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On August 20 in Space History

1895 August 20 - .
  • Birth of Henry J E Reid - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Reid. American engineer, at NASA 1921-1961, designed basic instruments for flight research..

1938 August 20 - .
  • Birth of Jean-Loup Jacques Marie Chretien - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Chretien. French test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EP-1, Mir Aragatz, STS-86. First French astronaut. Trained for missions under both US and Russian programs..

1944 August 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+66seconds. Flight duration 290 seconds. Range 239 km.

1945 August 20 - .
  • Soviet Union begins development of the atomic bomb. - . Nation: Russia. State Committee for Defence (GKO) Decree 9887/ss/op 'On a Special Committee Under the GKO's Jurisdiction--creation of Special Committee and its subordinate First Chief Directorate of GKO (later of Council of Ministers) for the development of atomic bomb'.

1948 August 20 - .
  • Birth of Grant Clifford Aufderhaar - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aufderhaar. American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986..

1948 August 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-482.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 August 20 - .
  • Birth of Svetlana Oktyabrevna Omelchenko - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Omelchenko. Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992..

1952 August 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 August 20 - .
  • Moscow announces explosion of hydrogen bomb - . Nation: Russia.

1953 August 20 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Triple Deacon HPAG.
  • E10 Hypersonic test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1953 August 20 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC4. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. FAILURE: Control System malfunction followed by Power Plant malfunction at approximately 80 sec. Ground cut-off command given... Failed Stage: G.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 6.00 km (3.70 mi). Redstone missile No. 1 was fired by Army Redstone Arsenal personnel at AFMTC, Cape Canaveral. Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 240,000 m..

1957 August 20 - . Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • USSR sells R-12 missiles to China. - . Nation: Russia. Ministry of Armaments Decree 'On transfer of two R-12 missiles to China (on August 6)' was issued..

1958 August 20 - . 11:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Ramey. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Jason sounding rocket.
  • Nuclear test observation mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi).

1960 August 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 August 20 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • US Department of Defense announced Titan III launch vehicle. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McNamara.

    The Department of Defense announced plans to develop a Titan III launch vehicle powered by both solid and liquid fuel rocket motors with a total thrust of over 11 million newtons (2.5 million Ibs). .Scheduled to become operational in 1965, the Titan III would be used to launch the Air Force's X-20 (Dyna Soar) manned spacecraft, as well as heavy unmanned military satellites. Martin Marietta Corporation had been selected as prime contractor for the project, at an estimated cost of between $500 million and $1 billion. At a news conference the following day, Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara cited the Titan III as a major step toward overtaking the Soviet Union in various phases of military space development.


1962 August 20 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • The Defense Department announced plans to develop the Titan III launch vehicle that was to be operational by 1965. - . Martin Marietta Corporation would be the systems integration (prime) contractor for the Titan III program that was managed by AFSC's Space Systems Division..

1962 August 20 - . 18:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Hidden Hills DZ. Launch Pad: Edwards RW04/22. Launch Platform: NB-52 008.
  • X-15A Heating, drag, ASAS test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA, USAF. Spacecraft: X-15A. Apogee: 27 km (16 mi). Maximum Speed - 5686 kph. Maximum Altitude - 27000 m. Air dropped in Hidden Hills DZ..

1963 August 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC29A. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1963 August 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 August 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 628. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 August 20 - . 05:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
1964 August 20 - . 09:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: HAD.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1965 August 20 - .
  • NASA MSFC began serious investigation of the concept of an S-IVB Orbital Workshop (OWS). - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Skylab. Spacecraft: Orbital Workshop.

    As part of MSFC's activities related to the AES program, designers at the Center began serious investigation of the concept of an S-IVB Orbital Workshop (OWS). This concept, which involved 'in- orbit' conversion of a spent S-IVB stage to a shelter suitable for extended stay and utilization by man, showed great potential for experiment work during the Earth-orbital phase of the AES program. Accordingly, MSFC officials planned a four-month conceptual design effort, to begin immediately, with help and participation from both MSC and the S-IVB stage builder, Douglas Aircraft Company. Additional Details: here....


1965 August 20 - . Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo S-IVB static-fired simulating a lunar mission - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Douglas Aircraft Company static-fired the S-IVB in a test at Sacramento, Calif., simulating the workload of a lunar mission. The stage was run for three minutes, shut down for half an hour, then reignited for almost six minutes..

1965 August 20 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 1. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. FAILURE: Failure.
  • USAF D009 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1965 August 20 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • USAF C008 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 August 20 - . 16:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • BioSpace - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1966 August 20 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1967 August 20 - . 00:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Arcas V Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: NASA, NTNF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1968 August 20 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: T-7. Launch Vehicle: T-7/GF-01A.
  • GF-01A satellite test - . Nation: China. Agency: CAST. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi).

