Voyager.

1981 August 27 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1301 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-17F41. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-09-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 12788 . COSPAR: 1981-083A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.

    High resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.


1981 August 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-9 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 August 28 - . 00:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 641. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-7 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 August 28 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 641. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-7 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 August 28 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 641. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-7 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 August 28 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 641. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-7 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 August 28 - . 16:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1302 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 12791 . COSPAR: 1981-084A. Apogee: 796 km (494 mi). Perigee: 771 km (479 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.50 min. Replaced Cosmos 1269..

1981 August 31 - . 09:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1981 September 1 - .
  • Cosmonaut Bui Thanh Liem dies at age of 32 -- Crash of MiG-21 fighter. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Liem. Vietnamese pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1980. Graduated from Gagarin Military Academy, Monino, 1978 Captain and fighter pilot, Vietnam Air Force. Flew many combat missions during the Vietnam-war. Continued service in Vietnamese Air Force..

1981 September 2 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1981 September 3 - . 18:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIID.
  • KH-11 no. 4 - . Payload: KH-11 no. 4 / OPS 3984. Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-11. Decay Date: 1984-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 12799 . COSPAR: 1981-085A. Apogee: 526 km (326 mi). Perigee: 244 km (151 mi). Inclination: 97.0000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. KH-11 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1981 September 4 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1303 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 12801 . COSPAR: 1981-086A. Apogee: 363 km (225 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 September 4 - . 11:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1304 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsikada. USAF Sat Cat: 12803 . COSPAR: 1981-087A. Apogee: 972 km (603 mi). Perigee: 906 km (562 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 103.80 min. Civilian naval navigation satellite; replaced Cosmos 926..

1981 September 5 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. Launch Vehicle: S-520.
  • Payload recovery rest / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1981 September 7 - . 09:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • Submillimeter atmospheric spectra Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 193 km (119 mi).

1981 September 8 - . 20:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1981 September 9 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1981 September 10 - . 19:14 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1981 September 11 - . Launch Site: Bershet. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 September 11 - . 08:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Fourth stage failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 1305 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 28. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 12818 . COSPAR: 1981-088A. Apogee: 12,807 km (7,957 mi). Perigee: 1,680 km (1,040 mi). Inclination: 64.1000 deg. Period: 263.70 min. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1981 September 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES Mk500-PAS-2 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 September 13 - . 16:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1981 September 14 - . Launch Site: Kostroma. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 September 14 - . 20:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1306 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1982-07-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 12828 . COSPAR: 1981-089A. Apogee: 424 km (263 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Ocean monitoring; replaced Cosmos 1260..

1981 September 15 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1307 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 12830 . COSPAR: 1981-090A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 September 16 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 September 17 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: OTRAG.
  • Otrag Flight 6 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Engine induced roll moment test.

1981 September 18 - . Launch Site: Kostroma. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 September 18 - . 03:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1308 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 12835 . COSPAR: 1981-091A. Apogee: 1,003 km (623 mi). Perigee: 960 km (590 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 1275..

1981 September 18 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1309 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12837 . COSPAR: 1981-092A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy..

1981 September 18 - . 17:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Vertikal' K65UP.
  • Gruziya-60-Spurt Active plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,514 km (940 mi).

1981 September 19 - . 21:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Feng Bao 1.
  • SJ-2A - . Payload: Shi Jian 2B. Mass: 257 kg (566 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SJ. Decay Date: 1981-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 12842 . COSPAR: 1981-093A. Apogee: 1,598 km (992 mi). Perigee: 232 km (144 mi). Inclination: 59.5000 deg. Period: 103.30 min.
  • SJ-2 - . Payload: Shi Jian 2. Mass: 483 kg (1,064 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SJ. Decay Date: 1982-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 12845 . COSPAR: 1981-093D. Apogee: 1,608 km (999 mi). Perigee: 232 km (144 mi). Inclination: 59.4000 deg. Period: 103.40 min.
  • SJ-2B - . Payload: Shi Jian C. Mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SJ. Decay Date: 1982-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 12843 . COSPAR: 1981-093B. Apogee: 1,615 km (1,003 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 59.4000 deg. Period: 103.50 min. Balloon for drag studies..

