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1948 Chronology

1948 January - . Launch Vehicle: Atlas.
  • Second MX-774 static firing - . Nation: USA. Successful, at Point Loma..

1948 January - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho SSM-A-2.
  • MX-770 redesignated XSSM-A-2 - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

    The design had reached 100% drawing release. It consisted of an integrated rocket booster, two ramjets for cruise, and XN-1 inertial navigation with a final dive on the target. But the inertial navigator drifted 1.6 km in accuracy for each hour of flight, which meant the missile could not meet the USAF 800 m CEP requirement.


1948 January 2 - .
  • Birth of Stefano Santonico - . Nation: Italy. Related Persons: Santonico. Italian engineer cosmonaut, 1990-1993..

1948 January 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 61 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 3. Turns and pull-ups to buffet. Mach 0.74..

1948 January 6 - .
  • Birth of Guy Spencer Gardner - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gardner, Guy. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-27, STS-35..

1948 January 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 62 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 4. Turns and pull-ups to buffet. Mach 0.83..

1948 January 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 63 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 5. Pilot familiarization..

1948 January 12 - .
  • Test vehicles reach 1,019 mph. - . Nation: USA. Northrop Aircraft Co. announced that rocket-powered test vehicles at Muroc Air Base, Calif., had attained a speed of 1,019 mph..

1948 January 15 - .
  • USAF policy for development of earth satellites 'at the proper time'. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Vandenberg, Hoyt. General Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Vice Chief of Staff, United States Air Force, approved a policy calling for the development of earth satellites at the proper time..

1948 January 15 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 64 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 6. Turns and pull-ups to buffet. Sideslips. Mach 0.76..

1948 January 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 65 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 39. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 17. Airspeed calibration. Mach 0.9..

1948 January 16 - .
  • Birth of Anatoliy Yakovlevich Solovyov - . Nation: Latvia, Russia. Related Persons: Solovyov. Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EP-2, Mir EO-6, Mir EO-12, Mir EO-19, Mir EO-24. Record number of spacewalks and time spent on space walks. 651 cumulative days in space..

1948 January 20 - .
  • Birth of Jerry Lynn Ross - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross. American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B, STS-27, STS-37, STS-55, STS-74, STS-88, STS-110. Held world record of seven spaceflights. US record of nine spacewalks..

1948 January 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 66 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 7. Stabilizer effectiveness investigation. Mach 0.82 at 8845 m..

1948 January 22 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 67 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 40. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 18. Pressure distribution survey. Mach 1.2..

1948 January 22 - . 20:12 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Chemical release / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, US Army. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi). Launched 13:12 local time. Reached 159.7 km. Carried cosmic radiation, pressure, temperature, ionosphere experiments for Naval Research Lab..

1948 January 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 68 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 8. Attempted high-speed run aborted at mach 0.83, drop in chamber pressure..

1948 January 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 69 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 29. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 9. High-speed run to mach 0.925 at 11590 m. Cylinders 2 and 3 failed to fire..

1948 January 29 - .
  • Birth of Mamoru Mohri - . Nation: Japan. Related Persons: Mohri. Japanese chemist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-47, STS-99. NASDA; Spacelab-J specialist..

1948 January 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 70 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 41. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 19. Pressure distribution survey. Mach 1.1..

1948 February 4 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • D-558-II first flight. - . Crew: Martin, John F. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Martin, John F. First flight of reseach airplane Douglas D-558-II (No. 1), John Martin of Douglas as pilot. Airplane had both jet and rocket engines and was flown from ground takeoff..

1948 February 6 - . 17:17 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: GE. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi). Launched 10:15 local time. Reached 111.3 km. Carried No upper atmosphere experiments. Technology flight for General Electric. Successful electronic flight control demonstrated by General Electric technicians for Army Ordnance..

1948 February 16 - .
  • Gerard Kuiper's Discovery of Uranus Moon Miranda - . Nation: USA.

1948 February 19 - .
  • Birth of Dr Byron Kurt Lichtenberg - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lichtenberg. American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-45..

1948 February 24 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 71 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 42. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1.

    AF flight 20. Engine fire after launch forced jettisoning of propellants, completed as a glide flight. However Fitz-Gerald reached 12.1 km and reached Mach 1.10 before the engine was shut off, in the process becoming the second person to break the sound barrier.


