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1944 Chronology

1944 January 1 - . LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal.
  • Private and Corporal missile development begun. - . Nation: USA. At request of Army Ordnance, Cal Tech's rocket laboratory started research and development program on long-range missiles, called Project ORDCIT, which resulted in development of Private "A" and Corporal missiles..

1944 During the Year - .
  • Bell Aircraft begins work on the XS-1 rocketplane. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: XS-1.

    Due to the press of war work, Bell Aircraft was the only company that would take on the XS-1 rocketplane project. This would produce the X-1, the first aircraft to break the sound barrier, and the first in a line of X- aircraft leading to the space shuttle. German swept-wing research being unknown, the configuration developed was a thin, straight-winged aircraft with a bullet-shaped fuselage.


1944 During the Year - .
  • Congress appropriated funds to carry out a rocket aircraft research program. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: XS-1. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the Air Force, and the Navy were designated participating members..

Beginning of 1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 sounding rockets - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi).

    The Peenemuende team developed scientific payloads for a sounding rocket version of the V-2, to measure cosmic rays, meteoroid flux, and so on. However due to the pressure to solve the missile's reliability problems, these were never flown from Germany. Only after the war could these plans be implemented in New Mexico. However during the war there were some vertical shots of the missile to test its stability and behaviour in a vacuum. On one such shot the missile reached 189 km altitude. On another occasion four launch troops were killed when the missile ascended, then veered 90 degrees, turned again, and impacted in the launch pit at the point of launch.


First half 1944 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. Launch Complex: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Production V-2's exploding in flight. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger, Riedel, Walther.

    The production series of V-2's are exploding in flight, and the engineers cannot determine the reason. Peenemuende engineers sought to recover 30% of the missiles for detailed examination. This showed that re-entry heating did not weaken the missile's structure. There was no scorching of the 0.6 mm thick paint applied to the interior of the missile. Only the outer paint showed signs of scorching. The missile still suffered in-flight explosions - attributed to the re-entry heating of 480 deg C and residual propellant vapours that still escaped despite the better sealing. Dornberger thought the liquid oxygen tank was the problem, while Von Braun suspected the alcohol tank. To try to determine the cause, five V-2's were shot with the engine running until all of the alcohol was depleted. These were followed by six shots with improved glass wool insulation of the liquid oxygen tank, over the objections of Riedel III, head of manufacturing at Peenemuende. Three of these shots were made in one morning, and all went off course. These were in turn followed by a series of highly instrumented launches from Peenemuende. The improvements developed as a result of these tests improved the missile reliability from 30% to 70% immediately, and then the reliability slowly increased to 80% as additional changes were made. Only in the last months of the war was it found that the forward part of the outer hull was failing in flight. Once this was strengthened with a belt of sheet metal, the V-2 achieved essentially 100% reliability.

    This entire process was going on while production was ramping up at the underground facility at Mittelwerk. There was pressure from the highest quarters to get the missile fielded and attacks on England underway. Every change resulting from these tests and research meant that the production line at Mittelwerk had to be stopped, and retrofits made to undelivered missiles.


During 1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 guidance development - . Nation: Germany.

    Early A4's were equipped with a radio-controlled cut-off system. These were replaced in service versions by self-contained integrating accelerometers. Professors Bucholz and Wagner at Darmstadt had developed the system, which was shown to have the same accuracy as the radio-controled system. This system had been tested as early as the fall of 1939, but no production quantities were available until mid-1944. Gyroscopic guidance systems from Kresselgeraete GmbH were tested, but found to have inferior accuracy to the acceleromter-based system. For better precision a double integrator system was needed, but this could not be developed before the war's end. Virtually all A4 systems were developed by the engineers at Peenemuende rather than by industry. Some said that it would have been better handled by industry, but in fact there was no such thing as rocket technology when Von Braun's team began their work - it all had to be created.


1944 January 5 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 January 6 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 January 7 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Tail explosion.
1944 January 8 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 January 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 January 12 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Mikhailovich Sokovykh - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Sokovykh. Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1986..

1944 January 17 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 January 18 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 January 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 January 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 January 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: First Mittelwerk test flight. Failed..
1944 January 29 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 January 31 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 February 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 14 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 15 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Serebrov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Serebrov. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EP-2, Soyuz T-8, Mir EO-5, Mir EO-14. Ten spacewalks. 372 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO..

