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1951 Chronology

1951 September - .
  • Die Aussenstation - . Nation: Germany. Spacecraft: Aussenstation.

    At the second annual congress of the International Astronautical Federation in London, H. H. Koelle described 'Die Aussenstation' as part of a paper on 'Der Einfluss der Konstruktiven Gestaltung der Aussenstation auf die Gesamtkosten des Projektes (The Influence of the Layout of the Satellite on the Overall Cost of the Project).' Koelle's paper represented the most realistic appraisal so far of the problems of design and construction of a space station. He dealt with problems of payload limitation, orbital assembly, limitations on the crew in the space environment, and national and economic factors behind space station growth. In Koelle's view, such a station might be used for scientific investigations of Earth's upper atmosphere, weather observation, astrophysical research, and human and chemical research in a zero-gravity environment. Also, such a station might serve as a communications and navigation link with the ground and as a station for launching more distant space missions. He suggested a large circular structure consisting of 36 separate 5-m spheres arranged around a central hub, the whole structure rotating to provide an artificial gravity environment to offset physiological effects of prolonged weightlessness on the crew. One of the unique elements in Koelle's scheme was assembly of various parts of the station launched via separate rockets, with each segment being a complete structure. In this way the station could be made operational before fabrication was completed, and subsequent expansion of the structure could take place whenever desired. Total personnel complement of the station would range from 50 to 65 people. Koelle even estimated the cost of such a project: $518 million for construction and $620 million over an operational lifetime of six months.


1951 - During the year - .
  • The Exploration of Space by Arthur C. Clarke - . Nation: UK.

    Arthur C. Clarke's The Exploration of Space was first published in England in 1951, and became a US Book of the Month Club selection the following year. The book included an alternative to the direct ascent technique: assembling or refueling the space vehicle in earth orbit before injection into translunar trajectory, to be followed, possibly, by rendezvous in lunar orbit with fuel tanker rockets launched from the earth.


1951 During the Year - .
  • Nonweiler Waverider - . Nation: UK. Spacecraft Bus: Waveriders. Spacecraft: Nonweiler Waverider. The Nonweiler Waverider was a caret wing hypersonic waverider concept developed by Professor Terence R.F. Nonweiler, of Queen`s University, Belfast..

1951 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas tracking system. - . Nation: USA. Azusa tracking system reaching advanced stage of development.

1951 January 7 - .
  • Birth of Talgat Amangeldyevich Musabayev - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Related Persons: Musabayev. Kazakh pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-16, Mir EO-25, ISS EP-1. Transferred in 1991 Air Force Special Group. Russian Air Force.

1951 January 8 - .
  • Birth of Taufik Akbar - . Nation: Indonesia. Related Persons: Akbar. Indonesian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986..

1951 January 16 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Project MX-1593 (Project Atlas) begins. - . Nation: USA.

    Air Force established Project MX-1593 (Project Atlas), study phase for an intercontinental missile. Requirements included 8000-pound warhead, 5000 nautical mile range, to hit within 1500 ft. CEP. $1.5 million study contract was awarded to Consolidated-Vultee Aircraft on January 23. This was the follow-on to Project MX-774 terminated in 1947. Several test vehicles had been fired using residual funds in 1948 and 1949, after which the Convair MX-774 (Atlas) missile project had been shelved. The company, however, had continued to fund a research program.


1951 January 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal E.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1951 January 18 - . 20:14 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Solar ultraviolet / x-ray / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, US Army. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi). Launched 13:14 local time. Reached 1.6 km. Carried cosmic and solar radiation experiments for Naval Research Lab..

1951 January 20 - .
  • Birth of Maghomed Omarovich Tolboyev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tolboyev. Avar (Dagestani)-Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1983-1994..

1951 January 22 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-10.
  • Mass spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi). Composition research. Launched at 1555 local time. Reached 88.5 km..

1951 January 25 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-10.
  • Ozone Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Solar radiation research. Launched at 0800 local time. Reached 90.1 km..

