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On September 9 in Space History

1892 September 9 - .
  • Edward Barnard's Discovery of Jupiter Moon Amalthea - . Nation: USA.

1899 September 9 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Nikolayevich Nesmeyanov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nesmeyanov. Russian scientist. President of the Academy of Sciences 1951-1961. Approved the first satellite project..

1906 September 9 - .
  • Birth of Anton Beier - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Beier. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1917 September 9 - .
  • Birth of Ralph E Ulmer - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ulmer. American engineer, at NASA 1938-1973, budget officer and program analyst..

1931 September 9 - . LV Family: Schmiedl. Launch Vehicle: Schmiedl.
  • First rocket-mail service. - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Schmiedl. Apogee: 2.50 km (1.50 mi). Schmiedl's Post Rocket R1, with 333 letters aboard, is launched 5 km from the top of the Hochtroetsch to the town of Semriach. A month later the first return service rocket is launched at night from Semriach to Hochtroetsch..

1933 September 9 - . Launch Site: Schwielow Lake. LV Family: Magdeburg. Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Nebel rocket - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Fourth launch from Schwielow Lake. This employs a new design with two longer tanks in place of four shorter propellant tanks. Results 'poor'..

1934 September 9 - . LV Family: ARS. Launch Vehicle: ARS.
  • ARS Rocket No. 4 reaches 130 m - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 0.13 km (0.08 mi). ARS Rocket No. 4 launched at Marine Island, Staten Island, New York. It reached 130 m altitude and crashed into New York Bay 407 meters downrange. It featured a single thrust chamber with four canted nozzles.

1944 September 9 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • RAF located the V-2 launch sites in the Hague and makes the first attacks. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1948 September 9 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1952 September 9 - .
  • Birth of Lee Miller Emile Morin - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Morin. American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-110..

1953 September 9 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 September 9 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1955 September 9 - . LV Family: Vanguard. Launch Vehicle: Vanguard.
  • Project Vanguard began operations. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Vanguard 2. Spacecraft: Vanguard 2.

    The Department of Defense's Stewart Committee reviewed the alternatives for an IGY satellite program: wait for the development of an Atlas launcher, use a modified Redstone, or develop a rocket derived from the Viking missile. The committee voted seven to two in favor of abandoning Project Orbiter (Redstone) and developing Vanguard (Viking derivative with and Aerobee-Hi upper stage). Secretary Donald Quarles ruled with the committee majority in the Department of Defense Policy Committee, which approved the decision. The Department of Defense wrote a letter to the Department of Navy authorizing the Navy Research Laboratory to proceed with the Vanguard proposal. The responsibility for carrying out the program was placed with the Office of Naval Research. Objectives of Project Vanguard were: to develop and procure a satellite-launching vehicle; to place at least one satellite in orbit around the earth during IGY; to accomplish one scientific experiment; and to track flight to demonstrate the satellite actually attained orbit.


1955 September 9 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Platform: B-29. LV Family: X-7. Launch Vehicle: X-7A-3.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: ARDC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 September 9 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Pavlovich Artsebarsky - . Nation: Russia, Ukraine. Related Persons: Artsebarsky. Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-9..

1957 September 9 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • First US Army heavy missile group. - . Nation: USA. The 40th Field Artillery Missile Group, the first heavy missile group organized in the U.S. Army, was transferred from Fort Carson, Colorado, to Redstone Arsenal..

1957 September 9 - .
  • Birth of Michael Eugene Belt - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Belt. American photointerpreter payload specialist astronaut, 1988-1991..

1957 September 9 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1959 September 9 - . 08:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Mercury BJ-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

    A SAC crew conducted the first west coast launch of an Atlas operational configuration missile, 12D, from Vandenberg AFB, to a target near Wake Island, Afterward, General Thomas S. Power, CINCSAC, declared the Atlas system to be operational. This marked the attainment of operational status for the Atlas one year earlier than the six years that the von Neumann Committee had projected in its February 1954 report. The first prototype of the Mercury-Atlas capsule for NASA's Project Mercury was launched atop Atlas 10D from Cape Canaveral. NASA boilerplate model of Mercury capsule successfully launched on an Atlas (Big Joe) missile from AMR and recovered in South Atlantic after surviving reentry heat of more than 10,000°F.


1959 September 9 - . 17:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A2. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Initial operational capability demonstration launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,800 km (1,100 mi).