1948 February 25 - . Launch Vehicle: Navaho.
  • USAF wishes to concentrate on longer-range Navaho. - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

    The Navaho was redefined by the customer in a revised three-phase program using a rocket booster and ramjet cruise. Track, air, and vertical pad launch were to be studied. The first phase would produce a missile with a range of 1600 km while carrying a 1350 kg warhead. Phase two would produce a missile that could carry a 1350 kg warhead to a 3200 to 4800 km range. Phase 3 would be the intercontinental version, carrying a 4500 kg nuclear warhead to an 8000 km range.


1948 March 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 72 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 30. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 10. High-speed run to mach 0.943 at 12200 m..

1948 March 5 - . 22:51 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8.
  • Particles Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi). Cosmic radiation research. Launched at 1020 local time. Reached 117.5 km..

1948 March 10 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 73 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 31. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 11. First NACA supersonic flight. First civilian supersonic flight. Mach 1.065. Nosewheel failed to extend for landing. Minor damage..

1948 March 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 74 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 43. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 21. Attained mach 1.25 in dive..

1948 March 11 - .
  • Disagreement within US military on rocket roles - . Nation: USA. Key West Agreement formulated by military service chiefs which delineated respective service roles and missions. It did not clearly assign military aeronautical and rocket research and development responsibilities to the services..

1948 March 18 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 project winding down. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. V-2 Upper Atmosphere Research Panel, representing all U.S. interested agencies, was renamed the Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel..

1948 March 19 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Blossom IIA Aeronomy / fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: GE, US Army. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi). Launched 16:10 local time. Reached 5.5 km. Carried Magnetic field, composition, winds, temperature (Signal Corps Engineering Lab, University of Michigan) experiments for General Electric..

1948 March 22 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 75 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 32. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 12. Stability and loads investigation. Mach 1.12..

1948 March 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 76 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 44. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 22. Attained mach 1.45 at 12239 m during dive. Fastest flight ever made in original XS-1 aircraft..

1948 March 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 77 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 33. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 13. Stability and loads investigation. Mach 0.90..

1948 March 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 78 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 34. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 14. Stability and loads investigation. Plane attained mach 1.1..

1948 March 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 79 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 45. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 23. Engine shutdown after launch. Propellants jettisoned, completed as glide flight..

1948 April 2 - . 13:47 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • UM-1 Aeronomy / ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: UM, US Army. Apogee: 144 km (89 mi). Launched 06:40 local time. Reached 144.4 km. Carried Density, pressure, temperature, composition, cosmic and solar radiation (Naval Research Lab) experiments for Signal Corps Engineering Lab, University of Michigan..

1948 April 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 80 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 35. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 15. Engine failed to ignite. Propellants jettisoned, completed as glide flight..

1948 April 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 81 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 46. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 24. Pilot-check flight. Mach 1.1, during 4-cylinder run at 12505 m..

1948 April 7 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 82 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 47. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 25. Glide flight only..

1948 April 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 83 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 48. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 26. Familiarization flight..

1948 April 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 84 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 36. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 16. Stability and loads investigation. Mach 0.89..

1948 April 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 85 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 49. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 27. Powered pilot-check flight..

1948 April 13 - . 21:41 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8.
  • B field Magnetosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi). Magnetic field research. Launched at 1551 local time. Reached 114.3 km..

1948 April 14 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Decree for production of R-1 and R-2 missiles, design of R-3. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Glushko.

    Decree 'On work on the R-1 and R-2 missiles' was issued. To accomplish putting the R-1 into production the resources of 13 research institutes and 35 factories were tapped. Glushko was tasked with producing the RD-100 copy of the V-2 engine. R-1 stand tests began the same day the decree was issued (Prototypes had already begun factory tests at the end of 1947). The decree also set forth design goals for the R-3.The specification was an order of magnitude leap from the other vehicles - to deliver a 3 tonne atomic bomb to any point in Europe from Soviet territory - a required range of 3000 km.


1948 April 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 87 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 50. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 28. Pressure distribution survey. Only cylinders 2 and 4 ignited..

1948 April 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 86 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 37. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 17. Stability and loads investigation. Plane's nosewheel collapsed on landing. Moderate damage..

1948 April 19 - . 19:54 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Solar ultraviolet / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, US Army. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi). Launched 12:54 local time. Reached 56.1 km. Carried cosmic and solar radiation, pressure, temperature experiments for Naval Research Lab..

1948 April 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 88 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 51. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 29. Aborted because of inconsistent rocket operation. Reached mach 0.9..

