Encyclopedia Astronautica
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1957 Chronology

1957 During the Year - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • USSR starts ion engine development - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Feoktistov, Korolev. Spacecraft Bus: TMK. Spacecraft: TMK-E.

    At the urging of S P Korolev, OKB-1 Section 12, led by M V Melnikov, started development of an ion engine. By 1959 it would be proposed that clusters of the 7.5 kgf thrust ion engine could take the TMK-E manned Mars spacecraft on a low acceleration spiralling trajectory away from the Earth until it finally reached escape velocity and headed toward Mars. But to power even such a limited engine solar panels with a total area of 36,000 square meters would be required - clearly beyond 1959 technology. Feoktistov's solution was to turn to the use of a nuclear reactor to power the ion engine.


1957 January 1 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1957 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Lacrosse. Launch Vehicle: Doorknob.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1957 January 3 - .
  • X-1B Flight 16 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 6. Mach 1.94 aerodynamic heating investigation (end of heating program)..

1957 January 6 - .
  • Birth of Dr Colin Michael 'Mike' Foale - . Nation: UK, USA. Related Persons: Foale. British-American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-45, STS-56, STS-63, Mir NASA-4, STS-103, ISS EO-8; 373 days in space. Appointed Deputy Associate Administrator for Exploration Operations in 2004..

1957 January 8 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17.
  • Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1957 January 11 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Flight test program for R-7 approved. - . Nation: Russia. Decree 'On approval of flight-testing program for the R-7 ICBM' was issued..

1957 January 11 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • First Soviet ICBM base at Plesetsk is authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Decree 61-39ss 'On creation of launch complex Angara at NIIP-53' was issued..

1957 January 11 - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-4.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 January 14 - .
  • US proposed international agreement on peaceful use of outer space. - . Nation: USA. The United States proposed before the United Nations Assembly that study be initiated toward international agreements assuring the use of outer space for peaceful purposes only..

1957 January 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 January 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 January 19 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A. FAILURE: Platform roll control malfunction at 310 sec..
  • Jupiter A - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

    Launched at 2037 hours EST from AMR. The flight was successful. Actual range was 61.6 nm; 400 meters left; and 0.21 nm over the intended impact point. The primary objective was to test the accuracy of the guidance system when the missile is fired in a short range trajectory at an extreme attitude to range ratio. The missile closely followed the predicted trajectory for a successful flight which terminated 70 meters beyond and 360 meters to the Left of the expected impact point at 61.553 nm range. The short range trajectory was programmed with an extreme altitude-to-range ratio so the guidance system would be subjected to the most difficult short range expected in future tactical application. Missed aimpoint by 400 m.


1957 January 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 January 24 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike.
  • Cone re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 January 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18. FAILURE: Lox contamination, led to a valve failure. Thrust decayed, the booster settled back through the thrust ring, causing an oxygen fire, followed by booster explosion.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Series I research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). First attempted test flight of USAF Thor IRBM, only 13 months after first production contracts were signed, failed to launch..

1957 January 29 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1957 January 29 - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-4.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 January 30 - .
  • Birth of Joseph Anthony Jr Carretto - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carretto. American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1985-1988..

Spring 1957 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • First flight Atlas missile, 4A, delivered, and shipped to AMR - . Nation: USA.

1957 February - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho G-38.
  • Navaho G-38 design released to production. - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

1957 February 1 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Monica. Launch Vehicle: Monica I.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ATEF. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1957 February 2 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee AJ10-34.
  • Firefly (Ethelyne) Aeronomy / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi). Ethylene gas release (Firefly). Launched at 0105 local time. Reached 140.6 km..

1957 February 5 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 February 7 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island. LV Family: RM-10. Launch Vehicle: RM-10.
  • First RM-10 2 stage test. - . Nation: USA. First of a series of two-stage test vehicles (RM-10) to make heat transfer studies at high speed in free flight, was launched from NACA's Pilotless Aircraft Reserach Station at Wallops Island, Va. Vehicle was developed by PARD of Langley Laboratory..

1957 February 7 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17.
  • Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 107 km (66 mi).

1957 February 7 - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-4.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 February 12 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Guam. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.097 Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1957 February 13 - . 01:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
1957 February 14 - .
  • X-15 follow-on studied. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Dynasoar. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

    NACA established "Round Three" Steering Committee to study feasiblity of a hypersonic boost-glide research airplane. "Round Three" was considered as the third major flight research program which started with the X-series of rocket-propelled supersonic research airplanes, and which considered the X-15 research airplane as the second major program. The boost-glide program eventually became known as DynaSoar.


1957 February 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17.
  • Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 141 km (87 mi).

1957 February 14 - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-4.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 February 15 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Decision to build Sputnik 1 due to delays in Sputnik 3 design. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Sputnik 1. Spacecraft: Sputnik 1. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 171-83ss 'On Measures to Carry Out During the International Geophysical Year.--Launch of simple satellites in mid-1957' was issued..

1957 February 17 - . 21:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Guam. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.099 Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1957 February 18 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 February 20 - .
  • Death of Vyecheslav Aleksandrovich Malyshev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Malyshev, Vyecheslav. Russian politician. Minister of Medium Machine Building 1953-1955. First manager of the Soviet defence industry..

1957 February 27 - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho.
  • Navaho - the beginning of the end. - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

    With the Navaho stuck on the pad, and the Atlas ICBM nearing first flight, the Air Force began cutting back funds to the Navaho. Advertising for construction of G-38 production missile support facilities at the Cape was pulled, and the program was rescheduled to accommodate a 32% funding cutback in 1958, with construction limited to 16 G-26 missiles and the first G-38 flight delayed from June 1958 to February 1959.


1957 February 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Bomarc. Launch Vehicle: Bomarc.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1957 March - .
  • Tikhonravov first manned and lunar spacecraft designs. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Vostok.

    In the spring of 1957 Korolev organised project section 9, with Tikhonravov at its chief, to design new spacecraft. By April they had completed a research plan to build a piloted spacecraft and an unmanned lunar probe, using the R-7 as the basis for the launch vehicle.


1957 Spring - .
  • Soviet reconnaisance system designs continue - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Zenit satellite, Zenit-2 satellite. Studies were undertaken for military reconnaissance satellites. Code names for these studies were: Shchit - military reconnaissance systems; Osnova - military reconnaissance equipment; Ediniy KIK - military reconnaissance control systems..

1957 March 1 - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho G-26.
  • Navaho launch scrub - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

    There were ten attempts to launch Navaho G-26 vehicle number 4 since the first static firing test on 3 December 1956 had been unsuccessful. The vehicle was plagued with problems with the engines and APU, resulting in engine burn-through, engine non-ignition, as well as other unrelated problems - ramjet engine fires, destruct package failures. The vehicle was pulsed from the launch order.


1957 March - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas 4A erected on AMR LC-14 - . Nation: USA.

1957 March 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17.
  • Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1957 March 1 - . 21:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM. FAILURE: Missile break-up attributed to overheating in the tail section.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 14 km (8 mi).

    The first Jupiter flight was fired at 1651 hours EST from AMR. The missile achieved a 48,000 foot altitude. Flight terminated at 7.4 seconds because of missile break-up. Failure was attributed to overheating in the tail section. The trajectory to this point was as predicted.


1957 March 3 - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-4.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Checkout of first R-7 starts - . Nation: Russia.

1957 March 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17.
  • Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 134 km (83 mi).

1957 March 12 - .
  • Test Pilot Jack Ridley dies at age of 41 -- Killed as passenger aboard C-47 transport that crashed into a mountain in Japan. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. American test pilot. Technical lead for pioneering rocketplanes at Edwards AFB 1946-1956. Killed in transport aircraft crash, 1957..

1957 March 13 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 March 14 - . 08:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A. FAILURE: Platform interference caused control malfunction at re-entry..
  • Jupiter A - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

    The first missile shipped directly from the Chrysler Factory to the test site to be flight tested was launched at 0312 hours EST from AMR The flight was successful. Actual range was 138.178 nm; 2.2 nm under; and 1250 meters left of the intended impact point. The missile functioned properly until 182 seconds when an unexplainable pitch deviation caused a slow tilting of the missile top section. The cut-off function at 120 seconds and the separation function at 135 seconds, after flight zero time, were both satisfactory. Missed aimpoint by 4,183 m.


1957 March 18 - .
  • NERVA research cut back. - . Nation: USA. Program: NERVA.

    As a result of guidance from the Secretary of Defense as to desired level of effort, the Atomic Energy Commission reduced its program on nuclear rocket propulsion to a single laboratory effort, phasing out work at the University of California Radiation Laboratory and concentrating AEC development efforts at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.


1957 March 18 - .
  • Birth of Arne Christer Fuglesang - . Nation: Sweden. Related Persons: Fuglesang. Swedish engineer cosmonaut, mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-116, STS-128..

