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On October 28 in Space History

1940 October 28 - .
  • Birth of Gennadi Mikhailovich Strekalov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Strekalov. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-5, Soyuz T-8, Soyuz T-10-1, Salyut 7 EP-3, Mir EO-7, Mir EO-18. Survived first manned launch pad abort. Flew in space six times. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB..

1944 October 28 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma239 207 J1 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Accuracy 2.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.1 km from aim point..

1947 October 28 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 53 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 33. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 11. Telemetry failure..

1947 October 28 - . 13:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi). Range achieved 274.3 km. Achieved objectives..

1948 October 28 - .
  • Birth of Valeri Vasiliyevich Baberdin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Baberdin. Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992..

1949 October 28 - . Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Von Braun team moved to Huntsville. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. The Secretary of the Army approved the transfer of the Ordnance Research and Development Division, Sub-Office (Rocket) at Fort Bliss, Texas, to Redstone Arsenal. Among those transferred were Dr. Wernher von Braun and his team of German scientists..

1952 October 28 - .
  • Birth of Dr Mikhail Georgiyevich Potapov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Potapov. Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1985. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training October 1979 - July 1980. Later Chief of Laboratory 174 at IMBP..

1952 October 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Talos.
  • X-SAM-N-6 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1953 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 October 28 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Western Development Division and Special Aircraft Projects Office awarded a letter contract to North American Aviation for continued research and development of the liquid oxygen/RP-1 rocket engine. - .

1954 October 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Nike Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 October 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Platform: B-29. LV Family: X-7. Launch Vehicle: X-7A-3.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: ARDC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 October 28 - .
  • X-1E Flight 26 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1E flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 25. Elevated chamber pressure; good stability and control data gathered..

1959 October 28 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island.
  • Prototype Echo balloon launched. - . Nation: USA.

    100-foot-diameter inflatable sphere launched on a suborbital test flight from NASA Wallops Station, Va., to an altitude of 250 miles by a first Sergeant-Delta rocket; aluminum-coated Mylar-plastic sphere to be used as passive electronic reflector in Echo was developed by NASA Langley's Space Vehicle Group under the direction of William J. O'Sullivan.


1959 October 28 - . 14:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 300.
  • Utah ne probe Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1959 October 28 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Shotput.
  • E60 Echo spacecraft test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1960 October 28 - .
  • Air Force lunar base briefing to NASA - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft Bus: Lunex. Spacecraft: Lunex, Man-In-Space-Soonest.

    Key staff members of NASA Headquarters and the Commander, U.S. Air Force Research and Development Command, met at the Air Force Ballistic Missile Division, Los Angeles, Calif., to attend briefings and discuss matters of mutual concern.

    At an executive session, Air Force and NASA programs of orbital rendezvous, refueling, and descent from orbit were discussed. Long-range Air Force studies on a lunar base were in progress as well as research on more immediate missions, such as rendezvous by an unmanned satellite interceptor for inspection purposes, manned maintenance satellites, and reentry methods. NASA plans for the manned lunar landing mission included the possible use of the Saturn booster in an orbital staging operation employing orbital refueling. Reentry studies beyond Mercury were concentrated on reentry at escape speeds and on a spacecraft configuration capable of aerodynamic maneuvering during reentry.


1960 October 28 - . 17:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Palmdale Omni DZ. Launch Pad: Edwards RW04/22. Launch Platform: NB-52 008.
  • X-15A Stability/Control test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA, USAF. Spacecraft: X-15A. Apogee: 15 km (9 mi). Maximum Speed - 2145 kph. Maximum Altitude - 15453 m. Air dropped in Palmdale Omni DZ..

1961 October 28 - .
  • Zenit-2 priority delays manned space flights - . Nation: Russia. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 3, Vostok 4. Spacecraft: Vostok, Zenit-2 satellite. Plans for a November group flight are delayed due to the priority of the spy satellite program. Korolev wants to fly manned Vostoks in December 1961/January 1962, but Kamanin and the VVS oppose this due to poor weather during that period..