1948 April 27 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Volkov - . Nation: Ukraine. Related Persons: Volkov, Aleksandr. Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-4-2, Mir EO-4, Mir EO-10. Father of cosmonaut Sergei Volkov. 391 cumulative days in space..

1948 April 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 89 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 52. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 30. Pressure distribution survey. Attained mach 1.18..

1948 May - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho SSM-A-2.
  • XSSM-A-2 stellar-inertial navigation - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho. Preliminary design review of North American's XN-2 navigation platform, which coupled the XN-1 inertial system with a star tracker to ensure continued accuracy even in long flights..

1948 May 3 - .
  • Death of Howard Clifton 'Tick' Lilly - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. American test pilot. Flew the XS-1; died in a crash of the D-558-1..

1948 May 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 90 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 53. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 31. Pressure distribution survey. Mach 1.15..

1948 May 6 - . Launch Vehicle: Atlas.
  • MX-774 static firing tests at Pt Loma completed. - . Nation: USA.

1948 May 13 - . 13:43 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: Bumper-WAC.
  • Test / solar / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi). First two-stage Bumper-Wac fired. Short duration Wac Corporal test; round successful. V-2 reached 112.4 km, 1220 m/s; Wac Corporal 127.6 km, 1345 m/s..

1948 May 19 - .
  • Birth of Jean-Pierre Haignere - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Haignere. French test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir Altair, Mir EO-27. Was married to astronaut Claudie Andre-Deshays..

1948 May 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 91 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 54. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 32. Stability and control and buffeting investigation. Mach 0.92..

1948 May 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 92 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 55. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 33. Buffet investigation, wing and tail loads. Mach 1.08..

1948 May 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 93 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 56. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 34. Buffet investigation, wing and tail loads. Mach 1.05..

1948 May 26 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman NATIV. LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: NATIV. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Nativ first attempted launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

    First launch attempt of MX-770 technology demonstrator. Seven rockets were built in total. There is very inconsistent information on the flight series. One source speaks of six launches, another of four, and a third of three. It seems that there were six launch attempts, three of which never made it very far off the pad, two made it some distance aloft, and only one was considered somewhat successful (reaching Mach 2.23 and an altitude of 18 km).


1948 May 27 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Solar ultraviolet / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL, US Army. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi). Launched 07:16 local time. Reached 140 km. Carried cosmic and solar radiation, photo, composition (Signal Corps Engineering Lab, University of Michigan) experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University..

1948 June - . Launch Vehicle: Atlas.
  • First MX-774 arrives at White Sands Proving Ground - . Nation: USA.

1948 June - . Launch Vehicle: Navaho.
  • Advanced Navaho concept - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

    North American began study of an advanced version of the Navaho, which would use a separate, jettisonable rocket booster. This would allow the cruise stage to be ignited at near-cruise velocity, and to be filled with only ramjet fuel, which would vastly extend the range. In this same month design of the XN-1 inertial navigator is completed.


1948 June 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR FFAR.
  • Rascal Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1948 June 3 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 94 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 57. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 35. Left main gear door opened in flight. Nosewheel collapsed on landing..

1948 June 11 - .
  • Zagorsk rocket engine test site authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 2018-791 'On construction of a test site to ground-test rocket engines.' was issued..

1948 June 11 - . 10:22 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Blossom III Biological/Ionosphere/Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army, USAF AFSC. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

    Launched 03:22 local time. Reached 62.4 km. Carried pressure, temperature, composition, ionosphere, sky brightness, solar radiation experiments for Air Research and Development Command. Also carried Albert, the first American primate in space, who died of suffocation.


1948 June 15 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 June 17 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-480.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 June 19 - .
  • Birth of Ronald Dean Townsend - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Townsend. American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986..

1948 June 20 - .
  • Birth of Gary Eugene Payton - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Payton. American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut. Flew on STS-51-C..

1948 June 24 - .
  • Berlin blockade begins - . Nation: Germany.

1948 June 28 - .
  • Stalin and Tito break - . Nation: Russia.

1948 June 29 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-480.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 July - . Launch Vehicle: Navaho.
  • North American Aerophysics Laboratory moved to Downey. - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

    Together with the company's Electromechanical Division, the expanding group was moved into an ex-Consolidated Vultee bomber factory east of Los Angeles. It was here that the Navaho, and later Hound Dog missiles, the Apollo command module, and the Space Shuttle would be built.


