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N2O4/MMH
N2O4/MMH propellant. Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is a storable liquid fuel that found favor in the United States for use in orbital spacecraft engines. Its advantages in comparison to UDMH are higher density and slightly higher performance.

Specific impulse: 336 s. Specific impulse sea level: 288 s.

Optimum Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.16. Temperature of Combustion: 3,385 deg K. Density: 1.20 g/cc. Oxidizer Density: 1.450 g/cc. Oxidizer Freezing Point: -11 deg C. Oxidizer Boiling Point: 21 deg C. Fuel Density: 0.880 g/cc. Fuel Freezing Point: -52 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 87 deg C.



Subtopics

Aerojet 2 Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.65.

Aerojet 21 Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.60.

Aerojet 445 Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.65.

Aerojet 62 Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.65.

Aestus Friedrichshafen N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In production. Upper stage engine for Ariane 5 developed 1988 - 1995. Original version could not be restarted; version for EPS L10 stage for Ariane 5V allowed multiple restarts. First flight 1996.

Aestus-2 Rocketdyne / DASA N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Production. Restartable upper-stage engine, began test firings at Lampoldshausen in February 2000.

Apollo Direct SM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. The Service Module housed the fuel cells, environmental control, and other major equipment items required for the mission.

Apollo Direct TLM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. Final letdown, translation hover and landing on the lunar surface from 1800 m above the surface was performed by the terminal landing module. Engine thrust could be throttled down to 1546 kgf.

Ariane 5-2 N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Storable propellant, restartable upper stage for use with Ariane 5. Chamber pressure 10 bar; expansion ratio 83.0; propellant mix ratio 2.05. Empty mass without VEB payload fairing support ring and avionics is 1200 kg.

Ariane 5-2 EPS L10 Aestus N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage for Ariane 5V. 250 kg additional propellant compared to Ariane 5G version.

Ariane 5-2 L7 Astris MBB N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Used on Ariane 5 launch vehicle. First flight 1996.

ATE Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Developed 1990's. Advance technology engine for maneuvering stages.

Atlantis American manned spaceplane. The space shuttle Atlantis was the fourth orbiter to become operational at Kennedy Space Center, and the last of the original production run.

CEV Raytheon American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Raytheon's CEV was a low L/D capsule, designed for three crew, sized so that an existing EELV Heavy could send it towards L1.

Challenger American manned spaceplane.

Columbia American manned spaceplane. Columbia, the first orbiter in the Shuttle fleet, was named after the sloop that accomplished the first American circumnavigation of the globe.

Discovery American manned spaceplane. merican manned spaceplane.

DMT-600 MMH Isayev N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Hermes. In Production. Version of DMT-600 using MMH in place of UDMH, adaptation to western market (was discussed for European Hermes space plane project). 6,000 ignitions

Endeavour American manned spaceplane. merican manned spaceplane. Built as a replacement after the loss of the Challenger; named after the first ship commanded by James Cook.

Gemini American manned spacecraft. Gemini was conceived as an 'upgraded Mercury' to test essential orbital maneuvering, rendezvous, docking, lifting re-entry, and space walking techniques in the four years between the last Mercury flight and the first scheduled Apollo flight. If fulfilled this mission, and numerous variants that never reached production would have serviced manned space stations and taken Americans around and to the moon - at lower cost and earlier than Apollo. Built by McDonnell-Douglas for NASA, USA. Launched 1965 - 1966.

Gemini B RM American manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1969. Gemini was extensively redesigned for the MOL Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. The resulting Gemini B, although externally similar, was essentially a completely new spacecraft. Reentry capsule.

Gemini EM American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12).

Gemini Ferry RM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1963.

Gemini Paraglider American manned spacecraft. The paraglider was supposed to be used in the original Gemini program but delays in getting the wing to deploy reliably resulted in it not being flown.

Gemini RM American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12).

General Technology Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. General Technology . Pressure-fed.

HiPAT Redmond N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. High performance liquid apogee thruster.

IABS N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. .

Jarvis-3 N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. .

KEW-1 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Kinetic Energy Propulsion (7 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. ASAT Strap-down test, XSS / DICE Microsatellite, GBI Ground-Based Interceptor, THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense.

KEW-2 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Kinetic Energy Propulsion (50 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. ASAT Strap-down test, XSS / DICE Microsatellite, GBI Ground-Based Interceptor, THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense.

KEW-3 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Kinetic Energy Propulsion (100 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. ASAT Strap-down test, XSS / DICE Microsatellite, GBI Ground-Based Interceptor, THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense.

KEW-4 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Kinetic Energy Propulsion (500 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. ASAT Strap-down test, XSS / DICE Microsatellite, GBI Ground-Based Interceptor, THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense.

Liberty 2 N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. .

Liberty-2 Notional N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Development ended 1988. Pressure-fed engine. Used on Liberty launch vehicle.

LR101-NA-7 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Upper Stage Target Engine Systems. Pressure-fed. Derived from Atlas vernier.

Messenger American Mercury probe. NASA probe, launched in 2004 with the challenging mission of comprehensively mapping Mercury from orbit between March 2011 and March 2012. Mercury lander built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) for NASA, USA. Launched 2004.

MRC DM British manned spacecraft module. Study 1987. Reusable re-entry capsule.