1957 March 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17.
  • Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1957 March 22 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC9. LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho G-26. FAILURE: Ground pod failed to jettison; booster damaged and did not achieve speed/altitude required for cruise stage ignition.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Navaho G-26 Flight 2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 9.00 km (5.50 mi).

    G-26 number two / booster 6 lifted off after a 9 hour 48 minute countdown with nearly five hours of holds, on the first attempt after two successful static firings. However failure of a launch lanyard meant the kerosene start-pod on the booster remained attached. This sheared off at 4500 m, causing extensive booster damage. Thrust decayed. The cruise stage separated at Mach 1.3 at 28,300 feet, but this was below ramjet ignition speed. However the pilot on the ground was able to assume radio control of the vehicle, and flew it in a glide over the ocean, even demonstrating landing gear deployment before it pancaked into the water.


1957 March 24 - .
  • Birth of Dr Scott Jay 'Doc' Horowitz - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Horowitz. Jewish-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-75, STS-82, STS-101, STS-105. Left NASA for a position with ATK Thiokol, promoting shuttle-derived vehicles for use as the CEV launch vehicle..

1957 March 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1957 March 28 - . 01:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A.
  • Jupiter A - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

    Launched at 2022 hours EST from AMR. The flight was successful from the standpoint of missions accomplished, with cut-off time 112 seconds and separation time 126 seconds after range zero time. Impact point was 220 meters short and 320 meters to the right, a radial miss distance of 390 meters, primary objective was to test the accuracy of the guidance system when the missile was fired in a short range trajectory at an extreme altitude to range ratio. Missed aimpoint by 390 m.


1957 March 29 - .
  • Birth of Michael James Foreman - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Foreman. American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-123, STS-129..

1957 March 29 - . 04:51 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-10c.
  • NRL NN2.26 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi). Night sky research. Launched at 2151 local time. Reached 135 km..

1957 March 30 - .
  • Birth of Yelena Vladimirovna Kondakova - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kondakova. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-17, STS-84. Engineer, first Russian woman to fly in space for other than propaganda reasons. Was married to astronaut Valeriy Ryumin. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO.

1957 March 31 - .
  • Birth of Patrick Graham Forrester - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Forrester. American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-105, STS-117, STS-128. US Army..

1957 April 1 - .
  • Van Allen heads research panel. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Van Allen. Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel was renamed the Rocket and Satellite Research Panel. Its chairman was James A. Van Allen of the State university of Iowa..

1957 April - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • Studies of a large clustered-engine booster - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo.

    The U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, Ala., began studies of a large clustered-engine booster to generate 1.5 million pounds of thrust, as one of a related group of space vehicles. During 1957-1958, approximately 50,000 man-hours were expended in this effort.


1957 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1957 April 6 - .
  • Birth of Paolo Alberto Nespoli - . Nation: Italy. Related Persons: Nespoli. Italian engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-120..

1957 April 9 - . 15:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee AJ10-25.
  • Meteorites mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi). Micrometeorites research. Launched at 0819 local time. Reached 61 km..

1957 April 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Matador. Launch Vehicle: Matador.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1957 April 11 - . LV Family: Vanguard. Launch Vehicle: Vanguard.
  • Vanguard payload tested on sounding rocket. - . Nation: USA. Program: Vanguard.

    U.S.-IGY scientific satellite equipment, including a radio transmitter and instruments for measuring temperature, pressure, cosmic rays, and meteoric dust encounters, was tested above earth for the first time, as a rocket containing this equipment was fired by the Navy to a 126-mile altitude.


1957 April 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1957 April 11 - . 16:31 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee Hi.
  • Vanguard test Satellite test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Vanguard test. Rocket performance, satellite instrumentation test. Launched at 0931 local time. Reached 204 km..

1957 April 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 April 13 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-5.
  • 4-204-1A? re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 April 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 April 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 April 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 April 17 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC4. LV Family: Bomarc. Launch Vehicle: Bomarc.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1957 April 20 - . 04:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18. FAILURE: Console wiring error resulted in erroneous tracking indication; destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Series I research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

    The second Thor flight test missile launched on the Atlantic Missile Range (AMR) was successful until the Range Safety Officer (RSO) accidentally destroyed the missile. Douglas Thor IRBM (XSM-75) was launched at Cape Canaveral, Fla., destroyed by range safety officer. The missile was actually on course throughout its flight. The console wiring error led the range safety officer to believe it was headed inland rather than out to sea, so he hit the destruct button.


1957 April 23 - . LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15A.
  • X-15 first public details announced. - . Nation: USA. Program: X-15. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-15. Spacecraft: X-15A. Details of X-15 rocket research airplane were publicly revealed for the first time..

1957 April 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • Vandenberg AFB established by ARDC - . Nation: USA. Vandenberg AFB established by Air Research and Development Command (ARDC) on the north 64,047 acres (approximately 100 square miles) of what was then Camp Cooke..

1957 April 24 - . LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17.
  • X-17 reaches 9,000 mph. - . Nation: USA. Lockheed X-17 research rocket reached 9,000 mph at Patrick AFB, Fla..

1957 April 25 - .
  • X-1E Flight 15 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 14. Mach 1.71 at 20435 m. Aileron and rudder pulses..

1957 April 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC9. LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho G-26. FAILURE: Booster shut down 1 m over the pad due to incorrect shutdown timer signal - exploded on pad.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Navaho G-26 Flight 3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

    Vehicle 4 was still not ready for the first Broomstick flight, so vehicle 5 was substituted. It took five attempts before a 15.6 second static test cleared the booster for launch on 29 March. 8 hours and 42 minutes of hold stretched the five-hour countdown out into the evening. The booster ignited, rose 1.3 m, then shut down. The vehicle fell back onto the pad, exploding. Cause was a 15-second timer that was supposed to shut the engines down 15 seconds after the vehicle hold-downs released if a lanyard had not been pulled free of the vehicle as it rose off the ground. The 15 seconds had been reached before the lanyard pulled free, but by then the vehicle had risen off the pad. This made 15 attempts to launch a Navaho, with only two booster ignitions, both resulting in loss of the vehicle. The Northrop crews at the Cape dubbed their competitor the "Never-Go Navaho" to counter jibes directed at them about the "Snark-infested waters" off the launch area. The Air Force was not amused, and had a tiger-team review of the G-26 on a system-basis which recommended several procedures. Meanwhile G-38 launch plans were further delayed over internal USAF wrangles over launch facility construction.


1957 April 26 - . 20:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Fired from AMR at 1512 hours EST to test the design version of the airframe and rocket engine. The flight terminated at 93 seconds because of propellant slosh. The missile achieved an altitude of 60,000 feet. The flight was partially successful..

1957 April 28 - .
  • Birth of Leopold Eyharts - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Eyharts. French test pilot cosmonaut, mission specialist astronaut. Flew on Mir Pegase, ISS EO-16-2..

1957 April 30 - .
  • Development plan encompassing all hypersonic weapon systems. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Bomi, Brass Bell, Dynasoar, Hywards, Robo. Air Force headquarters directed the Air Research and Development Command to formulate a development plan encompassing all hypersonic weapon systems..

1957 April 30 - .
  • Birth of Duane Gene 'Digger' Carey - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carey. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-109..

1957 April 30 - . Launch Site: Akita. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1957 April 30 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee Hi.
  • RV-N-13c test / meteorites mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Rocket performance flight test. Launched at 0810 local time. Reached 289 km..

1957 May 1 - . LV Family: Vanguard. Launch Vehicle: Vanguard.
  • Vanguard suborbital test. - . Nation: USA. Program: Vanguard. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vanguard 1. Spacecraft: Vanguard 1. Vanguard Test Vehicle (TV-1), a modified Martin Viking first-stage and Vanguard solid-propellant third-stage Grand Central Rocket as second-stage, launched with instrumented nose cone to an altitude of 121 miles and met all test objectives..

1957 May 1 - .
  • Birth of Paul David Ronney - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ronney. American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1996-1997. Alternate Payload Specialist for STS-83 Mission MSL-1..

1957 May 1 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Asp. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Plumbob test - . Nation: USA. Agency: Livermore. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1957 May 1 - . 06:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC18A. Launch Pad: LC18A. LV Family: Viking sounding rocket. Launch Vehicle: Viking Type 9.
  • Vanguard TV1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi). Test of Vanguard third-stage separation and firing at altitude.Launched at 0129 local time..

1957 May 2 - .
  • Birth of Dominic Lee Pudwill Gorie - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie. American test pilot astronaut 1995-2010. Flew on STS-91, STS-99, STS-108, STS-123..

1957 May 2 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike.
  • Slender missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 May 3 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee Hi.
  • Sunfollower / UVS Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Sunfollower spectrograph. Launched at 0704 local time. Reached 204 km..