1948 July 1 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 July 7 - .
  • Zagorsk rocket engine test site founded. - . Nation: Russia. Decree 256 'On establishment of NII Branch No 7 to ground test rocket engines' was issued..

1948 July 8 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR FFAR.
  • Rascal Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1948 July 13 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-480.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 July 14 - .
  • Samolyot 5 rocketplane first flight. - . Crew: Pakhomov. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Pakhomov. Spacecraft Bus: Russian Rocket Fighters. Spacecraft: Samolyot 5. The first 5-1 aircraft, controlled on its first glide flight by A K Pakhomov, was dropped from a Pe-8 bomber..

1948 July 14 - . 01:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: MX-774. Launch Vehicle: RTV-A-2. FAILURE: Cutoff after half of the propellants were used.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • MX-774 Flight 1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). First Convair MX-774 (RTV-A-2) test rocket was successfully launched, first demonstrating use of gimballed engines and design features later incorporated in the Atlas ICBM. This was the first of three Convair-sponsored test flights..

1948 July 15 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 July 17 - .
  • Birth of Louis William Butterworth - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Butterworth. American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1986..

1948 July 26 - . 16:47 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8.
  • Earth imaging mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

    Photography research. Launched at 1441 local time. Reached 112.7 km. Two separate rockets fired from White Sands, one a V-2 which reached an altitude of 87 km, the other a Navy Aerobee which reached an altitude of 112.7 km, carried cameras which photographed the curvature of the earth.


1948 July 26 - . 18:03 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Chemical release / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL, US Army. Apogee: 97 km (60 mi).

    Launched 11:03 local time. Reached 87.1 km. Carried cosmic radiation, photo, pressure, temperature experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University. Fired from White Sands simultaneous with a Navy Aerobee which reached an altitude of 110 km. Both carried cameras which photographed the curvature of the earth.


1948 July 29 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 July 30 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 August - .
  • Spaatz calls for American ICBM. - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho. General Spaatz (Tooey Spaatz) calls for US development of missile with 10,200 km range.

1948 August 5 - . 12:07 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Ultraviolet Spectra / Solar X Test / solar ultraviolet / x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, US Army. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi). Launched 05:07 local time. Reached 166.1 km. Carried cosmic and solar radiation, temperature, pressure, ionosphere, photo experiments for Naval Research Lab..

1948 August 6 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8.
  • Aerobee Venus 1 Aeronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi). Solar radiation, pressure, temperature research. Launched at 1837 local time. Reached 96.6 km..

1948 August 8 - .
  • Birth of Svetlana Yevgenyevna Savitskaya - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Savitskaya. Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EP-2, Salyut 7 EP-4. Test pilot, engineer, second woman in space. First woman to walk in space..

1948 August 10 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-482.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 August 15 - .
  • Independent Republic of Korea is proclaimed, following election supervised by UN - . Nation: USA.

1948 August 17 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 August 19 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: Bumper-WAC. FAILURE: First stage failure..
  • Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 13 km (8 mi). First stage failure. V-2 reached 13.4 km, 380 m/s; WAC 13.1 km, 380 m/s..

1948 August 20 - .
  • Birth of Grant Clifford Aufderhaar - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aufderhaar. American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986..

1948 August 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-482.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 August 29 - .
  • Birth of Charles David Walker - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker. American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-51-D, STS-61-B..

1948 September 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR FFAR.
  • Rascal Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1948 September 2 - .
  • Birth of Sharon Christa Corrigan McAuliffe - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McAuliffe. American teacher payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-L. Was to have been the first teacher in space. Died in Challenger accident..

1948 September 3 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • UM-2 Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: UM, US Army. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi). Launched 18:00 local time. Reached 151 km. Carried Density, pressure, temperature, composition experiments for Signal Corps Engineering Lab, University of Michigan..

1948 September 5 - .
1948 September 9 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 September 10 - .
  • Birth of Charles 'Karoly' Simonyi - . Nation: Hungary, USA. Related Persons: Simonyi. Hungarian-American computer scientist, space tourist cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EP-12, ISS EP-16. Inventor of the Macintosh/Windows visual interface..

1948 September 14 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 September 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Hermes project extended to cover satellite launch. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun.

    Committee on Guided Missiles of the Research and Development Board approved recommendation that Army Hermes project "be given the task of providing the National Military Establishment with a continuing analysis of the long-range rocket problem as an expansion of their task on an earth satellite vehicle."