1961 October 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Nuclear test K-4 Nuclear test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    In a test of nuclear fratricide and ABM effectiveness, an R-5M (some sources say an R-12) launched a live thermonuclear warhead toward Semipalitinsk/Sary Shagan which was detonated at an altitude of 150 km. Two R-9 ICBM's were launched minutes earlier, timed to pass through the zone of the explosion. Both missiles guided to the planned impact zone without apparent ill-effect. This high altitude test was designed to test electromagnetic pulse effects on electronics, especially ABM system radars and incoming 'friendly' ICBM's.


1962 October 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure..
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

    In a test of nuclear fratricide and ABM effectiveness, an R-5M (some sources say an R-12) launched a live thermonuclear warhead toward Semipalitinsk/Sary Shagan which was detonated at an altitude of 150 km. Two R-9 ICBM's were launched minutes earlier, timed to pass through the zone of the explosion. Both missiles guided to the planned impact zone without apparent ill-effect. This high altitude test was designed to test electromagnetic pulse effects on electronics, especially ABM system radars and incoming 'friendly' ICBM's.


1963 October 28 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC11. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • ABRES WAC-1 / Pod 21 Reentry test / plume mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1963 October 28 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Nike Javelin.
  • TRUMP - . Nation: USA. Agency: APGC. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1963 October 28 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Little Carter Bay. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • TSRA? - . Nation: Bahamas. Agency: NOTS. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1964 October 28 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • Gemini launch vehicle 4 was erected in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 4. Power was applied to the vehicle for the first time on November 4. Subsystems Functional Verification Tests were completed November 19..

1964 October 28 - .
  • Lunar project orders issued to industry. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L1, Lunar L3. Spacecraft: LK, LK-1, Luna Ye-8, Soyuz 7K-LOK. Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 'On assignment of lunar programs to OKB-52 and OKB-1' was issued..

1964 October 28 - .
  • Apollo mission programming - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM, CSM Block II.

    ASPO's Operations Planning Division defined the current Apollo mission programming as envisioned by MSC. The overall Apollo flight program was described in terms of its major phases: Little Joe II flights (unmanned Little Joe II development and launch escape vehicle development); Saturn IB flights (unmanned Saturn IB and Block I CSM development, Block I CSM earth orbital operations, unmanned LEM development, and manned Block II CSM/LEM earth orbital operations); and Saturn V flights (unmanned Saturn V and Block II CSM development, manned Block II CSM/LEM earth orbital operations, and manned lunar missions).


1964 October 28 - .
  • Testing of the first flight-weight Apollo LEM fuel cell - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM, LM Electrical.

    Testing of the first flight-weight 15-cell stack of the LEM fuel cell assembly began. Although the voltage was three percent below design, the unit had a 980-watt capability. Earlier, the unit completed 150 hours of operation, and single cell life had reached 662 hours.


1964 October 28 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • The Titan II Gemini Launch Vehicle (GLV-3) for the first manned Gemini spaceflight mission (GT-3) was turned over to the Air Force at Martin Marietta's Baltimore, Maryland, plant. - . Spacecraft: Gemini.

1964 October 28 - .
  • Based on Headquarters USAF and AFSC approval of 20 and 21 October, Space Systems Division issued a letter contract to Philco-Ford Corporation for the initiation of Phase II work on the IDCSP. - . Spacecraft: IDCSP.

1964 October 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 October 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 October 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 October 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 October 28 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 50 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 25. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 919 . COSPAR: 1964-070A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.2000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Failure of the braking engine system. Spacecraft ordered to self destruct..

1965 October 28 - .
  • The White House announced that NASA would attempt to launch Gemini VI while Gemini VII was in orbit. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Flight: Gemini 6, Gemini 7.

