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On September 25 in Space History

1905 September 25 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Ivanovich Vetoshkin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Vetoshkin. Russian politician. First Deputy Chairman of Military-industrial Commission 1958-1965. Directorate Chief in Ministry of Armaments..

1931 September 25 - .
  • Initial French rocket experiments - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre, Esnault-Pelterie.

    Robert Esnault-Pelterie and Jean-Claude Barre begins experiments iwth liquid propellant rocket engines under funding from the Department of War. Only three weeks later Esnault-Pelterie loses the fingers of his left hand in an explosion in the laboratory. Nevertheless he and Barre persevere.


1934 September 25 - .
  • Birth of John Sumter Bull - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bull, John. American test pilot astronaut, 1966-1968..

1944 September 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma223 157 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 165 km. Airburst 4.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.3 km from aim point..

1947 September 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 46 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA acceptance flight. Number 4 cylinder burned out..

1947 September 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8.
  • Dummy launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Dummy firing, no upper-air research experiment..

1949 September 25 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2e.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev Design Bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Modification of R-1 missile to test R-2 concepts (integral fuel tank and seperable warhead). Range achieved 541.3 km. Deviation from aim point -0.2 km. Launched at 1416 local time..

1950 September 25 - .
  • Birth of James Burton Jr Armor - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armor. American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1985..

1951 September 25 - . LV Family: Eole. Launch Vehicle: Eole.
  • Eole successful engine test - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. The liquid oxygen/alcohol engine produces 9.59 tonnes thrust and an exhaust velocity of 2110 m/s..

1951 September 25 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1952 September 25 - . 03:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee XASR-SC-1.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi). Temperature, winds research. Launched at 2050 local time. Reached 117.5 km..

1953 September 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: MGR-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 September 25 - . 20:39 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 47.7 N x 52.5 W. Launch Platform: AGB-5. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • SUI 41 Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 11 km (6 mi). Launched at Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 13 Launch Point 4 - - Latitude: 47.73 N - Longitude: 52.50 W..

1957 September 25 - . 19:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A. FAILURE: Failure in the booster fuel system.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 4.00 km (2.40 mi).

    The second Atlas flight test missile (6A) was destroyed 32 seconds into the flight because of an engine shutdown. Atlas was again destroyed by command signal at three minutes into flight following a failure in the booster fuel system. The 50-second active flight was considered a partial success.


1958 September 25 - .
  • NASA would be activated on October 1, 1958. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Glennan. Dr. T. Keith Glennan, NASA Administrator, announced publicly that NASA would be activated on October 1, 1958..

1958 September 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Platform: B-47. LV Family: Bold Orion. Launch Vehicle: Bold Orion.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 September 25 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Exos sounding rocket.
  • Model 2 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL, NASA. Apogee: 460 km (280 mi).

1958 September 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Goose. Launch Vehicle: Goose.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1959 September 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 September 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Weather photo - . Nation: USA. Agency: PARD. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1960 September 25 - . 15:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Able. FAILURE: Second stage exploded.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Pioneer (P 30) - . Payload: Pioneer P 30 / Able VA. Mass: 175 kg (385 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Pioneer. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: Pioneer P 3. Spacecraft: Pioneer P 3. Decay Date: 1960-09-25 . Apogee: 1,290 km (800 mi). An attempt to launch a Pioneer satellite into lunar orbit failed when one of the upper stages of the Atlas- Able rocket malfunctioned..

1961 September 25 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • S-IC fabrication plant manager named. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo. Dr. George N. Constan of Marshall Space Flight Center named as acting manager of the new NASA Saturn fabrication plant near New Orleans by Director von Braun of Marshall Space Flight Center..

1962 September 25 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1 launch vehicle upgraded to accomodate OS-1 75 tonne manned platform with nuclear weapons. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Khrushchev, Korolev. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: OS. Spacecraft: OS-1 (1965).

