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On July 28 in Space History

1920 July 28 - .
  • Birth of Vsevolod Sergeyevich Avduyevskiy - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avduyevskiy. Russian scientist. First Deputy Director of TsNIIMash 1973-1987. Scientist at NII-1 1953-1973..

1937 July 28 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-C.
  • Start of Goddard series L section C liquid rocket tests - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard.

    These would run through August 9, 1938 (L16-L30). Section C rockets included light tank construction, movable-tailpiece (i.e. gimbal) steering, catapult launching, and further development of liquid nitrogen tank pressure method. Lengths varied from 17 ft 4.25 in. to 18 ft 5.75 in.; diameter 9 in., weight empty varied from 80 to 1091b; loaded weight about 170 lb or more; lift of static tests varied from 228 lb to 477 lb; jet velocities from 3960 to 5340 ft/sec. These tests indicated extremely high temperatures for the jet: pebbles of the cement gas deflector were fused and thrown out, starting fires more than 50 ft from the tower.


1937 July 28 - . Launch Site: Roswell. LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-C.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section C rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.63 km (0.39 mi).

    Rocket was equipped with movable-tailpiece or gimbal steering, with wire-wound tanks and barograph; length 18 ft 5.5 in.; diameter 9 in.; weight empty 95 lb 5 oz; loaded 162 lb 5 oz; 39 lb liquid oxygen, 28 lb gasoline; altitude 2055 ft; duration 28 sec; parachute opened near ground, checked speed; coasted one-eighth of ascent; landed 1000 ft from tower.


1947 July 28 - .
  • Birth of Alexei Sergeyevich Borodai - . Nation: Russia, Ukraine. Related Persons: Borodai. Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1993..

1952 July 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Corporal.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1953 July 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Nike Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 July 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Nike Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 July 28 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • President Dwight D. Eisenhower and the National Security Council (NSC) were given a complete briefing on the Atlas program. - . Related Persons: Schriever, Eisenhower. Briefers were Assistant Secretary of the Air Force Trevor Gardner, Professor John von Neumann, and Brigadier General Bernard A. Schriever, Commander of the Western Development Division..

1956 July 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1958 July 28 - . LV Family: Titan.
  • Deployment of Titan squadrons in a 3x3 hardened and dispersed configuration was approved for the Lowry, Ellsworth, and Mountain Home squadrons. - .

1959 July 28 - . Launch Vehicle: Little Joe.
  • Second beach abort test leading to the Mercury Little Joe test series. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury, Mercury Escape Tower.

    A boilerplate spacecraft, instrumented to measure sound pressure level and vibration, was launched in the second beach abort test leading to the Little Joe test series. The purpose of the instrumentation was to obtain measurement of the vibration and sound environment encountered on the capsule during the firing of the Grand Central abort rocket. Memo, Charles A. Hardesty to NASA Langley IRD files, subject: Sound Measurements on the Second Beach Abort Test on the Little Joe Capsule, Oct. 9, 1959.


1959 July 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Atlas.
  • After three consecutive failures (3D, 7D, and 5D), Atlas missile 11D became the first Series D flight test missile to complete a successful launch from Cape Canaveral. - .

1959 July 28 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • First successful Series D Atlas missile flight test. - . Spacecraft: Man-In-Space-Soonest. (Air Force Ballistic Missiles Program Status Report.).

1960 July 28 - .
  • Apollo Program Announced - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Silverstein. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM, CSM Source Selection. Name 'Apollo' selected by Silverstein. Conference with aerospace industry outlined NASA's plans for circumlunar and lunar flight..

1960 July 28 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Platform: F4D-1 747. Launch Vehicle: Caleb.
  • TV-1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN NOTS. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi). Research and Development Flight (TV-1).

1960 July 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. FAILURE: At ignition one of the combustion chambers in strap on Block B or G burned through. The strap on separated from the core at 17 seconds into the flight and the launch vehicle exploded at 28.5 seconds.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Korabl-Sputnik - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 1. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Decay Date: 1960-07-23 . First attempted flight of the Vostok 1K manned spacecraft prototype. Dogs Chaika and Lisichka perished in the explosion of the rocket..

1960 July 28 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Firefly AMY Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 111 km (68 mi).

1960 July 28 - . 19:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: Long Tom.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 126 km (78 mi).

