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On February 25 in Space History

1904 February 25 - .
  • Birth of Aleksei Ivanovich Shakhurin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Shakhurin. Russian government official. People's Commissar for Aviation Industries 1940-1946..

1919 February 25 - .
  • Birth of Hans Rudolf Palaoro - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Palaoro. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1942 February 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 s/n 1 moved to Test Stand VII at Peenemuende. - . Nation: Germany. The missile was used for facility checks and checking of launch procedures..

1944 February 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1945 February 25 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, impacted NE of Antwerp.

1946 February 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 6 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 6. Static directional stability investigation. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 7 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 7. Longitudinal and directional stability investigation. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1948 February 25 - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho.
  • USAF wishes to concentrate on longer-range Navaho. - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

    The Navaho was redefined by the customer in a revised three-phase program using a rocket booster and ramjet cruise. Track, air, and vertical pad launch were to be studied. The first phase would produce a missile with a range of 1600 km while carrying a 1350 kg warhead. Phase two would produce a missile that could carry a 1350 kg warhead to a 3200 to 4800 km range. Phase 3 would be the intercontinental version, carrying a 4500 kg nuclear warhead to an 8000 km range.


1952 February 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1953 February 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 February 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 February 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 February 25 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan I.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 February 25 - .
  • Soviet Air Force Cosmonaut Training Group 1 selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Anikeyev, Belyayev, Bondarenko, Bykovsky, Filatyev, Gagarin, Gorbatko, Kartashov, Khrunov, Komarov, Leonov, Nelyubov, Nikolayev, Popovich, Rafikov, Shonin, Titov, Varlamov, Volynov, Zaikin.

    The group was selected to provide pilot astronauts for the Vostok manned spaceflight program.. Qualifications: Military jet aircraft pilots under 30 years of age; under 170 cm tall; under 70 kg in weight.. While the Americans sought mature test pilots for their first spaceflights, the Soviets recruited young pilots with the intent of training them for a career as spacemen. There were 3,000 applicants following interviews with medical doctor teams that toured Soviet air bases beginning in August 1959. 102 were called for physical and psychological tests. 8 of these were selected, but then Chief Designer Korolev said he wanted a pool three times larger than the American Mercury cadre. Of the 20 selected, 12 would fly in space. Of the 8 that did not, 1 died in a ground fire in training; 3 were dismissed for disciplinary reasons; and 4 left following injuries in training.


1960 February 25 - . 18:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC30. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1.
  • P-01 - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). First test launch of Army's Pershing tactical missile from Cape Canaveral..

1961 February 25 - .
  • Successful drop test using Mercury boilerplate. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury, Mercury Heat Shield. McDonnell conducted a successful drop test, using a boilerplate spacecraft fitted with impact skirt, straps and cables, and a beryllium heat shield. During the tests the stainless steel straps were successfully stretched to design limits..

1961 February 25 - . 00:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Juno II. FAILURE: Third Stage failed to ignite.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Explorer - . Payload: S-45. Mass: 34 kg (74 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: P-14. Spacecraft: P-14. Decay Date: 1961-02-24 .

1962 February 25 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Factory roll-out inspection of Mercury Atlas launch vehicle 107-D. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Flight: Mercury MA-7. Factory roll-out inspection of Atlas launch vehicle 107-D, designated for the Mercury-Atlas 7 (MA-7) manned orbital mission, was conducted at Convair..

1963 February 25 - .
  • Talks with Bell on development of the Apollo LEM ascent engine - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM, LM Ascent Propulsion. Grumman began initial talks with the Bell Aerosystems Company on development of the LEM ascent engine. Complete specifications were expected by March 2..

1964 February 25 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

    The first successful multiple Minuteman ICBM launch was executed at the Pacific Missile Range when two Wing II Minuteman I (LGM-30B) missiles (FTM 813 and 688) were launched by SAC's First Strategic Aerospace Division (ISTRAD). Both missiles were launched separately in the salvo mode; the ripple mode was not used for these launches. These were also the initial two Minuteman IB operational test launches.


1964 February 25 - . 02:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

    The first successful multiple Minuteman ICBM launch was executed at the Pacific Missile Range when two Wing II Minuteman I (LGM-30B) missiles (FTM 813 and 688) were launched by SAC's First Strategic Aerospace Division (ISTRAD). Both missiles were launched separately in the salvo mode; the ripple mode was not used for these launches. These were also the initial two Minuteman IB operational test launches.