1951 January 28 - .
  • Birth of Leonid Konstantinovich Kadenyuk - . Nation: Ukraine. Related Persons: Kadenyuk. Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut, payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-87. Longest wait for a spaceflight after becoming an astronaut - 21 years. Soyuz cosmonaut 1976-1983; Spiral pilot 1983-1987; Buran pilot, 1987-1989, NASA PS, 1996..

1951 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). First launch in winter test series. Carried dogs..

1951 January 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 January 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Last launch in winter test series..

1951 February 6 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-10.
  • Earth photography Imaging mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi). Photography research. Launched at 1020 local time. Reached 98.2 km..

1951 February 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Wasserfall. Launch Vehicle: Hermes A-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 24 km (14 mi).

1951 March 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR FFAR. FAILURE: Failure.
  • F25 Drag Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1951 March 8 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 March 9 - . 03:16 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Blossom IVE Ionosphere/Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army, USAF AFSC. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi). Launched 20:16 local time. Reached 3.1 km. Carried composition, air glow, sky brightness, ionosphere experiments for Air Research and Development Command..

1951 March 15 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Wasserfall. Launch Vehicle: Hermes A-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 24 km (14 mi).

1951 March 19 - .
  • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg sentenced to death for passing atomic secrets to Russians - . Nation: Russia.

1951 March 21 - . LV Family: Groettrup. Launch Vehicle: G-4.
  • First Germans returned to Germany. - . Nation: Russia. First Germans sent back to Germany. Were not used to generate new designs after the G-4.

1951 March 22 - .
  • Birth of Musa Khiramanovich 'Mussachi' Manarov - . Nation: Azerbaijan. Related Persons: Manarov. Lakets-Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-3, Mir EO-8. 541 cumulative days in space. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute with an engineering diploma in 1974 Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Later a Director of Smolsat..

1951 March 22 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal E.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1951 March 23 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Deacon.
  • XF4D-1 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 March 24 - . LV Family: Buran M.
  • Central Committee decree created the OKB-23 Myasishchev design bureau. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Myasishchev. Program: Navaho.

    Myasishchev was tasked with building an intercontinental jet-powered bomber, something veteran aircraft designer Tupolev said was impossible. Myasishchev managed to complete the first prototype 103M (called M-4 Bear in the West) bomber ten months after go-ahead. Myasishchev would later play a key role in Soviet spaceplane development.


1951 March 24 - .
  • Birth of Kenneth Stanley Jr 'Ken' Reightler - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Reightler. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-48, STS-60..

1951 March 28 - . 23:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-A-1.
  • GRD-2 NaCl release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi). Airglow research. Launched at 1614 local time. Reached 68 km..

1951 April 1 - . Launch Site: Vernon. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique P2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: LRBA. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1951 April 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 143 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 62. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 42. Flight for RKO film Jet Pilot. Slight engine fire but no damage..

1951 April 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1951 April 12 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike X201 Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 April 15 - .
  • Birth of John Lynch Phillips - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Phillips. American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-100, ISS EO-11, STS-119..

1951 April 15 - .
  • Birth of Marsha Sue Ivins - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ivins. Jewish-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-32, STS-46, STS-62, STS-81, STS-98. NASA flight engineer..

1951 April 16 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi). First successful sled-launched Snark airframe..

1951 April 17 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi).

1951 April 18 - . 18:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-A-1.
  • Aeromed 1 Biological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi). Biological research. Launched at 1139 local time. Reached 61.2 km. The first Aerobee research rocket containing a biomedical experiment (monkey - name unknown)..

1951 April 20 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 144 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 63. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 43. Pilot familiarization. Reached mach 1.07..

1951 April 21 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Ivanovich Laveykin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Laveykin. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-2..

1951 April 26 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Wasserfall. Launch Vehicle: Hermes A-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 24 km (14 mi).

1951 April 26 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Platform: B-29. LV Family: X-7. Launch Vehicle: X-7A-1.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: ARDC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 April 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 145 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 64. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 44. Plane and instrument check..