1960 July 28 - . 21:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan I. FAILURE: 130 km range. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Titan 1 J (Mk 4 RV).

1961 July 28 - . Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • NASA invitation to bids for Apollo prime contract - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM, CSM Original Specification, CSM Source Selection.

    NASA invited 12 companies to submit prime contractor proposals for the Apollo spacecraft by October 9: The Boeing Airplane Company, Chance Vought Corporation, Douglas Aircraft Company, General Dynamics/Convair, the General Electric Company, Goodyear Aircraft Corporation, Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, The Martin Company, North American Aviation, Inc., and Republic Aviation Corporation. Additional Details: here....


1961 July 28 - .
  • Birth of Dr Scott Edward Parazynski - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Parazynski. American physician mission specialist astronaut, 1992-2009. Flew on STS-66, STS-86, STS-95, STS-100, STS-120..

1962 July 28 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena B.
  • KH-4 9040 - . Payload: KH-4 s/n 9040 / Agena B 1131. Mass: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4. Decay Date: 1962-08-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 345 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Theta-1. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. KH-4; film capsule recovered 4.1 days later. No filters on slave horizon cameras. Heavy corona and radiation fog..

1962 July 28 - . 02:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Trailblazer test vehicle. Launch Vehicle: Trailblazer 1.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi).

1962 July 28 - . 09:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 7 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 4. Mass: 4,610 kg (10,160 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 346 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Iota-1. Apogee: 356 km (221 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1964 July 28 - . 02:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: S-160.
  • Propellant test - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 44 km (27 mi).

1964 July 28 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena B.
  • Ranger 7 - . Mass: 362 kg (798 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Program: Ranger. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: Ranger. Spacecraft: Ranger 6-7-8-9. Decay Date: 1964-07-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 842 . COSPAR: 1964-041A.

    First successful Ranger; returned 4,308 photos before lunar impact. The Atlas- Agena B inserted the Agena and Ranger into a 192 km altitude Earth parking orbit. Half an hour after launch a second burn of the Agena engine injected the spacecraft into a lunar intercept trajectory. After separation from the Agena, the solar panels were deployed, attitude control activated, and spacecraft transmissions switched from the omniantenna to the high-gain antenna. The next day the planned mid-course maneuver was successfully initiated at 10:27 GMT. The only anomaly during flight was a brief loss of two-way lock on the spacecraft by the DSIF tracking station at Cape Kennedy following launch.

    Ranger 7 reached the Moon on 31 July. The F-channel began its one minute warm up 18 minutes before impact. The first image was taken at 13:08:45 GMT at an altitude of 2110 km. Transmission of 4,308 photographs of excellent quality occurred over the final 17 minutes of flight. The final image taken before impact had a resolution of 0.5 meters. The spacecraft encountered the lunar surface in direct motion along a hyperbolic trajectory, with an incoming asymptotic direction at an angle of -5.57 degrees from the lunar equator. The orbit plane was inclined 26.84 degrees to the lunar equator. After 68.6 hours of flight, Ranger 7 impacted in an area between Mare Nubium and Oceanus Procellarum (subsequently named Mare Cognitum) at approximately 10.35 S latitude, 339.42 E longitude. Impact occurred at 13:25:48.82 GMT at a velocity of 2.62 km/s.


1964 July 28 - . 20:06 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1964 July 28 - . 21:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 300.
  • Thermosphere probe Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi).

1965 July 28 - .
  • Five further Voskhod spacecraft authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 156 'On the Manufacture of 'Voskhod' Space Ship-Satellites-manufacture of five more Voskhod spacecraft' was issued..

1965 July 28 - .
  • Voskhod production - . Nation: Russia. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3, Voskhod 4, Voskhod 5, Voskhod 6.

    The All-Soviet national economic commission on Military-Industrial Matters issues resolution 145, "On completion of the Voskhod spacecraft". Voskhod s/n 5, 6, and 7 are to be completed in October, November, and December 1965; and s/n 8 and 9 in February and March 1966. The new-design spacecraft will be designed for flight of two cosmonauts up to 15 days, with provisions for multiple spacewalks outside of the capsule over periods of 3 to 6 days, provisions for artificial gravity tests, and equipment for medical, biological, physics, technical, and military experiments. All concerned ministries are instructed to complete development and deliver all needed subsystem and experimental equipment 45 days before the completion dates of the spacecraft. The trainer for the 3KV Voskhod is to be delivered by October 1965, and the 3KD trainer in the first quarter of 1966.