    The original Gemini VI mission had been canceled when its target vehicle failed catastrophically on October 25. In a memorandum to the President, NASA Administrator James E. Webb indicated the possibility that Gemini VI spacecraft and launch vehicle could be reerected shortly after the launch of Gemini VII. Since much of the prelaunch checkout of Gemini VI would not need repeating, it could be launched in time to rendezvous with Gemini VII (a mission scheduled for 14 days) if launching Gemini VII did not excessively damage the launch pad. NASA officials, spurred by suggestions from Walter F. Burke and John F. Yardley of McDonnell, began discussing the possibility of a dual mission immediately after the failure October 25, drawing on some six months of discussion and preliminary planning by NASA, Air Force, Martin, and McDonnell personnel for a rapid manned flight launch demonstration.


1965 October 28 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • Gemini spacecraft No. 6 and the second stage of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 6 were deerected and removed from complex 19. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 6.

    GLV-6 stage I was deerected the next day. The GLV was placed in storage at the Satellite Checkout Building under guard, in an environment controlled for temperature and humidity. Bonded storage maintained the integrity of previously conducted tests to reduce testing that would have to be repeated. Spacecraft No. 6 was stored in the Pyrotechnics Installation Building at the Merritt Island Launch Area.


1965 October 28 - .
1965 October 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Sirocco.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DASA. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1965 October 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC50. LV Family: Sprint ABM. Launch Vehicle: HIBEX.
  • HIBEX test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1965 October 28 - . 00:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1965 October 28 - . 06:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Blandine. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique AGI.
  • FU-115 electron density Ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). FU115 Electron density mission..

1965 October 28 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 94 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 1636 . COSPAR: 1965-085A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried biological experiments..

1965 October 28 - . 18:01 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 30.0 N x 120.0 W. Launch Platform: T-AGM-8. LV Family: Iris. Launch Vehicle: Hydra-Iris.
  • LRL BOX-2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN NMC. Apogee: 194 km (120 mi).

1965 October 28 - . 21:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor SLV-2A Agena D.
  • KH-4A 1026 - . Payload: KH-4A s/n 1026 / Agena D 1620 / OPS 2155. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4A. Decay Date: 1965-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1637 . COSPAR: 1965-086A. Apogee: 432 km (268 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 74.9000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. KH-4A. All cameras operated satisfactorily..

1966 October 28 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir VE231.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 October 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 October 28 - . 11:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • OV3-02 - . Mass: 82 kg (180 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF OAR. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OV3. Decay Date: 1971-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 2517 . COSPAR: 1966-097A. Apogee: 1,599 km (993 mi). Perigee: 319 km (198 mi). Inclination: 81.9000 deg. Period: 104.20 min. Radiation data. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1967 October 28 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. Launch Complex: Arecibo VB. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Arecibo cal Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1967 October 28 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
  • Cosmos 187 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1967-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3016 . COSPAR: 1967-106A. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 143 km (88 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

1968 October 28 - .
  • Star City named. - . Nation: Russia. Moscow Oblast Executive Committee Decree 'On renaming of Zeleniy as Zvezdniy gorodok' was issued..

1968 October 28 - .
  • Soyuz 2 lands 45 km from its aim point. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    Meanwhile Beregovoi was instructed to conduct experiments with the 45K stellar sensor on Soyuz 3. He would quickly disengage the 45K, then orient the spacecraft to the sun. He would then reengage the sensor and the automatic orientation system. This did two complete turns of the spacecraft searching for the star, but not acquiring it. To Kamanin this shows the uselessness of the system, and the wastage of propellant it causes.


1968 October 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1969 October 28 - .
  • Apollo lunar roving vehicle (LRV) contract awarded to the Boeing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LRV.

    A lunar roving vehicle (LRV) cost-plus-incentive-fee contract was awarded to the Boeing Co. LRV-1 was scheduled for delivery on April 1, 1971, leaving only 17 months for vehicle development, production, and tests. The LRV project was managed at MSFC by Saverio F. Morea as a project within the Saturn Program Office. The Boeing Company would manage the LRV project in Huntsville, Ala., under Henry Kudish. General Motors Corp. AC Electronics Defense Research Laboratories in Santa Barbara, Calif., would furnish the mobility system (wheels, motors, and suspension). The Boeing Go. in Seattle, Wash., would furnish the electronics and navigation system. Vehicle testing would take place at the Boeing facility in Kent, Wash., and the chassis manufacturing and overall assembly would take place at the Boeing facility in Huntsville, Ala.