    A SAC crew conducted the first west coast launch of an Atlas operational configuration missile, 12D, from Vandenberg AFB, to a target near Wake Island, Afterward, General Thomas S. Power, CINCSAC, declared the Atlas system to be operational. This marked the attainment of operational status for the Atlas one year earlier than the six years that the von Neumann Committee had projected in its February 1954 report. The first prototype of the Mercury-Atlas capsule for NASA's Project Mercury was launched atop Atlas 10D from Cape Canaveral. First SAC operational (IOC) launch, 576th SMS, successful: impacted within one mile of target near Wake Island, a 4,480 nautical mile flight. Afterwards, General Thomas S. Power, Commander in Chief of Strategic Air Command, declared the Atlas system to be operational.


1960 September 9 - .
  • Test plans for the Mercury spacecaft systems - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft Bus: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury. McDonnell forwarded its plans to the Space Task Group for the spacecaft systems tests and Cape Canaveral checkout plans for spacecraft Nos. 5 and 7. Later, spacecraft No. 7 was the first to undergo this type of test..

1961 September 9 - . 01:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 September 9 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena B. FAILURE: Exploded on launch pad.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Samos 3 - . Payload: Samos E-2 no. 1. Mass: 1,890 kg (4,160 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: Samos. Decay Date: 1961-09-09 . First generation photo surveillance; radio relay of images..

1961 September 9 - . 20:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Spartan ABM. Launch Vehicle: Nike Zeus. FAILURE: Failure.
  • PM-1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1962 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cuxhaven. Launch Complex: Cuxhaven.
  • Rocket mail at Cuxhaven - . Nation: Germany. The DRG (German Rocket Society) made postal launches from spaceport Cuxhaven..

1963 September 9 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Electrojet Magnetospheric mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1964 September 9 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Voskhod preparations - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev, Krylov, Rudenko. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod, Zenit-4.

    Kamanin arrives at the cosmodrome, only to find the launch of the manned Voskhod delayed to October. The launch of a Zenit-4 spy satellite, that uses the same launch vehicle as planned for Voskhod, has aborted on the pad after the Block A strap-on failed to ignite. This is the first block A failure in over 100 R-7 launches. That evening Kamanin views a launch of an R-36 heavy ICBM. Marshall Krylov reveals it will have a range of 14,000 km with a CEP of under 1 km with a 40 megaton warhead - one missile is sufficient to wipe out a city like New York. Rudenko believes that the victor in any nuclear war will be the one who pushes the button first. Krylov disagrees, saying that if the Americans would launch an attack on Soviet missile forces, the Soviet Union would launch its missiles on a counter-strike before the American missiles arrive - total and senseless destruction. Rudenko believes that Rudenko is more correct, since in the real-world responses will not conform to theoretical possibilities of instant reaction.

    Later the state commission meets to consider the launch of the first Voskhod. The unpleasantness at the landing trials in the Crimea reveal only the inadequacy of the design of the test capsules, and do not reflect the flight system, says Korolev. He certifies the reliability of the Voskhod for flight. The commission decides to set the launch of the next Zenit-4 reconnaissance satellite for 14 September; that of the Voskhod with mannequins on 18-20 September; the definitive landing system trial at Fedosiya on 23 September; and if that is successful, launch of a manned Voskhod by the end of September.


1964 September 9 - . 02:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • POR state trials missile launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,495 km (928 mi).

1965 September 9 - .
  • Birth of Sunita Lyn 'Suni' Williams - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Williams. American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on ISS EO-14-1. US Navy test pilot..

1965 September 9 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1965 September 9 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
1965 September 9 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 85 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-09-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1578 . COSPAR: 1965-071A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 September 9 - . 12:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
  • HASP/WOX-1A - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1965 September 9 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Delamar Dry Lake DZ. Launch Pad: Edwards RW04/22. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15.
  • X-15A IR scan,Abl TPS test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA, USAF. Apogee: 29 km (18 mi). Maximum Speed - 5686 kph. Maximum Altitude - 29627 m. Air dropped in Delamar Dry Lake DZ..

1965 September 9 - . 23:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • RF propagation Radio astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1966 September 9 - .
  • The scheduled launch of Gemini XI was postponed when a pinhole leak was discovered in the stage I oxidizer tank of the launch vehicle shortly after propellants had been loaded. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 11. The decision to repair the leak required rescheduling the launch for September 10. After propellants were unloaded, the leak was plugged with a sodium silicate solution and covered with an aluminium patch..