1957 May 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • 1st R-7 rolled out to pad - . Nation: Russia.

1957 May 9 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • Start of new construction. - . Nation: USA. Start of new construction and major rehabilitation at Camp Cooke..

1957 May 10 - .
  • Reorganisation of Soviet defence industry bureaucracy. - . Nation: Russia. USSR Supreme Soviet Decree 'On Future Improvements in the Organisational Control of Industry and Construction-- abolishing the branch ministry system' was issued..

1957 May 11 - .
  • Birth of Luca Urbani - . Nation: Italy. Related Persons: Urbani. Italian physician payload specialist astronaut, 1995-1996. Alternate Payload Specialist for STS-78 Mission LMS-1. Italian Air Force..

1957 May 13 - .
  • Birth of Claudie nee Andre-Deshays Haignere - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Andre-Deshays. French biologist cosmonaut. Flew on Mir Cassiopee, ISS EP-2. Biologist, first French female astronaut. Was married to astronaut Jean-PIerre Haignere..

1957 May 14 - .
  • Birth of Dr William George 'Borneo' Gregory - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gregory, William. African-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-67..

1957 May 15 - .
  • X-1E Flight 16 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 15. Mach 2.0 at 22,265 m. Aileron pulses and rolls, sideslips, and wind-up turns. Plane severely damaged upon landing..

1957 May 15 - . 07:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter C. FAILURE: Loss of instrument compartment pressure at 134 seconds causing failure of pitch gyro prior to cut-off..
  • Jupiter re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 655 km (406 mi).

    The second three-stage re-entry missile, was launched at 0255 hours EST from AMR to test the thermal behaviour of a scaled-down version of the Jupiter nose cone during re-entry. The separated nose cone, which weighed 314 pounds, should have reached a nominal range of 1,212 nm. The missile began. to pitch up at 134 seconds, and impact was 420 nm short of the intended impact point. The composite missile consisted of three stages. The first stage was an elongated Redstone using alcohol and liquid oxygen as propellant. The second and third stages were made up of clusters of 11 and 3 scaled-down Sergeant solid propellant rockets, respectively. The nose cone was not recovered; however, instrument contact with the nose cone through re-entry indicated that the ablative-type heat protection for warheads was successful. Nose Cone Recovery Test


1957 May 15 - . 16:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. FAILURE: Failure of Block D strap on, which tore away from the core 98 seconds after liftoff. The booster crashed 400 km from the pad. A fuel leak in the pump outlet led to a fire in the engine compartment from the time of liftoff.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • M1-5 (I-1) test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). R-7 test flight. (M1-5 (I-1)).

1957 May 16 - . 02:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1957 May 16 - . 03:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • First operational R-2A launch; carried dogs. - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1957 May 17 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Matador. Launch Vehicle: Matador.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1957 May 22 - .
  • X-1B Flight 17 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 7. Control pulses at mach 1.45 at 18300 m. Flight for instrumentation check..

1957 May 22 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18.
  • Research and development Series I (padex) test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1957 May 23 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Double Deacon.
  • MW-2 Model/T-40 test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 May 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Second operational R-2A launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1957 May 27 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. LV Family: Stromboli. Launch Vehicle: SE4400. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: STA. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1957 May 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 May 30 - .
  • Birth of Michael Warren Booen - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Booen. American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987..

1957 May 31 - . 18:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Army Jupiter IRBM was fired 1,500 miles, limit of its designed range, and to an altitude of 250-300 miles, the first successful launching of an IRBM. Fired from AMR at 1308 hours EST to test the range capability and performance of rocket engine and control system. Although the missile was 253 nm short of its estimated 1,400 nm impact point, this was the first successful flight of the Jupiter. All phases of the test were successful during this first firing of the IRBM in the western world


1957 June 1 - .
  • NERVA advanced concepts studied. - . Nation: USA. Program: NERVA. Research on tungsten nuclear rocket propulsion systems initiated by NACA Lewis Laboratory, and other feasible systems for practical nuclear rocket systems, such as 1958 concept of coaxial jet gaseous reactor, followed..

1957 June - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • WDD renamed Ballistic Missiles Division (BMD) - . Nation: USA.

1957 June 2 - .
  • Manhigh I - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Man-high. Spacecraft: Man-high. Manhigh I balloon reached 97,000 feet (29,600 m) with Captain Joseph Kittinger aboard..

1957 June 7 - .
  • X-1B Flight 18 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 8. Supersonic maneuvers to mach 1.5 at 18300 m to determine the dynamic and static stability and control characteristics..

1957 June 8 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. LV Family: Stromboli. Launch Vehicle: SE4400.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: STA. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1957 June 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 June 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • R-7 launch attempt - . Nation: Russia. After third attempt in three days to launch R-7 8K71 M1-6, the rocket is pulled from the pad. It is found that a nitrogen scavenging valve was installed backwards..

1957 June 11 - . 19:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A. FAILURE: Failure in the booster fuel system.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

    The first Atlas Series A flight test missile (4A) had to be destroyed shortly after launch from Cape Canaveral due to a booster engine shutdown and loss of thrust. From a technical standpoint, however, this first booster-only launch successfully demonstrated the launching mechanism, structural integrity of the airframe, subsystems performance, and operating procedures for launch crew personnel. First test flight of prototype WS-107A Atlas was detonated by command signal at 10,000 feet following a failure in the booster fuel system. The 23-second flight was considered a partial success.


1957 June 18 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee Hi.
  • AU4.26 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi). Ionosphere research. Launched at 0700 local time. Reached 171 km..

1957 June 19 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike Nike Recruit T55.
  • Copper re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1957 June 20 - .
  • Two NACA groups focused their efforts on the problems involved in manned space flight. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Dynasoar. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. One group concerned themselves with performance of aircraft at high speeds and altitudes and with rocket research; the other group, with problems associated with hypersonic flight and reentry..

1957 June 20 - .
  • Robo evaluation committee. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar, Robo. A committee, with representation from ARDC headquarters, the Wright Air Development Center, the Cambridge Air Force Research Center, and the Air Materiel Command, was formed to evaluate contractor studies on Robo..

1957 June 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1957 June 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1957 June 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 June 24 - .
  • X-1B Flight 19 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 9. Supersonic maneuvers to mach 1.5 at 18300 m to determine the dynamic and static stability and control characteristics..

1957 June 25 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee Hi.
  • AU4.27 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 202 km (125 mi). Ionosphere research. Launched at 0707 local time. Reached 202 km..

1957 June 26 - .
  • Birth of Robert Jackson Wood - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Wood, Robert. American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986..

1957 June 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC9. LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho G-26. FAILURE: One booster engine failed during ascent; did not achieve speed/altitude required for cruise stage ignition.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Navaho G-26 Flight 4 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

    The missile launched from the repaired LC-9 on the third attempt. At T+42 seconds, Mach 1.63, and 7,000 m altitude, a fire occurred in the engine compartment after a failure of a regenerative cooling valve to the gas generator. The turbopump shut down, and one engine went out. Nevertheless the vehicle continued, first on one engine, then coasting, to 12,000 m altitude, and the booster separated successfully. But the cruise stage was below ramjet ignition velocity. Again ground control could bring the cruise stage under control as a glider, flying it to an impact 87 km downrange


1957 June 26 - . 11:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A. FAILURE: Human error in calculation of takeoff weight..
  • Jupiter A - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

    Launched at 0609 hours EST from AMR to test performance of the inertial guidance system, angle-of-attack meters, separation of explosive screws, and impact and radar fusing systems. Range instrumentation difficulties and deteriorating weather delayed the firing from the initially scheduled time of 0230 hours EST. The flight was successful. Actual range was 135.425 nm; 0.42 nm over; and 389 meters left of the intended impact point. Missed aimpoint by 785 m.


1957 June 27 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-4.
  • 4-204-1B? re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 June 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 June 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 July - August - .
  • Semiballistic design for a manned reentry spacecraft. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: HL-10, X-24A. Alfred J. Eggers, Jr., of the NACA Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, worked out a semiballistic design for a manned reentry spacecraft..

1957 June 30 - .
  • First serious manned winged spacecraft design - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Myasishchev. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: VKA. Spacecraft: VKA Myasishchev M-48. Myasishchev OKB-23 sketches first serious manned winged spacecraft design..

1957 July 1 - . LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Aerobee completes 165th flight. - . Nation: USA. Aerobee upper air research rocket developed by the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins, and first fired on September 25, 1947, completed 165 successful firings to date..

1957 July - . LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout A.
  • Beginning of the Scout launch vehicle concept. - . Nation: USA. A study was initiated by the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory on the use of solid-fuel upper stages to achieve a payload orbit with as simple a launch vehicle as possible. This was the beginning of the Scout test-vehicle concept..

