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On December 8 in Space History

1904 December 8 - .
  • Birth of Alfred H Henning - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Henning. German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Went to the USA with von Braun, by 1960, Deputy Director, Weapons System Coordination Office, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center..

1913 December 8 - .
  • Birth of Thomas Patrick Gerrity - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gerrity. American officer. Head of Air Force ballistic missile programs 1960-1961..

1922 December 8 - .
  • Birth of John Barron McKay - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. American NASA test pilot, 1952-1971. Flew into space on X-15 Flight 150, but seriously injured in an X-15 crash in 1962..

1927 December 8 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Related Persons: Shatalov. Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 4, Soyuz 8, Soyuz 10. Made first Soviet space docking..

1937 December 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A3. FAILURE: Engine cutoff early.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • A3 launch - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Range: 0.30 km (0.19 mi). Third launch of an A3. No parachute deployment and the engine cut-off early. The rocket impacted into the Baltic Sea and sank..

1944 December 8 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma342 285 S7 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 250 km. Impact 0.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.0 km from aim point..

1947 December 8 - . 21:42 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Blossom II Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi). Launched 14:42 local time. Reached 104.8 km. Carried pressure, temperature, solar radiation, sky brightness, ionosphere, photo experiments for Air Research and Development Command..

1949 December 8 - . 19:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Blossom IVD Solar/Biological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army, USAF AFSC. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

    Launched 12:14 local time. Reached 130.6 km. Carried Composition, ionosphere, meteorites, solar radiation, sky brightness experiments for Air Research and Development Command. Last monkey, Albert IV, launched in V-2 series. The successful flight indicated no ill effects on monkey until impact of V-2.


1953 December 8 - .
  • X-1A Flight 9 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: X-1A flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 3. First high-mach flight attempt by X-1A. Mach 1.9 attained at 18300 m during slight climb..

1953 December 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Platform: B-29. LV Family: X-7. Launch Vehicle: X-7A-1.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: ARDC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 December 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: MGR-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 December 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Platform: B-29. LV Family: X-7. Launch Vehicle: X-7A-3.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: ARDC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 December 8 - . 06:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC18A. Launch Pad: LC18A. LV Family: Viking sounding rocket. Launch Vehicle: Viking Type 9.
  • Vanguard TV0 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

    First Vanguard test; re-entry studies; not a vertical firing. Launched at 0103 local time. First test rocket in the IGY-U.S. satellite program, a one-stage NRL Viking, attained an altitude of 176 km and a speed of 6,400 kph. Viking No. 13 carried a "minitrack" radio transmitter which was ejected at 80 km and tracked.


1958 December 8 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Nine Atlas launch vehicles required for Project Mercury - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. The Space Task Group indicated that nine Atlas launch vehicles were required in support of the Project Mercury manned and unmanned flights and these were ordered from the Air Force Ballistic Missile Division..

1958 December 8 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Platform: B-47. LV Family: Bold Orion. Launch Vehicle: Bold Orion.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 December 8 - .
  • Retrorockets for the Mercury spacecraft were tested - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury, Mercury Retrorockets. Two Thiokol retrorockets for the Mercury spacecraft were tested at the Arnold Engineering Development Center engine test facility. The test objectives were to evaluate ignition characteristics..

1960 December 8 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Target mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1960 December 8 - . 16:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Langmuir Probe Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1961 December 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LC-A. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500.
  • Project CAMBRIDGE Geodetic mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 2,190 km (1,360 mi).

1962 December 8 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1962 December 8 - . 01:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Firefly III LAURA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1962 December 8 - . 21:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Spartan ABM. Launch Vehicle: Nike Zeus.
  • ZM-18 - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1963 December 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1964 December 8 - .
  • Apollo main parachute drop-tested - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM, CSM Parachute.

    A single main parachute was drop-tested at El Centro, Calif., to verify the ultimate strength. The parachute was designed for a disreef load of 11,703 kg (25,800 lbs) and a 1.35 safety factor. The test conditions were to achieve a disreef load of 15,876 kg (35,000 lbs. Preliminary information indicated the parachute deployed normally to the reefed shape (78,017 kg (17,200 lbs) force), disreefed after the programmed three seconds, and achieved an inflated load of 16,193 kg (35,700 lbs), after which the canopy failed. Additional Details: here....