1964 February 25 - . 18:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D.
  • KH 7-05 - . Payload: KH-7 no. 5 / OPS 2423. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-7. Decay Date: 1964-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 754 . COSPAR: 1964-009A. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi). Perigee: 135 km (83 mi). Inclination: 95.6000 deg. Period: 87.20 min. The first and only Atlas E (5E) ABRES vehicle to be launched from Cape Canaveral completed a successful flight down the Atlantic Missile Range. KH-7 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1964 February 25 - . 20:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC11. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • ABRES WAC-3 / Pod 18 Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,600 km (900 mi). The first and only Atlas E (5E) ABRES vehicle to be launched from Cape Canaveral completed a successful flight down the Atlantic Missile Range. .

1965 February 25 - .
  • David Clark contracted for Apollo Block I space suits - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft Bus: A7L. Spacecraft: A7L. MSC and the David Clark Company reached an agreement on a contract for Apollo Block I space suits. The first suits, expected by July 1, would go to North American for testing..

1965 February 25 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • Martin-Denver delivered propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 7 to Martin-Baltimore. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 7.

    Tank fabrication had begun in May 1964. Martin-Baltimore recleaned and purged the tanks with nitrogen by April 20, 1965. In the meantime, flight engines for GLV-7 arrived from Aerojet-General on April 17. Tank splicing was completed May 6 and engine installation May 20. All horizontal testing was completed June 14. A modification period followed.


1965 February 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Sprint ABM. Launch Vehicle: HIBEX.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA, US Army. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1965 February 25 - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere winds, T Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 February 25 - . 21:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor SLV-2A Agena D.
  • KH-4A 1017 - . Payload: KH-4A s/n 1017 / Agena D 1611 / OPS 4782. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4A. Decay Date: 1965-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 1096 . COSPAR: 1965-013A. Apogee: 377 km (234 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 75.1000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. KH-4A. Capping shutter malfunction occurred during last 5 passes of mission..

1966 February 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 625. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 February 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 625. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 February 25 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonmiani. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Rehbar 9 (Na) Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1967 February 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC32B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1967 February 25 - . 02:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. Launch Pad: LA2A?. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500.
  • Solar radio frequencies mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 2,380 km (1,470 mi).

1969 February 25 - . 01:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
  • Mariner 6 - . Payload: Mariner 69-3. Mass: 412 kg (908 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Program: Mariner. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: Mariner. Spacecraft: Mariner 6-7. USAF Sat Cat: 3759 . COSPAR: 1969-014A.

    Mars flyby 31 July 1969; returned 75 images of Martian surface. Ten days before the scheduled launch, a faulty switch opened the main valves on the Atlas stage. This released the pressure which supported the Atlas structure, and as the booster deflated it began to crumple. Two ground crewman started pressurizing pumps, saving the structure from further collapse. The two ground crewman, who had acted at risk of the 12-story rocket collapsing on them, were awarded Exceptional Bravery Medals from NASA.

    The Mariner 6 spacecraft was removed, put on another Atlas/Centaur, and launched on schedule. The main booster was jettisoned 4 min. 38 sec. after launch, followed by a 7.5 minute Centaur burn to inject the spacecraft into Mars direct trajectory. After Mariner 6 separated from the Centaur the solar panels were deployed. A midcourse correction involving a 5.35 second burn of the hydrazine rocket occurred on 1 March 1969. A few days later explosive valves were deployed to unlatch the scan platform. Some bright particles released during the explosion distracted the Canopus sensor, and attitude lock was lost temporarily. It was decided to place the spacecraft on inertial guidance for the Mars flyby to prevent a similar occurrence.

    On 29 July, 50 hours before closest approach, the scan platform was pointed to Mars and the scientific instruments turned on. Imaging of Mars began 2 hours later. For the next 41 hours, 49 approach images (plus a 50th fractional image) of Mars were taken through the narrow-angle camera. At 05:03 UT on 31 July the near-encounter phase began, including collection of 26 close-up images. Due to a cooling system failure, channel 1 of the IR spectrometer did not cool sufficiently to allow measurements from 6 to 14 micrometers so no infrared data were obtained over this range. Closest approach occurred at 05:19:07 UT at a distance of 3431 km from the martian surface. Eleven minutes later Mariner 6 passed behind Mars and reappeared after 25 minutes. X-band occultation data were taken during the entrance and exit phases. Science and imaging data were played back and transmitted over the next few days. The spacecraft was then returned to cruise mode which included engineering and communications tests, star photography TV tests, and UV scans of the Milky Way and an area containing comet 1969-B. Periodic tracking of the spacecraft in its heliocentric orbit was also done.