1969 October 28 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL69-08 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 October 28 - .
  • Cosmonauts learn of NASA techniques. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Nikolayev and Sevastyanov return from their tour of the USA, They learned a lot about the technology, management, and training techniques of the American space program. Nikolayev leaves immediately for another tour of Czechoslovakia..

1970 October 28 - .
  • Zond 8 recovered, demonstrates Mishin's L3 ocean landing trajectory. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Lunar L1, Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    Zond 8 is recovered only 15 minutes after splashdown by the vessel Taman. Of five Zonds recovered, this was the only one to fly over the north pole. The remainder re-entered over the south pole. The reason for this was the need to fly over tracking stations on Soviet territory in order to get trajectory updates that allowed a precise landing after the second plunge into the atmosphere. This was the reason Mishin now wants a water landing for the L3. The dilemma is that after a first dip into the atmosphere over the North Pole, tracking for a precision landing is possible, but then the spacecraft cannot land on Soviet territory. Re-entering first over the South Pole means that no trajectory updates are available, but then the spacecraft can land only imprecisely somewhere on Soviet territory.

    15 L1's were completed, of which only five ever returned to earth. With this successful final recovery, the programme is cancelled. The main cause of the project's failure was the unreliability of the UR-500K rocket.


1970 October 28 - .
  • Chelomei's 'war' with Korolev and Mishin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei, Chelomei, Mishin, Serbin, Smirnov. Program: Almaz, Salyut, Lunar L1. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, LK-1, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7K-L1.

    Kamanin meets with Chelomei. Chelomei discusses his 'war' with Korolev and Mishin. Korolev interfered with, and then finally took the manned lunar flyby project from Chelomei. Now Mishin is doing the same thing with Almaz. Chelomei had already invested five years in development of Almaz, and was on the way to producing a good space station. Then Mishin pushes him out of the way and seizes his production line to build the DOS-7K. DOS#1 is actually Almaz#5, nothing more than a bad copy of Chelomei's station. Serbin and Smirnov do not trust Mishin, which is why they have only authorised him to build four DOS stations. Serbin, Smirnov, and Afanasyev have visited Chelomei, and told him to accelerate work on the Almaz, using three shifts 24 hours a day.

    Kamanin notes the second hijacking in Turkey of a Soviet airliner in the last two weeks.


1970 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Sprint ABM. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Safeguard M1-9 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1970 October 28 - . 16:23 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Structure Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 October 28 - . 04:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA5B. Launch Vehicle: Black Arrow.
  • Prospero - . Payload: X 3. Mass: 66 kg (145 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Royal Aerospace Establishment. Class: Earth. Type: Micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft: Prospero. USAF Sat Cat: 5580 . COSPAR: 1971-093A. Apogee: 1,403 km (871 mi). Perigee: 531 km (329 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 104.40 min. To test in space equipment for future satellites and to conduct a scientific experiment to measure the incidence of micro-meteoroids. Launch time 0409 GMT, injection point 13.7 deg S, 137.9 deg E. Anticipated life 100 years. .

1972 October 28 - . 03:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • HK-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1974 October 28 - . 10:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-19 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 19. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 7490 . COSPAR: 1974-083A. Apogee: 882 km (548 mi). Perigee: 842 km (523 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1974 October 28 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Luna 23 - . Payload: Ye-8-5M s/n 410. Mass: 5,300 kg (11,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: Luna Ye-8. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1974-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 7491 . COSPAR: 1974-084A. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi). Perigee: 17 km (10 mi).

    Failed lunar soil return mission. After successfully entering earth orbit, flying to the moon, entering lunar orbit, and descending toward the surface, the spacecraft was damaged during landing in Mare Crisium (Sea of Crises). The sample collecting apparatus could not operate and no samples were returned. The lander continued transmissions for three days after landing. In 1976, Luna 24 landed several hundred meters away and successfully returned samples. Parameters are for lunar orbit.