1944 February 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 16 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 February 17 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 February 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 19 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 February 21 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Yemeliyanovich Mosolov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mosolov. Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1987..

1944 February 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 23 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Early cut-off.
1944 February 24 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 February 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 26 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 February 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. Launch Pad: GWO?. LV Family: Wasserfall. Launch Vehicle: Wasserfall. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 March 2 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 March 4 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 March 5 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 March 6 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 March 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. Launch Pad: GWO?. LV Family: Wasserfall. Launch Vehicle: Wasserfall.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1944 March 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4088 - . Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+59 seconds. Flight duration 282 seconds..

1944 March 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 problems begin to be understood - but Peenemuende Rocket Team leaders arrested by SS - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger, Hitler, Riedel, Walter, Steinhoff, Ernst.

    The cause of early detonation of the warhead during the engine burn time is understood, but the crashes at the end of the trajectory are still a mystery. Dornberger is ordered to report to Hitler at Berchtesgaden. The call is received at 7 pm in the evening, following a bomb raid and ice storm. Dornberger is told that on the following morning Von Braun, Riedel II, and Groettrup are to be arrested for sabotage of the A4 program. Groettrup selects Dr Steinhoff as his representative. The men are accused of not putting all their energy in development of the A4 as a weapon - instead only using the financing of the Reich to support their private plans for manned spaceflight. Dornberger know he cannot complete the program without these men - Von Braun and Riedel were the key leaders, and Groettrup was head of the electrical systems section. Dornberger finally achieves their release by demonstrating to the SS that the biggest impediment to the program was Hitler's dream that the A4 would never reach London. After a few days in detention, Von Braun was moved to Schwedt, and then freed. The others were allowed out a bit later.


1944 March 16 - .
  • NACA proposes a jet-propelled transonic research airplane. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: XS-1.

    At a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) seminar, in Washington, D.C., with Air Force and Navy personnel attending, NACA personnel proposed a jet-propelled transonic research airplane be developed. This proposal ultimately led to the 'X' series research airplane projects.


1944 March 17 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 March 18 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 March 20 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 March 21 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 March 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 25 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 March 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 31 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 April 1 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 2 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 4 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Exploded at T+17 seconds..
1944 April 6 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 April 16 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 20 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 A01 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Attempt abandoned; launched on 22 April (Test # A06).

1944 April 21 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 A03 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Failed - accuracy was 8 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 April 22 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 A06 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 6.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 April 23 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed at launch.
1944 April 28 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 A09 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 6.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 April 29 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 A11 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 13.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 April 30 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 A13 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Impact 12.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 1 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 A17 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst but within 100 m of aim point..

1944 May 3 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 A19 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Failed - accuracy was 0.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 4 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 A23 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 10.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 5 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure; also failed on 9 May (D6) attempt.
1944 May 6 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 D05 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 8.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 7 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 A27 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 3.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 8 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed at launch.
1944 May 9 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed.
1944 May 10 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 B01 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Impact 1.35 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 11 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 E01 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Impact 6.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 12 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 B03 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 5.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 13 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 B04 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst but within 100 m of aim point..

1944 May 14 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 E04 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Impact 12 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 15 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 B06 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 3.95 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4136 - . Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+65 seconds. Flight duration 263 seconds..

1944 May 17 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 E05 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 2.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 18 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 B07 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Failed - accuracy was 0.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 20 - .
  • Birth of David Mathieson 'Dave' Walker - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Dave. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-A, STS-30, STS-53, STS-69. Navy nickname Red Flash, a cocky pilot, over-confident in some astronaut's eyes..

1944 May 20 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 May 21 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 B09 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Impact 2.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 22 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 B13 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 8 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 23 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 B16 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Failed - accuracy was 0.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 24 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 B21 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 3.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 25 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Nation: Germany. Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..

1944 May 26 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 E16 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 5.75 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 27 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 E18 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 2.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 28 - .
  • Birth of Paul Desmond Scully-Power - . Nation: Australia, USA. Related Persons: Scully-Power. Australian-American geophysicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G..

1944 May 28 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 C02 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 0.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 29 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 E21 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 2 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 30 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 C07 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Impact 13.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4146 - . Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+58 seconds. Flight duration 260 seconds..