    Science Results

    Mariner 6 returned 49 far encounter and 26 near encounter images of Mars. Close-ups from the near encounter phases covered 20% of the surface. The spacecraft instruments measured UV and IR emissions and radio refractivity of the Martian atmosphere. Images showed the surface of Mars to be very different from that of the Moon, in some contrast to the results from Mariner 4. The south polar cap was identified as being composed predominantly of carbon dioxide. Atmospheric surface pressure was estimated at between 6 and 7 mb. Radio science refined estimates of the mass, radius and shape of Mars.


1969 February 25 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 266 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 71. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3761 . COSPAR: 1969-015A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 February 25 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C49 / 1 (R3) Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1969 February 25 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C49 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1970 February 25 - .
  • Soyuz 9 decision preempts Soyuz Kontakt flights - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei, Kerimov, Mishin. Program: Soyuz, Lunar L3. Flight: Soyuz 9, Soyuz n 17, Soyuz n 18, Soyuz n 19, Soyuz n 20. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz Kontakt.

    Meeting with Mishin. It is clear that he wanted to continue with the original plan for a dual Soyuz flight in August. It was Afanasyev and Kerimov who were pushing for a single long-duration flight in May. There is no action by the Ministry of Defence to provide rational decision making in regard to manned spaceflight.


1970 February 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT53B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). A Wing II configuration LGM-30B Minuteman I became the 275th Minuteman missile to be launched from Vandenberg AFB since September 1962. .

1970 February 25 - . 01:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1970 February 25 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S61 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1970 February 25 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Chaff Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 101 km (62 mi).

1971 February 25 - . 01:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • Airglow Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi).

1971 February 25 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF25. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT102F Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 February 25 - . 11:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 397 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. USAF Sat Cat: 4964 . COSPAR: 1971-015A. Apogee: 2,164 km (1,344 mi). Perigee: 572 km (355 mi). Inclination: 65.7000 deg. Period: 113.10 min. ASAT interceptor. Intercept and destruction of target successful on second orbit..

1972 February 25 - . 07:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1972 February 25 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 475 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 5846 . COSPAR: 1972-009A. Apogee: 996 km (618 mi). Perigee: 962 km (597 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite..

1974 February 25 - . Launch Site: Kourou. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas.
  • EXAMETNET 35-44B - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1974 February 25 - . 07:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • MUTI Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1975 February 25 - . 01:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7 AC.
  • X-ray telescope Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi).

1975 February 25 - . 05:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Auroral NO Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1976 February 25 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT124M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1976 February 25 - . 10:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Musca. Launch Vehicle: Kookaburra 2.
1977 February 25 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Third inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct third inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 28 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 25 - .
1978 February 25 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34B.
  • Jumpseat 5 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Jumpseat. Spacecraft: Jumpseat. USAF Sat Cat: 10688 . COSPAR: 1978-021A. Apogee: 39,377 km (24,467 mi). Perigee: 311 km (193 mi). Inclination: 63.2000 deg. Period: 703.70 min. Or Quasar..

1979 February 25 - . 11:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 32 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Crew: Lyakhov, Ryumin. Backup Crew: Lebedev, Popov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 48. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lebedev, Lyakhov, Popov, Ryumin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 32. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 110.18 days. Decay Date: 1979-06-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11281 . COSPAR: 1979-018A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported a team consisting of V A Lyakhov and V V Ryumin to the Salyut-6 space station to conduct scientific investigations and experiments and repair work. Recovered June 15, 1979 16:18 GMT. Returned unmanned..

1980 February 25 - . 19:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1981 February 25 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant Hydac.
  • HAVE SLED test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF BMO. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1982 February 25 - .
1983 February 25 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1442 - . Payload: Yantar-4K1 s/n 248. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 45.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 13850 . COSPAR: 1983-012A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1985 February 25 - . 20:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1986 February 25 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1987 February 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 February 25 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: S-75. Launch Vehicle: Prithvi.
  • Test mission - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1990 February 25 - . 23:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • DYANA Atomic oxygen Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi).

1991 February 25 - . 17:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 25 - . 22:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Qatar - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1993 February 25 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 February 25 - .
  • TSS tether breaks - . Nation: Italy. Spacecraft Bus: TSS. Spacecraft: TSS. Test from shuttle of 20 km long tether; satellite unintentionally deployed when tether broke. Re-entered March 19..