1981 September 21 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Oreol 3 - . Payload: AUOS-Z M-A-IK s/n 401. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: France. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 12848 . COSPAR: 1981-094A. Apogee: 1,672 km (1,038 mi). Perigee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 105.80 min.

    Carried Soviet/French magnetosphere and ionosphere experiments. Investigation of physical processes in the earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere, and study of the nature of polar aurorae. Carried scientific equipment developed by Soviet and French specialists under the joint Soviet-French project 'Arkad-3'.


1981 September 22 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1981 September 22 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-414? 81 Fall 01 - . Nation: USA. Agency: FKG. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1981 September 22 - . 16:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-415? 81 Fall 02 - . Nation: USA. Agency: FKG. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1981 September 23 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1310 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. Decay Date: 1989-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 12852 . COSPAR: 1981-095A. Apogee: 423 km (262 mi). Perigee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Radar calibration mission..

1981 September 24 - . 23:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3910/PAM.
  • SBS 2 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SBS. Program: SBS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1996-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 12855 . COSPAR: 1981-096A. Apogee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 10.1000 deg. Period: 1,437.70 min.

    Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 97 deg W in 1981-1983; 104 deg W in 1983; 97 deg W in 1983-1988; 99 deg W in 1988-1990; 97 deg W in 1990-1994; 71 deg W in 1994-1996 As of 31 August 2001 located at 125.63 deg E drifting at 0.458 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 125.97W drifting at 0.561W degrees per day. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


1981 September 25 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: MUSSON. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1981 September 28 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1311 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1983-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 12871 . COSPAR: 1981-097A. Apogee: 513 km (318 mi). Perigee: 462 km (287 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1981 September 29 - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-417? 81 Fall 04 - . Nation: USA. Agency: FKG. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1981 September 29 - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-416? 81 Fall 03 - . Nation: USA. Agency: FKG. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1981 September 29 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 September 30 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi).

1981 September 30 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1312 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 2. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 12879 . COSPAR: 1981-098A. Apogee: 1,503 km (933 mi). Perigee: 1,491 km (926 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 115.90 min. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1981 September 30 - . 23:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • PIRAT Aurora mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1981 October 1 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1313 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-10-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 12881 . COSPAR: 1981-099A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1981 October 2 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: MUSSON. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1981 October 4 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES AMARV-3 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 October 5 - . 16:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1981 October 6 - . 11:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2310.
  • SME - . Payload: Solar Mesosphere Explorer. Mass: 437 kg (963 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: SME. Decay Date: 1991-03-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 12887 . COSPAR: 1981-100A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 335 km (208 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Solar Mesosphere Explorer. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..
  • Oscar 9 - . Payload: UoSAT 1. Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Surrey. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-70. Decay Date: 1989-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 12888 . COSPAR: 1981-100B. Apogee: 374 km (232 mi). Perigee: 372 km (231 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 92.00 min.

    University of Surrey research microsatellite. Radio science; also carried amateur radio package. Communication and geophysics research satellite. Launch time 1127 GMT. Also registered by the United States in ST/SG/SER.E/59, with category D and orbital parameters 95.3 min, 531 x 533 km x 97.5 deg. UoSAT-OSCAR 9 was launched piggyback with Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite. Weight 52 kg. Box shaped 740 x 420 x 420 mm. Deployable gravity gradient boom. Firsts: First on-board computer (IHU - Integrated Housekeeping Unit) for battery and attitude management, remote control, and experiments. Built by the University of Surrey in the United Kingdom, UO-9 was UoSAT's first experimental satellite. It was a scientific and educational low-Earth orbit satellite containing many experiments and beacons but no amateur transponders. UO-9 was fully operational until it re-entered October 13, 1989 from a decaying orbit after nine years of service.


1981 October 7 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 October 9 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1314 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 19. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-10-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 12895 . COSPAR: 1981-101A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1981 October 9 - . 16:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 10 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 20L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1987-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12897 . COSPAR: 1981-102A. Apogee: 35,820 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 13.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min.

    Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1981-1987 As of 5 September 2001 located at 76.66 deg E drifting at 0.069 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 65.57E drifting at 0.042W degrees per day.