1964 December 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan I.
  • ST West Wind I operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 December 8 - . 10:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: HAD.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1964 December 8 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Little Joe II. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe II.
  • A-002 / BP-23 Spacecraft test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

    Boilerplate 23, Mission A-002, was successfully launched from WSMR by a Little Joe II launch vehicle. The test was to demonstrate satisfactory launch escape vehicle performance utilizing the canard subsystem and boost protective cover, and to verify the abort capability in the maximum dynamic pressure region with conditions approximating emergency detection subsystem limits.


1964 December 8 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Mon Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 December 8 - .
  • Soyuz VI - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gorbatko, Volynov. Flight: Gemini 7, Soyuz VI Flight 1, Voskhod 3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz VI.

    Kamanin meets with an engineering delegation from Kuibyshev. They are seeking a close relationship with the cosmonaut cadre in development of the military reconnaissance version of Soyuz, which they are charged with developing. They have already been working with the IAKM for over a year in establishing he basic requirements. Kamanin finds this refreshing after the arms-length relationship with Korolev's bureau. Meanwhile Gemini 7 orbits above, and there is not the slightest word on the schedule for Volynov-Gorbatko's Voskhod 3 flight, which would surpass the new American record.


1965 December 8 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo J-2 engine captive-fired for 388 sec - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo.

    An 889-kilonewton (200,000-lb) thrust J-2 engine was captive-fired for 388 sec on a new test stand at MSFC. The J-2 engine would be used to power the Saturn S-IVB stage for the Saturn V. Ten tests of the liquid hydrogen-liquid oxygen powered rocket engine had been conducted at MSFC since the J-2 engine test facility was put into use in August 1965.


1965 December 8 - .
  • Gemini 7 - Wakeup Song: High Hopes - . Flight: Gemini 7.

    "High Hopes" - Later: Classical music chosen for the crew included:"The Last Two Movements From Symphony Five from The New World" presumably by Dvorak,"Perpetual Motion Opus Number 257" by Johann Strauss, and"Air on the G String" by Johann Sebastian Bach performed by the Philadelphia orchestra.


1965 December 8 - . 13:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant III.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1966 December 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 December 8 - .
  • Astronaut Robert Henry Lawrence Jr dies at age of 32 -- Crash of F-104B while practicing zoom landings. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lawrence, Robert. African-American pilot astronaut, 1967-1967..

1967 December 8 - .
  • Apollo drop test failed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM, CSM Parachute.

    An Apollo drop test failed at El Centro, Calif. The two-drogue verification test had been planned to provide confidence in the drogue chute design (using a weighted bomb) before repeating the parachute test vehicle (PTV) test. Preliminary information indicated that in the test one drogue entangled with the other during deployment and that only one drogue inflated. The failure appeared to be related to a test deployment method rather than to drogue design. The test vehicle was successfully recovered by a USAF recovery parachute-intact and reusable.


1967 December 8 - .
  • TsKBEM confirms Mishin's decision to cancel Soyuz VI - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bushuyev, Chelomei, Feoktistov, Gaidukov, Karas, Kerimov, Mishin, Okhapkin, Shcheulov. Program: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, LK-1, Soyuz 7K-S, Soyuz OB-VI, Soyuz VI.

    Mishin is away on 'cure' for his drinking problem. A 'Podlipki Soviet' is held at TsKBEM. The issue is cancellation of Kozlov's 7K-VI military Soyuz. Bushuyev, Chertok, Okhapkin, Feoktistov are in favour of cancelling it. Opposed are Karas, Shcheulov, Kostonin, Gaidukov, and the various military representatives at the meeting. It was now six years since OKB-1 was required to put a military manned spacecraft into space - and, factually speaking, nothing has been done. Military experiments proposed for each manned flight by OKB-1 to date had been rejected on various grounds - no weight, no space aboard the spacecraft. Good progress has been made with Kozlov's VI and Chelomei's Almaz - now they've managed to kill the VI, and Mishin and Kerimov are constantly denigrating Almaz (saying it is too heavy, and unsuited for the purpose). The whole thing is a replay of the LK-1 situation. In 1963, a resolution was issued to send a Soviet man around the moon. Instead, after two years of development, Korolev managed to get Chelomei's LK-1 lunar spacecraft cancelled, and started all over with his own L1. Additional Details: here....


1967 December 8 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Javelin.
  • Ion-proton transit'n Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 805 km (500 mi).

1967 December 8 - . 21:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • GIN BABY IV research and development mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1968 December 8 - .
  • Apollo lunar landing training vehicle No 1 crashed and burned at Ellington AFB - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft Bus: Apollo LM. Spacecraft: Apollo LLRV.