1957 July 1 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • First Atlas wing activated at Cooke AFB. - . Nation: USA. Air Research and Development Command activated the 704th Strategic Missile Wing (Atlas) at Cooke AFB..

1957 July 2 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Tikhonravov defined the development tasks for the Zenit reconnaissance satellite. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit satellite.

    These included development of a three stage version of R-7, development of satellite guidance and control systems of the precision required for photography from orbit, satellite control equipment, ELINT sensors, guidance systems, film cassette return systems, and tracking systems for recovery of the re-entry vehicle with the film cassette.


1957 July 3 - . 09:28 GMT - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Deacon.
  • NRL NN7.38F Solar ultraviolet and x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1957 July 4 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee Hi.
  • NRL NN3.08F Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi).

1957 July 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 July 11 - .
  • X-1B Flight 20 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 10. Aborted after launch, indication of open landing-gear door. Propellants jettisoned, completed as a glide flight..

1957 July 12 - .
  • Birth of Rick Douglas Husband - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Husband. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-96, STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry..

1957 July 12 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A. FAILURE: Control system malfunction at re-entry..
  • Jupiter A - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

    Launched at 0130 hours EST from AMR. The primary test objective was to test the accuracy of the guidance system. The flight was successful. Actual range was 130.125 nm; 0.15 nm over; and 285 meters left of the intended impact point. All missions were successfully accomplished. The missile followed the predicted trajectory very closely. Survey of the impact crater indicated a miss distance of 50 meters over and 284 meters to the left of the predicted impact point, giving a radial miss distance of 389.5 meters. Missed aimpoint by 289 m.


1957 July 12 - . 12:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. FAILURE: Failure of the control system due to a short circuit of the battery. Rapid roll developed, resulting in all four strap-on boosters flying away from the core at 33 seconds in the flight.. Failed Stage: G.
  • M1-7 (I-2) test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi). R-7 test flight. (M1-7 (I-2)).

1957 July 13 - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho.
  • USAF cancels the Navaho program. - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

    The supersonic intercontinental cruise missile had been made obsolete by the Atlas ICBM. 4,705 employees were laid off the day the termination notice was received via an announcement over the public address system to "stop what you are doing, proceed to the nearest exit, and deposit your badge in the bin indicated". By the end of the month the total laid off at North American alone amounted to 15 ,600 employees. However engineering staff was kept on to launch the five completed G-26 missiles, at a total cost of $4.9 million.

    At the time the program was cancelled full-range G-38 missiles were in fabrication with first flight test planned by the end of 1958. The engines, missile frame manufacturing techniques, inertial and stellar navigation equipment, and telemetry/guidance techniques developed for Navaho established the technical basis for many subsequent US rocket developments.


1957 July 15 - . 14:23 GMT - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Deacon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • NRL NN7.39F Solar ultraviolet and x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 28 km (17 mi).

1957 July 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-4.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 July 16 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Meteorites mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 July 17 - .
  • Qian Weichang denounced. - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Tsien denounces his former colleague Qian Weichang..

1957 July 18 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Meteorites mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 July 19 - .
  • X-1B Flight 21 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 11. Mach 1.65 at 18,300 m. Control pulses, sideslips, and 2 g wind-up turn..

1957 July 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-3.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 July 22 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1957 July 23 - . 16:29 GMT - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Deacon.
  • NRL NN7.40F Solar ultraviolet and x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1957 July 24 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1957 July 25 - .
  • Birth of Daniel Wheeler 'Dan' Bursch - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bursch. American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51, STS-68, STS-77, ISS EO-4..

1957 July 26 - . Launch Site: Akita. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1957 July 26 - . 04:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A.
  • Jupiter A - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

    Launched at 2317 hours EST from AMR. The flight was successful. Actual range was 126.227 nm; 147 meters under; and 182 meters left of the intended impact point. The primary test objective was to flight test warhead and fuse functioning as a system. A survey of the warhead impact point: indicated a miss distance of 147 meters short, 182 meters to the left of the predicted impact point, or a radial miss distance of 234 meters. Missed aimpoint by 235 m.


1957 July 27 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1957 July 29 - .
  • X-1B Flight 22 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 12. Enlarged wing tips installed to simulate wing tips to be used with reaction controls. Mach 1.55 at 18,300 m..

1957 July 29 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee Hi.
  • NRL NN3.13F Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1957 July 30 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. FAILURE: Failure.
  • UM AM6.32 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 25 km (15 mi).

1957 August 1 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Atlas IOC delayed. - . Nation: USA. Estimated operational capability date for Atlas changed from March 1959 to June 1959..

1957 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar VLAD. LV Family: Burya La-350. Launch Vehicle: Burya La-350. FAILURE: Launch abort..
  • Burya first launch attempt - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

    Objective was limited to test of operation of first stage boosters. The AVD Engine Cutoff System activated on ignition due to destruction of an OT-155 propellant valve in one of the booster engines. The missile remained on the pad. The stage boosters were dismounted, checked, and reassembled.


1957 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1957 August 2 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike.
  • Flat re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 August 5 - .
  • Birth of Andrei Yevgenyevich Zaitsev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Zaitsev. Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1985-1996..

1957 August 5 - . 11:53 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 55.0 N x 54.0 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 56 Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP1 - - Latitude: 55.00 N - Longitude: 54.00 W..

1957 August 5 - . 16:59 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 56.6 N x 54.4 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 57 Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP2 - - Latitude: 56.62 N - Longitude: 54.42 W..

1957 August 6 - . 10:52 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 62.3 N x 56.3 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 58 Aeronomy / aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP3 - - Latitude: 62.27 N - Longitude: 56.28 W..

1957 August 6 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee AJ10-34.
  • Solar ultraviolet spectrum Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1957 August 6 - . 16:03 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 63.9 N x 56.2 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 59 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP4 - - Latitude: 63.93 N - Longitude: 56.15 W..

1957 August 7 - . 03:28 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 67.3 N x 57.1 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • SUI 60 Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP5 - - Latitude: 67.33 N - Longitude: 57.05 W..

1957 August 7 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.9 N x 58.5 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • SUI 61 Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP6 - - Latitude: 72.92 N - Longitude: 58.52 W..

1957 August 8 - .
  • X-1B Flight 23 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 13. Stability and control investigation. Mach 1.5 at 18300 m, accelerated maneuvers, control pulses, and pull-ups..

1957 August 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
1957 August 8 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter C.
  • Jupiter re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 460 km (280 mi).

    First Nose Cone Recovery. Army-JPL Jupiter-C fired a scale-model nose cone 1,200 miles down range from AMR with a summit altitude of 600 miles. Recovery the next day of aerodynamic nose cone using ablation, resolved reentry heating problem for Jupiter missile. Nose cone was shown to the Nation on TV by President Eisenhower on November 7.

    Fired from AMR at 0159 hours EST, impacted at the predicted range. This success proved conclusively that the planned ablative-type heat protection for Jupiter warheads was satisfactory. The missile was a three-stage configuration--the first stage an elongated Redstone missile, the second and third stages 11 and 3 six-inch scaled Sergeant rockets, respectively. The one-third scale Jupiter nose cone was attached to the final stage with scheme for separation provided. The nose cone travelled to a 1,168 nm range, reached a velocity of 4,004 m/sec, and experienced a total heat input at stagnation point at 95% of that for the full scale nose cone at 1,500 nm. Naval units recovered the scaled nose cone according to plan.


1957 August 8 - . 07:17 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 75.2 N x 63.3 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 62 Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP7 - - Latitude: 75.20 N - Longitude: 63.32 W..

1957 August 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-3.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 August 10 - .
  • Claimed first manmade object to escape from earth - . Payload: Steel Metal Cover. Nation: USA.

    In the summer of 1957 physicist Bob Brownlee attempted to 'contain' the blast effects of an atomic explosion from a device placed at the bottom of a 500 foot vertical shaft in the Nevada desert. A four-inch-thick steel plate weighing 'several hundred pounds' is placed over the hole (diameter not specified). This blew off as expected in the blast and was seen in films to depart the area at six times escape velocity . Brownlee never publicly challenged the Soviet's claim (to having launched the 1st Earth satellite.


1957 August 10 - . 05:07 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 74.3 N x 63.6 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 63 Aeronomy / aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP8 - - Latitude: 74.30 N - Longitude: 63.57 W..

1957 August 11 - . 05:16 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 70.4 N x 57.0 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • SUI 65 Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP10 - - Latitude: 70.40 N - Longitude: 57.00 W..

1957 August 11 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.7 N x 54.9 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 66 Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP11 - - Latitude: 66.67 N - Longitude: 54.93 W..

1957 August 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC10. LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho G-26.
  • Navaho G-26 Flight 5 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 25 km (15 mi).

