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On March 20 in Space History

1901 March 20 - .
  • Birth of William M Holaday - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Holaday. American manager, special assistant to the secretary of defense for guided missiles 1957-1958, then DOD director of guided missiles in 1958 and chairman of the civilian-military liaison committee, 1958-1960..

1944 March 20 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1945 March 20 - . 19:32 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Apeldoorn, - . Nation: Germany. Hellendoorn, Eelerberg, rocket fired, impacted SE of Apeldoorn, Netherlands.

1952 March 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. Launch Vehicle: Matador.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1953 March 20 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Double Deacon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • B-58 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1954 March 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 March 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Nike Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 March 20 - .
  • Brass Bell. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Bomi, Brass Bell, Dynasoar. The Air Force and Bell Aircraft Company completed negotiations for a study contract involving Reconnaissance System 459L, Brass Bell..

1956 March 20 - . Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • R-7 flight test authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Decree 'On means to ensure testing or the R-7' was issued..

1958 March 20 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok-L 8K72.
  • Soviet lunar probes authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Luna. Spacecraft: Luna E-1. Decree 'On work on automated lunar probes and three-stage launch vehicles for them' was issued..

1958 March 20 - .
  • Filial 1 of OKB-456 created. - . Nation: Russia. Decree 'On creation of Branch No. 1 of OKB-456' was issued..

1959 March 20 - .
  • Army task force to plan a manned lunar outpost - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Medaris, von Braun. Program: Horizon.

    An Army task force was formed to develop a plan for establishing a manned lunar outpost by the quickest practical means. The effort was called Project Horizon. The first phase of the project was to make a limited feasibility study, with estimated time and costs. The task force worked under the direction of Maj. Gen. John B. Medaris of the Army Ordnance Missile Command and in full collaboration with the von Braun team. The report was completed on June 8.


1960 March 20 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Georgiyevich Shargin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Shargin. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EP-7. Russian Strategic Rocket Force.

1960 March 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 March 20 - .
  • Phase III of the Mercury spacecraft airdrop program - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury, Mercury Heat Shield.

    Primary objectives of the drops were to study further the spacecraft suitability and flotation capability after water impact. Six drops were made, but later (April 24-28, 1961) the tests were extended for two additional drops to monitor hard-surface landing effects. In the water phase of the program, spacecraft components under particular scrutiny were the lower pressure bulkhead and its capability to withstanding heat shield recontact without impairing flotation capability. Helicopters were used to make the drops.


1962 March 20 - .
  • Mercury spacecraft 19 delivered to Cape Canaveral. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury. Spacecraft 19 was delivered to Cape Canaveral in the orbital-manned configuration, but this mission was canceled after the successful six-orbit flight of Schirra..

1963 March 20 - .
  • Soyuz draft project was submitted to the expert commission - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Soyuz A, Soyuz B, Soyuz P, Soyuz R, Soyuz V.

    Aside from the baseline Soyuz-B circumlunar mission, the draft project also proposed the Soyuz-P space interceptor and the Soyuz-R command-reconnaissance spacecraft. The military projects Soyuz-P and Soyuz-R were ‘subcontracted’ to OKB-1 Filial Number 3, based in Samara. The Soyuz B circumlunar version did not receive the same level of financial support.


1964 March 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC31B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 March 20 - . 05:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Auroral photometry Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1965 March 20 - .
  • Voskhod 2 crew contacted - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Belyayev, Leonov, Rudenko. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Voskhod.

    The crew spent the night in the forest. Only at dawn can a helicopter fly over the landing point again. He reports he sees the two crew, one felling wood, the other building a bonfire. During the night, neither the two crew from the helicopter that landed 5 km away or the searchers from the PVO regiment were able to find the crew in the dense forest. Finally at 07:30 a Colonel Sibiryakov, physician Tumanov, and a technician are lowered from a Mi-4 helicopter to a point 1500 meters from the capsule. Several others are lowered to begin chopping down trees to create a clearing where the helicopter can land. Sibiyakov's party depart at 08:30, skiing toward the capsule, finally reaching the crew after three hours of arduous travel at 11:30. The crew is in fine condition - helicopters had dropped supplies and warm underwear the night before.