1944 June 1 - . LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal.
  • Cal Tech studies storable liquid propellants. - . Nation: USA. Cal Tech studied pumping of liquid rocket propellants, particularly nitric acid, resulting in successful design in 1945, which was set aside for future use because of difficulty in handling..

1944 June 1 - . LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: V-1.
  • Manned V-1 test flights. - . Nation: Germany. Geman "Reichenberg" program began for use of manned V-1's air launched from He-111's for suicide missions..

June 1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Renewed effort by the SS to take over Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger.

    The plan this time was for the launch centre to be privatised, made part of Siemens, with the SS running day-to-day operations. Dornberger was unsuccessful in fighting this effort off, and in July-August 1944 a series of government decrees gave the SS full control.


1944 June 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4140 - . Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+60seconds. Flight duration 259 seconds..

1944 June 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 June 5 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 C13 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Failed - accuracy was 7.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 6 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 C14 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 1.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 June 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4171 - . Nation: Germany. Burnout at 69 seconds. Flight duration 315 seconds..

1944 June 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Burnout at T+11seconds. Flight duration 35 seconds..
1944 June 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4158 - . Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+68seconds. Flight duration 264 seconds..

1944 June 11 - .
  • Birth of Dr James Dougal Adrianus 'Ox' van Hoften - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: van Hoften. American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-C, STS-51-I..

1944 June 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4209 - . Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+61seconds. Flight duration 296 seconds..

1944 June 13 - . LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: V-1.
  • V-1 first attacks. - . Nation: Germany. The first German V-1's fired in anger, launched from France against England with 4 of the 11 striking London..

1944 June 13 - .
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory founded. - . Nation: USA.

1944 June 14 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 June 15 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 June 16 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 M11 G2a - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 7.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 17 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 M17 G2a - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 0.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 18 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 M43 G3a - . Nation: Germany. Impact 8.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 19 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 M46 G3b - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 1.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 20 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed.
  • V-2 M47 G3b - . Nation: Germany. Failed - accuracy was 0.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 21 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 M21 G2b - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 2.25 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 22 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 M22 G2b - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 0.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 June 24 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed.
1944 June 25 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 M91 G5b - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 5.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 26 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 M57 G3c - . Nation: Germany. Airburst 4.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 27 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed.
1944 June 28 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 M101 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Impact 28 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 June 30 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 July 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 July 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 July 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 July 5 - .
  • MX-324 rocket fighter prototype first flight. - . Crew: Crosby. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crosby. Spacecraft Bus: American Rocketplanes. Spacecraft: MX-324. The MX-324, first U.S. military rocket-powered plane built by Northrop, was flown by test pilot Harry Crosby, at Harper Dry Lake, Calif..

1944 July 6 - . LV Family: V-3. Launch Vehicle: V-3.
  • V-3 complex at Mimoyecques irreparably damaged by Allied bombers - . Nation: Germany. Three 5400 kg Tallboy penetrator bpmbs went down the gun shaft openings, reached 30 m, and exploded, killing dozens of workers. Work on the complex stopped at this point..

1944 July 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 July 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 July 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4210 - . Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+60seconds. Flight duration 187 seconds..

1944 July 13 - .
  • Birth of Viktor Martynovich Chirkin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chirkin. Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1982..

1944 July 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 July 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 July 24 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Ivanovich Dedkov - . Nation: Belarus. Related Persons: Dedkov. Belarusian pilot cosmonaut, 1970-1983..

1944 July 24 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • Last Blizna launch - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1944 July 26 - .
  • Birth of Rimantas Antanas-Antonovich Stankiavicius - . Nation: Lithuania. Related Persons: Stankevicius. Lithuanian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1990. Buran Test Pilot, Died 9/9/90..

1944 July 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 July 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4205 - . Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+67 seconds.Range 237 km.

1944 August 1 - . LV Family: German Rocketplanes. Launch Vehicle: Me-163.
  • Me-163B first operational use. - . Nation: Germany. German Me-163B Komet rocket-powered fighters first attacked American bomber formations over Europe. The Me-163 had sweptback wings, Walther liquid-fuel rocket motor, speed of 590 mph, and powered flight duration of 8-10 minutes..