1968 September 9 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC50. LV Family: Sprint ABM. Launch Vehicle: Sprint ABM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 6.00 km (3.70 mi).

1969 September 9 - .
  • X-24 Flight 4 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Glide. Maximum Speed - 647 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12190 m. Flight Time - 232 sec..

1969 September 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: LS-C. Launch Vehicle: LS-C.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 September 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 September 9 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1973 September 9 - .
  • Death of Sergei Konstantinovich Tumanskiy - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tumanskiy. Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1955-1973 of OKB-300. Specialised in aircraft turbine engines but also produced spacecraft attitude control engines..

1973 September 9 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1974 September 9 - . 14:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1975 September 9 - .
  • X-24 Flight 57 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: X-24B flight 29. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1593 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21640 m. Flight Time - 435 sec..

1975 September 9 - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Airglow Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1975 September 9 - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Electron density Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1975 September 9 - . Launch Site: Kourou. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas.
  • EXAMETNET 35-80 - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1975 September 9 - . 00:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-14 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 8195 . COSPAR: 1975-081A. Apogee: 38,534 km (23,943 mi). Perigee: 1,840 km (1,140 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 718.20 min.

    Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).


1975 September 9 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: N-1.
  • Kiku 1 - . Payload: ETS 1 (JETS). Mass: 85 kg (187 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ETS. Spacecraft: ETS. USAF Sat Cat: 8197 . COSPAR: 1975-082A. Apogee: 1,103 km (685 mi). Perigee: 975 km (605 mi). Inclination: 47.0000 deg. Period: 106.00 min.

    JETS-1 (Japanese Engineering Test Satellite -1, national name 'Kiku') is intended for preliminary experiments for confirmation of the launching technologies, acquiring the satellite tracking and control technologies, and for extension tests of the extenda ble antennas, measurement of satellite environment, measurement of satellite attitudes, etc. Launch time 0530 GMT.


1975 September 9 - . 18:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIE.
  • Viking 2 Orbiter - . Mass: 3,399 kg (7,493 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: Viking. Spacecraft: Viking. USAF Sat Cat: 8199 . COSPAR: 1975-083A.

    A Titan HIE carrying a Viking payload was successfully launched from LC-41, Eastern Test Range. This was the first flight of a new Command Receiver Set. A fire occurred at the launch site following launch and caused $2 million damage to the Aerospace Ground Equipment building. Combined Mars orbiter and lander mission; orbiter inserted in Mars orbit 8/7/76; lander soft landed on Martian surface 9/3/76Mars. Mars Orbit. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).

  • Viking 2 Lander - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: Viking. Spacecraft: Viking. Decay Date: 1976-08-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 9408 . COSPAR: 1975-083C.

    A Titan HIE carrying a Viking payload was successfully launched from LC-41, Eastern Test Range. This was the first flight of a new Command Receiver Set. A fire occurred at the launch site following launch and caused $2 million damage to the Aerospace Ground Equipment building. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).


1975 September 9 - . 19:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hawk.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1976 September 9 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1977 September 9 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 46 km (28 mi).

1978 September 9 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-1.
  • Venera 11 - . Payload: 4V-1 s/n 360. Mass: 4,715 kg (10,394 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 4MV. Spacecraft: Venera 4V-1. USAF Sat Cat: 11020 . COSPAR: 1978-084A.

    Venera 11 was part of a two-spacecraft mission to study Venus and the interplanetary medium. Each of the two spacecraft, Venera 11 and Venera 12, consisted of a flight platform and a lander probe. Identical instruments were carried on both spacecraft. Venera 11 was launched into a 177 x 205 km, 51.5 degree inclination earth orbit from which it was propelled into a 3.5 month Venus transfer orbit. After ejection of the lander probe, the flight platform continued on past Venus in a heliocentric orbit. Near encounter with Venus occurred on December 25, 1978, at approximately 34,000 km altitude. The flight platform acted as a data relay for the descent craft for 95 minutes until it flew out of range and returned its own measurements on interplanetary space. The Venera 11 descent craft separated from its flight platform on December 23, 1978 and entered the Venus atmosphere two days later at 11.2 km/sec. During the descent, it employed aerodynamic braking followed by parachute braking and ending with atmospheric braking. It made a soft landing on the surface at 06:24 Moscow time on 25 December after a descent time of approximately 1 hour. The touchdown speed was 7-8 m/s.