    Work on the OS-1 began following a meeting between Khrushchev and chief designers at Pitsunda. Korolev was authorized to proceed immediately to upgrade the three stage N vehicle to a maximum 75 tonne payload in order to launch the station. By 1965 the mockup of the huge station had been completed.


1963 September 25 - . 03:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1963 September 25 - . 04:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1963 September 25 - . 07:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150A.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1963 September 25 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576C. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1964 September 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP Kedr operational test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi). Demonstration launch witnessed by Khrushchev..

1964 September 25 - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1964 September 25 - . 04:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Demonstration launch witnessed by Khrushchev..

1965 September 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 September 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1965 September 25 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Infrared Horizon 1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 199 km (123 mi).

1965 September 25 - . 21:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150A.
  • FR-1 test / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1966 September 25 - . 09:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • MPE Barium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi).

1967 September 25 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout A.
  • Transit O-14 - . Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Transit. Spacecraft: Transit. USAF Sat Cat: 2965 . COSPAR: 1967-092A. Apogee: 1,099 km (682 mi). Perigee: 1,030 km (640 mi). Inclination: 89.2000 deg. Period: 106.50 min.

1968 September 25 - .
  • Apollo LM ascent engine to use Rocketdyne injector - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo LM, LM Ascent Propulsion. The LM ascent engine to be flown in LM-3 and subsequent missions would incorporate the Rocketdyne injector, Apollo Program Director Phillips informed ASPO Manager Low. The engine would be assembled and delivered by Rocketdyne under subcontract to Grumman.. Additional Details: here....

1968 September 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A3. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/Trident.
  • RMP-B-9 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1968 September 25 - . 22:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1969 September 25 - .
  • James A McDivitt appointed Apollo ASPO Manager - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George, McDivitt. Program: Apollo. James A. McDivitt was appointed ASPO Manager at MSC. George M. Low, former ASPO Manager was temporarily on special assignment at MSC to plan future MSC programs and work on organizational matters..

1969 September 25 - .
  • The Central Committee debates plans for the upcoming visit of two cosmonauts tot he USA. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Belyayev, Beregovoi, Feoktistov, Nikolayev. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 6, Soyuz 7, Soyuz 8.

    They rule out 22 October as a start date, in order not to have the embarrassment of them being there during the Apollo 12 mission. They reject Belyayev and Shatalov as candidates for the trip; they want Beregovoi and Belyayev or Beregovoi and Feoktistov. Kamanin opposes Feoktistov, and doesn't' want Beregovoi diverted from his work as cosmonaut deputy-commander, where he feels he is doing well. He has started lots of good new initiatives. Meanwhile Nikolayev continues to make trouble for Kamanin in regard to being bumped from the Soyuz 8 crew.


1969 September 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 September 25 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 2. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • USAF V130D re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 September 25 - .
  • Cosmonaut flight training. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Tereshkova.

    More controversy over Mishin and Gorshkov's new sea recovery plan for the L3. The Seregin Flight Regiment of the cosmonaut training centre flew 4002 hours in the first nine months of 1970, of which 900 were at night and 1307 were in poor weather. The cosmonauts themselves flew 1987 hours.


1970 September 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • OT GT76B operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 September 25 - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-4S. FAILURE: Fourth stage failed to ignite.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • SS - . Payload: MS-F1. Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SS. Spacecraft: SS. Decay Date: 1970-09-25 . Apogee: 712 km (442 mi).

1970 September 25 - . 03:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVA.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi).

1970 September 25 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69M.
  • Cosmos 365 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft Bus: OGCh. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1970-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4556 . COSPAR: 1970-076A. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi). Perigee: 145 km (90 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 87.70 min. Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

1971 September 25 - . 02:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 25 - . 13:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1972 September 25 - .
  • TsNII-50 created. - . Nation: Russia. Decree 'On formation of TsNII-50 on the basis of NII-4's Space Branch' was issued..

1972 September 25 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • ECHO II Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi).

1972 September 25 - . 06:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: LS-C. Launch Vehicle: LS-C.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1972 September 25 - . 19:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VA.
  • Auroral D / E region Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 126 km (78 mi).