August 1944 - . LV Family: German Rocketplanes. Launch Vehicle: Saenger Antipodal Bomber.
  • Saenger antipodal bomber - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Saenger. Spacecraft Bus: Dynasoar. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

    Eugen Saenger and Irene Bredt issue their final 400-page report on the Saenger antipodal bomber - a rocket boosted skip-glide spaceplane with global range. Only 100 numbered copies are printed, and distributed to German political and scientific leaders. The futuristic scheme would have taken many years to develop and was of only academic interest to the German government. But copies of the report fell into the hands of the Americans and Russians after the war, spawning major development projects in the fifties.


1944 August 1 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Viktorovich Romanenko - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Romanenko. Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-1, Salyut 6 EP-8, Mir LD-1. Father of cosmonaut Roman Romanenko. 430 cumulative days in space..

1944 August 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 August 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 August 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4202 - . Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+21 seconds. Range 2 km.

1944 August 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 August 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Obergruppenfuehrer Kammler of the SS put in charge of the V-2 program. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger, Hitler.

    Dornberger was relegated to command of the training batteries for the rocket troops. Von Braun spoke to Dornberger, telling him that he must accept the situation and assist Kammler. Following the July 1944 assassination and coup attempt against Hitler, Dornberger had no backing in the leadership for keeping the program in Army hands. Dornberger finally agreed to cooperate - rockets had been his life's work, and he could not bear not to be involved. Dornberger hoped to 'put my words in Kammler's mouth and make them appear to be his'. All Army commanders in the rocket program were dismissed and replaced by SS officers - Kammler was in complete control.


1944 August 9 - .
  • Death of Klaus Erhardt Riedel - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Riedel, Klaus. Talented German engineer, instrumental in developing the first liquid propellant rocket engines in Germany at VfR and in design and debugging of the V-2's engine. Unrelated to contemporary rocket engineers Walter Riedel and Walther Riedel..

1944 August 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 August 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P12. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Range 0.5 km. Exploded at 50 seconds..
1944 August 14 - . 12:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 August 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 August 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+61seconds. Flight duration 302 seconds. Range 227 km (First 11/18000).

1944 August 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 August 18 - . 19:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 August 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+66seconds. Flight duration 290 seconds. Range 239 km.

1944 August 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4216 - . Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+57seconds. Flight duration 282 seconds. Range 196 km .

1944 August 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 August 24 - .
  • Birth of Gregory Bruce Jarvis - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Jarvis. American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident..

1944 August 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+64seconds. Flight duration 254 seconds. Range 189 km.

1944 August 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Nation: Germany. Burnout at T+61seconds. Flight duration 252 seconds. Range 226 km.

1944 August 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 September 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 September 2 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 444 deploys to Euskirchen, with orders to attack Paris. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 2 - .
  • Birth of Claude Nicollier - . Nation: Switzerland. Related Persons: Nicollier. Swiss test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-46, STS-61, STS-75, STS-103. First Swiss astronaut..

1944 September 3 - . LV Family: EA 1941. Launch Vehicle: EA 1941.
  • EA 1941 program resumes. - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. After the liberation of Paris, Barre is immediately put to work on the EA-1941. All of the hidden materials are returned to Lyons and it is decided to conduct test launches from Toulon..

1944 September 3 - .
  • Birth of Sherwood Clark 'Woody' Spring - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Spring. American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B. US Army.

1944 September 4 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • First production V-2 delivered. - . Nation: Germany.

    350 missiles were delivered in September, 500 in October, and 600 to 900 per month thereafter. There were many early failures of these production missiles - they had not been built for long-term storage. The solution was to use express trains to take the missiles from the factory to the launch areas and fire them within three days of leaving the production line.


1944 September 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 September 6 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 in operation. - . Nation: Germany.

    Despite the first production deliveries, development of the missile was still not complete. The accuracy was still too poor, and the fusing was still not optimum to maximise damage at the target. Furthermore there was no method of actually determining the performance and effectiveness of missiles fired in combat, since air reconnaissance of Britain was now impossible. The only source of information was reports from agents on the ground. The availability of alcohol fuel was a limiting factor in the firing rate. Underground facilities for alcohol production had been built at Luettich and Wittringen an der Saar. Liquid oxygen was delivered to the firing areas in 48 tonne railroad wagons, then distributed to the firing units in 5 to 8 tonne capacity trucks. Due to boil off and transfer losses, 9 tonnes had to be generated at the factory in order for the 4.96 tonnes required for each rocket to be available at launch. The railroad wagons lost 350 l/day, but a V-2 on hold, awaiting launch, boiled off liquid oxygen at 2 kg/minute. Average daily launch rate from the field in the fall of 1944 was 28-30 missiles against enemy targets, together with 5 to 7 shots for research and engine tests. Kammler was only interested in maximising the number of combat launches per day - he showed no interest in the effectiveness or results of the missile as a weapon. During production, some small modifications were introduced - an increase in propellant feed rate and combustion chamber pressure, elimination of electrical equipment made unnecessary by the use of the integrating accelerometer guidance system, and an increase in propellant capacity. These changes increased the range of the production missiles to 320 km. A few research rockets with larger propellant tanks reached 480 km. The external paint used on the V-2 was protected from burning through use of a graphite coating.