1968 August 20 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 194 km (120 mi).

1968 August 20 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • NO / TMA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1968 August 20 - . 19:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Pandora E Meteorites mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1969 August 20 - .
  • MSC rejected a Grumman proposal to use the Apollo LM as a lunar reconnaissance module - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft Bus: Apollo LM. Spacecraft: Apollo LRM.

    MSC rejected a Grumman proposal to use the LM as a lunar reconnaissance module. MSC pointed out that an MSC special task team had recently studied a number of proposals for lunar reconnaissance. These included use of a command module test vehicle, the AAP multiple docking adapter, the subsystem test bed, the ascent stage of the LM, and the entire LM vehicle.


1969 August 20 - .
  • Kamanin returns to work 'after a forty-day vacation'. - . Nation: Russia. Flight: Apollo 11. There are no published diary entries for the key period of the Apollo 11 landing on the moon or the Luna 15 attempted landing on the moon..

1969 August 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A1. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F.
  • ABRES RVTO-1A-5 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1970 August 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT74B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 August 20 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 358 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. Decay Date: 1990-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 4497 . COSPAR: 1970-064A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 334 km (207 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Identification uncertain. Possibly a Tsiklon military navigation satellite placed in incorrect orbit..

1971 August 20 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 1. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 August 20 - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. LV Family: Lambda. Launch Vehicle: Lambda 4SC. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • TVC test - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-2 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 09:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 193 km (119 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 09:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 10:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 10.
  • Optical astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 19:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1972 August 20 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1973 August 20 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1974 August 20 - . 09:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • NNP / NEL / TEL Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 112 km (69 mi).

1974 August 20 - . 11:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Grand Turk Island. Launch Complex: Grand Turk Island DZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Cape Canaveral. Launch Platform: B-52. Launch Vehicle: SRAM. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1975 August 20 - .
  • X-24 Flight 56 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1625 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21950 m. Flight Time - 420 sec..

1975 August 20 - . 21:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIE.
  • Viking 1 Orbiter - . Payload: Viking 1. Mass: 3,399 kg (7,493 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Viking. USAF Sat Cat: 8108 . COSPAR: 1975-075A.

    A Titan HIE carrying a Viking payload was successfully launched from LC-41, Eastern Test Range. This was the first flight of a new oxydizer accumulator developed for the HIE. Combined Mars orbiter and lander mission; orbiter inserted in Mars orbit 6/19/76; lander soft landed on Martian surface 7/20/76Mars. Mars Orbit. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).

  • Viking 1 Lander - . Payload: Viking 1. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Viking. Decay Date: 1976-07-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 9024 . COSPAR: 1975-075C.

    A Titan HIE carrying a Viking payload was successfully launched from LC-41, Eastern Test Range. This was the first flight of a new oxydizer accumulator developed for the HIE. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).


1976 August 20 - .
  • Complete horizontal ground vibration tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 August 20 - . 00:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 20 - . 02:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 20 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 20 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 20 - . 13:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 20 - . 22:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 636. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-22? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1976 August 20 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 636. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-22? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 August 20 - . 14:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIE.
  • Voyager 2 - . Payload: Voyager 2 [Star-37E]. Mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Class: Outer planets. Type: Outer planets probe. Spacecraft: Voyager. USAF Sat Cat: 10271 . COSPAR: 1977-076A.

    A Titan HIE launched NASA's Voyager I spacecraft from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Jupiter flyby 7/9/79, Saturn flyby 8/26/81, Uranus flyby 1/24/86, Neptune flyby 8/25/89. Solar system escape trajectory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).


1978 August 20 - .
  • Kamanin in Star City. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut 6. Flight: Soyuz 29. At a visit to Star City, Kamanin is allowed to participate together with Yeliseyev in a communications session with the EO-2 crew (Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok) aboard Salyut 6..

1978 August 20 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Near infrared Galactic Plane Test / infrared astronomy / ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 319 km (198 mi).

1979 August 20 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1980 August 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT76GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1980 August 20 - . 21:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 625. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-42? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1980 August 20 - . 21:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 625. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-42? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1980 August 20 - . 21:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 625. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-42? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1980 August 20 - . 21:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 625. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-42? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1981 August 20 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1982 August 20 - .
  • Death of Arthur Harry Rude - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rude. American manager. Vice-President of Aerojet, 1944-1966..

1982 August 20 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1401 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-17F41. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 13427 . COSPAR: 1982-081A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.

    High resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.


1985 August 20 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1986 August 20 - . 12:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1771 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1986-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 17036 . COSPAR: 1986-062D. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Perigee: 909 km (564 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 104.20 min. Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered..