1975 October 28 - . 09:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1976 October 28 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1977 October 28 - .
  • The PDMM (Pulse Doppler-MAP Match) terminal sensor for the AMaRV was flight-tested for the first time on board a C-141 aircraft over Cape Cod. By the end of the year, it had completed five tests. - . Spacecraft Bus: ABRES. Spacecraft: AMaRV.

1977 October 28 - .
  • Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 October 28 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-08 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 18. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 10455 . COSPAR: 1977-105A. Apogee: 38,508 km (23,927 mi). Perigee: 1,840 km (1,140 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1977 October 28 - . 04:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1.
  • Transat O-11 - . Mass: 94 kg (207 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Transit. USAF Sat Cat: 10457 . COSPAR: 1977-106A. Apogee: 1,097 km (681 mi). Perigee: 1,059 km (658 mi). Inclination: 89.7000 deg. Period: 106.80 min. Modification of first APL-built operational Transit for 'related experiments'..

1977 October 28 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 962 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 10459 . COSPAR: 1977-107A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 962 km (597 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Military navigation satellite..

1978 October 28 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1980 October 28 - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-402? 80 Fall 06 - . Nation: USA. Agency: US7A. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1980 October 28 - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-401? 80 Fall 05 - . Nation: USA. Agency: US7A. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1980 October 28 - . 21:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 630. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • DASO-6? demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 October 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1982 October 28 - . 01:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3924.
  • RCA Satcom 5 - . Payload: Aurora 1. Mass: 590 kg (1,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: RCA Alas. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Satcom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 3000. Completed Operations Date: 1992-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 13631 . COSPAR: 1982-105A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 8.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 143 deg W in 1982-1991; 105 deg W in 1992-2007..

1983 October 28 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1983 October 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-10 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 10. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 14452 . COSPAR: 1983-109A. Apogee: 876 km (544 mi). Perigee: 742 km (461 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 101.10 min. Gathering meteorological information and data on penetrating radiation fluxes in circumterrestrial space. .

1985 October 28 - . 17:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-66 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 2002-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 16220 . COSPAR: 1985-103A. Apogee: 38,699 km (24,046 mi). Perigee: 1,656 km (1,028 mi). Inclination: 64.1000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Replaced Molniya 1-56. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1986 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1986 October 28 - . 20:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1987 October 28 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT150M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

    The Minuteman II launch took place at sunset and created a spectacular show in the evening sky. Pictures of the event were interpreted to mean that the missile was detonated because it was off course. The flash was visible as far away as Salt Lake City. The Air Force claimed that it was a successful launch, but the alternative LA Weekly later said that it was indeed heading for Los Angeles and was destroyed. However high-altitude contrails and staging events, altered by winds aloft, can produce easily-misinterpreted visual displays.


1987 October 28 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1987 October 28 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • MAC / Epsilon EXERT Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1987 October 28 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1894 - . Payload: SPRN No. 4. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1991-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 18443 . COSPAR: 1987-091A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 4.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1987-1991 As of 5 September 2001 located at 165.32 deg W drifting at 0.190 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 85.03W drifting at 0.375E degrees per day.


1988 October 28 - . 02:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 2.
  • TDF-1 - . Payload: TDF 1. Mass: 2,136 kg (4,709 lb). Nation: France. Agency: France Telecom. Program: TDF. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 300. Completed Operations Date: 1996-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 19621 . COSPAR: 1988-098A. Apogee: 36,129 km (22,449 mi). Perigee: 36,051 km (22,401 mi). Inclination: 4.8000 deg. Period: 1,451.60 min.

    French DBS; 19 deg W. Direct broadcasting satellite. French registration: TDF-1, 1988-5-B. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg W in 1988-1996 As of 1 September 2001 located at 139.53 deg W drifting at 3.885 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 5 located at 16.35W drifting at 3.870W degrees per day.


1992 October 28 - .
  • STS-52 - Wakeup Song: Hawaiian music - . Flight: STS-52. "Hawaiian music" set the tone for the day's planned discussion.