    Both Venera 11 and 12 landers failed to return colour television views of the surface and perform soil analysis experiments. All of the camera protective covers failed to eject after landing (the cause was not established) The soil drilling experiment was apparently damaged by a leak in the soil collection device, the interior of which was exposed to the high Venusian atmospheric pressure. The leak had probably formed during the descent phase because the lander was less aerodynamically stable than had been thought.

    Two further experiments on the lander failed as well. Results reported included evidence of lightning and thunder, a high Ar36/Ar40 ratio, and the discovery of carbon monoxide at low altitudes.


1978 September 9 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1031 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 11022 . COSPAR: 1978-085A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 September 9 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-06 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 6. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 11962 . COSPAR: 1980-073A. Apogee: 886 km (550 mi). Perigee: 834 km (518 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Gathering meteorological information and data on penetrating radiation fluxes in circumterrestrial space. .

1980 September 9 - . 22:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3914.
  • GOES 4 - . Payload: GOES D. Mass: 627 kg (1,382 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: GOES. Spacecraft: GOES. Completed Operations Date: 1988-11-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 11964 . COSPAR: 1980-074A. Apogee: 36,213 km (22,501 mi). Perigee: 35,948 km (22,337 mi). Inclination: 9.4000 deg. Period: 1,451.20 min.

    Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 98 deg W in 1980-1981; 135 deg W in 1981-1983; 135-143 deg W in 1983; 139 deg W in 1984-1985; 10 deg W in 1985; 44 deg W in 1985-1988 As of 5 September 2001 located at 37.03 deg E drifting at 3.758 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.89E drifting at 3.763W degrees per day.


1981 September 9 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1982 September 9 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. FAILURE: Stage 3 turbopump.. Failed Stage: U.
  • MARECS B - . Payload: MARECS B. Mass: 1,490 kg (3,280 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ECS/OTS. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Decay Date: 1982-09-10 . Marecs B intended for maritime communications, planned for lease to Inmarsat; launched with Sirio 2. Geosynch orbit..
  • Sirio 2 - . Payload: Sirio 2. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Spacecraft Bus: Sirio. Spacecraft: SIRIO.

1982 September 9 - . 07:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2C.
  • FSW-0 No. 4 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. 04. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FSW. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 13521 . COSPAR: 1982-090A. Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Photo surveillance; film capsule recovered 14 September..

1982 September 9 - . 10:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Matagorda Island. LV Family: Aries. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • Conestoga 1 test - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR, SSI. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Launch vehicle using surplus Minuteman I components. The launch from Matagorda Island for was for publicity purposes and unrelated to Space Service's other planned launch vehicles, also named Conestoga..

1983 September 9 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1497 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 14330 . COSPAR: 1983-095A. Apogee: 372 km (231 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1985 September 9 - .
  • CNES Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Viso. French astronaut sent to Russia for cosmonaut training..

1985 September 9 - .
  • CNES Astronaut Training Group 1 selected. - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Andre-Deshays, Haignere. French astronauts trained for flights to the Mir space station..

1986 September 9 - . 20:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1987 September 9 - . 07:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2C.
  • FSW-1 No. 1 - . Payload: FSW-1 No. 01. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FSW. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 18341 . COSPAR: 1987-075A. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable satellite; return capsule recovered September 17 after eight days in space..

1988 September 9 - .
  • Death of Erich Kaschig - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Kaschig. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1988 September 9 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 1968 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 19488 . COSPAR: 1988-082A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1988 September 9 - . 23:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 38 - . Payload: Progress s/n 146. Mass: 7,027 kg (15,491 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4, Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2. Spacecraft Bus: Progress. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 74.81 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-11-24 19:07:18 . Decay Date: 1988-11-24 19:07:18 . USAF Sat Cat: 19486 . COSPAR: 1988-083A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. During launch first test of Buran ejection seat was made during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Rendezvous orbits 186 X 246 km, 51. 63 deg; 234 X 332 km, 337 X 363 km. Docked with Mir on 12 Sep 1988 01:22:28 GMT. Delivered 2,000 kg supplies including 300 kg of food. Refuelled Mir. Undocked on 23 Nov 1988 12:12:46 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Nov 1988 19:06:58 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.36 days. Total docked time 72.45 days.