1944 September 7 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 444 moves to a point near Houffalize, Belgium. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4222 - . Nation: Germany. Possibly correct serial number is 18278..

1944 September 9 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • RAF located the V-2 launch sites in the Hague and makes the first attacks. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 10 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 1./485 becomes operational at The Hague. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 11 - . 09:02 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Lullingstone - . Nation: Germany. Wassenaar, Beukenhorst, rocket fired, impacted Lullingstone..

1944 September 12 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma184 128 A1 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 26.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 26.8 km from aim point..

1944 September 13 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed on pad.
  • V-2 Ma181 129 A2 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. .

1944 September 14 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma160 132 A5 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 7.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 10.0 km from aim point..

1944 September 15 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 444 arrives at Walcheren - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Battery 444 arrives at Walcheren to start operations against London..

1944 September 16 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma161 137 A10 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 3.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.6 km from aim point..

1944 September 17 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • RAF bombers attacked V-2 sites in Wassenaar. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. 27 Lancaster bombers and 5 Mosquitos, acting on intelligence from the Dutch underground 169 tons of high explosives were dropped on wooded areas southeast of Wassenaar. However the depots attacked were actually not V-2 caches..

1944 September 18 - .
  • Birth of Charles Lacy Veach - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Veach. American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-52..

1944 September 18 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • V-2 Ma169 141 B5 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 165 km. Impact 4.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.9 km from aim point..

1944 September 19 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Allied operation 'Market Garden' forces the Battery 444 to leave Walcheren and move to the north to Rijs. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 September 21 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 batteries 1./485 and 2./485 move to a new launch site at Hoek van Holland. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 22 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Liquid oxygen production limits V-2 operations. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. Kammler and Dornberger note that the low amount of liquid oxygen being delivered, only 200 cubic meter a day, will limit launches to 24 V-2's daily..

1944 September 23 - .
  • Birth of Loren James Shriver - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shriver. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-C, STS-31, STS-46..

1944 September 23 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Early impact.
  • V-2 Ma212 151 D5 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 165 km. Early impact 8.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 123.3 km from aim point..

1944 September 24 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • V-2 Ma216 154 D8 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 165 km. Impact 8.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 25.5 km from aim point..

1944 September 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma223 157 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 165 km. Airburst 4.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.3 km from aim point..

1944 September 26 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma219 162 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 165 km. Airburst 10.3 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 11.9 km from aim point..

1944 September 27 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma208 156 D10 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 165 km. Airburst 1.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 27.0 km from aim point..

1944 September 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Possibly correct launch date is 27.09.1944..
1944 September 29 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 2./836 moves to Merzig (30 km south of Trier). - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Battery 3./836 joined Battery 2./836 on 5 October..

End September 1944 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 summary for September - . Nation: Germany.

    During September, the first month of the V-2 combat campaign, there were 104 to 120 combat launches, 41 training launches from Heidekraut, and 2 known test launches from Peenemuende. 629 missiles were manufactured at Mittelwerk. See V-2 combat launches for a complete list of known combat launches.


1944 September 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma189 169 C3 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 165 km. Airburst 4.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.8 km from aim point..

1944 October 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma192 172 C6 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 165 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 6.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.4 km from aim point..

1944 October 2 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma193 175 C9 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 165 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 2.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 33.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 October 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4245 - . Nation: Germany. Possibly correct serial number is 18 789..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma204 179 E3 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Airburst 6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.2 km from aim point..

1944 October 6 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 WH3 187 F1 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 5.3 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 7 - .
  • Dumbarton Oaks Conference - . Nation: International. Dumbarton Oaks Conference - U.S., British Commonwealth, and U.S.S.R. propose establishment of United Nations .