1987 August 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1991 August 20 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-9 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 210. Mass: 7,311 kg (16,117 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-12, Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 40.39 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-10-01 08:24:38 . Decay Date: 1991-10-01 08:24:38 . USAF Sat Cat: 21662 . COSPAR: 1991-057A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; carried reentry capsule for return of 150 kg of experiment results. Docked with Mir on 23 Aug 1991 00:54:17 GMT. Undocked on 30 Sep 1991 01:53:00 GMT. 350 kg return capsule detached from the Propess' orbital module at an altitude of 110 to 130 km. The capsule underwent a ballistic descent to 15 km, followed by a parachute descent from there to surface. The capsule's beacon began transmitting at 4.5 km. Landed in Kazakhstan on 30 Sep 1991 08:16:24 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 38.04 days.


1992 August 20 - .
  • Death of Ivan Nikolayevich Anikeyev at Bezhetsk (?), Russia. Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Anikeyev. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Left with Filatyev and Nelyubov after alcohol incident. After discharge, again served as Air Force pilot and then navigation officer for ground control services of the Soviet Air Force..

1993 August 20 - . 18:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 739. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 August 20 - . 02:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • GUARA MALTED / CADRE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1996 August 20 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • SEEK-1 Plasma mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1996 August 20 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1998 August 20 - .
  • U.S. cruise missiles hit suspected terrorist bases in Sudan and Afghanistan - . Nation: USA.

1999 August 20 - .
  • Starchaser 3a launch. - . Nation: UK. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft Bus: X-Prize. Spacecraft: Starchaser 5. Starchaser Industries (Hyde, England, UK) successfully launches Starchaser 3a vehicle..

1999 August 20 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF10. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • RCT-1 GT170GM/RRF-6 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1999 August 20 - . 11:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT171GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

2001 August 20 - .
  • STS-105 - Wakeup Song: Brand New Day - . Flight: STS-105. "Brand New Day" played by Sting. The song was for Helms, requested by her family and friends..

2001 August 20 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Simplesat - . Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Simplesat. Decay Date: 2002-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 26889 . COSPAR: 2001-035B. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi). Perigee: 130 km (80 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 87.10 min. Simplesat was small astronomical test satellite ejected from a GAS Cannister in shuttle Discovery's payload bay. No contact was ever made with Simplesat after its release; evidently the satellite failed. .

2003 August 20 - . 11:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
2004 August 20 - .
  • International Space Station Status Report #04-48 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fincke, Padalka. Program: ISS. Flight: Soyuz TMA-4. The International Space Station crew focused this week on unloading 2 tons of new equipment and supplies from a cargo craft that arrived Saturday.. Additional Details: here....

2007 August 20 - .
  • STS-118 - Wakeup Song: Flying - . Flight: STS-118. "Flying" performed by the Long John Baldry Trio, a Canadian group. It was for Williams, a Canadian Space Agency astronaut..

2010 August 20 - . Launch Complex: Damghan. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: Qiam 1.
  • Shahab RV - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Test mission..

2012 August 20 - .
  • EVA ISS VKD-31 - . Crew: Malenchenko, Padalka. EVA Duration: 0.26 days. Nation: Russia. Program: ISS. Flight: Soyuz TMA-05M.

    The crew exited from the Pirs module and ejected the Sfera-53 passive air density calibration satellite into orbit using a special handling device. Sfera-53 had been delivered to the station on Progress M-16M, and has a mass of 8.0 kg and a diameter of 0.53m. The astronauts then transferred the GsTM-2 crane from Pirs to Zarya. It and the GsTM-1 crane moved in February would remain available after the Pirs module is eventually discarded. The crew installed five space debris shields, delivered on Progress M-14M in January, on the Zvezda module. A Biorisk experiment canister was returned to the station.


2012 August 20 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Dong Feng 5A.
  • RV - . Nation: China. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission..

2014 August 20 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima K. Launch Vehicle: S-520.
  • Sporadic E study - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JAXA. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi).

2015 August 20 - . 20:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • Intelsat IS-34 - . Mass: 3,300 kg (7,200 lb). Nation: International. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 40874 . COSPAR: 2015-039A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0200 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Communications satellite launched to replace Intelsat 805 and Galaxy 11 with C and Ku-band payloads. The Ku-band capacity will be partly used by Hispasat. Geosynchronous orbit stationed at 51.5W.
  • Eutelsat 8 West B - . Payload: Spacebus 4000C4. Mass: 5,782 kg (12,747 lb). Nation: Europe. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 40875 . COSPAR: 2015-039B. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0600 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Eutelsat communications satellite with a Ku/C band payload. Geosynchronous orbit stationed at 01.7E.


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