1981 October 12 - . 12:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1981 October 13 - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-419? 81 Fall 06 - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1981 October 13 - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-418? 81 Fall 05 - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1981 October 13 - . 23:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1315 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 31. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2015-08-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 12903 . COSPAR: 1981-103A. Apogee: 599 km (372 mi). Perigee: 571 km (354 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Replaced Cosmos 1154..

1981 October 14 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1981 October 15 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1316 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 12905 . COSPAR: 1981-104A. Apogee: 381 km (236 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 70.3000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1981 October 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1981 October 17 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • MIT X-ray? X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1981 October 17 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-17 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 31. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1997-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 12915 . COSPAR: 1981-105A. Apogee: 39,183 km (24,347 mi). Perigee: 971 km (603 mi). Inclination: 62.7000 deg. Period: 713.70 min.

    Replaced Molniya 3-12. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation.


1981 October 19 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 October 20 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1981 Oct 21? - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-420? 81 Fall 07 - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1981 October 21 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1981 October 22 - . 17:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 October 23 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi).

1981 October 24 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: OTRAG.
  • Otrag Flight 8 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Oxidizer depletion first (rough).

1981 October 25 - . 19:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ferdinand 51 Auroral mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: NDRE. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1981 October 26 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1981 October 27 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1981 October 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1981 October 30 - . 06:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-1.
  • Venera 13 - . Payload: 4V-1 s/n 760. Mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 4MV. Spacecraft: Venera 4V-1. USAF Sat Cat: 12927 . COSPAR: 1981-106A.

    Venera 13 and 14 were identical spacecraft built to take advantage of the 1981 Venus launch opportunity and launched 5 days apart. After launch and a four month cruise to Venus, the descent vehicle separated and plunged into the Venus atmosphere on 1 March 1982. As it flew by Venus the bus acted as a data relay for the brief life of the descent vehicle, and then continued on into a heliocentric orbit. After the descent vehicle braked to subsonic speed a parachute was deployed. At an altitude of 47 km the parachute was released and simple airbraking was used the rest of the way to the surface. Venera 13 landed about 950 km northeast of Venera 14 at 7 deg 30 min S, 303 E, just east of the eastern extension of an elevated region known as Phoebe Regio. The area was composed of bedrock outcrops surrounded by dark, fine-grained soil. After landing an imaging panorama was started and a mechanical drilling arm reached to the surface and obtained a sample, which was deposited in a hermetically sealed chamber, maintained at 30 degrees C and a pressure of about .05 atmospheres. The composition of the sample, as determined by the X-ray flourescence spectrometer, put it in the class of weakly differentiated melanocratic alkaline gabbroids. The lander survived for 127 minutes (the planned design life was 32 minutes) in an environment with a temperature of 457 degrees C and a pressure of 84 Earth atmospheres. The bus carried instruments built by Austrian and French specialists, as well as Soviet scientific equipment.


1981 October 31 - . 09:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • Chalet 3 - . Payload: Chalet 3 (Vortex 3) / OPS 4029. Mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Chalet. USAF Sat Cat: 12930 . COSPAR: 1981-107A. Apogee: 382 km (237 mi). Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Inclination: 29.3000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Chalet ELINT satellite..

1981 October 31 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1317 - . Payload: Oko #23. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 12933 . COSPAR: 1981-108A. Apogee: 34,987 km (21,739 mi). Perigee: 5,425 km (3,370 mi). Inclination: 68.3000 deg. Period: 719.00 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 8 - 196 degree longitude of ascending node..

1981 November 1 - .
  • Death of Frank J Malina - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Malina. American engineer, one of the inventors of the American liquid fuel rocket at CalTech in the 1930's. Led development of the WAC-Corporal rocket, but uninterested in military projects. Moved to Paris to work with UN and later was an artist..

1981 November 2 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 November 3 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1318 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 944. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 31.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 12936 . COSPAR: 1981-109A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 November 4 - . 05:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-1.
  • Venera 14 - . Payload: 4V-1 s/n 761. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 4MV. Spacecraft: Venera 4V-1. USAF Sat Cat: 12938 . COSPAR: 1981-110A.