1972 September 25 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 643. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1972 September 25 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT108M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1973 September 25 - .
1973 September 25 - .
  • Skylab 2 - Wakeup Song: Going Back to Houston - . Flight: Skylab 2 . "Going Back to Houston" (Sic), probably"Houston" by Dean Martin CAPCOM: Henry Hartsfield Skylab 4.

1973 September 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT115M-1 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1974 September 25 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1975 September 25 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 771 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8327 . COSPAR: 1975-090A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1976 September 25 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1977 September 25 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1978 September 25 - .
  • Start precombined system test, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 September 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT138M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1979 September 25 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant Hydac.
  • HAVE LENT IV ABRES test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

    The first of two secondary rocket flight tests designated HAVE LENT IV successfully demonstrated the use of aerosol masking dispensers as a penetration aids. The vehicle was a Sergeant-Hydac rocket launched from Barking Sands, Hawaii. Data collection was limited because of erratic behavior of the rocket. The mission was sponsored by ABRES.


1979 September 25 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1129 - . Payload: Bion no. 5. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 18.50 days. Decay Date: 1979-10-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11536 . COSPAR: 1979-083A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

    Biological experiments; embryo development, radiation medicine. Biosatellite for the continued investigation of the effects of space flight on living organisms. Capsule recovered 52 deg 17 min N, 65 deg 30 min E. Cosmos 1129 satellite carried biological and radiation physics experiment packages from Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the German Democratic Republic, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Additional Details: here....


1979 September 25 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1130 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 177. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11538 . COSPAR: 1979-084A. Apogee: 1,480 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,398 km (868 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1136 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 183. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11544 . COSPAR: 1979-084G. Apogee: 1,497 km (930 mi). Perigee: 1,473 km (915 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.60 min.
  • Cosmos 1134 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 181. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11542 . COSPAR: 1979-084E. Apogee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Perigee: 1,454 km (903 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.30 min.
  • Cosmos 1131 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 178. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11539 . COSPAR: 1979-084B. Apogee: 1,483 km (921 mi). Perigee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.80 min.
  • Cosmos 1132 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 179. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11540 . COSPAR: 1979-084C. Apogee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Perigee: 1,426 km (886 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.
  • Cosmos 1135 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 182. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11543 . COSPAR: 1979-084F. Apogee: 1,492 km (927 mi). Perigee: 1,462 km (908 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.50 min.
  • Cosmos 1137 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 184. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11545 . COSPAR: 1979-084H. Apogee: 1,514 km (940 mi). Perigee: 1,473 km (915 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.80 min.
  • Cosmos 1133 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 180. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11541 . COSPAR: 1979-084D. Apogee: 1,483 km (921 mi). Perigee: 1,439 km (894 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.10 min.

1980 September 25 - . 18:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1981 September 25 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: MUSSON. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1982 September 25 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: S-310. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1984 September 25 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1599 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 56.00 days. Decay Date: 1984-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 15318 . COSPAR: 1984-102A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 164 km (101 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1985 September 25 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1986 September 25 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT118GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1987 September 25 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1989 September 25 - . 08:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas G Centaur.
  • USA 46 - . Payload: Fltsatcom 8. Mass: 2,310 kg (5,090 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FLTSATCOM. Spacecraft: Fltsatcom. USAF Sat Cat: 20253 . COSPAR: 1989-077A. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 4.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Last in series of 8. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 23 deg W in 1989-1999.


1990 September 25 - . 21:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1991 September 25 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1992 September 25 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Commercial Titan 3.
  • Mars Observer - . Payload: Mars Observer [TOS-21H]. Mass: 2,573 kg (5,672 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: Mars Observer. Spacecraft: Mars Observer. USAF Sat Cat: 22136 . COSPAR: 1992-063A. Planned Mars orbiter; lost contact during orbit insertion burn. Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1996 September 25 - .
  • STS-79 - Wakeup Song: Danger Zone - . Flight: STS-79. "Danger Zone" by Kenny Loggins. Played in honor of the two Navy crewmen on board, Bill Readdy and Terrence Wilcutt. Wilcutt's a Marine, not Navy. (The Navy trains the Marine pilots so it's still a valid connection.).