    During a routine flight of lunar landing training vehicle (LLTV) No. 1, MSC test pilot Joseph S. Algranti was forced to eject from the craft when it became unstable and he could no longer control the vehicle. The LLTV crashed and burned. A flight readiness review at MSC on November 26 had found the LLTV ready for use in astronaut training, and 10 flight tests had been made before the accident. Additional Details: here....


1969 December 8 - . 16:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para, Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1970 December 8 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1971 December 8 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. LV Family: Spartan ABM. Launch Vehicle: Spartan ABM.
  • Safeguard M2-3 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 148 km (91 mi).

1971 December 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: EAG-154. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Safeguard M2-3 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 December 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M2-21 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1972 December 8 - . 06:26 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1974 December 8 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1974 December 8 - .
1975 December 8 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1976 December 8 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Ultraviolet/Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1977 December 8 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 965 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: Taifun-2. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1979-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10501 . COSPAR: 1977-111A. Apogee: 516 km (320 mi). Perigee: 465 km (288 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Released 24 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1977 December 8 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/MSD.
  • NOSS 2 - . Payload: PARCAE 2 / OPS 8781. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: NOSS. Spacecraft: NOSS. USAF Sat Cat: 10502 . COSPAR: 1977-112A. Apogee: 1,169 km (726 mi). Perigee: 1,054 km (654 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.50 min. Ocean surveillance; aka White Cloud type spacecraft; Navy Ocean Surveillance Satellite; PARCAE..
  • SS 2 - . Payload: SSU. Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: NOSS. Spacecraft: NOSS-Subsat. USAF Sat Cat: 10544 . COSPAR: 1977-112E. Apogee: 1,168 km (725 mi). Perigee: 1,055 km (655 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.50 min. Deployed from NOSS 2..
  • SS 3 - . Payload: SSU. Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: NOSS. Spacecraft: NOSS-Subsat. USAF Sat Cat: 10594 . COSPAR: 1977-112F. Apogee: 1,168 km (725 mi). Perigee: 1,055 km (655 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.50 min. Deployed from NOSS 2..
  • SS 1 - . Payload: SSU. Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: NOSS. Spacecraft: NOSS-Subsat. USAF Sat Cat: 10529 . COSPAR: 1977-112D. Apogee: 1,169 km (726 mi). Perigee: 1,054 km (654 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.50 min. Deployed from NOSS 2..

1978 December 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Standard Test Missile 17W, a Minuteman III carrying three Mark 12A reentry vehicles, was successfully launched from Vandenberg AFB. The test provided data on the performance of experimental nosetip and heatshield materials. .

1978 December 8 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1060 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 11139 . COSPAR: 1978-111A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1980 December 8 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • PLACES IRIS Plasma / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA, Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1980 December 8 - . 23:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • PLACES beacon 1 Plasma / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA, Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1980 December 8 - . 23:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • PLACES beacon 2 Plasma / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA, Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1981 December 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • UM Airglow payload Magnetosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1982 December 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU 15A35S.
1982 December 8 - . 13:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Fourth stage failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 1423 - . Payload: Molniya-1T s/n 60. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1982-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 13685 . COSPAR: 1982-115A. Apogee: 571 km (354 mi). Perigee: 348 km (216 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 93.80 min. Intended to replace Molniya 1-48; failed. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1983 December 8 - . 06:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1513 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 14546 . COSPAR: 1983-120A. Apogee: 1,014 km (630 mi). Perigee: 957 km (594 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Military navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 1417..

1983 December 8 - . 18:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Super Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Wallops. Apogee: 109 km (67 mi).

1983 December 8 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • M-F 4 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1983 December 8 - .
1984 December 8 - .
  • Death of Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomei - . Nation: Russia, Ukraine. Related Persons: Chelomei. Soviet Chief Designer 1955-1984 of OKB-52. Leading designer of cruise missiles and ICBMs. Fought for lead role in space launchers and manned spacecraft. Led work on UR-100, UR-200 ICBM's, Proton LV, Raketoplan, Almaz, TKS manned spacecraft..

1985 December 8 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • PWN-8B Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1987 December 8 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1988 December 8 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1983 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 19672 . COSPAR: 1988-107A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 243 km (150 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1989 December 8 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Zingst. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • MMR06-M Zingst launch 18 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi). Successful. Earth impacted at 3223 seconds. Reached 75.3 km. .

1990 December 8 - .
1990 December 8 - .
  • Death of Forrest Silas 'Pete' Petersen at Omaha, Nebraska - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Petersen, Forrest. American test pilot, 1952-1962. Flew the X-15..

