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On July 25 in Space History

1916 July 25 - .
  • Birth of Alfred Johannes Finzel - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Finzel. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1932 July 25 - .
  • Birth of Paul Joseph Weitz - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Weitz. American pilot astronaut. Flew on Skylab 2, STS-6. Member of first successful space station mission..

1949 July 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 120 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 70. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 48. Altitude attempt. Attained 20388 m altitude..

1951 July 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: MGR-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 July 25 - . 18:45 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 58.4 N x 55.0 W. Launch Platform: WYG-279. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Deacon Rockoon.
  • NRL Rockoon 10 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi). Launched at Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 12 Launch Point 17 - - Latitude: 58.37 N - Longitude: 54.98 W..

1955 July 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1956 July 25 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 29.7 N x 121.6 W. Launch Platform: LSD-18. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Deacon Rockoon.
  • NRL NN5.34 Solar ultraviolet and x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi). Launched on 1956 NRL Cruise Launch Point 8 - Latitude: 29.67 N, Longitude:121.58 W..

1957 July 25 - .
  • Birth of Daniel Wheeler 'Dan' Bursch - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bursch. American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51, STS-68, STS-77, ISS EO-4..

1958 July 25 - . Launch Vehicle: Thor.
  • Air Force Ballistic Missile Division representatives again presented a series of Washington briefings. - . Spacecraft: Man-In-Space-Soonest, Mercury.

    These were to Lt General S. E. Anderson, Commander, Air Research and Development Command; the Air Staff; Secretary of the Air Force and Staff; and Director Roy Johnson, of the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The latter presentation, in addition to reporting detailed man in space planning, requested prompt program approval and emphasized the urgency of firm funds commitment if further delay was to be avoided. Johnson's response to the briefing may be summarized as follows: (a) the man in space program would not be approved at this time; (b) it appeared that $50 million would be an optimistic estimate of man in space funding until the Space Council, authorized by recent legislation, was organized and working, an event that was not probable before Thanksgiving; (c) planning anything over a $50 million program, the maximum likely to be approved under any circumstances, was wasted effort; (d) statements of prominent scientists had convinced the White House there was no currently valid reason for Man-InSpace: (e) when the Space Council became a viable organization, man in space would probably become a joint effort of the Advanced Research Projects Agency and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; (f) The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (the National Aeronautics and Space Act creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was to become law on 29 July 1958) was already thinking of an independent but very similar space program that would cost about $40 million in fiscal 1959. After these two days of briefings it was clear that quick approval of a military man in space program was not forthcoming. (MFR, Col J. D. Lowe, Ch, Space Sys Div, AFBMD, 30 Jul 58, subj: MISS Briefing to Hq ARDC, Hq USAF, the Secretary of the Air Force and ARPA on 24-25 July 1958.)


1958 July 25 - . Launch Site: Santa Barbara Channel DZ. Launch Pad: 34.2 N x 120.0 W. Launch Platform: F4D-1 747. Launch Vehicle: Project Pilot. FAILURE: Radio contact lost; possibly reached orbit.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Pilot 1 - . Payload: Diagnostic Payload 1. Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Pilot satellite. Decay Date: 1958-07-25 . Apogee: 12 km (7 mi). Air dropped in Santa Barbara Channel DZ..

1958 July 25 - . 05:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp.
  • Test / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 July 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 July 25 - .
  • Name Apollo approved for the advanced manned space flight program - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Glennan, Goett, Silverstein. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM, CSM Source Selection.

    NASA Director of Space Flight Programs Abe Silverstein notified Harry J. Goett, Director of the Goddard Space Flight Center, that NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan had approved the name "Apollo" for the advanced manned space flight program. The program would be so designated at the forthcoming NASA-Industry Program Plans Conference.


1960 July 25 - . Launch Site: , Vandenberg. LV Family: Atlas.
  • Atlas D squadron 576B was activated at Vandenberg AFB. - .