1951 May 3 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi).

1951 May 7 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Deacon.
  • E2 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 May 8 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 May 9 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Plant 586 in Dnepropetrovsk to convert to missile production (future NPO Yuzhnoye). - . Nation: Russia. Decree 'On the Transfer of the Dnepropetrovsk Automobile Plant From the Ministry of Automobile and SM Tractor Industry to the Ministry of Armaments--transfer of Dnepropetrovsk Plant No. 586 into the Ministry of Armaments for missile production' was issued.

1951 May 10 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike X201 Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 May 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi).

1951 May 15 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 146 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 65. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 45. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Aileron rolls at mach 0.90..

1951 May 17 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Deacon.
  • X-5 E17 model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 May 20 - .
  • Birth of Thomas Dale 'Tom' Akers - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Akers. American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41, STS-49, STS-61, STS-79..

1951 May 24 - .
  • Chelomei OKB-23 founded. - . Nation: Russia. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On formation of OKB-23 at Fili' was issued..

1951 May 24 - .
  • Birth of Dr Ronald Anthony 'Ron' Parise - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Parise. American astronomer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-35, STS-67..

1951 May 24 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 May 26 - .
  • Birth of Dr Sally Kristen Ride - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ride. American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-7, STS-41-G. Physicist, first American woman in space. Was married to astronaut Steven Alan Hawley..

1951 May 26 - .
  • Birth of Mohammed Ahmed Faris - . Nation: Syria. Related Persons: Faris. Arab-Syrian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EP-1. First Syrian to fly in space. Graduated from Military Pilot School, Aleppo, 1973. Colonel and pilot in the Syrian Air Force. Specialist in navigation. Returned to duty after his mission..

1951 May 29 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1951 June 1 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • R-1 production moved to Dnepropetrovsk - . Nation: Russia.

    Ministry of Armaments Decree 'On starting of series production of the R-1 at Dnepropetrovsk Plant No. 586' was issued. Factory 66 at Zlatoust was originally selected to produce the R-1 in 1949, with SKB-385 to assume production design responsibility and to develop variations of the R-1 with greater range. But the work dragged on without results, and on 1 June 1951 Beria switched R-1 production to Factory 586 at Dnepropetrovsk. He ordered engine production to begin in two months.


1951 June - . Launch Vehicle: Navaho.
  • LR43 run at 430 kN thrust - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

    In preparation for development of the 540 kN LR71, the LR43 engine is run for six seconds at 430 kN thrust, compared to its 333 kN rated thrust. Preliminary design of the LR71's new lightweight tubular combustion chamber was begun. These brazed tubes would carry fuel to cool the chamber more evenly than the simpler double-walled German design of the LR43.


1951 June - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho X-10.
  • USAF inspects X-10 mockup. - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho. The highly classified Mach-3 design, with cropped delta wing and canards, was far in advance of contemporary manned aircraft..

1951 June 1 - .
  • Delta wing confirmed in rocket tests. - . Nation: USA. NACA Langley's Pilotless Aircraft Research Division demonstrated low drag of thin delta wing (which led to F-102, F-106, B-58) with rocket-powered model flights..

1951 June 7 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1951 June 8 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee XASR-SC-1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Probe Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 6.00 km (3.70 mi). Temperature, winds research. Launched at 1818 local time. Reached 6.4 km..

1951 June 9 - . 06:11 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee XASR-SC-1.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1951 June 11 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • D-558 test flight. - . Crew: Bridgeman. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bridgeman. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: D-558-1. Spacecraft: D-558-2. Navy D-558-II Douglas Sky-rocket, flown by test pilot William Bridgeman, set a new unofficial airplane speed and altitude record at Edwards AFB, Muroc Dry Lake, Calif.; speed estimated at more than 1,200 mph; altitude estimated 70,000 feet..

1951 June 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). First launch in quality assurance test series of operational missiles..