1990 December 8 - . 02:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2109 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 47L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 21006 . COSPAR: 1990-110A. Apogee: 19,271 km (11,974 mi). Perigee: 18,988 km (11,798 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 2111 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 49L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21008 . COSPAR: 1990-110C. Apogee: 19,148 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 2110 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 48L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21007 . COSPAR: 1990-110B. Apogee: 19,215 km (11,939 mi). Perigee: 19,045 km (11,833 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1992 December 8 - .
1992 December 8 - .
  • STS-53 - Wakeup Song: Caissons Go Rolling Along - . Flight: STS-53. "Caissons Go Rolling Along" by Bob Sharples and His Military Band in honor of Army Lieutenant Colonels Jim Voss and Rich Clifford..

1993 December 8 - . 00:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 98 - . Payload: NATO 4B. Mass: 1,430 kg (3,150 lb). Nation: NATO. Agency: NATO. Program: NATO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ECS/OTS. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 22921 . COSPAR: 1993-076A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,767 km (22,224 mi). Inclination: 2.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NATO encrypted communications relay. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 6 deg E in 1994-1998; 20 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 20.16 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 35.47E drifting at 0.007E degrees per day.


1993 December 8 - . 03:13 GMT - .
1994 December 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: LC36 L-455. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • CSAR-2 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CSA. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). CSAR II (Canadian materials processing payload).

1995 December 8 - . 19:23 GMT - .
1997 December 8 - . 07:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2C-III/SD.
  • Iridium 42 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV042. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: LM 700. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25077 . COSPAR: 1997-077A. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 6. Ascending node 325.8 degrees..
  • Iridium 44 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV044. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: LM 700. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25078 . COSPAR: 1997-077B. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 774 km (480 mi). Inclination: 86.3900 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 6. Ascending node 325.8 degrees. Not in service..

1997 December 8 - . 23:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS.
  • Galaxy 8i - . Payload: HS 601HP. Mass: 3,537 kg (7,797 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: PanAmSat. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 601. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25086 . COSPAR: 1997-078A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Geosynchronous. Stationed over 79.2W Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with MRS trajectory option. Used HS-601 XIPS ion engine for station keeping. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 95 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 94.92 deg W drifting at 0.000 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 37.58W drifting at 2.053W degrees per day.


1998 December 8 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: Streets of Bakersfield - . Flight: STS-88. "Streets of Bakersfield" - Dwight Yoakum. Requested by the wife of Pilot Rick Sturckow, a California native. CAPCOM: Janet Kavandi.

1998 December 8 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 December 8 - . 22:10 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-88-1 - . Crew: Newman, Ross. EVA Duration: 0.31 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Newman, Ross. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-88. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: ISS. Began assembly of International Space Station. Connected cables between Zarya and Unity modules..

2000 December 8 - .
2000 December 8 - .
  • STS-97 - Wakeup Song: Rattled - . Flight: STS-97. "Rattled" - The Traveling Wilburys.

2001 December 8 - .
2001 December 8 - .
  • STS-108 - Wakeup Song: Wade Into the Water - . Flight: STS-108. "Wade Into the Water" performed by Clear Creek Mighty Wildcat Marching Band. Mission Specialist Carl Walz's son Aaron plays percussion..

2004 December 8 - . Launch Site: Sonmiani. LV Family: DF-15. Launch Vehicle: Shaheen 1.
2006 December 8 - . 00:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3A.
  • FY-2D - . Payload: Fengyun 2D. Mass: 1,380 kg (3,040 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FY-2. Spacecraft: FY-2. Decay Date: 2006-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 29641 . COSPAR: 2006-053B. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 2.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Fourth Wind and Cloud 2 geostationary weather satellite with an infrared radiometer as its primary instrument. The booster placed the spacecraft in a 226 x 36221 km x 24.9 deg geosynchronous transfer orbit. The FG-36 solid apogee motor aboard the satellite burned at 18:07 GMT and placed the FY-2D into an initial 35786 x 36478 km x 2.6 deg geosynchronous drift orbit.


2006 December 8 - . 22:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • WildBlue 1 - . Mass: 4,735 kg (10,438 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Arianespace. Manufacturer: Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FS-1300. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 29643 . COSPAR: 2006-054A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0200 deg. Period: 1,436.09 min.