1966 July 28 - . Launch Site: Shijiedu. LV Family: T-7. Launch Vehicle: T-7A-S2.
  • Life Science (dog) Biological mission - . Nation: China. Agency: Shanghai. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966 July 28 - . 00:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
1966 July 28 - . 02:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • LRL BOX-6 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1966 July 28 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 126 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 2368 . COSPAR: 1966-068A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 July 28 - . 18:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Delamar Dry Lake DZ. Launch Pad: Edwards RW04/22. Launch Platform: NB-52 008.
  • X-15A MuMet/HS/SB/RAS Technology/Meteor/Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA, USAF. Spacecraft: X-15A. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi). Maximum Speed - 5957 kph. Maximum Altitude - 73700 m. Air dropped in Delamar Dry Lake DZ..

1966 July 28 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike Nike.
  • LRL RCS-2 (Daisy 2) Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1967 July 28 - . 14:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor SLV-2A Agena D.
  • OGO 4 - . Payload: OGO D (NASA S-50A). Mass: 634 kg (1,397 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OGO. Decay Date: 1972-08-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2895 . COSPAR: 1967-073A. Apogee: 885 km (549 mi). Perigee: 422 km (262 mi). Inclination: 86.0000 deg. Period: 97.80 min.

    OGO 4 was a large observatory instrumented with experiments designed to study the interrelationships between the aurora and airglow emissions, energetic particle activity, geomagnetic field variation, ionospheric ionization and recombination, and atmospheric heating which take place during a period of increased solar activity. After the spacecraft achieved orbit and the experiments were deployed into an operating mode, an attitude control problem occurred. This condition was corrected by ground control procedures until complete failure of the tape recording systems in mid-January 1969. At that time, due to the difficulty of maintaining attitude control without the tape recorders, the attitude control system was commanded off, and the spacecraft was placed into a spin-stabilized mode about the axis which was previously maintained vertically. In this mode, seven of the remaining experiments were turned off since no meaningful data could be observed by them. On October 23, 1969, the satellite was turned off. It was reactivated again in January 1970 for 2 months to obtain VLF observations.


1968 July 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1969 July 28 - . 00:17 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1969 July 28 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • SpE fine scale Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 121 km (75 mi).

1970 July 28 - .
  • Soyuz 9 crew tours Leningrad - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Kamanin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, and their families take a train to Leningrad. There they do some sightseeing, visit the television tower, and make a local television appearance..

1970 July 28 - .
  • X-24 Flight 15 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 996 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17678 m. Flight Time - 388 sec..

1970 July 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 July 28 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
  • Cosmos 354 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1970-07-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4481 . COSPAR: 1970-056A. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi). Perigee: 137 km (85 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 87.50 min. Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

1970 July 28 - . 23:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). The final flight test missile in the basic Minuteman III research and development program was launched from Vandenberg AFB. Twenty-five missiles had been launched in the program - eleven from Vandenberg and fourteen from Cape Canaveral. .

1971 July 28 - . 03:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-18 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1977-07-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 5367 . COSPAR: 1971-064A. Apogee: 39,877 km (24,778 mi). Perigee: 478 km (297 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1972 July 28 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 512 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6130 . COSPAR: 1972-059A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 July 28 - . 18:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Trailblazer test vehicle. Launch Vehicle: Trailblazer 2.
  • AFCRL TB2-4 Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi).

1973 July 28 - . 01:06 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1973 July 28 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: LUT1. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB.
  • Skylab 3 - . Call Sign: Skylab. Crew: Bean, Garriott, Lousma. Backup Crew: Brand, Lenoir, Lind. Payload: Apollo CSM 117. Mass: 20,121 kg (44,359 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bean, Brand, Garriott, Lenoir, Lind, Lousma. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Skylab. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Skylab 3. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 59.46 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 6757 . COSPAR: 1973-050A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 422 km (262 mi). Inclination: 50.0000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.