1960 July 25 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1960 July 25 - . 11:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA5A. Launch Vehicle: Black Knight.
1961 July 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 July 25 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan I.
  • Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Titan missile M-2 completed the first full-range (4,342-NM) flight test of a Titan I equipped with an all-inertial guidance system. .

1962 July 25 - .
  • Invitation to bid for the Apollo lunar excursion module - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM, Apollo Lunar Landing, LM Original Specification, LM Source Selection.

    MSC invited 11 firms to submit research and development proposals for the lunar excursion module (LEM) for the manned lunar landing mission. The firms were Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, The Boeing Airplane Company, Northrop Corporation, Ling-Temco-Vought, Inc., Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, Douglas Aircraft Company, General Dynamics Corporation, Republic Aviation Corporation, Martin- Marietta Company, North American Aviation, Inc., and McDonnell Aircraft Corporation. Additional Details: here....


1962 July 25 - . 15:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Platform: F-4H. Launch Vehicle: Caleb.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN NOTS. Apogee: 1,166 km (724 mi).

1962 July 25 - . 16:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1963 July 25 - .
  • Gagarin released from the hospital - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gagarin. Gagarin is released from the hospital after his tonsillectomy. .

1963 July 25 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Solar X-rays Spectrum 2 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1963 July 25 - . 22:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Exos sounding rocket.
  • Refractive Index Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 623 km (387 mi).

1964 July 25 - . 17:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • CR nuclei Cosmic rays mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1965 July 25 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk.
  • Dart / EMP [or 1966?] test - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 July 25 - .
  • VVS Victory on Soyuz crew issue - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gorbatko, Khrunov, Kolodin, Malinovskiy, Mishin, Severin, Tyulin, Voronov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1, Soyuz 2A, Soyuz s/n 3/4. Spacecraft: Yastreb.

    Tyulin advises Kamanin that Ustinov has instructed Mishin to accept that Soyuz spacecraft will be commanded by a VVS pilot cosmonaut, with OKB-1 providing cosmonauts for the engineering support role. Mishin is to immediately send four candidates from OKB-1 to Kamanin for cosmonaut training. Kamanin feels this is only a 50% victory, and vows to accelerate submission of the letter from Malinovskiy to the Central Committee, demanding that the support cosmonaut seats also be filled by trained VVS engineer cosmonauts (e.g. Khrunov, Gorbatko, Voronov, and Kolodin). Meanwhile spacesuit designer Severin informs Kamanin that OKB-1 has insisted that the outer hatch of Soyuz will remain at 660 mm diameter, even though he has told them for a long time that the minimum diameter for a cosmonaut in spacesuit with a life support system backpack is 700 mm. Kamanin agrees to support him, but notes the change can only be made in later spacecraft; it is too late to change the first production run.


1966 July 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 654. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 July 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas 2.
  • Test 1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1966 July 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 July 25 - .
  • Apollo LM-2 options - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM, LM Electrical.

    MSC Director of Flight Operations Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., raised questions about lunar module number 2: Would it be possible for LM-2 to be a combined manned and unmanned vehicle; that is, have the capability to make an unmanned burn first and then be manned for additional activities? Would additional batteries in the LM provide greater flexibility for earth-orbital missions? Mission flexibility would be worthwhile only if it allowed deletion of a subsequent mission, at least on paper.


1967 July 25 - .
  • Apollo lunar mapping and survey system terminated - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft Bus: Apollo LM. Spacecraft: Apollo LMSS.

    Following a series of discussions on the requirements for the lunar mapping and survey system (LMSS), the effort was terminated. An immediate stop work order was issued to the Air Force, the Centers, and the contractors in the LMSS effort. The original justification for the LMSS, a backup Apollo site certification capability in the event of Surveyor or Lunar Orbiter inadequacies, was no longer valid, since at least four Apollo sites had been certified and the last Lunar Orbiter would, if successful, increase that to eight.