    After a 15 hour 18 minute countdown G-26 number four finally left the pad. The boost phase was completed successfully; but then a guidance system malfunction prevented the cruise stage from separating from the booster until an altitude of 25 km was reached. However the autopilot successfully overcome drastic pitch oscillations created by the lofted trajectory, and the ramjets were successfully ignited. The stage cruised at Mach 2.93 for 280 km. However then the vehicle began drifting off course. The ground pilot banked, but the fuselage screened the airflow to the left ramjet intake, resulting in that engine flaming out. The vehicle lost speed and altitude, and the right engine flamed out a minute later. The missile was ordered into a terminal dive, impacting 425 km downrange.


1957 August 12 - . 07:48 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 64.7 N x 54.0 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • SUI 67 Aeronomy / aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP12 - - Latitude: 64.68 N - Longitude: 53.95 W..

1957 August 12 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 63.1 N x 53.7 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 68 Aurora / fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP13 - - Latitude: 63.05 N - Longitude: 53.72 W..

1957 August 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 August 13 - . 01:58 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.6 N x 49.3 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 69 Aeronomy / aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP14 - - Latitude: 60.58 N - Longitude: 49.27 W..

1957 August 14 - . 08:06 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 59.3 N x 47.8 W. Launch Platform: LSD-29. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 70 Aeronomy / aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Launched at IGY Rockoon Launch Site 1, Atlantic Ocean LP15 - - Latitude: 59.30 N - Longitude: 47.80 W..

1957 August 15 - .
  • X-1B Flight 24 - . Crew: Armstrong. Payload: X-1B flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 14. Pilot check. Nose landing gear failed on landing, minor damage..

1957 August 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-5.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 August 19 - .
  • Manhigh II - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Man-high. Spacecraft: Man-high.

    Manhigh II reached a record altitude of 101,516 feet (30,950 m) with Major David Simons aboard on 19 and 20 August. Including the pilot and scientific equipment, the total weight of the Manhigh II gondola was 747 kg. At maximum altitude, the ballon expanded to a diameter of 60 m with a volume in excess of 85,000 cubic m.


1957 August 19 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Na - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi). [Or Sep 19?].

1957 August 20 - . LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • USSR sells R-12 missiles to China. - . Nation: Russia. Ministry of Armaments Decree 'On transfer of two R-12 missiles to China (on August 6)' was issued..

1957 August 21 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • M1-9 (I-3) test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). First successful ICBM flight. Problems with the curing of the nose cone material, known before launch, led to the dummy warhead disintegrating over the Kamchatka Peninsula..

1957 August 23 - . 21:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • RP6.1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: BRL. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1957 August 24 - . Launch Site: Cuxhaven. Launch Complex: Cuxhaven. LV Family: Mohr Rocket. Launch Vehicle: Mohr Rocket.
  • First launches from Spaceport Cuxhaven - . Nation: Germany.

    Cuxhaven saw its first use as the 'Gateway to Space'. The DRG (German Rocket Society)'s 'Rocket Flight Day' started out with 7 firings of the 'oilspray' rocket to ranges of 100 to 300 m. The terrible weather served to demonstrate their function admirably. This was followed by a launch to 100 to 2000 m altitude of several small model rockets. This was followed by delta-winged rocket built by Koschmieder, which reached 3000 m and was recovered by parachute. Next was a prototype 20 kg meteorological rocket using a new solid propellant developed by Deutsche Dynamit AG. This produced 1500 kgf and reached Mach 1.5. The rocket rose to 4000 m but the recovery parachute deployed early and the meteorological instruments were not recovered. Finally a test of the first of Ernst Mohr's big rockets was planned. The rocket had 50 kg of propellant, produced 5 tonnes thrust, and was to have reached Mach 1.5 at burnout and an altitude of 20,000 m. However the launch was cancelled due to bad weather.


1957 August 24 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Grenade test Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 August 25 - . 02:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 August 25 - . 03:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi).

1957 August 25 - . 14:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Grenades, Temperature, wind Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1957 August 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • R-7 ICBM announced publicly. - . Nation: Russia. Soviet Union announces successful launch of a "super longdistance intercontinental multistage ballistic rocket ...a few days ago," according to Tass Soviet News Agency..

1957 August 27 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Auroral particles Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1957 August 28 - . 21:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26A. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    The fourth Jupiter was fired from AMR at 1602 hours EST over IRBM range and was the second successful flight of the series. The range error was 27.5 nm with a 36.5 nm lateral error. Range was predicted for 146 nm. LOX was cut off at 170 seconds. All flight missions were fulfilled satisfactorily. Separation occurred 5 seconds after burnout, as programmed, This was the first test of separation of body from thrust unit.


1957 August 29 - . 14:12 GMT - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Deacon.
  • NRL NN7.45F Solar ultraviolet and x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1957 August 30 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Series I research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). The fourth Thor (#104) missile broke up and exploded 96 seconds into its flight. .

1957 August 31 - . 04:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Auroral particles Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1957 August 31 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 September - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas B.
  • Scheduled design complete (95%) for Atlas B-series missiles - . Nation: USA.

1957 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar VLAD. LV Family: Burya La-350. Launch Vehicle: Burya La-350. FAILURE: Premature release of the jet vanes - missile cleared the launch tower, then arced over and crashed.
  • Burya flight 1 - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

    Objective was limited to test of operation of first stage boosters. After launch, there was a premature release of the jet vanes. The missile cleared the launch tower, then immediately arced over and crashed with a huge explosion within sight of the launch pad.


1957 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1957 September 1 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee Hi.
  • Ion probe Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1957 September 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1957 September 3 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-1.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 September 5 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Matador. Launch Vehicle: Matador.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1957 September 7 - . 11:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • M1-10 (I-4) test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Second successful ICBM flight..

1957 September 9 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • First US Army heavy missile group. - . Nation: USA. The 40th Field Artillery Missile Group, the first heavy missile group organized in the U.S. Army, was transferred from Fort Carson, Colorado, to Redstone Arsenal..

1957 September 9 - .
  • Birth of Michael Eugene Belt - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Belt. American photointerpreter payload specialist astronaut, 1988-1991..

1957 September 9 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 September 11 - . 02:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A. FAILURE: ST-80 pitch program malfunction..
  • Jupiter A - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

    Launched at: 2141 hours EST from AMR. The flight was unsuccessful, The missile impacted 14.77 nm from the launch pad. Mechanical failure of the guidance tilt program caused the missile to assume a very steep trajectory which resulted La. a short range flight. Missed aimpoint by 111,000 m.


1957 September 12 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Deacon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • NRL NN7.46F Solar ultraviolet and x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1957 September 14 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1957 September 15 - . 13:27 GMT - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Deacon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • NRL NN7.47F Solar ultraviolet and x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1957 September 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Bomarc. Launch Vehicle: Bomarc.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1957 September 17 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1957 September 18 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC9. LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho G-26.
  • Navaho G-26 Flight 6 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 23 km (14 mi).

    The booster worked well, the cruise stage separated at 23.5 km altitude. The ramjets ignited, and the cruise stage accelerated to Mach 3.5. After 15 minutes, the missile began drifting off-course, and ground control took over and banked the missile. One of the ramjets flamed out, and the missile was commanded into a terminal dive and impacted 930 km downrange.


1957 September 19 - .
  • X-1E Flight 17 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 16. Planned mach number not attained, loss of power during pushover from climb..

1957 September 19 - .
  • Birth of Dr Richard Michael Linnehan - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Linnehan. American veterinarian mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-78, STS-90, STS-109, STS-123. US Army.

1957 September 19 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Release A (Cs) Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 September 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18.
  • Series I research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi).

    First fully successful test flight of Thor intermediate range ballistic missile. (AF Ballistic Missiles Program Status Report.) After four failures, the fifth Thor flight test missile (#105) successfully demonstrated all on-board systems. The engine operated 137 seconds to automatic shutdown, and missile impacted 1,300 nautical miles down range from Cape Canaveral. Complete USAF Thor IRBM first successfully launched from Cape Canaveral. Dummy Warhead sent to 1800 km range.


1957 September 20 - . 10:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Akita. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 4.
  • Chemical release mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 September 21 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 September 22 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Akita. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 4.
  • Chemical release mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 September 25 - . 19:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A. FAILURE: Failure in the booster fuel system.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 4.00 km (2.40 mi).

    The second Atlas flight test missile (6A) was destroyed 32 seconds into the flight because of an engine shutdown. Atlas was again destroyed by command signal at three minutes into flight following a failure in the booster fuel system. The 50-second active flight was considered a partial success.


1957 September 26 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 0.8 N x 1.0 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.50F test - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

    Thirty-six Rockoons (balloon-launched rockets) were launched from Navy icebreaker, U.S.S. Glacier, in Atlantic, Pacific, and Antartic areas ranging from 75 N. to 72 S. latitude, as part of the U.S.-IGY scientific program headed by James A. Van Allen and Lawrence J. Cahill of the State University of Iowa (SUI). These were the first known upper atmosphere rocket soundings in the Antartctic area.