1997 September 25 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: TR-1. Launch Vehicle: TR-1A.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1998 September 25 - .
  • Death of Abraham Hyatt - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hyatt. American engineer. Navy chief aeronautics scientist, 1948-1958. Director positions at NASA, 1959-1964. After 1965 corporated director at NA..

1999 September 25 - . 06:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Telstar 7 - . Mass: 3,790 kg (8,350 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Skynet Palo Alto. Manufacturer: Palo Alto. Program: Telstar series. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FS-1300. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 25922 . COSPAR: 1999-052A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Telstar 7, owned by Loral Skynet, had 24 C-band and 24 Ku-band transponders. Dry mass was 1537 kg. After placement in final geosynchronous orbit it provided communications for North America from a position at 129 degrees East longitude. Sold to Intelsat in March 2004 and renamed IA-7. The satellite had a power failure on November 28, 2004 and was briefly declared lost. Intelsat recovered control of the satellite by December 4. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 129.01W drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.


2000 September 25 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2372 - . Mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Kozlov bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Orlets-2. Duration: 269.00 days. Decay Date: 2001-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 26538 . COSPAR: 2000-056A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 64.7770 deg. Period: 89.97 min. Reported code name Yenisey. It is speculated that this is an improved version of the Orlets satellite launched as Cosmos 2290 in 1994. Re-entered on Apr 20, 2001 after a 7 month mission..

2001 September 25 - . 23:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P.
  • Atlantic Bird 2 - . Payload: Spacebus 3000B2. Mass: 3,149 kg (6,942 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Spacebus 3000. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 26927 . COSPAR: 2001-042A. Apogee: 35,804 km (22,247 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Ariane V144 placed the Atlantic Bird 2 satellite in geostationary transfer orbit. Atlantic Bird 2 was an Alcatel/Cannes Spacebus 3000B2 Ku-band communications satellite owned by the European consortium Eutelsat. It replaced the Telecom 2A satellite at 8 deg W. AB-2 had a dry mass of 1368 kg and a launch mass of 3150 kg. Atlantic Bird 1, built by Alenia, was to be launched at a later date. The spacecraft was the twenty-second member of the fleet. and was to provide high-speed television, video streaming, radio and internet services between North and South America, and Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East, through its 26 Ku-band transponders. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 8.04W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.


2002 September 25 - . 16:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Progress M1-9 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 258. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: STS-111 ISS EO-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 129.00 days. Decay Date: 2003-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 27531 . COSPAR: 2002-045A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 282 km (175 mi). Inclination: 51.6331 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Launch delayed from July 22, September 10 and 20. Progress-M1 9, known to NASA as Progress 9P, was a Russian automatic cargo transportation craft that was to deliver food, fuel, and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS). It docked with the Zvezda module of the ISS on September 29 at 1700 UTC. Prior to the docking, the port was vacated by the earlier Progress-M 46. Undocked from the station on 1 February 2003 and commanded to destructive re-entry in the atmosphere.


2003 September 25 - .
  • Death of Dr Yuri Aleksandrovich Senkevich at Moscow, Russia - . Nation: Mongolia, Russia. Related Persons: Senkevich. Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966..

2006 September 25 - . 18:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. Launch Pad: SLC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-9.5.
  • USA 190 - . Payload: GPS 2R-15M / Navstar 52. Mass: 2,032 kg (4,479 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Seal Beach. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AS 4000. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2R. USAF Sat Cat: 29486 . COSPAR: 2006-042A. Apogee: 20,342 km (12,639 mi). Perigee: 20,020 km (12,430 mi). Inclination: 54.9000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Second GPS Block IIR-M version, which added extra navigation signals for both civil and military users..