    Continued maintenance of the Skylab space station and extensive scientific and medical experiments. Installed twinpole solar shield on EVA; performed major inflight maintenance; doubled record for length of time in space. Completed 858 Earth orbits and 1,081 hours of solar and Earth experiments; three EVAs totalled 13 hours, 43 minutes.

    The space vehicle, consisting of a modified Apollo command and service module payload on a Saturn IB launch vehicle, was inserted into a 231.3 by 154.7 km orbit. Rendezvous maneuvers were performed during the first five orbits as planned. During the rendezvous, the CSM reaction control system forward firing engine oxidizer valve leaked. The quad was isolated. Station-keeping with the Saturn Workshop began approximately 8 hours after liftoff, with docking being performed about 30 minutes later.


1975 July 28 - . 17:44 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi).

1976 July 28 - . 14:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1977 July 28 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Vehicle: S-225.
  • Intercept - . Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1978 July 28 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1979 July 28 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Feng Bao 1. FAILURE: Second stage failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • SJ-1 - . Payload: Shi Jian 1. Mass: 221 kg (487 lb). Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Spacecraft: SJ. The SJ-1 was similar in appearance to the American Telstar and conducted communications technology tests..

1980 July 28 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi).

1981 July 28 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1982 July 28 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1983 July 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 622. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1983 July 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 622. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1983 July 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 622. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1983 July 28 - . 05:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 622. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1983 July 28 - . 22:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920/PAM.
  • Telstar 3A - . Payload: Telstar 301 -> Arabsat 1E. Mass: 625 kg (1,377 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ATT. Program: Telstar series. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1996-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 14234 . COSPAR: 1983-077A. Apogee: 36,108 km (22,436 mi). Perigee: 35,885 km (22,297 mi). Inclination: 6.5000 deg. Period: 1,446.80 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 96 deg W in 1983-1985; 105 deg W in 1985; 96 deg W in 1985-1994; 107 deg W in 1994; 20 deg E in 1995-1996 As of 5 September 2001 located at 143.88 deg W drifting at 2.714 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 158.94W drifting at 2.690W degrees per day.


1986 July 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 July 28 - . 21:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1766 - . Payload: Okean-O1 no. 1. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: Okean-O1. Completed Operations Date: 1988-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 16881 . COSPAR: 1986-055A. Apogee: 631 km (392 mi). Perigee: 601 km (373 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.00 min.

    Oceanographic. Acquisition of operational oceanographic information in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation; continued trials of new types of informational and measurement apparatus and methods of remote sen sing of the earth's surface and atmosphere.


1986 July 28 - . 21:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 July 28 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1988 July 28 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1960 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1990-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 19338 . COSPAR: 1988-065A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 369 km (229 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1992 July 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU 15A35P.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 July 28 - . 05:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1994 July 28 - . 22:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Echo 94 F-102 DUSTY Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1997 July 28 - .
1997 July 28 - .
1997 July 28 - . 01:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS.
  • Superbird C - . Mass: 3,130 kg (6,900 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: SCC. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Superbird. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 24880 . COSPAR: 1997-036A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Geosynchronous. Stationed over 144.0E Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR/MRS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 144 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 144.00 deg E drifting at 0.014 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 143.94E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day.


1998 July 28 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2360 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 22. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 25406 . COSPAR: 1998-045A. Apogee: 855 km (531 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.00 min.

1999 July 28 - . 09:37 GMT - .
1999 July 28 - .
2000 July 28 - . 22:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiritimati. Launch Pad: 0.0 N x 154.0 W. Launch Platform: Odyssey. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SL.
  • PAS 9 - . Payload: HS 601HP. Mass: 3,659 kg (8,066 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Panamsat. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Panamsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 26451 . COSPAR: 2000-043A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Panamsat geosynchronous communications satellite to replace PAS 5 at 58 deg W. Stationed at 58 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 58 deg W in 2000. As of 30 August 2001 located at 58.03 deg W drifting at 0.012 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 58.06W drifting at 0.013W degrees per day.


2001 July 28 - . 10:07 GMT - . Launch Site: SvalRak. Launch Complex: SvalRak LONG. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • ROMA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2002 July 28 - .
2005 July 28 - .
2005 July 28 - .
  • STS-114 - Wakeup Song: Vertigo - . Flight: STS-114. "Vertigo" by U2 played for Pilot Jim Kelly. Capcom Shannon Lucid noted during the wakeup call that Kelly, whose nickname is"Vegas" was promoted to Colonel in the U.S. Air Force recently. The Station crew was awakened at 11:09 p.m. CDT by a tone onboard..