    Venera 13 and 14 were identical spacecraft built to take advantage of the 1981 Venus launch opportunity and launched 5 days apart. After launch and a four month cruise to Venus, the descent vehicle separated and plunged into the Venus atmosphere on 5 March 1982. As it flew by Venus the bus acted as a data relay for the brief life of the descent vehicle, and then continued on into a heliocentric orbit. The parachute of the descent vehicle opened after the lander reached subsonic speed. At an altitude of about 50 km the parachute was released and simple airbraking was used the rest of the way to the surface. Venera 14 landed about 950 km southwest of Venera 13 near the eastern flank of Phoebe Regio at 13 deg 15 min S by 310 E on a basaltic plain. After landing an imaging panorama was started It has been reported that the surface analysis arm accidentally landed on one of the ejected camera covers and therefore didn't send back any data on the Venusian soil. This is visible in photographs sent back. On the other hand, the official account very specifically states that the mechanical drilling arm obtained a sample, which was deposited in a hermetically sealed chamber, maintained at 30 degrees C and a pressure of about .05 atmospheres. The composition of the sample was determined by the X-ray flourescence spectrometer, showing it to be similar to oceanic tholeiitic basalts. The lander survived for 57 minutes (the planned design life was 32 minutes) in an environment with a temperature of 465 degrees C and a pressure of 94 Earth atmospheres.


1981 November 5 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1981 November 6 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 95 km (59 mi).

1981 November 7 - . 12:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant.
  • FWIF V Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1981 November 9 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1981 November 10 - . 20:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1981 November 11 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 November 12 - .
  • Death of Mikhail Grigoryev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grigoryev. Russian officer. First Commander of Plesetsk 1957-1962..

1981 November 12 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-2 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Engle, Truly. Payload: Columbia F02 / DFI. Mass: 8,517 kg (18,776 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle, Truly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-2. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 2.26 days. Decay Date: 1981-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12953 . COSPAR: 1981-111A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Second shuttle test flight. Payloads: Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-1 experiments, Orbiter Experiments (OEX)..
  • DFI - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: DFI. Decay Date: 1981-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12953 . COSPAR: 1981-111xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.
  • OSTA-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1981-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12953 . COSPAR: 1981-111xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.

1981 November 13 - .
  • STS-2 - Wakeup Song: Pigs in Space - . Flight: STS-2. "Pigs in Space" comedy routine #1 by The Muppets..

1981 November 13 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1319 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-11-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 12954 . COSPAR: 1981-112A. Apogee: 374 km (232 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 November 14 - .
  • STS-2 - Wakeup Song: Pigs in Space - . Flight: STS-2. "Pigs in Space" comedy routine #2 by The Muppets, preceded by rendition of"Columbia, Gem of the Ocean" by the Flight Operations Directorate group"Contraband" .

1981 November 14 - . 20:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1981 November 14 - .
1981 November 15 - . 17:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 640. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4. FAILURE: Failure.
  • DASO-8 demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1981 November 16 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1981 November 17 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8B.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi).

1981 November 17 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8B.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi).

1981 November 17 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-51 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1993-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 12959 . COSPAR: 1981-113A. Apogee: 39,457 km (24,517 mi). Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 702.40 min. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1981 November 18 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1981 November 19 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: OTRAG.
  • Otrag Flight 9 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Fuel depletion first test (smooth).

1981 November 20 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3910/PAM.
  • RCA Satcom 3R - . Payload: Satcom 3R. Mass: 1,078 kg (2,376 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: RCA Amer. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Satcom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 3000. Completed Operations Date: 1991-04-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 12967 . COSPAR: 1981-114A. Apogee: 35,840 km (22,260 mi). Perigee: 35,824 km (22,259 mi). Inclination: 8.2000 deg. Period: 1,438.40 min. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 131 deg W in 1981-1991 As of 3 September 2001 located at 86.96 deg W drifting at 0.634 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 140.04W drifting at 0.601W degrees per day..

1981 November 20 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Bhaskara 2 - . Payload: SEO B. Mass: 444 kg (978 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Bhaskara. Decay Date: 1991-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 12968 . COSPAR: 1981-115A. Apogee: 372 km (231 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Experimental earth observations. Launched from a cosmodrome in the USSR. .