1967 July 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1967 July 25 - . 03:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor SLV-2A Agena D.
  • OPS 1879 - . Payload: Ferret 11 / Agena D 2732. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Ferret. Decay Date: 1969-06-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 2890 . COSPAR: 1967-071A. Apogee: 608 km (377 mi). Perigee: 390 km (240 mi). Inclination: 75.1000 deg. Period: 94.50 min.

1968 July 25 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique 61M.
  • FU-185 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi). No recovery. FU185 Technology + X-ray astronomy / Stab mission..

1968 July 25 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1969 July 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • ST - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1969 July 25 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S02.
  • S02C-1 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 July 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: RT-2.
  • RT2 PL69-04 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 July 25 - . 01:19 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1969 July 25 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1969 July 25 - . 04:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • Electron profile Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi).

1969 July 25 - . 22:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1969 July 25 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1970 July 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 July 25 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 July 25 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1972 July 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 30 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1049 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18562 m. Flight Time - 420 sec..

1973 July 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 July 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Tochka.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1973 July 25 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 577 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 6745 . COSPAR: 1973-048A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 July 25 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi).

1973 July 25 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Mars 5 - . Payload: M-73 s/n 53S. Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 4MV. Spacecraft: Mars M-73. USAF Sat Cat: 6754 . COSPAR: 1973-049A.

    Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars. Parameters are for Mars orbit. Mars 5 reached Mars on 12 February 1974 and was inserted into a 1760 km x 32,586 km orbit. Due to computer chip failures the orbiter operated only a few days and returned atmospheric data and images of a small portion of the Martian southern hemisphere.


1974 July 25 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 667 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7383 . COSPAR: 1974-057A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 July 25 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 668 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 74. Mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1975-02-17 . Decay Date: 1975-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 7385 . COSPAR: 1974-058A. Apogee: 494 km (306 mi). Perigee: 270 km (160 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1975 July 25 - . 18:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 39 km (24 mi).

1977 July 25 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1978 July 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT133M-1 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 July 25 - . 04:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • DENSITY Laser Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 144 km (89 mi).

1979 July 25 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1117 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 11463 . COSPAR: 1979-068A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 July 25 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1980 July 25 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1981 July 25 - . 00:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1983 July 25 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi).

1984 July 25 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1984 July 25 - . 14:55 GMT - .
1986 July 25 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: UK S27. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Chevaline PEM demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 July 25 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmos 1870 - . Payload: Almaz-K s/n 304. Mass: 18,550 kg (40,890 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz-T. Duration: 734.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 18225 . COSPAR: 1987-064A. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi). Perigee: 263 km (163 mi). Inclination: 71.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min.

    First flight of Almaz radars imaging satellite taken out of mothballs after death of Ustinov. At the beginning of 1987 it was decided not to man the Almaz-T, instead operate it in a fully automatic mode. Thus the final Almaz cosmonaut training group was disbanded. Cosmos 1870 conducted remote sensing of the earth's surface, oceans and seas in the interests of various branches of science and the economy. Its side-looking radar had a 20-25 m ground resolution and functioned throughout its two year service life.


1988 July 25 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1989 July 25 - . 07:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2034 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. Decay Date: 1989-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 20149 . COSPAR: 1989-059A. Apogee: 1,013 km (629 mi). Perigee: 964 km (599 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Military navigation satellite..

1990 July 25 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteo Chaff - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1990 July 25 - . 18:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2087 - . Payload: Oko #65. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 20707 . COSPAR: 1990-064A. Apogee: 36,991 km (22,985 mi). Perigee: 3,357 km (2,085 mi). Inclination: 67.5000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Replaced Cosmos 2084. Covered Oko constellation plane 6 - 117 degree longitude of ascending node..