    Broadband internet satellite, using the Ka-band satellite. Dry mass 2000 kg. At separation of the Ariane core the stack was in a -1282 km x 233 km x 6.9 deg suborbital trajectory. The ESC-A upper stage fired to put the satellites in a geostationary transfer orbit of 265 km x 35700 km x 2.0 deg. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 111.14W drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.

  • AMC-18 - . Payload: A2100A. Mass: 2,081 kg (4,587 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SES Americom. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Americom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AS 2100. Spacecraft: AS 2100. USAF Sat Cat: 29644 . COSPAR: 2006-054B. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0100 deg. Period: 1,436.09 min. C-band cable television distribution satellite with a dry mass of 918 kg. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 104.94W drifting at 0.006W degrees per day..

2007 December 8 - . 14:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Balkhash - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2010 December 8 - . 15:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. Launch Pad: SLC40. LV Family: Falcon. Launch Vehicle: Falcon 9.
  • Dragon C1 - . Mass: 6,650 kg (14,660 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Dragon. Spacecraft: Dragon. Duration: 0.14 days. Decay Date: 2010-01-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 37244 . COSPAR: 2010-066A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 281 km (174 mi). Inclination: 34.5000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. First test of the Dragon recoverable spacecraft. Splashed down and successfully recovered in the Pacific Ocean 800 km west of Mexico after a 3 hour 20 minute mission..
  • QBX2 - . Payload: QbX-2. Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2011-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 37245 . COSPAR: 2010-066B. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 34.5000 deg. Period: 88.10 min. 3U cubesat built by Pumpkin Inc of San Francisco for the National Reconaissance Office's Colony-1 technology development project. Successful..
  • SMDC One - . Payload: SMDC-One. Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2011-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 37246 . COSPAR: 2010-066C. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 34.5000 deg. Period: 88.10 min. Operational Nanosatellite Experiment for the US Army Space and Missile Defense Center.
  • Perseus 003 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2010-01-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 37247 . COSPAR: 2010-066D. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 34.5000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Los Alamos National Laboratory cubesat, perhaps for ionospheric monitoring..
  • Perseus 001 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2010-12-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 37248 . COSPAR: 2010-066E. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 34.5000 deg. Period: 88.10 min. Los Alamos National Laboratory cubesat, perhaps for ionospheric monitoring..
  • QBX1 - . Payload: QbX-1. Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2011-12-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 37249 . COSPAR: 2010-066F. Apogee: 197 km (122 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 34.5000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. 3U cubesat satellite built by Pumpkin Inc of San Francisco for the National Reconaissance Office's Colony-1 technology development project. Successful..
  • Perseus 002 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2010-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 37250 . COSPAR: 2010-066G. Apogee: 193 km (119 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 34.5000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Los Alamos National Laboratory cubesat, perhaps for ionospheric monitoring..
  • Perseus 000 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2010-12-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 37251 . COSPAR: 2010-066H. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 34.5000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Los Alamos National Laboratory cubesat, perhaps for ionospheric monitoring..
  • Mayflower - . Payload: Caerus/Mayflower. Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2010-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 37252 . COSPAR: 2010-066J. Apogee: 194 km (120 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 34.5000 deg. Period: 88.20 min.

    Experiment for Northrop Grumman NovaWorks and the University of Southern California. 3U cubesat with deployable solar panels composed of a Northrop Grumman's 2-unit Mayflower Next Generation Technology Nanosat and University of Southern California's 1-unit cubesat.


2012 December 8 - . 13:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/Briz-M.
  • Yamal 402 - . Payload: Spacebus 4000C3. Mass: 5,250 kg (11,570 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Spacebus 4000. Spacecraft: Spacebus 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 39022 . COSPAR: 2012-070A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Left in a lower than planned transfer orbit of 3038 km x 35680 km x 26.1 deg when the final Briz-M burn ended prematurely on 8 December. The satellite used its on-board fuel to reach geosynhronous orbit, reaching its station at 53 deg E on 17 December..

2012 December 8 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VS-30/Orion.
  • AEB VS30/O V10 - . Nation: Brazil. Apogee: 428 km (265 mi). Ionosphere instruments..

2013 December 8 - . 12:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. Launch Pad: LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/Briz-M.
  • Inmarsat 5 F1 - . Payload: BSS-702HP. Mass: 6,090 kg (13,420 lb). Nation: International. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 702. Spacecraft: HS 702. USAF Sat Cat: 39476 . COSPAR: 2013-073A. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.08 min. First Inmarsat 5 satellite, carrying the Ka-band Global Xpress communications payload.


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