1951 June 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 14 - . 13:48 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Solar ultraviolet / x-ray / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, US Army. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Carried solar and cosmic radiation experiments for Naval Research Lab..

1951 June 15 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike X201 Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 June 16 - .
  • Birth of Michel Yves Viso - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Viso. French biologist payload specialist astronaut, cosmonaut, 1985-1998. Doctorate of veterinary medicine from " l'Ecole Veterinaire de Maison-Alfort ", 1975. Worked for CNES in Paris, in coordination of spaceflight activities..

1951 June 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 22 - . Launch Vehicle: Loki.
  • Nation: USA. JPL fired first of a series of 3,544 Loki solid-propellant antiaircraft missiles at WSPG, the Army program ending after September 1955. Loki rocket was later used in ONR Rockoon upper atmosphere balloon-launched rocket research soundings..

1951 June 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 26 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 June 27 - .
  • Birth of Sidney McNeill 'Sid' Gutierrez - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gutierrez. Hispanic-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-40, STS-59. Some data removed at subject's request..

1951 June 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Last launch in quality assurance test series of operational missiles..

1951 June 28 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Blossom IVF Solar/Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army, USAF AFSC. Apogee: 6.00 km (3.70 mi). Launched 14:43 local time. Reached 5.8 km. Carried solar radiation, air glow, sky brightness experiments for Air Research and Development Command..

1951 June 29 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: MGR-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 June 30 - .
  • Birth of Stephen Scott Oswald - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Oswald. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-42, STS-56, STS-67..

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1951 July 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). First launch in second test series..

1951 July 3 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi).

1951 July 9 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D27 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1951 July 10 - . Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Hermes work transferred to Redstone arsenal. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. The Office, Chief of Ordnance formally transferred the responsibility for conducting the research and development phase of the HERMES Cl project to Redstone Arsenal.

1951 July 12 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 147 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 66. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 46. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Aileron rolls at mach 1.07..

1951 July 12 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal E.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1951 July 14 - .
  • Birth of Esther Dyson - . Nation: Switzerland, USA. Related Persons: Dyson. American cosmonaut, 2008-2009. Internet entrepreneur, daughter of physicist and space visionary Freeman Dyson. Internet entrepreneur who paid $ 3 million to train as back-up to Charles Simonyi as a space tourist aboard Soyuz TMA-14..

1951 July 14 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike X201 Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 July 17 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 July 18 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Double Deacon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • X-2 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1951 July 20 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 148 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 67. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 47. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Abrupt rudder fixed aileron rolls left and right, from mach 0.70 to mach 0.88..

1951 July 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1951 July 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1V.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). First Soviet rocket flight with animals (dogs Dezik and Zhegan). Maximum Altitude - 100 km. Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed..

1951 July 24 - .
  • X-1D Flight 1 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1D flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1D. Bell flight 1. Glide flight for familiarization. Nose landing gear broken on landing. Following repairs, plane turned over to the Air Force..

1951 July 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: MGR-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 July 26 - .
  • Birth of William Surles Jr 'Bill' McArthur - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McArthur. American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-58, STS-74, STS-92, ISS EO-12. US Army.

1951 July 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Thirteenth and last launch of the second series. 12 of the 13 reached their targets..

1951 July 27 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • Hermes A3A model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1951 July 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1B.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Electrical failure. No payload recovery. Carried dogs..

1951 July 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 149 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 68. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 48. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness..

1951 August - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas XB-65 configuration. - . Nation: USA. MX-1593 named "Project Atlas" as XB-65; 120 feet long, 12-foot diameter, 7 engines, 8000-pound warhead, CEP 1 nautical mile.

1951 August - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas to be accelerated. - . Nation: USA. AF Gen. John Sessums proposes Atlas acceleration.

1951 August 1 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: MGR-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 August 2 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Deacon.
  • Boojum model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 August 3 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 150 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 69. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 49. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness..