1998 February 25 - . 03:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Coqui Dos Ionosphere / release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1998 February 25 - . 07:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1998 February 25 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • EDDY Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1999 February 25 - .
  • Death of Glenn T Seaborg - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Seaborg. American physicist, chair of the Atomic Energy Commission 1961-1971..

2000 February 25 - .
  • STS-101 - Wakeup Song: Don't It Make You Wanna Dance - . Flight: STS-101. "Don't It Make You Wanna Dance" by Jerry Jeff Walker -- was played at the request of Williams' son and family..

2000 February 25 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Complex: Poker Flat LC3. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant XII.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,170 km (720 mi).

2001 February 25 - . LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: KT-1.
  • Kaituozhe 1 Third Stage Engine Successfully Tested - . Nation: China. The solid engine used on the third stage of the Kaituozhe 1 launch vehicle performed its first ground test firing. The test was successful and all parameters meet design specifications..

2002 February 25 - . 17:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2387 - . Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 122.00 days. Decay Date: 2002-06-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 27382 . COSPAR: 2002-008A. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. The optical reconnaissance satellite carried two small film capsules and a large reentry module. The main recoverable section of Cosmos 2387 landed at about 0230 UTC on June 27..

2005 February 25 - .
  • International Space Station Status Report #05-9 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Chiao, Sharipov. Program: ISS. Flight: Soyuz TMA-5, STS-114.

    The crew members aboard the International Space Station are winding down a week that saw them preparing for the arrival of a new cargo spacecraft and helping achieve a milestone in Station robotics operations, which has the potential for long-term exploration applications. Additional Details: here....


2008 February 25 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 02/25/08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Drew, Eyharts, Love, Malenchenko, Whitson. Program: ISS. Flight: Soyuz TMA-11, STS-122, STS-122 ISS EO-16.

    Russian Holiday: 'Defender of the Fatherland Day' (Dyen' zaschitnika Otechestva),- also: Men's Day (Dyen' Muzhchin).

    Underway: Week 19 of Increment 16.

    Before breakfast, having reached the FD15 (Flight Day 15) mark in his flight, FE-2 Eyharts undertook his first session with the NASA/JSC experiment NUTRITION w/Repository, today limited to two blood draws (for Serum & Heparin). (Acting as operator and CMO (Crew Medical Officer), Peggy Whitson performed phlebotomy on Leo, i.e., drew blood samples (from an arm vein) which were first allowed to coagulate in the Repository, then spun in the HRF RC (Human Research Facility/Refrigerated Centrifuge) and finally placed in MELFI (Minus-Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS). The RC was later powered off after a temperature reset to limit wear on the compressor, and cleaned. Background: NUTRITION is the most comprehensive in-flight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. The Clinical Nutritional Assessment profile currently required on all U.S. Astronauts collects blood and urine samples preflight and postflight. NUTRITION expands this protocol by also capturing inflight samples and an additional postflight sample. Furthermore, additional measurements are included for samples from all sessions, including additional markers of bone metabolism, vitamin status, and hormone and oxidative stressor tests. The results will be used to better understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements. The Clinical Nutritional Assessment profile (MR016L), first started on two Mir crewmembers and then on all ISS US crews, nominally consists of two pre-flight and one post-flight analysis of nutritional status, as well as an in-flight assessment of dietary intake using the FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The current NUTRITION project expands MR016L testing in three ways: Addition of in-flight blood & urine collection (made possible by MELFI), normative markers of nutritional assessment, and a return session plus 30-day (R+30) session to allow evaluation of post-flight nutrition and implications for rehabilitation.) Additional Details: here....


2009 February 25 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NASA 36.226UG - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). IR Astron..

2010 February 25 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: FTB. Launch Vehicle: FTB.
  • Nation: Brazil. Agency: AEB. Apogee: 32 km (19 mi).

2012 February 25 - . 10:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • GT206GM - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Operational test..

2013 February 25 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 3.
  • Arrow KV - . Nation: Israel. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). ABM - exoatmospheric interceptor test..