1948 September 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1. FAILURE: Veered 51 degrees from flight path..
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). First of 9 rockets of first test series. Veered 51 degrees from flight path..

1948 September 21 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 September 24 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Deacon.
  • Convair XF-92 model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 September 26 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir 'Volodya' Remek - . Nation: Czech Republic. Related Persons: Remek. Czech pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EP-2. First Czech astronaut..

1948 September 27 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: MX-774. Launch Vehicle: RTV-A-2. FAILURE: Cutoff at 16 km altitude.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • MX-774 Flight 2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 47 km (29 mi). Second Corvair MX-774 test rocket fired. Shut down at 15 km; reached 65 km before malfunction of unknown origin caused self-destruction..

1948 September 30 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: Bumper-WAC. FAILURE: Failure in the second stage, explosion prior to separation..
  • Test / solar ultraviolet / x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). V-2 reached 150.6 km, 1410 m/s; WAC destroyed..

1948 October 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • E14 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1948 October 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Range achieved 300 km. Successful flight..

1948 October 11 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • R-1 flight. - . Nation: Russia. First R-1 flight with scientific experiments..

1948 October 13 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island.
  • First flying wind tunnel test. - . Nation: USA. First launching of a rocket-propelled "flying wind tunnel" model by NACA Langley's PARD at Wallops Island, to measure roll damping of wings at transonic speeds..

1948 October 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1948 October 15 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Sergeyevich Puchkov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Puchkov. Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1996..

1948 October 15 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman NATIV. LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: NATIV.
  • Nativ Launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 15 km (9 mi). On the most successful Nativ launch, the missile reached Mach 2.23 and an altitude of 18 km..

1948 October 19 - .
  • First views of earth from near-orbital height. - . Nation: USA. Photographs of the earth's surface taken from altitudes between 60 and 70 miles by cameras installed in rockets, were released by the Navy..

1948 October 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1948 October 22 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 October 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1948 October 28 - .
  • Birth of Valeri Vasiliyevich Baberdin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Baberdin. Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992..

1948 November 1 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 95 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 38. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 18. Stability and control. Mach 0.9. Number 4 cylinder failed to fire..

1948 November 1 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman NATIV. LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: NATIV. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Final Nativ launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1948 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1948 November 1 - . 14:24 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: Bumper-WAC. FAILURE: Failure in first stage due to break in alcohol piping..
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi). V-2 reached 5 km, 390 m/s; WAC destroyed..

1948 November 2 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8.
  • CR / Solar Particles / solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi). Cosmic radiation, solar radiation research. Launched at 0947 local time. Reached 91 km..

1948 November 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1948 November 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1948 November 5 - .
  • Birth of Robert Joseph Jr Cenker - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cenker. American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-C..

1948 November 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Ninth and last launch of first R-1 test series..

1948 November 8 - .
  • Birth of Dale Allan Gardner - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gardner. American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-8, STS-51-A..

1948 November 9 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 November 12 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-481.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1948 November 13 - .
  • British Interplanetary Society manned lunar landing mission - . Nation: UK. Spacecraft: BIS Lunar Lander.

    A paper read to the British Interplanetary Society by H. E. Ross described a manned lunar landing mission which would require a combination of the earth orbit and lunar orbit rendezvous techniques. Three spacecraft would be launched simultaneously into earth orbit, each carrying a pilot. After rendezvous, the crew would transfer to ship A, which would refuel from ships B and C. Ship C would be discarded completely, but ship B would be fueled with the surplus not needed by A. The spacecraft would then be fired into a translunar trajectory. Upon reaching the vicinity of the moon, the spacecraft would go into lunar orbit, detach fuel tanks, and descend to the lunar surface. To return to earth, the spacecraft would rendezvous with the fuel tanks, refuel, and fire into a transearth trajectory. On approaching the earth, the spacecraft would rendezvous with ship B, the crew would transfer to ship B, and descend to earth. The ability to rendezvous in space was seen to be the essential element of such a project. The total payload weight at launch would be 1,326 tons equally divided among the three ships as compared to 2.6 times this weight required for a direct ascent and return from the moon.


1948 November 13 - .
  • British Interplanetary Society's H. E. Ross described a manned satellite station. - . Nation: UK. Spacecraft: BIS Station.