1951 August 3 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Aleksandrovich Yemelyanov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Yemelyanov. Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1984-1992. Graduated from MAI, 1974 Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Cosmonaut training November 1985 - October 1986. Left cosmonaut cadre for medical reasons. Manager for AO TPK "Prodmarket"..

1951 August 3 - .
  • Birth of Hans Wilhelm Schlegel - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Schlegel. German physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-55, STS-122..

1951 August 7 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Pad: ALA1. Launch Vehicle: Viking sounding rocket.
  • Viking 7 Ionosphere-solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi).

    Upper-air pressure, density; solar and cosmic radiation research. Launched at 1100 local time. Reached 219 km. A Navy Viking 7 rocket set an altitude record for single-stage rockets and reaching a speed of 6,600 kph. This was the highest flight of the original airframe design.


1951 August 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 151 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 70. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 50. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Elevator and stabilizer pull-ups..

1951 August 8 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 August 10 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 152 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 71. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 51. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Elevator and stabilizer pull-ups, clean stalls..

1951 August 12 - .
  • Birth of Charles Eldon Jr Brady - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brady. American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-78..

1951 August 15 - .
  • First flight of the 346-3 rocketplane. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: 346. Ziese resumed flight with the final version of the 346, the 346-3..

1951 August 15 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • D-558 reaches record altitude. - . Crew: Bridgeman. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bridgeman. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: D-558-1. Spacecraft: D-558-2. William Bridgeman flew the D-558-II Skyrocket to 79,494 feet, highest altitude attained by a human being to date..

1951 August 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1B.
  • Test / solar ultraviolet / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed. Carried dogs..

1951 August 17 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Deacon.
  • E15 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 August 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1V.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container functioned. Carried dogs..

1951 August 20 - .
  • Birth of Svetlana Oktyabrevna Omelchenko - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Omelchenko. Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992..

1951 August 21 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 August 22 - .
  • X-1D Flight 2 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-1D flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1D. AF flight 1. Launch aborted, but X-1D suffered low-order explosion during pressurization for fuel jettison. Plane jettisoned from B-50. X-1D exploded on impact with desert. Everest managed to get into B-50 bomb bay before drop..

1951 August 22 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D32 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1951 August 22 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi).

    TF-1 was the first V-2 launched by an all US Army team that was taking over from the General Electric crew as GE's contract to assemble, test and launch the missiles was coming to a close. It was the 'Final Exam' for this new team to prove were capable of handling the program from then on. Since no experiments were to be on board it was decided to shoot for an altitude record, and various modifications were made to this end. TF-1 was launched 12:00 local time. and reached 213.9 km.


1951 August 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 153 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 72. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 52. Pilot familiarization. Reached mach 1.16 at 13420 m during four-cylinder run..

1951 August 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1B.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Smoke container functioned; Instruments recovered..

1951 August 30 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island.
  • PARD test. - . Nation: USA. First successful launching of NACA Langley's PARD of an underslung or "piggyback" rocket booster system, at Wallops Island, Va..

1951 August 30 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 August 31 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. Launch Vehicle: Matador.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1951 September 1 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas project to concentrate on ballistic missile. - . Nation: USA. MX-1593 glide missile cancelled. USAF directed all work in Project MX-1593 (Atlas) be for development of a rocket-powered ballistic missile..

1951 September - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho X-10.
  • X-10 detailed design drawings released to the shop - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

1951 September 2 - .
  • Second flight of the 346-3 rocketplane. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: 346. Ziese was at the controls again..

1951 September 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1B.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed. Carried dogs..

1951 September 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 154 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 73. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 53. Fuselage pressure distribution survey. Number 1 cylinder failed to fire. Stabilizer pull-ups at mach 1.07..

1951 September 6 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. Launch Vehicle: Matador. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1951 September 8 - .
  • Birth of Randy Thomas Odle - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Odle. American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1986..