    The recovery forces want to have a helicopter pick up the cosmonauts from the landing site, meaning hoisting them from a hover at an altitude of 5 to 6 m. Rudenko vetoes this idea due to the poor visibility, insisting they must be evacuated in snowmobiles. When he is told this is impossible, he becomes adamant that they must wait for conditions to improve. This is ridiculous. Kamanin believes there will be hell to pay if the cosmonauts have to spend a second night in the forest at a landing point only 70-80 km from the capital of the oblast.


1965 March 20 - . 05:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 300.
  • Thermosphere probe Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi).

1965 March 20 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 12.0 S x 77.0 W. Launch Platform: CVE-25. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi). Launched at 1965 Croatan MRF Expedition LP16 - - Latitude: 12.00 S - Longitude: 77.00 W..

1965 March 20 - . 16:28 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 12.9 S x 78.0 W. Launch Platform: CVE-25. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • B field Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 201 km (124 mi). Launched at 1965 Croatan MRF Expedition LP17 - - Latitude: 12.92 S - Longitude: 78.00 W..

1965 March 20 - . 17:04 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 13.0 S x 78.0 W. Launch Platform: CVE-25. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Electron density Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi). Launched at 1965 Croatan MRF Expedition LP18 - - Latitude: 12.95 S - Longitude: 77.97 W..

1966 March 20 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • XRA? / Airglow X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1967 March 20 - .
  • MOL project delays, cost growth. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: MOL.

    Weight growth of the MOL station forced the Air Force to consider upgrading of the Titan booster. Stretching of the booster core or use of 156 inch solid rocket motors was considered. The Air Force also dithered as to whether to compete the Titan booster contract. Eight months were spent making the decision, and at the end of it all the first manned MOL flight was delayed to 1970 and the projected total cost increased from $ 1.5 billion to $ 2.2 billion.


1967 March 20 - .
  • Soyuz 1 preparations - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1, Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    The cosmonauts have given up on further training at Baikonur due to the incomplete state of the spacecraft and returned to Moscow. Kamanin wanted to confront Mishin on the issue - this was all his fault, six days wasted - but Mishin never even showed up on the plane for the flight to Baikonur.


1967 March 20 - .
  • Apollo-Saturn 204 launch vehicle to launch the first lunar module - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo LM.

    NASA announced it would use the Apollo-Saturn 204 launch vehicle to launch the first lunar module on its unmanned test flight. Since the 204 vehicle was prepared and was not damaged in the Apollo 204 fire in January, it would be used instead of the originally planned AS-206.


1967 March 20 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. LV Family: Stromboli. Launch Vehicle: Dauphin. FAILURE: Failure.
  • FU-163 test - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1968 March 20 - .
  • Lunar spacesuit review. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Severin. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Krechet, LK, Luna Ye-8, Orlan.

    Meeting with Gay Ilyich Severin. Two spacesuits are being developed for the L3 program: the Krechet-94 and Orlan. Both have been in development for two years. The Krechet-94 will allow six hours of lunar surface activity, the Orlan, 2.5 hours. Both weigh about 90 kg. There are consumables for a total of 52 hours of life support in the LK and the LT Lunar Cart. Kamanin feels the suits are too heavy, due to Mishin's demand for a 5 km range from the LK over a three day traverse with the LT. Severin could have instead developed the spacesuit used by Leonov to have a four hour autonomous operation, but Mishin insisted on doubling of the capacity.


1968 March 20 - . 04:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
1968 March 20 - . 18:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • MPE Barium release EXP-34 Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi).

1968 March 20 - . 19:55 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 32.3 N x 128.0 W. Launch Platform: AVM1. LV Family: Iris. Launch Vehicle: Hydra-Iris.
  • LRL BAR-1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN NMC. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1968 March 20 - . 20:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1968 March 20 - . 21:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 182 km (113 mi).

1968 March 20 - . 21:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Mass spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1969 March 20 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Soviet of military officers meets to review manned space plans. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Program: Lunar L3, Lunar L1, Soyuz, Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, LK, Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz 7K-LOK, Soyuz 7K-OK, Soyuz OB-VI, Spiral OS.