    Launched from IGY Rockoon Launch Site 2, Atlantic Ocean - Latitude: 0.83 N, Longitude:0.99 W.


1957 September 26 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 16 km (9 mi).

1957 September 27 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 25.3 N x 74.4 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 75 Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1957 September 30 - .
  • Internation Rocket and Satellite Conference - . Nation: USA. Scientists from 12 countries, including the United States and U.S.S.R., attended International Rocket and Satellite Conference held at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., under the sponsorship of CSAGI..

1957 October 1 - . LV Family: Vanguard. Launch Vehicle: Vanguard.
  • Vanguard tracking system operational. - . Nation: USA. Program: Vanguard. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vanguard 1. Spacecraft: Vanguard 1. Project Vanguard world-wide tracking system (minitrack) became operational..

1957 October 1 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Long Tom. Launch Vehicle: Long Tom.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 2 - . 19:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A.
  • Jupiter A - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

    Launched at 1429 hours EST from AMR. The flight was successful, the impact point was 445 metres long and 452 meters to the right of the predicted impact point, giving a radial miss distance of. 634 meters. This was the first flight test of the NAA A-6 engine with a sea level thrust of 78,000 pounds. Missed aimpoint by 572 m.


1957 October 3 - . Launch Site: Eniwetok. Launch Platform: Balloon. LV Family: Farside. Launch Vehicle: Farside.
  • Shot 2 Test/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi).

1957 October 3 - . 17:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Series I research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1957 October 4 - .
  • Birth of Dr Gregory Thomas Linteris - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Linteris. American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-83, STS-94..

1957 October 4 - . 19:16 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 5.5 N x 89.5 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 76 Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1957 October 4 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8K71PS.
  • Sputnik 1 - . Payload: PS. Mass: 84 kg (185 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MVS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Sputnik 1. Spacecraft: Sputnik 1. Decay Date: 1958-01-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 2 . COSPAR: 1957-Alpha-2. Apogee: 945 km (587 mi). Perigee: 227 km (141 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 96.10 min.

    First artificial satellite; transmitted signals for 21 days. Launching of first ever artificial satellite of the Earth; physical study of the atmosphere; remained in orbit until January 4, 1958. This event began the space race by galvanizing interest and action on the part of the American public to support an active role in space research, technology, and exploration.


1957 October 5 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter C.
  • Von Braun promises first US satellite in 60 days. - . Payload: Explorer A. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McElroy, Medaris, von Braun. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Explorer. Spacecraft: Explorer A. Von Braun briefs Secretary of Defence McElroy on Jupiter-C/Redstone for immediate US satellite launch. Promises launch in 60 days. Medaris says 90..

1957 October 7 - . Launch Site: Eniwetok. Launch Platform: Balloon. LV Family: Farside. Launch Vehicle: Farside. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Shot 3 Test/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 700 km (430 mi).

1957 October 8 - .
1957 October 9 - . LV Family: Vanguard. Launch Vehicle: Vanguard.
  • Vanguard supported by Eisenhower. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Eisenhower. Program: Vanguard. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vanguard 1. Spacecraft: Vanguard 1.

    President Eisenhower in a White House press release congratulated the Soviet scientists on SPUTNIK I. He gave a brief history of the development of the U.S.-IGY satellite program and pointed to the separation of Project Vanguard from work on ballistic missiles.


1957 October 9 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Vladimirovich Usachyov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Usachyov. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-15, Mir EO-21, STS-101, ISS EO-2. 552 cumulative days in space..

1957 October 10 - .
  • Hywards, Brass Bell, and Robo consolidated into Dyna-Soar. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Bomi, Brass Bell, Dynasoar, Hywards, Robo.

    The launch of Sputnik spurs immediate actions within the government to accelerate manned spacecraft work. ARDC headquarters consolidated Hywards, Brass Bell, and Robo studies into a three-step abbreviated development plan for System 464L, Dyna-Soar. On the same day a NACA Hypersonic Steering Committee met to consider the best configuration for such a vehicle. Langley's Faget pushed non-gliding ballistic capsules, another NACA group felt lifting bodies were the best solution, but the majority of participants favoured the flat-bottomed glider configuration.


1957 October 11 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Hercules. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hercules.
  • Contr. system test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 October 11 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18. FAILURE: Turbopump gearbox failure..
  • Series I research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi). The second successful Thor flight test missile was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, and attained its design range of 1,500 miles. Thor missile launched at Cape Canaveral, the second tested, achieved its designed 1,500-mile range..

1957 October 13 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 2.2 N x 143.1 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 77 Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 14 - .
  • Dynasoar selected as X-15 follow-on. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Dynasoar. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. USAF and NACA reviewed preliminary studies dating from 1954 on a boost-glide research vehicle to follow the X-15; all studies were combined into a single plan which was accepted by the Air Force and later designated as Dyna-Soar..

1957 October 14 - .
  • National space flight program proposed - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM, CSM Source Selection.

    The Rocket and Satellite Research Panel, established in 1946 as the V-2 Upper Atmosphere Research Panel and renamed the Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel in 1948, together with the American Rocket Society proposed a national space flight program and a unified National Space Establishment. The mission of such an Establishment would be nonmilitary in nature, specifically excluding space weapons development and military operations in space. By 1959, this Establishment should have achieved an unmanned instrumented hard lunar landing and, by 1960, an unmanned instrumented lunar satellite and soft lunar landing. Manned circumnavigation of the moon with return to earth should have been accomplished by 1965 with a manned lunar landing mission taking place by 1968. Beginning in 1970, a permanent lunar base should be possible.


1957 October 14 - . 01:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Meteorites mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 14 - . 21:16 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 2.3 N x 150.4 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 78 Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1957 October 15-21 - .
  • X-20 Dyna Soar conference. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Dynasoar. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

    A 'Round 3' conference involving studies for a follow-on to the X-15 program, which subsequently led to the X-20 Dyna Soar, was held at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory. During the course of the meeting, Alfred J. Eggers, Jr., of Ames advanced several proposals for possible manned satellite vehicle development projects.


1957 October 15 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • Russia to assist China in missile development - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Program: Long March.

    Russian and China sign New Defense Technical Accord, whereby Russia will supply China with protoype atomic bomb and two R-2 missiles, and related technical data. Under the agreement the Soviet Union will provide to China the necessary specialists, training, and tooling for licensed production of the R-2 ballistic missile (an improved version of the V-2).


1957 October 16 - . 20:02 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 7.1 N x 156.6 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 79 Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 17 - . 00:09 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 6.5 N x 156.9 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 80 Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 17 - . 02:18 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 6.2 N x 157.0 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 81 Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 17 - . 23:44 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 3.4 N x 158.0 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 83 Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1957 October 18 - . 09:35 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 1.9 N x 159.9 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 84 Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 18 - . 19:43 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 0.8 N x 160.5 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 85 Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 121 km (75 mi).

1957 October 18 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 0.4 N x 160.9 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • SUI 86 Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 121 km (75 mi).

1957 October 19 - . 18:50 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 2.1 S x 161.1 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.63F Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1957 October 20 - . Launch Site: Eniwetok. Launch Platform: Balloon. LV Family: Farside. Launch Vehicle: Farside.
  • Shot 5 Test/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 5,000 km (3,100 mi).

1957 October 20 - . 01:06 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 2.5 S x 161.4 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.64F Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 104 km (64 mi).

1957 October 20 - . 03:57 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 2.8 S x 161.5 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.65F Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 20 - . 20:11 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 6.6 S x 162.2 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.66F Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 22 - . Launch Site: Eniwetok. Launch Platform: Balloon. LV Family: Farside. Launch Vehicle: Farside.
  • Shot 6 Test/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 5,000 km (3,100 mi).

1957 October 22 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 17.7 S x 163.4 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.67F Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-1.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 23 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 23 - . 01:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    The fifth Jupiter was fired from the AMR at 2007 hours EST. This was the first flight with a heat protected nose cone. The ST-90 inertial guidance stabilised platform was operated with partially closed circuits. Cut-off was effected by the guidance system at 170.37 seconds. Since fuel was not depleted, flight time was 9.5 seconds longer than had been predicted for an approximate 1,100 nm range. The range error was 10.2 nm with a 3.4 nm lateral error. The nose cone survived re-entry and impacted in the general vicinity of the predicted impact point. Again, a successful flight.


1957 October 23 - . 19:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC18A. Launch Pad: LC18A. LV Family: Vanguard. Launch Vehicle: Vanguard.
  • Vanguard TV2 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi). IGY Vanguard prototype (TV-2) with simulated second and third stage successfully met test objectives, by reaching 109-mile altitude and 4,250 mph..

1957 October 24 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-3.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 24 - . 16:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18.
  • Series I research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi). In its first long-range flight, a Thor missile launched from Cape Canaveral completed a 2,645-mile flight down the Atlantic Missile Range. Stripped down Thor long-range flight test successful from AMR, impacting 4400 km downrange..