1951 September 12 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • E2 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1951 September 13 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1951 September 14 - .
  • Final flight of the 346-3 rocketplane. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: 346. The aircraft went out of control and Ziese bailed out of the aircraft. The destruction of this rocketplane resulted in further tests being abandoned..

1951 September - .
  • Second International Congress on Astronautics - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Apollo Spacecraft Systems Development Diaries. Spacecraft: LM Source Selection.

    The uses of rendezvous techniques in space were discussed in a paper read to the Second International Congress on Astronautics in London, England. The problems involved in refueling in space might be simplified considerably if astronauts could maneuver freely, perhaps using a gas-jet pistol and a lifeline. The construction of a space station might then be possible. Mechanical linkage of objects in space was described as the most difficult task of all. While computing the position of an object in orbit might be comparatively easy, linking up with the object without damage by impact would require human intelligence to anticipate error in the attitude of approach.


1951 September 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi).

1951 September 20 - . 16:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-A-1.
  • Aeromed 2 Biological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

    Biological research. Launched at 0931 local time. Reached 70.8 km. USAF made first successful recovery of animals from a rocket flight when an instrumented monkey (Yorick aka Albert VI) and 11 mice survived an Aerobee flight to an altitude of 70.8 km from Holloman AFB.


1951 September 25 - . Launch Vehicle: Eole.
  • Eole successful engine test - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. The liquid oxygen/alcohol engine produces 9.59 tonnes thrust and an exhaust velocity of 2110 m/s..

1951 September 25 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 September 27 - . 00:06 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee XASR-SC-1.
  • Sampling Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi). Composition research. Launched at 1706 local time. Reached 68.9 km..

1951 October 2 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 October 2 - . Launch Site: Camp de Suippes. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: LRBA. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1951 October 3 - .
  • Birth of Dr Kathryn Dwyer 'Kathy' Sullivan - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Sullivan. American geologist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G, STS-31, STS-45. Geologist, first American woman to walk in space. As of 1999 Ms Sullivan was Director of the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, Ohio..

1951 October 4 - . Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Russian satellite predicted. - . Nation: USA. M. K. Tikhonravov in New York Times said U.S.S.R. science made feasible space flight and creation of artificial earth satellite; reported U.S.S.R. rocket advance equaled or exceeded West..

1951 October 4 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1951 October 5 - . Launch Site: Camp de Suippes. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: LRBA. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi).

1951 October 6 - . Launch Site: Camp de Suippes. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: LRBA. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi).

1951 October 10 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal E. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). First flight with configuration representative of that used for the production tactical missile..

1951 October 12 - .
  • First Symposium on Space Flight at the Hayden Planetarium in New York City. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ley, von Braun. Spacecraft: Von Braun Station. The Von Braun rocket, space station, and lunar lander designs presented were popularised in the series in Colliers magazine, illustrated with gorgeous Chesley Bonestell paintings, in 1953..

1951 October 16 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 October 17 - . 18:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-A-1a.
  • Ionosphere Propagation Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi). lonosphere research. Launched at 1117 local time. Reached 114..3 km..

1951 October 20 - . Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • MOP decree authorised work to start on the R-5 and R-11. - . Nation: Russia.

    The R-3 3000 km range missile and R-3A subscale technology demonstrator were cancelled. As a replacement work was to start on the R-5 and R-11. The missiles originated as Theme N-2 of the R-3 project. This was an alternate approach to delivering nuclear warheads on West European targets - road-mobile or sub-launched missiles of shorter range with lighter warheads that could be launched from forward areas and reach enemy targets.


1951 October 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 155 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 74. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 54. Engine cut out after two ignition attempts; propellants jettisoned and flight completed as glide flight. Plane subsequently grounded because of possibility of fatigue failure of nitrogen spheres..

1951 October 24 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 October 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. Launch Vehicle: Matador.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1951 October 29 - . 21:04 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Probe Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi). Launched 14:04 local time. Reached 141.3 km. Carried pressure, temperature experiments for Signal Corps Engineering Lab, University of Michigan..