    A 50 minute presentation is given on space plans. Russia plans to fly no less than six different types of manned spacecraft in 1969-1970 - the Soyuz, L1, L3, Almaz, Soyuz VI, and Spiral. This will result in a decisive answer to the American Apollo programme within two to three years. No N1 launch with the complete L3 lunar landing spacecraft is planned until 1970. Approval is sought for the VVS to buy 10 Soyuz spacecraft for continued manned military flights in low earth orbit. Otherwise between the second half of 1970 and during all of 1971 there will be no spacecraft available for manned flights Additional Details: here....


1969 March 20 - . 05:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • HEMLOCK Ba Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1969 March 20 - . 17:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1969 March 20 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1969 March 20 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1969 March 20 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 March 20 - . 23:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta M.
  • NATO 1 - . Payload: NATO IIA. Mass: 243 kg (535 lb). Nation: NATO. Agency: NATO. Program: NATO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Skynet. Spacecraft: NATO 1. Completed Operations Date: 1977-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 4353 . COSPAR: 1970-021A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 13.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    The first of two communications satellites built for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) by the Philco-Ford Corporation under a SAMSO contract was launched from Cape Canaveral aboard a NASA Long Tank Thrust Augmented Thor/ Delta booster. Inserted into synchronous orbit on 23 March, the satellite was turned over to the Supreme Headquarters Allied Forces Europe (SHAFE) on 19 May. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 18 deg W in 1970-1972; over the Americas at 100-110 deg W in 1977-1998 As of 3 September 2001 located at 101.97 deg W drifting at 0.023 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 100.55W drifting at 0.016W degrees per day.


1971 March 20 - .
  • DOS crews arrives in Baikonur. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Kolodin, Leonov, Patsayev, Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Volkov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Shatalov's crew arrived at 09:00 aboard a Tu-104 and were ensconced in Room 14 of the Hotel Kosmonavt. Two further Tu-104's arrived 20 and 30 minutes later with the second and third crews. At 18:00 they all went to the MIK assembly hall to view the two Soyuz spacecraft and the station. There were electrical problems with the station, and they finally returned to the hotel at 24:00 without the problem having been resolved. Kamanin notes two films are to be screened tomorrow - a Bulgarian movie and the Soviet film 'Diplomat'.


1971 March 20 - . Launch Site: Hall Beach. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 20 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170. FAILURE: Failure.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 March 20 - . 05:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi).

1971 March 20 - . 05:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1971 March 20 - . 07:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant II.
  • Auroral VUV Test / aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1971 March 20 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1972 March 20 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1972 March 20 - . 18:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1972 March 20 - . 20:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1973 March 20 - . 03:41 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Dawn chorus Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1973 March 20 - . 04:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6 AC.
  • Echelle spectrograph Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi).

1973 March 20 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-14 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 14. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 6392 . COSPAR: 1973-015A. Apogee: 878 km (545 mi). Perigee: 860 km (530 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1974 March 20 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 636 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 7225 . COSPAR: 1974-016A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 March 20 - .
  • X-24 Flight 48 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1537 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21450 m. Flight Time - 409 sec..

1975 March 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VI.
  • 12cm Sphere - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1976 March 20 - . 03:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1977 March 20 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 March 20 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • MSV-3 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

    The third and final flight of the MSV (materials screening vehicle) program was successfully launched on an Athena D booster from Wallops Flight Center, Virginia, through adverse weather. Three small reentry vehicles gathered data on nosetip materials and designs.


1977 March 20 - . 19:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna A. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • DLR K-AR-82 Porc. F2 Magnetospheric mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR, NASA. Apogee: 460 km (280 mi).

1978 March 20 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 52 km (32 mi).

1979 March 20 - .
  • Ferry flight, Edwards to El Paso - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Edwards to Biggs Army Air Base, El Paso, Texas (3 hours, 20 minutes).

1979 March 20 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 March 20 - . 03:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1981 March 20 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1260 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1982-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 12364 . COSPAR: 1981-028A. Apogee: 444 km (275 mi). Perigee: 425 km (264 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Ocean monitoring..

1982 March 20 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 74 km (45 mi).

1983 March 20 - .
  • Death of Li Xun - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Li Xun. Chinese Engineer. Metallurgist who developed alloys crucial to China's nuclear, missile, and space programmes..