1992 October 28 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P.
  • Galaxy 7 - . Mass: 2,968 kg (6,543 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. Duration: 2,947.00 days. USAF Sat Cat: 22205 . COSPAR: 1992-072A. Apogee: 35,968 km (22,349 mi). Perigee: 35,917 km (22,317 mi). Inclination: 1.5000 deg. Period: 1,444.10 min.

    Geostationary at 91 deg W. The Galaxy 7 satellite failed on November 22, 2000, the third such satellite to fall victim to a design flaw in the on-board computers. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 91 deg W in 1992-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 32.55 deg E drifting at 2.022 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 141.47W drifting at 2.077W degrees per day.


1993 October 28 - . 15:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 28 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 40L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 22880 . COSPAR: 1993-069A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Gorizont 28 replaced Gorizont 21 at 90 degrees E. This allowed Gorizont 21 to be repositioned from mid-November to late-December for the inauguration of a new station at 145 degrees E. As of 6 September 2001 located at 96.68 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 116.96E drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.


1995 October 28 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 N. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • JHU FOT 12 (30 Dor) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 October 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 734. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 October 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 734. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 October 28 - . 22:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Afristar - . Payload: Eurostar 2000+. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: France. Agency: Worldspace. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: WorldSpace. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 25515 . COSPAR: 1998-063A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Afristar was the first WorldSpace satellite. Afristar was to broadcast digital radio over Africa and the Middle East. Small hand-held radios could pick up the 24 to 96 radio channels available on the three L-band beams. Dry mass of Afristar was 1205 kg; it carried 1534 kg of propellant at launch. Geostationary at 21.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 21 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 20.98 deg E drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 20.98E drifting at 0.010W degrees per day.

  • GE 5 - . Mass: 1,720 kg (3,790 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: GE Americom. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Americom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 25516 . COSPAR: 1998-063B. Apogee: 35,808 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,765 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Satellite was originally built as a backup for Argentina's Nahuelsat. This allowed Dornier and Alcatel to deliver the satellite in a record twelve months. Dry mass of GE 5 was 769 kg - it carried 950 kg of propellant at launch. Geostationary at 36.4 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 79 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 79.00 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 78.99W drifting at 0.011W degrees per day.


1999 October 28 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS 99-42 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Activity surrounding the operation of the International Space Station settled down a bit following the maneuver of the complex earlier this week to avoid a close approach of a piece of space debris.. Additional Details: here....

2003 October 28 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz TMA-2 - . Return Crew: Duque, Lu, Malenchenko. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Duque, Lu, Malenchenko. Program: ISS. Flight: Soyuz TMA-2, Soyuz TMA-3.

    The spacecraft returned with US astronaut Edward Lu, Russian Yuri Malenchenko and Spaniard Pedro Duque. The three astronauts aboard Soyuz TMA-2 landed at 02:14 GMT, 35 kilometers south of Arkalyk. Transfer of the astronauts was delayed when a snowstorm in Kazakhstan's capital Astana and heavy fog forced all of the rescue party's helicopters.


2004 October 28 - . 19:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Improved Orion.
  • REXUS-2/ECOMA Education/Meteor mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: DLR, SSC. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

    The REXUS program was a joint project between the Swedish Space Corporation SSC, ESRANGE, and the Mobile Rocket Base (Moraba) of the German Aerospace Center DLR, conducted by newly founded EUROLAUNCH. The scientific payload capacity was shared between Swedish and German student experimenters. REXUS was considered as an annual sounding rocket program.


2005 October 28 - .
  • Cassini, Titan Flyby, Successful - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Cassini.

2005 October 28 - .
  • Cassini, Titan Flyby, Successful - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Cassini.

2006 October 28 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3B.
  • Sinosat-2 - . Payload: Xinnuo 2. Mass: 5,100 kg (11,200 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-4. USAF Sat Cat: 29516 . COSPAR: 2006-048A. Apogee: 35,911 km (22,314 mi). Perigee: 35,675 km (22,167 mi). Inclination: 0.0600 deg. Period: 1,436.44 min.