1990 September 9 - .
  • Cosmonaut Rimantas Antanas-Antonovich Stankiavicius dies at age of 46 -- Crash of Su-27 fighter at air show at Treviso, Italy. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Stankevicius. Lithuanian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1990. Buran Test Pilot, Died 9/9/90..

1992 September 9 - . 08:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 84 - . Payload: GPS 2A-15 / GPS SVN 27. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 22108 . COSPAR: 1992-058A. Apogee: 20,453 km (12,708 mi). Perigee: 19,909 km (12,370 mi). Inclination: 54.5000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Global Positioning System. Placed in Plane A Slot 4..

1994 September 9 - . 00:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L.
  • Telstar 402 - . Mass: 3,415 kg (7,528 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Arianespace. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Telstar series. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AS 7000. Spacecraft: AS 7000. Decay Date: 2004-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 23249 . COSPAR: 1994-058A. Apogee: 19,340 km (12,010 mi). Perigee: 292 km (181 mi). Inclination: 7.1000 deg. Period: 341.80 min.

1994 September 9 - . 07:00 GMT - .
1994 September 9 - . 13:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • GUARA Electrojet Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1994 September 9 - . 22:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-64 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Hammond, Helms, Lee, Linenger, Meade, Richards. Payload: Discovery F19 / Spartan / LITE. Mass: 9,260 kg (20,410 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hammond, Helms, Lee, Linenger, Meade, Richards. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-64. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 10.95 days. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23251 . COSPAR: 1994-059A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.

    Payloads: Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201-II, Robot-Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX), getaway special (GAS) bridge assembly with ten GAS experiments, Trajectory Control Sensor (TCS), Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) III, Radiation Monitoring Experiment (RME) III, Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  • GBA-7 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: GBA. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23251 . COSPAR: 1994-059xx. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.
  • LITE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23251 . COSPAR: 1994-059xx. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment, carried in shuttle payload bay. Measured the Earth's cloud cover and tracked particles in the atmosphere..
  • Spartan 201 - . Mass: 1,288 kg (2,839 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23253 . COSPAR: 1994-059B. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 252 km (156 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.68 min. Deployed from STS-64 9/13/94; retrieved 9/15/94; solar studies..

1995 September 9 - .
  • STS-69 - Wakeup Song: Scooby Doo - . Flight: STS-69. "Scooby Doo" theme.

1997 September 9 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 52 km (32 mi).

1998 September 9 - . 20:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2 11K77.05. FAILURE: Computer error caused a very premature engine shutdown during second stage burn.. Failed Stage: 2.
1999 September 9 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Foton 12 - . Payload: Foton s/n 12. Mass: 6,190 kg (13,640 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Kozlov bureau. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Foton. Duration: 14.64 days. Decay Date: 1999-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 25902 . COSPAR: 1999-048A. Apogee: 365 km (226 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Foton 12 carried European microgravity experiments. The spacecraft's descent module landed on Russian territory at 52.47 deg N 53.83 deg E on September 24, 1999..

2000 September 9 - .
  • STS-106 Mission Status Report #04 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Altman, Burbank, Lu, Malenchenko, Mastracchio, Morukov, Wilcutt. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-106.

    STS-106 Mission Commander Terry Wilcutt along with his crew, Pilot Scott Altman and Mission Specialists Ed Lu, Rick Mastracchio, Dan Burbank, Yuri Malenchenko and Boris Morukov, were awakened at 5:46 p.m. CDT today. The wake up song from Mission Control was " I Say a Little Prayer" which was played for Wilcutt. All seven astronauts are now busy with final preparations for the docking with the International Space Station set for early tomorrow morning. Atlantis is planned to make the third docking with the station at 12:52 a.m. Additional Details: here....


2000 September 9 - .
  • STS-106 - Wakeup Song: I Say a Little Prayer - . Flight: STS-106. "I Say a Little Prayer" by Diana King, which was played for Wilcutt.

2000 September 9 - .
  • Death of Jack L 'John' Bowers - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bowers. American engineer. Convair corporate officer in charge of Atlas development during the peak of its development phase..

2003 September 9 - .
  • Death of Edward Teller - . Nation: Hungary, USA. Related Persons: Teller. Jewish Hungarian-American physicist, American Father of the H-Bomb. A dedicated cold warrior. Founded Livermore laboratory, convinced Reagan to proceed with 'Star Wars' using nuclear-bomb-pumped x-ray laser..