2008 September 25 - . 08:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2442 - . Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei Design Bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 33378 . COSPAR: 2008-046A. Apogee: 19,144 km (11,895 mi). Perigee: 19,089 km (11,861 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.20 min. Continued replenishment of Glonass navigation satellite constellation..
  • Cosmos 2443 - . Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei Design Bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 33379 . COSPAR: 2008-046B. Apogee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 676.10 min.
  • Cosmos 2444 - . Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei Design Bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 33380 . COSPAR: 2008-046C. Apogee: 19,145 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,132 km (11,888 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 676.10 min.

2008 September 25 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2F.
  • Shenzhou 7 - . Crew: Jing Haipen, Liu Buoming, Zhai Zhigang. Mass: 7,840 kg (17,280 lb). Nation: China. Related Persons: Jing Haipen, Liu Buoming, Zhai Zhigang. Agency: SISE. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Shenzhou 7. Spacecraft Bus: Shenzhou. Spacecraft: Shenzhou. Duration: 2.85 days. Decay Date: 2008-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 33386 . COSPAR: 2008-047A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 329 km (204 mi). Inclination: 42.4000 deg. Period: 91.20 min.

    Third Chinese manned space mission. The crew consisted of Zhai Zhigang, backup astronaut for China's first manned space mission; and Liu Buoming and Jing Haipeng, backups for the second mission. The astronauts demonstrated the capability of the Shenzhou spacecraft to carry its full complement of three crew for the first time. Zhai, wearing a Chinese-developed Feitian space suit, emerged from the orbital module of the Shenzhou and became China's first astronaut to conduct a spacewalk. Liu, wearing a proven Russian Orlan spacesuit, remained in the depressurized orbital module, ready to assist Zhai in an emergency. A subsatellite, weighing 40 kg, was released after the EVA, and relayed back images of Shenzhou 7 from close range to a distance of several kilometers. The crew returned safely to earth in a pinpoint landing in Outer Mongolia, carried live on television. The orbital module remained in space, conducting space network experiments with the subsatellite.

  • BX-1 - . Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Flight: Shenzhou 7. Spacecraft Bus: Ban Xing. Spacecraft: Ban Xing. Decay Date: 2009-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 33392 . COSPAR: 2008-047G. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 321 km (199 mi). Inclination: 42.4000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. BanXing (companion satellite) subsatellite released by Shenzhou 7. If maneuvered away and back to the Shenzhou orbital module after the mission..

2009 September 25 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. Launch Pad: SLC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-10C.
  • USA 208 - . Payload: STSS 1. Mass: 1,122 kg (2,473 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Martin. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft Bus: STSS. Spacecraft: STSS. USAF Sat Cat: 35937 . COSPAR: 2009-052A. Space Tracking and Surveillance System for missile launch and flight monitoring using infrared sensors..
  • USA 209 - . Payload: STSS 2. Mass: 1,122 kg (2,473 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Martin. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft Bus: STSS. Spacecraft: STSS. USAF Sat Cat: 35937 . COSPAR: 2009-052A. Space Tracking and Surveillance System for missile launch and flight monitoring using infrared sensors..

2013 September 25 - . 04:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: DF-21. Launch Vehicle: Kuaizhou.
  • Kuaizhou-1 - . Payload: KZ-1. Nation: China. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kuaizhou satellite. Spacecraft: Kuaizhou satellite. Decay Date: 2015-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 39262 . COSPAR: 2013-053A. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 279 km (173 mi). Inclination: 96.5900 deg. Period: 90.31 min.

    First launch of China's Kuaizhou small quick-response launch vehicle. "Kuaizhou" means "Swift Boat". The solid propellant vehicle is thought to be built by CASIC in collaboration with the Harbin Institute of Technology and may be a derivative of the DF-21 family, like the failed KT-1 launch vehicle of 2002-2003. Development of the rocket began in 2010. The satellite's initial orbit was 275 x 293 km x 96.7 deg, raised on 27 September to 299 x 306 km. The satellite payload is operated by the State Remote Sensing Center. The satellite maneuvered following launch: its initial 275 x 293 km orbit, was raised on September 27 to 299 x 306 km. The orbit decayed to 279 x 288 km and then was raised on October 17 to 288 x 321 km; after a further decay another reboost on November 1 restored the orbit to 290 x 317 km. The third reboost on November 19 raised the orbit from 267 x 294 km to 287 x 322 km.