1944 October 9 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 WH9 189 F3 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 1.6 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 12.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 10 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery SS 500 begins V-2 operations in Burgsteinfurt. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 October 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma231 200 H4 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Impact 0.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 47.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 October 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 October 14 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma232 204 H8 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Impact 107.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 109.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 15 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 16 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 October 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4252 - . Nation: Germany. Possibly correct serial number is 18 830..

1944 October 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 October 20 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 21 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Batteries 1./444, 2./444 and 3./444 move from Rijs to The Hague. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 October 22 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague - . Nation: Germany.

    During the previous three weeks in the Hague / Wassenaar, usually one or two rockets were launched on a day. But now with the Battery 444 troops from Gaasterland, no less then 6 rockets were launched per day. The new launch site was the Rijswijkse Bos, several meters away from a monument which remembers to the peace was made in 1697.


1944 October 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 October 24 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4b.
  • Construction of 5 prototype A4b winged V-2's completed - . Nation: Germany.

    The A-4b was a winged V-2. This resurrected work on the A-9, abandoned in 1943 to concentrate on V-2 production. The A9 was to be the second stage of an ICBM designed to reach North America. By this time in the war the intent was to extend the range of the V-2 once Allied forces pushed the German lines so far back that Britain could no longer be targeted.


1944 October 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 October 27 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 1./836 begins operations against Antwerp from Burgsteinfurt. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. By the end of the month the entire all three 836 batteries had moved there (3./836 on 26 October and 2./836 on 28 October)..

1944 October 28 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma239 207 J1 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Accuracy 2.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 29 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma242 208 J2 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Accuracy 5.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.5 km from aim point..

1944 October 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: Wasserfall. Launch Vehicle: Wasserfall.
  • Wasserfall test - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger, Goering. Apogee: 18 km (11 mi). Range: 26 km (16 mi).

    The Wasserfall surface to air missile was launched from a table, as was the V-2. The missile was optically steered to its target, and had a potential range of 26 km and ceiling of 18 km, with a flight speed of 600 m/s. Goering observed the first launch from Test Stand IX. He was immensely fat, wearing a fantastical outfit, downing pills every five minutes, and uninterested in the proceedings. Dornberger ruefully noted that the Reich is losing the war due to the leadership's shortsightedness. They had not accepted Von Braun's rocket plans in 1939 or the Panzerfaust in 1942. They only became interested in the latter when the first American bazooka fell into German hands in Tunisia.


1944 October 31 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • October V-2 results. - . Nation: Germany. In October, in total the Sonderkommando’s Battery 485 and Battery 444 launched 83 rockets of which 5 failed..

1944 November 1 - .
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory established. - . Nation: USA. Nation's first center devoted to the research and development of rocket propulsion systems, founded at Cal Tech in 1936, reorganized and renamed the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)..

1944 November - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A9/A10.
  • Work on the A9/A10 ICBM resumed under the code name Projekt Amerika, - . Nation: Germany. No significant hardware development was possible after the last test of the A4b upper stage in January 1945..

1944 November - . LV Family: RDD. Launch Vehicle: RDD.
  • Korolev designs RDD - Long range rocket - in response to the German V-2. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev.

    Korolev was given charge of a team of 60 engineers and required to provide a draft project in three days. The resulting two-stage design used Lox/Alcohol propellants and an autopilot for guidance. These designs evolved into the more refined D-1 and D-2 before being overtaken by the post-war availability of V-2 technology.


1944 November 2 - .
  • Birth of Dr Jeffrey Alan 'Jeff' Hoffman - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoffman. Jewish-American astrophysicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-D, STS-35, STS-46, STS-61, STS-75..

1944 November 2 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma249 217 K1 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Impact 25.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 25.9 km from aim point..

1944 November 3 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma251 219 K3 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Impact 14.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 18.5 km from aim point..

1944 November 4 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma253 221 K5 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Impact 3.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.4 km from aim point..

1944 November 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma257 223 K7 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Airburst 0.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 1.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 6 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma264 227 L1 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 250 km. Impact 4.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.3 km from aim point..

1944 November 7 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma265 228 L2 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 250 km. Impact 0.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 40.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 8 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed after launch.
  • V-2 Ma259 232 L6 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 250 km. Failed - accuracy was 6.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 249.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 9 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma285 236 M1 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 250 km. Impact 6.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.4 km from aim point..