1990 July 25 - . 19:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas I.
  • CRRES - . Payload: CRRES (P 86-1). Mass: 1,629 kg (3,591 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: CRRES. USAF Sat Cat: 20712 . COSPAR: 1990-065A. Apogee: 34,739 km (21,585 mi). Perigee: 335 km (208 mi). Inclination: 18.0000 deg. Period: 613.40 min. Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite. First launch of commercial Atlas-Centaur. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. Elliptical orbit; MRS trajectory..

1992 July 25 - . 12:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1994 July 25 - .
  • Mir News 221: Russian spaceflight tracking ships. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19.

    Until 1992 the fleet of tracking ships consisted of ten ships. These ships formed a part of the infrastructure of control centres and measurement points for soviet spaceflight operations. In this case the word 'operations' covers a wide variety for the assistance of the manned spaceflight program was only a small part of their duties. The role of the ships, as far as manned spaceflight was concerned, sharply deteriorated after the beginning of the use of geostationary satellites for communications between the Salyut-7 and the Mir-space stations. The TDRS system used by the Russians did not always work satisfactorily and so all experts involved in Russian spaceflight expected that the 'ships' would remain operational at least until 2000. Already in 1990 there circulated rumours about the a gradual withdrawal of that fleet, but nobody dared to take the responsibility. However the economical problems in the last year of the S.U. forced the Russians to withdraw most of the ships from service and as of January 1st 1992 the ships in the Atlantic apart from some modest exceptions ceased to assist during Mir-operations. Sometimes a ship was operational in the Atlantic to assist space-operations for other objects and organisations and now and then had to be stand-by during Mir-operations (launches of Progresses, Soyuzes, dockings, return operations, EVA's a.s.o.), but always on a secondary basis. For the last half year the Kosmonavt Pavel Belyayev operated from a position west of Africa and even played an important role during the almost fatal flight of Soyuz-TM17 on 14.01.94. After some bumps of the Soyuz-TM17 into the Mir-station the communications via the Altair (Cosmos-2054) ceased and this caused great concern at TsUP. KPB was the first to pick up radio traffic from the Soyuz-TM17 and thus shortened the awful uncertainty phase at TsUP by 10 minutes. In the past the ships relayed traffic between Mir and TsUP via Molniya satellites during the first part of Mir's footprint for our position. Nowadays the traffic between Mir and TsUP only begins at TCA for our position. The fate of the fleet: the ships belonged to the Soviet (now Russian) Academy of Sciences. The maritime part fell under the responsibility of the Baltic- and Black sea shipping. The ships which have home ports in the Ukraine (the Kosmonavt Yuriy Gagarin and the Akademik Sergey Korolyov) now belong to that country and so their role in spaceflight fully ceased. The ships made some trips for tourists, but that was not successful. Both ships have been used to evacuate Russian military personnel and their families from Cuba to St. Petersburg. From there they returned to their Ukrainian ports. The Ukraine does not know what to do with the ships and tried to sell them to the Russians. The Russians were not interested: they still have 4 ships for the Western Hemisphere and a 5th one is under construction. Spaceflight needs over the Pacific are covered by 2 ships of the Russian Navy, the Marshal Nedelin and the Marshal Krylov. The Odessa based Kosmonavt Vladimir Komarov already before the independence of the Ukraine was transferred to Leningrad to be refurbished for other purposes: ecological expeditions in the Baltic and the North Atlantic. Thus far this plan did not work: the attempts to use the ship for that purposes on a commercial base did not have success due to the lack of customers. So in St Petersburg we have 4 ships: the Kosmonavt Pavel Belyayev, the Kosmonavt Vladislav Volkov, the Kosmonavt Viktor Patsayev and the Kosmonavt Georgiy Dobrovolskiy. They are waiting for an assignment. Possibly one of them will be used in the Atlantic west of Africa in October and November 1994 to assist during the launch and docking of Soyuz-TM20 (resp. 3 and 5.10.94) and the return flight of the Soyuz-TM19 on 3.11.94. A new ship, the Akademik Nikolay Pilyugin, has already been launched and has to be fitted. Thus far it is not known whether this new ship will influence the fate of 1 or more ships of the 4 in St Peterburg. After the last expedition the Belyayev several times had contact with the crew of the Mir-complex. From this traffic I could derive the indication that the ship planned to visit Antwerp in Belgium. This enabled me to go on board and I had a long and interesting conversation with the chief of the expedition, Nikolay Burov and the captain Sivtsov. In spite of the enormous economical difficulties of their country their hospitality towards me was 100%.