1957 October 25 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike Nike.
  • GE RV Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1957 October 25 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 26 - . 19:47 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 39.1 S x 166.0 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.68F Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 27 - . 02:46 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.5 S x 166.2 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.69F Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 29 - . 00:13 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 50.7 S x 169.7 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.70F Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 30 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Ivanovich Lazutkin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lazutkin. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-23. Civilian Engineer, Energiya NPO..

1957 October 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar VLAD. LV Family: Burya La-350. Launch Vehicle: Burya La-350. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Burya flight 2 - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1957 October 30 - . 21:40 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 60.1 S x 176.1 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.71F Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 31 - . 00:29 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 60.7 S x 176.6 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.72F Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 31 - . 04:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A. FAILURE: Loss of inter-compartment pressure at 68 sec. Ground cut-off command given.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Jupiter A - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

    Launched at 2352 hours EST from AMR. The flight was unsuccessful. Actual range was 48 nm, whereas the predicted range wee 130.588 nm. At 68 seconds, a disturbance occurred in the lateral accelerometer and computer systems. Erroneous guidance instructions were transmitted to the control systems, causing a sharp yaw at 70 seconds. Cut-off was initiated at 98.1 seconds. One of the objectives was to indoctrinate troops for participation in the tactical portions of the countdown. Missed aimpoint by 151,000 m.


1957 October 31 - . 19:51 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 65.1 S x 177.9 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.73F Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November - .
  • Faget presentation on manned orbital flight. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Spacecraft Bus: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury.

    A presentation on manned orbital flight was made by Maxime A. Faget. The concept included the use of existing ballistic missiles for propulsion, solid-fuel retrorockets for reentry initiation, and a nonlifting ballistic shape for the reentering capsule. This concept was considered to be the quickest and safest approach for initial manned flights into orbit.


1957 November - . LV Family: Buran M-40. Launch Vehicle: Buran M-40.
  • Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile cancelled. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lavochkin, Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Spacecraft Bus: Buran M-40. Spacecraft: Buran M-42.

    Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On termination of work on the 40 Buran intercontinental cruise missile' was issued. Buran was being prepared for its first flight when Myasishchev's project was cancelled. After successful flight tests of Lavochkin’s Burya missile, the Soviet leadership did not see any need for continued development of a parallel ramjet design. Following the cancellation, Myasishchev sought approval for test of an air-launched version.


1957 November 1 - .
  • Death of Aleksei Ledovskiy. Reported killed in a sub-orbital flight in November 1957. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Ledovskiy. Russian phantom cosmonaut. In 1959 Italian news reported a series of cosmonaut deaths on suborbital flights, among these Ledovsky. No historical evidence ever emerged of any Soviet suborbital flights..

1957 November 1 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 65.4 S x 177.6 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.74F Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 3 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8K71PS.
  • Sputnik 2 - . Payload: PS-2. Mass: 508 kg (1,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MVS. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Sputnik 2. Spacecraft: Sputnik 2. Decay Date: 1958-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 3 . COSPAR: 1957-Beta-1. Apogee: 1,660 km (1,030 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 103.70 min.

    Carried dog Laika. Study of the physical processes and conditions of life in outer space. After the surprise public impact of Sputnik 1, the satellite and launch teams were called back from vacation and in one month assembled the satellite (using equipment already developed for dog sounding rocket flights). After the launch, Soviet space officials said that the spacecraft would not return and that the dog had enough food and oxygen to live for up to 10 days. Only 45 years later was it revealed that Laika overheated, panicked and died within 5 to 7 hours of launch. What turned out to be the first space crypt remained in orbit a total of 162 days, then burned up in the atmosphere on April 14, 1958.


1957 November 3 - . 20:08 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 70.2 S x 175.7 E. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.75F Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 3 - . 23:24 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 70.8 S x 175.8 E. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.76F Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 4 - . 01:41 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 71.2 S x 176.1 E. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.77F Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1957 November 4 - . 03:47 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 71.5 S x 176.8 E. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.78F Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 4 - . 07:16 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 72.0 S x 176.7 E. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.79F Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 4 - . 18:52 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 70.9 S x 173.6 E. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.80F Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 5 - . 01:25 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 69.5 S x 173.6 E. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.81F Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 5 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 66.2 S x 174.7 E. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.83F Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 6 - .
  • Chelomei OKB-52 gains in importance. - . Nation: Russia. Ministry of Aviation Industry (MAP) Decree 'On subordinating OKB-52 to GSNII-642' was issued..

1957 November 7 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Eisenhower enunciates science policy. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Eisenhower, von Braun.

    President Eisenhower in major address on science and security announced that scientists had solved the problem of ballistic missile reentry and showed the nose cone of an Army Jupiter-C missile which was intact after a flight through space. He announced the creation of the office of Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and the appointment of James R. Killian, president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, to the new post.


1957 November 7 - . 16:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 8 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter C.
  • Von Braun ordered to launch satellite. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McElroy, von Braun. Program: Explorer.

    Secretary of Defense Neil McElroy directed the Army to proceed with the launching of the Explorer earth satellites. This order, in effect, resumed the Orbiter project that had been eliminated from the IGY satellite planning program on September 9, 1955. Von Braun was to modify two Jupiter-C missiles (modified Redstones) and attempt to place an artificial earth satellite in orbit by March 58.


1957 November 8 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-3.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 8 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 8 - . 20:43 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 48.3 S x 173.9 E. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.84F Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

1957 November 8 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 48.0 S x 173.8 E. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon.
  • II5.85F Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

1957 November 9 - . 16:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-1 (R-1).
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi).

1957 November 10 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 12-13 - .
  • Fluid mechanics research key to spaceflight. - . Nation: USA.

    At a meeting of the NACA Subcommittee on Fluid Mechanics, it was stated that many aspects of space flight and astronautics would depend heavily on research advances in the field that had been broadly termed fluid mechanics. Research in this area involved internal and external gas flows associated with high-speed flights within the atmosphere and reentry into the atmosphere of spacecraft vehicles. The subcommittee recommended to NACA that research in these matters be intensified.


1957 November 13 - . 11:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
1957 November 13 - . 17:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC9. LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho G-26. FAILURE: Destroyed by range safety after telemetry dropped out at T+75 seconds.
  • Navaho G-26 Flight 7 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

    The booster functioned well, and the cruise stage separated at 20.4 km altitude and Mach 3.24. The ramjets ignited, but before the ground knew that, the telemetry dropped out completely due to a faulty voltage regulator on the missile. Range safety ordered the missile's self destruction at T+75 seconds.


1957 November 14 - .
  • UN calls for inspections to insure objects in outer space only for peaceful purposes - . Nation: International.

    The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted Resolution 1148 (XII), calling, in part, for "the joint study of an inspection system designed to ensure that the sending of objects through outer space shall be exclusively for peaceful and scientific purposes."


1957 November 15 - .
  • Abbreviated development plan for Dyna-Soar. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Dynasoar. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Air Force headquarters approved the abbreviated development plan for Dyna-Soar..

1957 November 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-1.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 17 - .
  • Birth of Michael Edward Hoffpauir - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoffpauir. American Army geologist payload specialist astronaut, 1990-1992..

1957 November 19 - .
  • Resolution for aggressive NACA program in space research. - . Nation: USA. Preston R. Bassett of the NACA Committee on Aerodynamics presented a resolution urging NACA to adopt an aggressive program in space research technology..

1957 November 19 - . 16:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Release 1, KNO3-Al Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 121 km (75 mi).

1957 November 20 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Double Cajun T40.
  • MW-2 model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 November 21 - .
  • Special Committee on Space Technology - . Nation: USA.

    The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics established a Special Committee on Space Technology to study and delineate problem areas that must be solved to make space flight a practical reality and to consider and recommend means for attacking these problems. Dr. H. Guyford Stever of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was named chairman.


1957 November 21 - .
  • National Space Establishment recommended - . Nation: USA.

    The Rocket and Satellite Research Panel recommended the creation of a National Space Establishment in the Executive Branch of the Government. According to the proposal, activities of this agency would be under civilian leadership, and the organization would be charged with formulating and supervising a space research program. An annual budget of $1 billion for a period of 10 years was recommended.


1957 November 21-22 - .
  • NACA Propulsion Conference - . Nation: USA.

    Over one-half of the NACA Propulsion Conference was devoted to the discussion of possible space propulsion systems. Three particular systems appeared to afford excellent choices for such purposes. These were: the chemical rocket, the nuclear rocket, and the nuclear-electric rocket. It was the considered opinion of the conference members that the chemical rocket would be quite adequate for a round trip to the moon.


1957 November 22 - .
  • First hydrogen-fluorine rocket engine test. - . Nation: USA. First hydrogen-fluorine rocket engine successfully operated at NACA Lewis Laboratory, demonstrating a 40-percent performance improvement over other propellant combinations..