1983 March 20 - . 18:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1984 March 20 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1985 March 20 - . 22:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1985 March 20 - . 22:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1987 March 20 - . 22:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920/PAM.
  • Palapa B2P - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1998-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 17706 . COSPAR: 1987-029A. Apogee: 35,906 km (22,310 mi). Perigee: 35,868 km (22,287 mi). Inclination: 5.0000 deg. Period: 1,441.20 min.

    Stationed at 113 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 113 deg E in 1987-1996; 144 deg E in 1996-1998 As of 28 August 2001 located at 130.30 deg W drifting at 1.327 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 3 located at 141.38E drifting at 1.274W degrees per day.


1988 March 20 - . 16:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 74 km (45 mi).

1989 March 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1990 March 20 - . 00:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2061 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 20527 . COSPAR: 1990-023A. Apogee: 1,017 km (631 mi). Perigee: 969 km (602 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Military navigation satellite..

1991 March 20 - . 22:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1992 March 20 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Zingst. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06. FAILURE: Failure.
  • MMR06-M Zingst launch 54 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 37 km (22 mi). Unsuccessful. Earth impacted at 535 seconds. Reached 36.6 km. No seperation of the dart from the engine..

1995 March 20 - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1998 March 20 - .
  • Starchaser 3 launch. - . Nation: UK. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft Bus: X-Prize. Spacecraft: Starchaser 5. Starchaser Industries (Hyde, England, UK) unsuccessfully launches Starchaser 3 vehicle..

2000 March 20 - . 18:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Dumsat - . Mass: 2,382 kg (5,251 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Starsem. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster 2. USAF Sat Cat: 26106 . COSPAR: 2000-015A. Apogee: 17,687 km (10,990 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 316.60 min. Cluster 2 Composite Mock-Up validation flight. Mass model of a pair of Cluster II scientific satellites built by Aerospatiale Matra. Second test launch of the Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle..

2001 March 20 - .
2001 March 20 - .
  • STS-102 - Wakeup Song: Wipe Out - . Flight: STS-102. "Wipe Out" - Surfaris..

2003 March 20 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200SV.
  • Test mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

2004 March 20 - . 17:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. Launch Pad: SLC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-9.5.
  • USA 177 - . Payload: GPS 2R-11 / Navstar 54. Mass: 2,032 kg (4,479 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AS 4000. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2R. USAF Sat Cat: 28190 . COSPAR: 2004-009A. Apogee: 20,268 km (12,593 mi). Perigee: 20,100 km (12,400 mi). Inclination: 55.0000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Launch delayed from December 19, 2003, March 8, 2004..

2006 March 20 - .
  • Soyuz TMA-7 moved. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McArthur, Tokarev. Program: ISS. Flight: Soyuz TMA-7. At 06:49 GMT ISS crewmen McArthur and Tokarev flew Soyuz TMA-7 from the Zarya docking port to the docking port at the aft end of Zvezda, docking there at 07:11 GMT. This leaves the Zarya port free for the planned arrival of Soyuz TMA-8 on April 1..

2008 March 20 - .
  • EVA STS-123-4 - . Crew: Behnken, Foreman. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Behnken, Foreman. Program: ISS. Flight: Soyuz TMA-11, STS-123. The crew replaced a power control box on the station truss and carried out the T-RAD experiment, repairing a sample damaged heat shield tiles using a putty-like material..

2008 March 20 - .
  • STS-123 - Wakeup Song: Blue Sky - . Flight: STS-123. "Blue Sky" by Big Head Todd and the Monsters, was played for Mission Specialist Rick Linnehan, who will serve as the spacewalk coordinator for today’s 6.5-hour-long excursion by Mission Specialists Robert L. Behnken and Mike Foreman..

2009 March 20 - .
  • STS-119 - Wakeup Song: Box of Rain - . Flight: STS-119. "Box of Rain" by the Grateful Dead, was played for Mission Specialist John Phillips..

2009 March 20 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant XII.
  • NASA 40.023UE - . Nation: USA. Agency: Clemson. Apogee: 560 km (340 mi). Aurora.

2010 March 20 - . 18:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. Launch Pad: LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/Briz-M.
  • Echostar 14 - . Mass: 6,380 kg (14,060 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ILS. Program: Echostar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 36499 . COSPAR: 2010-010A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.


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