1981 November 23 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi).

1981 November 24 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT84GM-1 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 November 25 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1981 November 26 - . 01:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1981 November 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 November 27 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1981 November 28 - . 18:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1320 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 225. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12975 . COSPAR: 1981-116A. Apogee: 1,635 km (1,015 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.30 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1321 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 226. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12976 . COSPAR: 1981-116B. Apogee: 1,632 km (1,014 mi). Perigee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.20 min.
  • Cosmos 1326 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 231. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12981 . COSPAR: 1981-116G. Apogee: 1,611 km (1,001 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.00 min.
  • Cosmos 1325 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 230. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12980 . COSPAR: 1981-116F. Apogee: 1,617 km (1,004 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1324 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 229. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12979 . COSPAR: 1981-116E. Apogee: 1,620 km (1,000 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1322 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 227. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12977 . COSPAR: 1981-116C. Apogee: 1,629 km (1,012 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.20 min.
  • Cosmos 1327 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 232. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12982 . COSPAR: 1981-116H. Apogee: 1,604 km (996 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.90 min.
  • Cosmos 1323 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 228. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12978 . COSPAR: 1981-116D. Apogee: 1,625 km (1,009 mi). Perigee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.20 min.

1981 November 30 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 December 1 - . Launch Site: Nenoksa. LV Family: R-39. Launch Vehicle: Rif.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 December 1 - . 01:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant X.
  • CENTAUR Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 612 km (380 mi).

1981 December 1 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Lithium / sodium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1981 December 2 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1981 December 3 - . 11:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1328 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 32. Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 12987 . COSPAR: 1981-117A. Apogee: 619 km (384 mi). Perigee: 597 km (370 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 96.90 min.

1981 December 4 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1329 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 12989 . COSPAR: 1981-118A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1981 December 6 - . 23:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVB.
  • CENTAUR Auroral mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 615 km (382 mi).

1981 December 7 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Dong Feng 5.
  • Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan..

1981 December 7 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Malemute. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute.
  • CENTAUR Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 451 km (280 mi).

1981 December 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • UM Airglow payload Magnetosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1981 December 9 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT85GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 December 9 - . 17:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 2.
  • Lithium / sodium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1981 December 9 - . 21:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • EBC81 E2 (ENERGY EB2) Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi).

1981 December 10 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 3.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi).

1981 December 11 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1981 December 12 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: OTRAG.
  • Otrag Flight 10 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. TV onboard camera test.

1981 December 13 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant X.
  • CENTAUR Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 662 km (411 mi).

1981 December 14 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1981 December 15 - . 23:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • Intelsat 5 F-3 - . Mass: 1,870 kg (4,120 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Intelsat 5. Completed Operations Date: 1998-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 12994 . COSPAR: 1981-119A. Apogee: 36,129 km (22,449 mi). Perigee: 35,894 km (22,303 mi). Inclination: 9.4000 deg. Period: 1,447.60 min.

    Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1982-1985; 27 deg W in 1985; 53 deg W in 1985-1988; 174 deg E in 1988-1990; 177 deg E in 1990-1992; 177 deg W in 1992-1995; 157 deg E in 1995-1998 As of 5 September 2001 located at 57.52 deg W drifting at 2.890 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 101.94W drifting at 2.904W degrees per day.