    In a paper presented to the British Interplanetary Society, H. E. Ross described a manned satellite station in Earth orbit that would serve as an astronomical and zero-gravity and vacuum research laboratory. (Ross' bold suggestions also included schemes for a manned landing on the Moon and return to Earth through use of the rendezvous technique in Earth orbit and about the Moon.) Ross' suggested design comprised a circular structure that housed the crew of the space laboratory (numbering 24 specialists and support personnel) as well as telescopes and research equipment. The station, he suggested, could be resupplied with oxygen and other life-support essentials by supply ships launched every three months.


1948 November 15 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 96 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 39. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 19. Stability and control. Also pressure-distribution survey. Mach 0.98..

1948 November 18 - .
  • Birth of Ural Nazibovich Sultanov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Sultanov. Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1983-1996..

1948 November 18 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Hermes B Solar/Biological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: GE, US Army. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

    Launched 15:34 local time. Reached 145.6 km. Carried biological (Harvard), solar radiation (Naval Research Lab), composition (Signal Corps Engineering Lab, University of Michigan) experiments for General Electric. The warhead section was replaced with an instrumented full-scale replica of the cylindrical GE A-4 ramjet duct planned for the Hermes B ramjet missile.


1948 November 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 97 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 40. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 20. Pilot familiarization. Check on handling qualities and pressure distribution..

1948 November 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 98 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 41. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 21. Check on handling qualities and pressure distribution. Mach 0.88..

1948 November 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 99 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 42. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 22. Check on handling qualities and pressure distribution. .

1948 December 1 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 100 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 58. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 36. Handling qualities and wing and tail loads at mach 1..

1948 December 1 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman ZEL. Launch Vehicle: Matador.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1948 December 2 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 101 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 43. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 23. Check on handling qualities and pressure distribution. Plane exceeded mach 1 briefly..

1948 December 2 - . 22:01 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: MX-774. Launch Vehicle: RTV-A-2. FAILURE: Vibration closed valve early..
  • MX-774 Flight 3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi). Third (last) MX-774 launched, WSPG; shut down at 51 seconds attaining an altitude of 48 km. Self-destructed at high altitude..

1948 December 9 - . 16:08 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Aeronomy / solar x-ray / biology mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 108 km (67 mi). Launched 09:08 local time. Reached 108.7 km. Carried Winds, pressure, temperature; solar radiation (Naval Research Lab) experiments for Signal Corps Engineering Lab, University of Michigan..

1948 December 12 - .
  • Birth of Abdul Moshin Hamad Al-Bassam - . Nation: Saudi Arabia. Related Persons: Al-Bassam. Saudi Air Force pilot, alternate payload specialist to Al-Saud for STS-51G in April 1985. Graduated from King Faisal Air Academy, Riyadh. RSAF attache at the Saudi embassy in London..

1948 December 13 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 102 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 59. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 37. Handling qualities and wing and tail loads at mach 1..

1948 December 14 - .
  • Robert H. Goddard Chairs established - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard.

    Jet Propulsion Centers established at Princeton University and the California Institute of Technology by the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation to provide research facilities and graduate training for qualified young scientists and engineers in rocketry and astronautics. Robert H. Goddard Chairs were established at each center.


1948 December 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 103 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 60. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 38. Wing and tail loads during supersonic flight at high altitudes. Mach 1.09..

1948 December 23 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Deacon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • D3 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1948 December 28 - . LV Family: Groettrup. Launch Vehicle: G-1.
  • G-1 and R-2 designs evaluated by Soviet State Commission. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev.

    The team defended the G-1 draft project on 28 December 1948. The State Commission found the G-1 to be superior to Korolev's R-2 design in many respects. However the Russian designers managed to convince the government to put the R-2 rather than the G-1 into production by arguing that the manufacturing technology of the G-1 could not be mastered immediately by Soviet Union. Several of the design concepts (integrated propellant tanks, radio-controlled cut-off, forward liquid oxygen tank) were however used by the Russians in their R-2 and R-5 rockets.


1948 December 29 - .
  • Truman told of earth satellite program. - . Nation: USA.

    The first Secretary of Defense, James V. Forrestal, in his initial report to President Harry Truman, included a brief item indicating that the earth satellite program, which was being carried out independently by the military services, was assigned to the Committee on Guided Missiles for coordination.


1948 December 31 - .
  • Birth of Viktor Mikhailovich Afanasyev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev. Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-8, Mir EO-15, Mir EO-27, ISS EP-2. 555 cumulative days in space. Buran Test Pilot, 1985-1987. Transferred toTsPK, 1987. Call sign: Derbent (Derbent - Russian city).


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