2013 February 25 - . 12:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV.
  • SARAL - . Mass: 346 kg (762 lb). Nation: India. Class: Earth. Type: Sea satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Minisatellite-SSB. Spacecraft: Minisatellite-SSB. USAF Sat Cat: 39086 . COSPAR: 2013-009A. Apogee: 785 km (487 mi). Perigee: 784 km (487 mi). Inclination: 98.5200 deg. Period: 100.54 min. Joint project between the French space agency CNES and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) for ocean studies. Carried the Altika Ka-band altimeter..
  • AAUSAT3 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Denmark. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39087 . COSPAR: 2013-009B. Apogee: 787 km (489 mi). Perigee: 770 km (470 mi). Inclination: 98.6300 deg. Period: 100.41 min. 2U cubesat built by Aalborg University in Denmark; carried a double AIS ship tracking receiver and a GPS receiver for tracking ships in Arctic regions. Successful..
  • Sapphire - . Mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: DND. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Orbital object tracking satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SSTL-150. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 39088 . COSPAR: 2013-009C. Apogee: 787 km (489 mi). Perigee: 772 km (479 mi). Inclination: 98.6300 deg. Period: 100.44 min. Canadian Forces satellite for space object surveillance and missile early warning, based with a 0.15m visible-light telescope..
  • NEOSSat - . Mass: 65 kg (143 lb). Nation: Canada. Class: Astronomy. Type: Astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Multi-Mission Microsatellite Bus. Spacecraft: Multi-Mission Microsatellite Bus. USAF Sat Cat: 39089 . COSPAR: 2013-009D. Apogee: 786 km (488 mi). Perigee: 771 km (479 mi). Inclination: 98.6300 deg. Period: 100.43 min. Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite, joint Canadian Space Agency/DRDC mission to survey asteroids and space debris, also with a 0.15m telescope..
  • STRaND-1 - . Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Surrey. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39090 . COSPAR: 2013-009E. Apogee: 783 km (486 mi). Perigee: 771 km (479 mi). Inclination: 98.6300 deg. Period: 100.40 min. 3U cubesat, a technical test project of Surrey Satellite and the Surrey Space Centre. Carried a Google Nexus One smartphone as its main avionics, and featured plasma thrusters and a water-alcohol thruster. Successful; first in STRaND Program..
  • TUGSAT-1 - . Payload: BRITE-A. Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Austria. Class: Astronomy. Type: Astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Toronto GNB. Spacecraft: Toronto GNB. USAF Sat Cat: 39091 . COSPAR: 2013-009F. Apogee: 784 km (487 mi). Perigee: 770 km (470 mi). Inclination: 98.6300 deg. Period: 100.38 min. Satellite based on the Toronto Generic Nanosatellite Bus, built by the Technical University of Graz, Austra with help from UTIAS. Carried an 0.03m telescope-photometer for stellar photometry and astroseismology..
  • UniBRITE - . Payload: BRITE-U. Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Austria. Class: Astronomy. Type: Astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Toronto GNB. Spacecraft: Toronto GNB. USAF Sat Cat: 39092 . COSPAR: 2013-009G. Apogee: 783 km (486 mi). Perigee: 771 km (479 mi). Inclination: 98.6300 deg. Period: 100.39 min. Nanosatellite built by UTIAS for the University of Vienna, Austria. Carried an 0.03m telescope-photometer for stellar photometry and astroseismology..

2014 February 25 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: ISS. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Flock1-17 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2014-05-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 39555 . COSPAR: 1998-067DY. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.6400 deg. Period: 88.14 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..
  • Flock1-18 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2014-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 39556 . COSPAR: 1998-067DZ. Apogee: 374 km (232 mi). Perigee: 370 km (220 mi). Inclination: 51.6400 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..

2015 February 25 - .
  • EVA ISS US EVA-30 - . Crew: Virts, Wilmore. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Program: ISS.

    The spacewalk begain with airlock depressurization around 11:42 GMT and hatch opening around 11:48 GMT, with the astronauts on battery power at 1151 UTC. Following on EVA USA-29, the remaining two cables were installed, and the soft thermal cover was removed from the PMA-2 docking port. The cover was launched on HTV-3 in July 2012 and installed on PMA-2 during spacewalk US EVA-22 on 9 July 2013. The cover and IDA Bag B were returned to the airlock, after which Virts performed several hours of lubrication work on the Canadarm-2's LEE-A (Latching End Effector, the part that actually grabs things) and Wilmore installed wire ties on the P1 and S1 truss segments to prepare for communications cabling on the next EVA. The hatch was closed at 18:29 GMT and repressurization was at 18:34 GMT.


2015 February 25 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NASA 36.299DR - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Ionosphere payload. MOSC 2 (Metal Oxide Space Cloud) experiment from the US Air Force Research Lab..


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