1981 December 16 - .
  • Death of Emil A H, Hellebrandt - . Nation: Austria, Germany. Related Persons: Hellebrandt. Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1981 December 16 - . 14:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • LITHIUM Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1981 December 17 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Radio-3; Radio Sputnik 3 - . Payload: RS-3. Mass: 72 kg (158 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Iskra bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-1. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 12997 . COSPAR: 1981-120A. Apogee: 1,657 km (1,029 mi). Perigee: 1,565 km (972 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 118.50 min. Amateur radiocommunication. Radio-3 to Radio-8 launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Radio-6; Radio Sputnik 6 - . Payload: RS-8. Mass: 72 kg (158 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Iskra bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-1. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 13002 . COSPAR: 1981-120F. Apogee: 1,660 km (1,030 mi). Perigee: 1,580 km (980 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 118.60 min. Amateur radiocommunication. Radio-3 to Radio-8 launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Radio-7; Radio Sputnik 7 - . Payload: RS-7. Mass: 72 kg (158 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Iskra bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-1. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 13001 . COSPAR: 1981-120E. Apogee: 1,661 km (1,032 mi). Perigee: 1,622 km (1,007 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 119.10 min. Amateur radiocommunication. Radio-3 to Radio-8 launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Radio-4; Radio Sputnik 4 - . Payload: RS-6. Mass: 72 kg (158 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Iskra bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-1. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 13000 . COSPAR: 1981-120D. Apogee: 1,666 km (1,035 mi). Perigee: 1,635 km (1,015 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 119.30 min. Amateur radiocommunication. Radio-3 to Radio-8 launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Radio-5; Radio Sputnik 5 - . Payload: RS-5. Mass: 72 kg (158 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Iskra bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-1. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 12999 . COSPAR: 1981-120C. Apogee: 1,668 km (1,036 mi). Perigee: 1,647 km (1,023 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 119.50 min. Amateur radiocommunication. Radio-3 to Radio-8 launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Radio-8; Radio Sputnik 8 - . Payload: RS-4. Mass: 72 kg (158 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Iskra bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-1. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 12998 . COSPAR: 1981-120B. Apogee: 1,682 km (1,045 mi). Perigee: 1,652 km (1,026 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 119.70 min. Amateur radiocommunication. Radio-3 to Radio-8 launched by a single carrier rocket. .

1981 December 18 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1981 December 19 - . 01:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E/SVS. FAILURE: Failure.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Navstar 7 - . Payload: GPS SVN 7. Mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 1. Decay Date: 1981-12-18 . Global Positioning System..

1981 December 19 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1330 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 952. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 31.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 13008 . COSPAR: 1981-121A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 164 km (101 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 December 19 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • FOCCA I Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Spain. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1981 December 20 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1.
  • Tech. capsule - . Payload: CAT/Thesee. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CAT. Decay Date: 1988-11-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 13025 . COSPAR: 1981-122C. Apogee: 36,051 km (22,401 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 10.6000 deg. Period: 636.00 min.

    Ariane L-04 technological capsule, ESA designator ESA/81/04. The technological capsule, equipped with batteries for a lifetime of about 6 orbital revolutions (65h), transmits to earth technological data about test flight L-04 of Ariane. After discharge of the battery the capsule will stop its transmissions and remain in orbit in an inactive status. Frequency 136-138 MHz, projected time of reentry before 1990.

  • MARECS 1 - . Payload: MARECS A. Mass: 582 kg (1,283 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1996-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 13010 . COSPAR: 1981-122A. Apogee: 37,858 km (23,523 mi). Perigee: 36,782 km (22,855 mi). Inclination: 10.8000 deg. Period: 1,515.20 min.

    MARECS-A was a geostationary maritime communications satellite, which formed part of INMARSAT's world-wide maritime communications satellite network. MARECS-A moved to a new position on the geostationary orbit. Old position: 334E. New position: 22.5 E. The Marecs satellites were members of Inmarsat's first generation global maritime communications network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 26 deg W in 1982-1986; 178 deg E in 1986-1991; 20 deg E in 1991-1992; 22 deg E in 1992-1996 As of 1 September 2001 located at 11.08 deg W drifting at 18.839 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 168.28W drifting at 18.837W degrees per day. Additional Details: here....

  • CAT 4 - . Payload: MARECS 1 / CAT 4. Mass: 217 kg (478 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CAT. USAF Sat Cat: 13011 . COSPAR: 1981-122B. Apogee: 30,744 km (19,103 mi). Perigee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 10.4000 deg. Period: 536.80 min. Launch vehicle test payload. .

1981 December 21 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 74 km (45 mi).

1981 December 22 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1981 December 23 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-52 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 13012 . COSPAR: 1981-123A. Apogee: 38,267 km (23,777 mi). Perigee: 2,097 km (1,303 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 718.00 min.

    Replaced Molniya 1-45. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


1981 December 24 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1981 December 25 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1981 December 29 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 December 30 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 December 31 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 December 31 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).


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