    First DH-4 heavy Chinese communication satellite with communications equipment provided by Alcatel Alenia. Mission failed when solar panels and antennae failed to deploy in geosynchronous orbit. This was a blow to China's prestige, since the satellite was an important part of the 2008 Beijing Olympics coverage plans. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 91.80E drifting at 0.093W degrees per day.


2006 October 28 - . 17:58 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • LASP / CU-11 (SEE / EVE) Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2007 October 28 - .
  • STS-120 - Wakeup Song: What a Wonderful World - . Flight: STS-120. "What a Wonderful World" by Louis Armstrong, was played for Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski on the day he makes his second spacewalk of the mission. "That's how you start the day in space," Parazynski said..

2007 October 28 - . 09:32 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-120-2 - . Crew: Parazynski, Tani. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Parazynski, Tani. Program: ISS. Flight: Soyuz TMA-11, STS-120, STS-120 ISS EO-16.

    The astronauts emerged from the Quest hatch at 09:32 GMT. They assisted in unberthing of the P6 truss and its placement in a parked position. They also installed handrails and a grapple fixture on Harmony and inspected the malfunctioning Solar Array Rotary Joint (SARJ) on the S3/S4 truss.


2009 October 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Ares I-X.
  • Ares I-X - . Nation: USA. Agency: Clemson. Spacecraft Bus: FLTP/FESTIP. Spacecraft: Ares spaceplane.

    First flight test of the Ares/Constellation program. The Ares I-X rocket consisted of the modified Shuttle RSRM-91A solid rocket booster, a dummy Upper Stage Simulator, and a dummy Ares command module / launch abort system. It was launched from the newly modified LC39B at Kennedy Space Center to test the aerodynamics of the vehicle within the atmosphere and provide real-world data to ameliorate concerns regarding the vibration level created by the SRB for any crew in a future mission. The SRB reached 46 km altitude before descending to the Atlantic for recovery.


2009 October 28 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Castor 4A. Launch Vehicle: MRT.
  • MRT-8 (Sep MRT) - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

2009 October 28 - . 04:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands POA. Launch Platform: DDG-175. LV Family: Standard-ER. Launch Vehicle: SM-3.
  • Stellar Raicho - . Nation: USA. Agency: JMSDF. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

2010 October 28 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: K-433. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna.
  • RV x 4 - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Operational test..

2010 October 28 - . Launch Site: Mojave. Launch Complex: Mojave RW12/30. Launch Platform: WK2. LV Family: Spaceship. Launch Vehicle: Spaceship Two.
  • WK2-44/GF02 - . Nation: USA. Agency: SCAL. Apogee: 14 km (8 mi).

2010 October 28 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Operational test..

2010 October 28 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-117. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Sineva.
  • RV x 4 - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Operational test..

2010 October 28 - . 21:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • Eutelsat W3B - . Payload: Spacebus 4000. Mass: 5,370 kg (11,830 lb). Nation: Europe. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 37206 . COSPAR: 2010-056A. Apogee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Perigee: 262 km (162 mi). Inclination: 1.8000 deg. Period: 631.90 min.
  • Bsat 3B - . Payload: A2100A. Mass: 2,060 kg (4,540 lb). Nation: Japan. Program: BSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 2100. USAF Sat Cat: 37207 . COSPAR: 2010-056B. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

2011 October 28 - . 03:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-535. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Bulava test - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Launched from the White Sea to the Kura range..

2011 October 28 - . 09:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-10C.
  • NPP - . Mass: 1,976 kg (4,356 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: BCP-2000. USAF Sat Cat: 37849 . COSPAR: 2011-061A. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 818 km (508 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.30 min.

    NPP Preparatory Project weather satellite, using payloads from the cancelled National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System. The NPP provided a stopgap between the last of the Advanced TIROS-N polar weather satellites and the first Joint Polar Satellite System satellite to be launched in a few years.