2003 September 9 - . 04:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. Launch Pad: SLC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 401B/Centaur.
  • USA 171 - . Payload: Orion 5. Mass: 5,200 kg (11,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: ELINT. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Orion. Spacecraft: Advanced Orion. USAF Sat Cat: 27937 . COSPAR: 2003-041A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,440.00 min.

    American signals intelligence satellite placed into geostationary orbit. It was believed the payload was a successor to the USA-110 and USA-139 satellites launched in May 1995 and May 1998, referred to as 'Advanced ORION' by those not in the know. They were thought to be successors to the RHYOLITE missions of the 1970s. The satellite was originally to have launched April 28, 2002. Launch delayed seven times.


2005 September 9 - . 06:14 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Improved Orion.
  • Acoustic monitoring Calibration mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA, USN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

2006 September 9 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2C.
  • SJ-8 - . Mass: 3,100 kg (6,800 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Manufacturer: SAST. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FSW. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 14.82 days. Decay Date: 2006-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 29385 . COSPAR: 2006-035A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Long delayed Seed Satellite, an experiment in which a large payload of seeds were exposed to te space environment for two weeks. The modified FSW optical reconnaisance satellite capsule was recovered in Sichuan at 02:43 GMT on September 24..

2006 September 9 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Pad: Arctic Ocean, 90.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: K-84. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Sineva.
  • R-29RM test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

    Submarine K-84 Ekaterinburg launched the missile while surfaced in the ice pack from a polar location toward the Chizha impact zone on the Kanin Peninsula. The three warheads were reported to have successfuly reached their targets. This was the first Russian launch from the icepack since 29 August 1995.


2006 September 9 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-115 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Burbank, Ferguson, Jett, MacLean, Stefanyshyn-Piper, Tanner. Payload: Atlantis F27 / P3, P4. Mass: 122,400 kg (269,800 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Burbank, Ferguson, Jett, MacLean, Stefanyshyn-Piper, Tanner. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: Soyuz TMA-8, Soyuz TMA-9, STS-115. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 11.80 days. Decay Date: 2006-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 29391 . COSPAR: 2006-036A. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi). Perigee: 335 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min.

    Atlantis docked with the International Space Station at the PMA-2 port at 10:48 GMT on 11 September. At the Shuttle RMS robot arm connected to the enormous P3/P4 truss in the payload pay and handed it off to the Station's robot arm between 14:52 and 15:03 GMT the same day. The station arm then connected to the P3/P4 truss to the station's P1 truss at 07:27 on 12 September. Three EVA's were made by the shuttle crew over the next three days to complete installation of the truss and deply its solar panels. The Shuttle undocked from the station at 12:50 GMT on 20 September. There was a one-day delay in landing due to weather at the Cape and some concern about several small objects seen floating near the spacecraft. These were believed to be plastic shims that had worked loose from between the tiles and were not a concern. Atlantis landed at Kennedy Space Center at 10:21 GMT on 21 September.


2006 September 9 - . 22:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Improved Orion.
  • ECOMA 1 Meteors / dust mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: ARR, DLR. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2009 September 9 - .
  • STS-128 - Wakeup Song: Sailing - . Flight: STS-128. "Sailing" performed by Rod Stewart was played for Mission Specialist Christer Fuglesang..

2012 September 9 - . 04:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Pad: LP1. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV.
  • Spot 6 - . Mass: 712 kg (1,569 lb). Nation: France. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Astrobus. Spacecraft: Astrobus. USAF Sat Cat: 38755 . COSPAR: 2012-047A. Apogee: 699 km (434 mi). Perigee: 697 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.70 min. Earth observing satellite built by Astrium/Toulouse for Astrium subsidiary Spot Image (Toulouse)..
  • Proiteres - . Mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Nation: Japan. Class: Technology. Type: Ion engine technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 38756 . COSPAR: 2012-047B. Apogee: 657 km (408 mi). Perigee: 640 km (390 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. 15 kg pulsed plasma thruster experiment: 'Project of Osaka Institute of Technology Electric Rocket Engine aboard small Spaceship'..

2014 September 9 - . Launch Site: Mediterranean Sea. Launch Complex: F-15. LV Family: Black Sparrow missile series. Launch Vehicle: Blue Sparrow.
  • Sparrow Target - . Nation: Israel. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). ABM test target. Missile defense test using a Blue Sparrow missile which is thought to fly a slightly exoatmospheric trajectory, although the Arrow 2 interceptor itself would not have left the atmosphere..


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