    (This Mir-report is derived from the reports in Dutch 221 and 222. So the next Mir-report in English will be MirNEWS.223)

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1995 July 25 - . 10:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1996 July 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 July 25 - . 12:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas II.
  • USA 127 - . Payload: UHF F/O F7-EHF. Mass: 3,015 kg (6,646 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: UHF. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23967 . COSPAR: 1996-042A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 4.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 170 deg W in 1996; 23 deg W in 1996-1999; 100 deg W in 1999. As of 29 July 1999) 99.21 deg W drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 22 located at 21.85W drifting at 0.014W degrees per day..

1999 July 25 - .
  • STS-93 - Wakeup Song: Someday Soon - . Flight: STS-93. "Someday Soon" written by Judy Collins and performed by Suzy Boguss chosen in honor of Pilot Jeff Ashby.

1999 July 25 - . 07:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. Launch Pad: SLC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7420-10C.
  • Globalstar 26 - . Mass: 222 kg (489 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25872 . COSPAR: 1999-041A. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 114.10 min.
  • Globalstar 43 - . Mass: 222 kg (489 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25874 . COSPAR: 1999-041C. Apogee: 2,044 km (1,270 mi). Perigee: 2,020 km (1,250 mi). Inclination: 51.9000 deg. Period: 127.90 min.
  • Globalstar 28 - . Mass: 222 kg (489 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25873 . COSPAR: 1999-041B. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 114.10 min.
  • Globalstar 48 - . Mass: 222 kg (489 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25875 . COSPAR: 1999-041D. Apogee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Perigee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 114.10 min.

2000 July 25 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS 00-34 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS.

    The newest component for the ever-growing International Space Station, the Russian Zvezda Service Module, successfully linked up with the fledgling complex this evening as the two craft flew high over the northeast portion of Kazakhstan marking the arrival of the first living quarters for the permanent human habitation of the new outpost. Additional Details: here....


2001 July 25 - .
  • Death of Salomon E 'Sol' Chavez - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Chavez. Hispanic-American engineer. Atlas missile test supervisor, 1958-1973..

2001 July 25 - .
  • Death of Yuri Victorovich Prikhodko at San Diego, California. Cancer. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Prikhodko. Tajik-Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1994..

2001 July 25 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: SvalRak. Launch Complex: SvalRak LONG. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • ROMA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2001 July 25 - .
2002 July 25 - . 15:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/17S40.
  • Cosmos 2392 - . Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Arkon-1. USAF Sat Cat: 27470 . COSPAR: 2002-037A. Apogee: 1,774 km (1,102 mi). Perigee: 1,506 km (935 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 119.10 min.

    This was the second launch of the Arkon-1 electro-optical reconnaissance. The 17S40 Blok DM5 upper stage and satellite were placed by the Proton into a parking orbit. The DM then made two burns to place the satellite in its 1500 x 1836 km x 64.4 deg operational orbit.


2003 July 25 - .
  • International Space Station Status Report #03-35 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Duque, Foale, Kaleri, Lu, Malenchenko. Program: ISS. Flight: Soyuz TMA-2. The Expedition 7 crew, Commander Yuri Malenchenko and NASA ISS Science Officer Ed Lu, wound up a busy week with a Canadarm2 session that could lead to operation of the Station's robotic arm by controllers on the ground without crew participation.. Additional Details: here....