  • AubieSat-1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37854 . COSPAR: 2011-061E. Apogee: 817 km (507 mi). Perigee: 457 km (283 mi). Inclination: 101.7000 deg. Period: 97.50 min. Auburn University, Alabama 1U cubesat. First CubeSat from Auburn University. Successful..
  • DICE-X - . Mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37851 . COSPAR: 2011-061B. Apogee: 816 km (507 mi). Perigee: 458 km (284 mi). Inclination: 101.7000 deg. Period: 97.50 min. Utah State University 1.5U cubesat. Deployed 10-m span electric field antennae to study magnetosphere..
  • DICE-Y - . Mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37852 . COSPAR: 2011-061C. Apogee: 816 km (507 mi). Perigee: 458 km (284 mi). Inclination: 101.7000 deg. Period: 97.50 min. Utah State University 1.5U cubesat. Deployed 10-m span electric field antennae to study magnetosphere..
  • Explorer-1 PRIME Flight Unit 2 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2011-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 37856 . COSPAR: 2011-061G. Apogee: 815 km (506 mi). Perigee: 458 km (284 mi). Inclination: 101.7000 deg. Period: 97.50 min. Montana State University 1U cubesat. Carried one of Van Allen's original Geiger tubes..
  • M-Cubed - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37855 . COSPAR: 2011-061F. Apogee: 815 km (506 mi). Perigee: 457 km (283 mi). Inclination: 101.7000 deg. Period: 97.40 min. University of Michigan 1U cubesat. Michigan Multipurpose Mission. Objective was to obtain a mid-resolution image of the earth covering at least 60% land mass and a maximum of 20% cloud coverage from a single CubeSat platform..
  • RAX-2 - . Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2011-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 37853 . COSPAR: 2011-061D. Apogee: 817 km (507 mi). Perigee: 456 km (283 mi). Inclination: 101.7000 deg. Period: 97.50 min. University of Michigan 3U cubesat. National Science Foundation funded Radio Aurora Explorer..

2014 October 28 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA0A. Launch Pad: Wallops MARS 0A. LV Family: Antares LV. Launch Vehicle: Antares 130. FAILURE: Vehicle exploded 14 seconds after launch at an altitude of about 100 metres, and the vehicle and payloads fell back to the pad, resulting in a large explosion. Traced to failure of turbopump in first stage engine; same defect as doomed the N1 moon rocket.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • SS Deke Slayton - . Payload: Cygnus OA-3. Mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft: Cygnus.

    The Orbital Cygnus Orb-3 cargo ship; destroyed during launch. As well as ISS cargo, the Orb-3 mission was carrying 26 PlanetLabs Flock-1d 3U cubesats, the JPL/U-Texas RACE 3U cubesat, the Arkyd-3 3U cubesat from Planetary Resources, and also the GOMX-2 ship tracking 2U cubesat from GOMX of Aalborg, Denmark.

  • RACE - . Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Science. Type: Science satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Perigee: -6,378 km (-6,378 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. JPL/U-Texas 3U cubesat. Lost in explosion of booster..
  • Arkyd-3 - . Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Perigee: -6,378 km (-6,378 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. 3U cubesat from Planetary Resources. Lost in explosion of booster..
  • GOMX-2 - . Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: Denmark. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Perigee: -6,378 km (-6,378 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Ship tracking 2U cubesat from GOMX of Aalborg, Denmark. Lost in explosion of booster..
  • Flock-1d 1 to 26 - . Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. 26 PlanetLabs Flock-1d 3U cubesats. Lost in explosion of booster. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..

2015 October 28 - .
  • EVA ISS US EVA-32 - . Crew: Kelly, James, Lindgren. EVA Duration: 0.30 days. Nation: USA. Program: ISS.

    The Quest airlock was depressurized from about 12:00 GMT to 19:19 GMT. The crew removed a thermal cover from a failed MBSU unit, added thermal covers to the AMS-02 particle physics experiment, installed cabling for the future IDA docking adapters, and lubricated part of the LEE-B end of the Canadarm-2. Part of the LEE lubing and the IDA wiring, as well as the installation of a vent on Node 3, were omitted due to lack of time.


2015 October 28 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Yars.
  • 4 RVs - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Impacted Kura, Kamchatka..


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