1944 November 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma280 238 M3 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 250 km. Airburst 8.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma287 M6 - . Nation: Germany. Returned to Mittelwerk. Planned range 250 km. .

1944 November 12 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Exploded after launch.
  • V-2 Ma263 235 L9 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 250 km. Exploded after launch 50 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 207.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 13 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • SS V-2 Battery 500 begins transfer from Burgsteinfurt to Hellendoorn, Archem, Holland. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 November 14 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma283 241 M8 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 250 km. Impact 0.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 0.5 km from aim point..

1944 November 15 - . LV Family: Rheinbote. Launch Vehicle: Rheinbote.
  • Rheinbote tested. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi). Range: 160 km (90 mi). Test batteries were set up at Heidekraut, but it was impossible to estimate the weapon's accuracy, since it proved impossible to find the small craters created by the warhead's impact in the vast dispersion area..

1944 November 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Hellendoorn, Eelerberg, first A-4 rocket fired toward Antwerp crashes near sanatorium hospital..

1944 November 17 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 launched at Tournai, Hasselt, Luttich and Maastricht - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. 1./485 moved from The Hague to Burgsteinfurt two days later begain operations against Tournai, Hasselt, Luttich and Maastricht..

1944 November 17 - .
  • Birth of Dr John David Francis Bartoe - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bartoe. American astrophysicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F..

1944 November 18 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed (impact of rocket with explosion of warhead at ground level).
  • V-2 Ma290 245 N3 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 200 km. Failed - accuracy was 4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 124.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 19 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma292 246 N4 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 200 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 3.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 41.2 km from aim point..

1944 November 20 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Project Hermes - . Nation: USA.

    Ordnance Department entered into a research and development contract with the General Electric Company for study and development of long-range missiles that could be used against ground targets and high-altitude aircraft. This was the beginning of the Hermes project.


1944 November 21 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma296 251 N9 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 200 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 4.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 87.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 22 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma308 254 P2 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Airburst 7.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.8 km from aim point..

1944 November 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma332 R1 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 367 km. No data returned but accuracy 4.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 18.6 km from aim point..

1944 November 24 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma303 260 P5 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Impact 0.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Guidance failure.
  • V-2 Ma298 262 P7 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Guidance failure; accuracy 90.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 190.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 26 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma305 263 P8 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Impact 0.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 27 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma276 264 P9 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Airburst 3.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 10.7 km from aim point..

1944 November 28 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma299 269 P12 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Airburst 1.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 29 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma277 271 P14 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Impact 10.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 12.3 km from aim point..

End November 1944 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 summary for November - . Nation: Germany.

    During November, the third month of the V-2 combat campaign, there were 369 combat launches on the Western Front and 54 training launches from Heidekraut. 656 missiles were manufactured at Mittelwerk. See V-2 combat launches for a complete list of known combat launches.


1944 November 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 Ma310 272 P15 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 225 km. Failed - accuracy was 102 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 138.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 1 - . LV Family: Private. Launch Vehicle: Private F.
  • First Private launch. - . Nation: USA. At Camp Irwin, Calif., 24 Private "A" rockets were launched by JPL, only 11 months after the start of Project ORDCIT..

1944 December 1 - . LV Family: Hermes. Launch Vehicle: Hermes missile.
  • V-2 technology targeted for Hermes. - . Nation: Germany. Army Ordnance made plans under the Hermes program to study the German V-2 missile..

1944 December 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Work resumes on train-launched A4. - . Nation: Germany. At Kammler's orders work resumes on getting the train-launched version of the A4 into service..

1944 December 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 December 3 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn - . Nation: Germany. Hellendoorn, rocket fired, (Time Unknown), crashes on firing site killing three German soldiers..

1944 December 4 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 278 R8 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 369 km. No data returned but accuracy 2.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 76.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma346 279 S1 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 250 km. Airburst 6.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.9 km from aim point..

1944 December 6 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma338 282 S4 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 250 km. Impact 0.11 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 83.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • V-2 Ma333 R9 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 373 km. No data returned but accuracy 18 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 30.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 8 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma342 285 S7 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 250 km. Impact 0.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 9 - .
  • Wallops Island Launch Site founded. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gilruth.