2013 September 25 - . 20:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-10M - . Call Sign: Pulsar. Crew: Hopkins, Kotov, Ryazansky. Backup Crew: Artemyev, Skvortsov, Swanson. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 710. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-10M. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 166.27 days. Decay Date: 2014-03-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 39263 . COSPAR: 2013-054A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 411 km (255 mi). Inclination: 51.6500 deg. Period: 92.82 min. Docked with the Poisk module of the ISS 5 hours 46 minutes after launch. Undocked from the Poisk module of the ISS at 00:02 GMT on 11 March, landing in Kazakhstan at 03:24 GMT..

2014 September 25 - . 20:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-14M - . Call Sign: Tarkhany. Crew: Samokutyayev, Serova, Wilmore. Backup Crew: Kelly, Scott, Korniyenko, Padalka. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 714. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 167.24 days. Decay Date: 2015-03-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 40246 . COSPAR: 2014-057A. Apogee: 408 km (253 mi). Perigee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 51.6500 deg. Period: 92.60 min.

    Expedition 42 crew transported to the ISS (Samokutyaev, Wilmore and Serova). The port solar array failed to deploy after Soyuz separated from the launch vehicle third stage, but this did not impact the rendezvous. Soyuz TMA-14M docked with the Poisk module of the ISS at 02:11 GMT on September 26. Serova was the fourth Russian woman in space but the first since 1997. On March 11 2015 at 22:44 GMT Soyuz TMA-14M undocked from the Poisk module with the same crew aboard. It performed its deorbit burn at 01:16 GMT March 12 and landed in Kazakhstan at around 02:08 GMT.


2015 September 25 - . 01:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS-2. Launch Pad: Jiuquan SLS-E. LV Family: CZ-NGLV. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 11.
  • Pujiang-1 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: China. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Pujiang. Spacecraft: Pujiang. USAF Sat Cat: 40925 . COSPAR: 2015-051A. Apogee: 487 km (302 mi). Perigee: 465 km (288 mi). Inclination: 97.3000 deg. Period: 94.13 min.

    First launch of the CZ-11 solid-fuel, four-stage, light launch vehicle, though to be related to the DF-31 and DF-41 ICBMs. Pujiang, the Chinese Technology Experiment Satellite, was designed to promote the construction of smart cities in China, by monitoring urban weather, traffic and population density. It was the first Chinese satellite to use 3D printing for the titanium structure of its antenna. It included a Wi-Fi router providing a communication network between the three Tianwang cubesats released on the same launch.

  • Shangkeda-2 - . Payload: TIANWANG 1C (TW-1C). Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: China. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40926 . COSPAR: 2015-051B. Apogee: 485 km (301 mi). Perigee: 460 km (280 mi). Inclination: 97.3000 deg. Period: 94.04 min.

    Part of the Tianwang constallation of three CubeSats for space networking experiments. Codeveloped by the Shanghai Engineering Center for Microsatellites (SECM), the Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NJUST), GomSpace Denmark, Tekever Space Portugal and NanoSpace Sweden.

  • NJUST-2 - . Payload: TIANWANG 1B (TW-1B). Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: China. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40927 . COSPAR: 2015-051C. Apogee: 485 km (301 mi). Perigee: 462 km (287 mi). Inclination: 97.3100 deg. Period: 94.07 min.
  • NJFA-1 - . Payload: TIANWANG 1A (TW-1A). Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: China. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40928 . COSPAR: 2015-051D. Apogee: 485 km (301 mi). Perigee: 463 km (287 mi). Inclination: 97.2900 deg. Period: 94.08 min.


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