1957 November 23 - .
  • Special units formed to handle ICBM/IRBM nuclear warheads - . Nation: Russia.

    Deployment of the R-5M in 1956 caused the Sixth Directorate of the Ministry of Military Forces of the USSR's First Military Subdivision, consisting of two brigades, to be formed. The need for a new arrangement for safeguarding nuclear weapons deployed with field units led to a decree replacing the Sixth Directorate with a Twelfth General Directorate of the Ministry of Defence, charged with the development, trials, deployment, and security of nuclear warheads.


1957 November 25 - .
  • $3 million of fiscal year 1958 funds for Dyna-Soar. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Dynasoar. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Air Force headquarters issued Development Directive 94, which allocated $3 million of fiscal year 1958 funds for Dyna-Soar..

1957 November 26 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 November 27 - . LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor.
  • Thor and Jupiter IRBM's ordered into production. - . Nation: USA. Thor and Jupiter IRBM's ordered into production for ultimate deployment by the USAF..

1957 November 27 - .
  • X-1B Flight 25 - . Crew: Armstrong. Payload: X-1B flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 15. First reaction-control flight..

1957 November 27 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM. FAILURE: At 202 seconds of flight mechanical failure of the turbo-pump caused a complete loss of thrust.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 2110 hours EST. Main stage, lift-off, and powered flight were normal. The missile passed through the critical dynamic pressure period and followed the prescribed trajectory until 202 seconds of flight when the engine thrust was terminated. From an analysis covering the period before thrust termination, mechanical failure of the turbo-pump stopped the flow of propellants to the combustion chamber causing a complete loss of thrust. Telemetry signals ceased at 232 seconds. The missile was at an altitude of 65,000 feet when an explosion was observed from the Test Centre above the horizon. The long range mission of this flight was not accomplished; however, other primary and secondary missions were considered successful.


1957 December - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan-Vanguard.
  • Titan plus Vanguard proposed to place instrument package into lunar orbit - . Nation: USA.

    The Martin Company proposed to the Department of Defense (DOD) that a stage of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile be combined with the Vanguard rocket to provide a launch vehicle capable of placing an instrument package into lunar orbit and, ultimately, on the lunar surface.


1957 December 1 - .
  • Mercury ballistic shape proposed. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Mercury. Maxime Faget of NACA Langley proposed ballistic shape of Mercury capsule, while A. Eggers of Ames and E. S. Love and J. V. Becker of Langley proposed glider configurations of manned spacecraft later incorporated in Dyna-Soar and Apollo studies..

1957 December 4 - .
  • Mars and Beyond televised. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. The final show in the Walt Disney / Wernher Von Braun series was broadcast after the launch of Sputnik 1 but before Von Braun's own Explorer 1 was orbited. It treated a mass audience to Von Braun's plans for a manned expedition to Mars..

1957 December 4 - .
  • NASA precursor. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Eisenhower. The American Rocket Society's proposal for an Astronautical Research and Development Agency, which was presented to President Eisenhower on October 14, 1957, was announced..

1957 December 5 - .
  • Advanced Research Projects Agency created. - . Nation: USA. An announcement was made that an Advanced Research Projects Agency would be created in the Department of Defense to direct its space projects..

1957 December 6 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • R-2 licensed for production in China. - . Nation: Russia.

    On 6 December 1957 an agreement was signed to license production of the R-2 to China. A huge team of Russian rocket engineers and technicians went to Beijing to set up the production line. This rocket provided the technological base for the subsequent Chinese rocket programs.


1957 December 6 - .
  • Death of Robert Albert Charles Esnault-Peltrie - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Esnault-Pelterie. French engineer. Pioneering spaceflight theoretician. French rocketry and spaceflight pioneer. A leading advocate of space travel, his speeches and writings created only limited enthusiasm for rocketry in France prior to WW2..

1957 December 6 - . 16:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC18A. Launch Pad: LC18A. LV Family: Vanguard. Launch Vehicle: Vanguard. FAILURE: Vehicle lost thrust and exploded after 2 seconds.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Vanguard 1A - . Payload: Vanguard Test Satellite. Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Vanguard. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vanguard 1. Spacecraft: Vanguard 1. Decay Date: 1957-12-06 . First US orbital attempt. IGY Vanguard (TV-3), the first with three live stages, failed to launch a test satellite..

1957 December 7 - . 22:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18.
  • Research and development Series II test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi).

1957 December 9 - .
  • US Air Force recommends immediate goal of landing on the moon - . Nation: USA. Program: Lunex.

    The Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Ad Hoc Committee on Space Technology recommended acceleration of specific military projects and a vigorous space program with the immediate goal of landings on the moon because "Sputnik and the Russian ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) capability have created a national emergency."


1957 December 10 - .
  • Air Force Directorate of Astronautics. - . Nation: USA.

    The Air Force created a Directorate of Astronautics to manage and coordinate astronautical research programs, including work on satellites and antimissile-missile weapons. Brigadier General Homer A. Boushey was named to head the office. Later in the month the order was rescinded by James H. Douglas, Secretary of the Air Force, who considered the creation of such a group before the activation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency to be premature.


1957 December 10 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Program - . Nation: USA. Program: Horizon.

    The Army Ballistic Missile Agency completed and forwarded to higher authority the first edition of A National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Program, which had been in preparation since April 1957. Included was a "short-cut development program" for large payload capabilities, covering the clustered-engine booster of 1.5 million pounds of thrust to be operational in 1963. The total development cost of $850 million during the years 1958-1963 covered 30 research and development flights, some carrying manned and unmanned space payloads. One of six conclusions given in the document was that "Development of the large (1520 K-pounds thrust) booster is considered the key to space exploration and warfare." Later vehicles with greater thrust were also described.


1957 December 10 - . 17:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Ionosphere / fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1957 December 10 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1957 December 10 - . 21:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi).

1957 December 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Polaris FTV-1.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 December 11 - . 00:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A.
  • Jupiter A - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

    Successfully fired at 1936 hours EST from AMR. The missile followed the trajectory very closely and impacted on target. All missions were successfully accomplished. The predicted impact range was 141.895 nm. The miss distance has bean certified as 153 meters radial, 94 meters over, and 121 meters to the left of the predicted impact point. The primary objective of the rest was to flight test Hardtack adaptation kit components as passengers. Missed aimpoint by 209 m.


1957 December 12 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1957 December 13 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike T40 T55.
  • Heat Transfer Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 December 14 - .
  • Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) is created. - . Nation: Russia. Central Committee and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On creation of the Military-Industrial Commission on the basis of the Special Committee of the Council of Ministers and on change of the defence industry system from ministries to State Committees'.

1957 December 16 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. LV Family: Stromboli. Launch Vehicle: SE4400.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: STA. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1957 December 17 - . 17:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

    The third flight test missile (12A) became the first successful Atlas Series A missile flight. A short-range, booster-only flight was completed with the booster impacting 575 miles down range from Cape Canaveral. During the flight, all systems performed satisfactorily. First successful test firing of USAF Atlas ICBM, the missile landing in the target area after a flight of 600 miles.


1957 December 19 - .
  • Birth of Michael Edward Fossum - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fossum. American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-121, STS-124..

1957 December 19 - . 00:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM. FAILURE: Thrust ended abruptly at 116.87 seconds of flight due to turbo-pump malfunction.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF.

    Fired from AMR at 1507 hours EST. The main-stage, lift-off, and powered flight were normal. The missile followed the prescribed trajectory. Thrust ended abruptly at 116.87 seconds of flight which resulted in a short-range impact. Failure was again attributed to turbo-pump malfunction. The long-range mission. was not accomplished; however, other primary and secondary missions were successfully accomplished. The abrupt shutdown of the power plant resulted in a range of approximately 149 nm and an altitude of approximately 50 nm.


1957 December 19 - . 20:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18.
  • Research and development Series II test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi).

    The eighth Thor flight test missile, the fourth success, completed the first fully-guided flight using an all-inertial guidance and control system. A Thor missile, the eighth tested and the fourth successfully, completed the first fully-guided Thor IRBM flight using an all-inertial guidance system.


1957 December 21 - .
  • Implementation of the Dyna-Soar program. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Dynasoar. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. ARDC headquarters issued System Development Directive 464L, directing the implementation of the Dyna-Soar program..

1957 December 23 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Hurricane photo Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 December 24 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • R-2 missiles arrive in China. - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Program: Long March. A Red Army missile battalion with two R-2's and their launchers arrive in Beijing by rail. They are secretly moved to the premises of the Fifth Academy in the middle of the night..

1957 December 30 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • Saturn I first proposed. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo. Von Braun produces 'Proposal for a National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Plan'. First mention of 1,500,000 lbf booster (Saturn I).


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