    A meeting was held at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Langley Air Force Base, Virginia, to discuss the formation of an organization that would devote its efforts to the study of stability and maneuverability of high-speed weapons (guided missiles). From the outset, work was pointed toward supersonic flight testing. In early 1945, Congress was asked for a supplemental appropriation to fund the activation of such a unit, and in the spring of that year the Auxiliary Flight Research Station (AFRS - later known as the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division) was opened on Wallops Island, Virginia, with Robert R. Gilruth as its director. On July 4, 1945, the AFRS launched its first test vehicle, a small two-stage, solid-fuel rocket to check out the installation's instrumentation.


1944 December 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4b.
  • Boosted A4b test planned. - . Nation: Germany.

    10 solid propellant rockets were delivered from the Wehrmacht to Pruefstand XII. Work was to be completed by the end of March to begin flight test of an extended-range using solid rocket boost. However Peenemuende was evacuated before the first flight test could be undertaken.


1944 December 10 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (2) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1944 December 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma319 291 Q1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 250 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 29.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 29.5 km from aim point..

1944 December 12 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Exploded above pad.
  • V-2 Ma323 293 Q2 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 250 km. .

1944 December 13 - .
  • X-1 manned supersonic rocket aircraft begun. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: XS-1. In an AAF-NACA conference, Air Force representatives indicated strong preference for use of rocket engines instead of jets in X-1 research airplane project..

1944 December 14 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 launched at Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Battery 3./836 sets up operations near Hachenburg - target: Antwerp..

1944 December 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Submarine-launched A4 work resumes. - . Nation: Germany. The first construction drawings were released for the submarine-launched version..

1944 December 16 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma317 301 P20 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Impact 4.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.9 km from aim point..

1944 December 17 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 Ma273 303 P22 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Failed - accuracy was 22.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 99.6 km from aim point..

1944 December 18 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 19 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 Ma315 305 P23 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Failed - accuracy was 67.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 185.8 km from aim point..

1944 December 20 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Control failure at lift-off, reached 15 m altitude..
  • V-2 Ma272 306 P24 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. .

1944 December 21 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 U1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Impact 2.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.9 km from aim point..

1944 December 22 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery in Merzig - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Battery 3./836 joins Battery 2./836 in Merzig, starting on October 05..

1944 December 23 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 U4 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Impact 3.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 24 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1944 December 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 U7 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Impact 5.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.9 km from aim point..

1944 December 26 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (5) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 27 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma421 309 X1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 5.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 14.1 km from aim point..

1944 December 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 radio guidance system set up. - . Nation: Germany. Measurements are made to determine the positioning of the Leitstrahlstellung (V2 radio guidance beam) and Brensslussstellung (engine cut-off beam) of the new radio guidance system. The Leitstrahlstellung station will be situated at Dedemsvaart..

1944 December 29 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Gehlert, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma414 313 X5 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 0.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4b, Taifun, Wasserfall.
  • Peenemuende rocket team faces the New Year - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hitler.

    It was for them a depressing time. The V-2 came too late to affect the outcome of the war. The years 1939-1942, when Hitler had blocked development and production of the V-2, were lost years. By this time, the Peenemuende staff was allocated as follows: 135 were working on Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket; 1940 were working on the V-2; 1220 were working on the Wasserfall surface-to-air missile; 270 were working on the A4b winged V-2; and 660 were in administrative positions. Meanwhile Kammler was constantly underway, trying to deploy the wonder weapons he believed would save the Reich. He could only be met at one-hour meetings at autobahn intersections, on his way from one place to another.


End of 1944 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 year-end combat summary - . Nation: Germany.

    During December, the fourth month of the V-2 combat campaign, there were 447 combat launches on the Western Front and 44 training launches from Heidekraut. 618 missiles were manufactured at Mittelwerk. Since the start of the campaign on 6 September, a total of 1591 V-2's had been launched in combat at the following targets:

    • Antwerp 924
    • London 477
    • Norwich 43
    • Luettich 27
    • Lille 25
    • Paris 19
    • Tourcoing 19
    • Maastricht 19
    • Hasselt 13
    • Tournai 9
    • Arras 6
    • Cambrai 4
    • Mons 3
    • Diest 2
    • Ipswich 1

    By the end of the year Mittelwerk had produced 4,195 missiles, less than half of which had been fired.



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