2004 July 25 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2C.
  • Tan Ce 2 - . Payload: Double Star 2, DSP-P. Mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Manufacturer: DFH. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: CAST2000. USAF Sat Cat: 28382 . COSPAR: 2004-029A. Apogee: 38,574 km (23,968 mi). Perigee: 655 km (406 mi). Inclination: 90.0000 deg. Period: 695.10 min. Delayed from June, July 20..

2009 July 25 - .
  • STS-127 - Wakeup Song: In Your Eyes - . Flight: STS-127. "In Your Eyes" by Peter Gabriel was selected for Tom Marshburn, who completed his second spacewalk on Friday with Chris Cassidy..

2012 July 25 - . 15:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3C.
  • Tianlian 1-03 - . Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: China. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-3. USAF Sat Cat: 38730 . COSPAR: 2012-040A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 1.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Provided communications relay to the Chinese space station. On station at 16.7 deg E by 6 August..

2013 July 25 - . Launch Site: Mojave. Launch Complex: Mojave RW12/30. Launch Platform: WK2. LV Family: Spaceship. Launch Vehicle: Spaceship Two.
  • WK2-130/GF25 - . Nation: USA. Agency: SCAL. Apogee: 15 km (9 mi).

2013 July 25 - . 19:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • Alphasat - . Payload: I-4A F4. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Alphabus. USAF Sat Cat: 39215 . COSPAR: 2013-038A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.09 min.

    Testbed communications satellite, a joint project between the European Space Agency and Inmarsat. Demonstrated a laser communications system and radio communications links in Q and V band; carried an operational extended L-band payloadto supplement Inmarsat's satellite broadband capacity. First flight of the new Astrium/Lampoldshausen 500N EAM (European Apogee Motor), a MON/MMH system with an Isp of about 325s. Dry mass iaround 3500 kg. By July 30 Alphasat was in a 25608 x 35809 km x 0.3 deg orbit.

  • Insat 3D - . Mass: 2,090 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: India. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Insat 2. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 39216 . COSPAR: 2013-038B. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0700 deg. Period: 1,436.11 min. Indian Space Research Organization meteorological satellite, with 6-channel imager, 19-channel sounder, data relay system for Earth-based meteo stations, and a Satellite Aided Search and Rescue transponder. 935 kg dry mass..

2015 July 25 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3B.
  • Beidou M1-S - . Payload: Beidou DW 18 / Beidou 3m. Mass: 850 kg (1,870 lb). Nation: China. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Beidou 3. USAF Sat Cat: 40748 . COSPAR: 2015-037A. Apogee: 21,547 km (13,388 mi). Perigee: 21,509 km (13,365 mi). Inclination: 55.0600 deg. Period: 773.24 min.

    Single launch of the first two of the third generation medium-orbit Beidou satellites. The CZ-3B launch vehicle deployed the YZ-1 upper stage in a 189 km x 18390 km x 55 deg transfer orbit. CZ-3B stage 3 coasted in a low parking orbit for only a minute or so before its second burn to the elliptical orbit. The YZ-1 then separated and made its first burn almost immediately at about 12:45 GMT, raising apogee to 22,000 km. The Beidou/YZ-1 stack then coasted to apogee and at about 16:10 GMT the YZ-1 made a second burn to circularize the orbit. The two payloads were quickly released in a 21,523 km x 22,193 km x 55 deg orbit. At about 16:20 GMT YZ-1 made a disposal burn to a 22,151 x 27,736 km x 55 deg orbit.

  • Beidou M2-S - . Payload: Beidou DW 19 / Beidou 3m. Mass: 850 kg (1,870 lb). Nation: China. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Beidou 3. USAF Sat Cat: 40749 . COSPAR: 2015-037B. Apogee: 21,547 km (13,388 mi). Perigee: 21,510 km (13,360 mi). Inclination: 55.0600 deg. Period: 773.27 min.


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