2006 July 28 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot.
  • Kompsat 2 - . Payload: Arirang-2. Mass: 798 kg (1,759 lb). Nation: Korea South. Agency: KARI. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: KOMPSAT-2. USAF Sat Cat: 29268 . COSPAR: 2006-031A. Apogee: 701 km (435 mi). Perigee: 676 km (420 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Carried a 1-meter-resolution Earth surveillance camera...

2009 July 28 - .
  • STS-127 - Wakeup Song: Proud to Be an American - . Flight: STS-127. "Proud to Be an American" performed by Lee Greenwood. The song was selected for spacewalker Chris Cassidy, a former Navy SEAL..

2012 July 28 - . 01:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot.
  • Cosmos 2481 - . Payload: Kosmos-2481. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 38733 . COSPAR: 2012-041A. Apogee: 1,511 km (938 mi). Perigee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 115.90 min.
  • Gonets M 03 - . Payload: Gonets-M No. 13. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 38734 . COSPAR: 2012-041B. Apogee: 1,509 km (937 mi). Perigee: 1,479 km (919 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 115.90 min.
  • Yubeleiniy 2 - . Payload: MiR. Mass: 65 kg (143 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Yubeleiniy. USAF Sat Cat: 38735 . COSPAR: 2012-041C. Apogee: 1,509 km (937 mi). Perigee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 115.90 min. Technology testbed built by Reshetnev with the Siberian State Aerospace University, Krasnoyarsk..
  • Gonets M 04 - . Payload: Gonets-M No. 15. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 38736 . COSPAR: 2012-041D. Apogee: 1,510 km (930 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 115.90 min.

2014 July 28 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. Launch Pad: SLC37B. LV Family: Delta IV. Launch Vehicle: Delta 4M+(4,2).
  • USA 253 - . Payload: GSSAP-1. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ULAB. Spacecraft Bus: GeoStar-1. Spacecraft: GSSAP. USAF Sat Cat: 40099 . COSPAR: 2014-043A. Apogee: 35,500 km (22,000 mi). Perigee: 35,500 km (22,000 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Designed to catalog satellites and space debris in geostationary orbit. Built by Orbital for US Air Force Space Command. Orbit and mass classified; figures shown are speculative..
  • USA 254 - . Payload: GSSAP-2. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ULAB. Spacecraft Bus: GeoStar-1. Spacecraft: GSSAP. USAF Sat Cat: 40100 . COSPAR: 2014-043B. Apogee: 35,500 km (22,000 mi). Perigee: 35,500 km (22,000 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Designed to catalog satellites and space debris in geostationary orbit. Built by Orbital for US Air Force Space Command. Orbit and mass classified; figures shown are speculative..
  • USA 255 - . Payload: ANGELS. Mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ULAB. Spacecraft: ANGELS. USAF Sat Cat: 40101 . COSPAR: 2014-043C. Apogee: 35,500 km (22,000 mi). Perigee: 15,000 km (9,000 mi). Inclination: 25.0000 deg.

    Small satellite for the Air Force Research Lab which made observations of the Delta rocket's second stage at ranges from 50 kilometers down to a few kilometers, for further development of satellite inspection technology. Orbit and mass classified; figures shown are speculative.


2016 July 28 - . 12:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. Launch Pad: Cape Canaveral SLC41. LV Family: Atlas V. Launch Vehicle: Atlas V 541.
  • USA 269 - . Payload: QUASAR. Nation: USA. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Quasar. USAF Sat Cat: 41724 . COSPAR: 2016-047A. Apogee: 35,996 km (22,366 mi). Perigee: 35,576 km (22,105 mi). Inclination: 5.0000 deg.

    NROL-61 mission was launched on Atlas AV-065 into a geostationary transfer orbit. The satellite was thought to be an NRO (National Reconnaissance Office) data relay communications satellite in the QUASAR series, although there was a chance that it instead had a signals intelligence payload. The payload made orbital maneuvers to raise its perigee, and hobbyists tracked the satellite in geostationary orbit at 92 deg E, over the Indian Ocean.



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