1951 October 31 - . Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Hermes project transferred to Redstone Arsenal. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Responsibility for Hermes II transferred to Army Ordnance Guided Missile Center at Redstone Arsenal; Hermes II redesignated the RVA-A-3 test vehicle..

1951 November - .
  • First symposium on space medicine - . Nation: USA. The first symposium on space medicine was held under U.S. Air Force and Lovelace Foundation sponsorship at Randolph Air Force Base, San Antonio, Tex..

Late 1951/early 1952 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Reports of large Russian rocket engines - . Nation: USA.

1951 Nov - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Platform: B-29. LV Family: X-7. Launch Vehicle: X-7A-1.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: ARDC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 November 1 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee XASR-SC-1.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi). Temperature, winds research. Launched at 0245 local time. Reached 66 km..

1951 November 3 - . 00:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee XASR-SC-1.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi). Temperature, winds research. Launched at 1735 local time. Reached 82.4 km..

1951 November 8 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island.
  • Helium gun catapult. - . Nation: USA. First successful launching of a research model propelled by the helium gun catapult, by Langley's PARD at Wallops Island..

1951 November 9 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • XS-1 No. 3 destroyed in ground explosion. - . Crew: Cannon. Payload: XS-1 # 3 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cannon. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Planned captive flight with B-50 for propellant jettison test. XS-1 (No. 3) rocket research airplane and its B-29 "mother" airplane were destroyed on the ground by postflight explosion and fire. Pilot Cannon was injured..

1951 November 13 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: MGR-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 November 14 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: MGR-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 November 15 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 November 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike X201 Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 November 18 - .
  • Birth of Mark Neil Brown - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown, Mark. American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-28, STS-48..

1951 November 27 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • R-2 accepted for military service. - . Nation: Russia. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 4972-2096 'On adoption of the R-2 into armaments' was issued..

1951 November 28 - .
  • Birth of Barbara Radding 'Barby' Morgan - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Morgan. American teacher mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-118. Teacher..

1951 November 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: MGR-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 November 29 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 November 30 - .
  • R-5, R-11 draft projects completed. - . Nation: Russia. Due to the extensive work already done under the Theme N-2, the 6 volume R-5 and 8 volume R-11 draft projects were delivered in record time..

1951 November 30 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • R-2 production authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Ministry of Armaments Decree 'On starting of series production of the R-2 at Dnepropetrovsk Plant No. 586' was issued. The first launch by a military unit was made with a prototype rocket in 1952..

1951 December - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho G-26.
  • G-26 booster preliminary design review. - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

1951 December - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho G-38.
  • Navaho warhead changed - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho. The missile is to carry the 100-kt W-13 device instead of the 20-kt W-4..

1951 December 1 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Panayotov 'Sasha' Aleksandrov - . Nation: Bulgaria. Related Persons: Aleksandrov, Aleksandr. Bulgarian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EP-2. Graduated from Air Force Academy, 1974. Candidate of technical sciences degree, 1983. Lieutenant Colonel, Bulgarian Air Force..

1951 December 4 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike X201 Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 December 6 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Corporal.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1951 December 7 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. Launch Vehicle: Matador.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1951 December 11 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike X201 Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 December 12 - .
  • Birth of Dr Steven Alan Hawley - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hawley. American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-61-C, STS-31, STS-82, STS-93. Was married to astronaut Sally Ride..

1951 December 13 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. Launch Vehicle: Matador.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1951 December 14 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 December 17 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: MGR-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 December 18 - .
  • Birth of Dr Andrew Sydney Withiel Thomas - . Nation: Australia, USA. Related Persons: Thomas, Andrew. Australian-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-77, Mir NASA-6, STS-102, STS-114..

1951 December 18 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike X201 Ajax.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 December 19 - .
  • Birth of Dr Fred Weldon Leslie - . Nation: Panama, USA. Related Persons: Leslie. American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-73..

1951 December 19 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Double Deacon.
  • Falcon Missile test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).


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