MRE-5/Compton Observatory TRW N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Mono-propellant Hydrazine Thrusters. First flight 1991.

Multi-Role Recovery Capsule British manned spacecraft. Study 1987. Britain was the only European Space Agency member opposed to ESA's ambitious man-in-space plan, and the British conservative government refused to approve the November 1987 plan.

OME Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Study 1972. Engine used in Shuttle Orbiter Orbital Maneuvering System pods, for orbit insertion, maneuvering, and re-entry initiation. First flight 1981.

OMV Variable Thrust Engine TRW N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production.

Orion American manned spacecraft. In development. NASA's Crew Excursion Vehicle for the 21st Century. Built by Lockheed Martin.

Orion SM American manned spacecraft module. Orion service module. Masses estimated based on delta-V released by NASA.

PBS N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage.

Peacekeeper S4 N2O4/MMH rocket stage. 11.80 kN (2,653 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb).

Press Fed TRW N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Design concept 1960's. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'.

PSLV-4 ISRO N2O4/MMH rocket stage. Used on PSLV launch vehicle. First flight 1993.

R-1E engine Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production from 1981. Thruster developed as the Space Shuttle Orbiter's vernier attitude control and orbit adjust thruster. There were six employed in conjunction with the 38 R-40 thrusters.

R-40A Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Thruster developed for Shuttle Orbiter orbit control. The orbiter had 38 long scarf, short scarf, or no scarf configurations, depending on the location.

R-40B Redmond N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production.

R-42 Redmond N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production.

R-4D Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Developed as attitude control thruster for the Apollo Service and Lunar Modules in 1960s. In production for numerous satellites (Leasat, Insat, HS 393, Milstar, Intelsat 6, Italsat, Eurostar) for apogee / perigee maneuvers, orbit adjustment, and attitude control.

R-6C Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production.Derivative of Advent communications satellite thruster for Insat 1, Arabasat 1, and Olympus and HS-393 satellites.

RD-0242M Kosberg N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Design concept 1998-. Proposed variant of RD-0242 engine for upper stages using MMH in place of UDMH. Reusable for 6 ignitions total. Throttling to 80%.

RD-0242M1 Kosberg N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Design concept 1998-. Proposed variant of RD-0242 engine for upper stages using MMH in place of UDMH (adaptation to western market). Reusable for 6 ignitions total. Throttling to 80%.

RESA-2 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Pitch Control Propulsion Module. Pressure-fed.

RESA-5 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed.

RM-05 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Satellite Reaction Control System. Pressure-fed.

RM-100A Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed.

RM-1-1 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Satellite Reaction Control System. Pressure-fed.

RM-1-2 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Satellite Reaction Control. Pressure-fed.

RM-25 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed.

RM-25-1 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed.

RM-900 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Shuttle Orbiter Reaction Control. Pressure-fed.

RS-14 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Minuteman Postboost Velocity Control. Pressure-fed. First flight 1970.

RS-1402 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Minuteman Pitch, Yaw & Roll Control. Pressure-fed. Technology engine, developed, but not produced. Led to RS-14 production engines.

RS-1403 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Minuteman Pitch, Yaw & Roll Control. Pressure-fed. Technology engine, developed, but not produced. Led to RS-14 production engines.

RS-2101A Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Mars Mariner. Pressure-fed. Derivative of RS-14 Minuteman engine. First flight 1971.

RS-2101C Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Viking. Pressure-fed. Derivative of RS-14 Minuteman engine. First flight 1975.

RS-23 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Space Shuttle Orbiter Orbit Maneuvering System. Pressure-fed. First flight 1981.

RS-28 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Space Shuttle Orbiter Reaction Control. Pressure-fed.

RS-32 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Upper Stage Target Engine Systems. Pressure-fed. Derived from Minuteman RS-14.

RS-34 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Peacekeeper Postboost Axial Thrust. Pressure-fed. 1 main axial thruster per postboost propulsion system. First flight 1983.

RS-36 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. HOE Homing Overlay Experiment Upper Stage Axial Propulsion System. Pressure-fed. Derivative of Lance propulsion system. First flight 1983.

RS-41 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Axial Spacecraft. Pressure-fed.

RS-42 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Axial Spacecraft. Pressure-fed.

RS-43 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Attitude Control. Pressure-fed.

RS-45 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Satellite Attitude Control and Stationkeeping. Pressure-fed.

RS-51 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Axial Spacecraft. Pressure-fed.

RS-72 Rocketdyne, Ottobrunn N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Aestus engine enhanced with the addition of a Boeing-Rocketdyne XLR 32 turbo-pump.

SE-6 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Gemini Re-entry Control System. Pressure-fed. First flight 1964.

SE-7-1 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. S-IVB Stage APS Ullage Control Engine (propellant settling). Pressure-fed. First flight 1966.

SE-7-100 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Gemini Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (100 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. First flight 1964.

SE-7-25 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Gemini Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (25 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. First flight 1964.

SE-7-85 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Gemini Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (85 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. First flight 1964.

SE-8 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Apollo Command Module Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. First flight 1966.

Shenzhou Chinese manned spacecraft. The Chinese Shenzhou manned spacecraft resembled the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, but was of larger size and all-new construction.

Shenzhou SM Chinese manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The service module, developed by the Shanghai Academy of Space Technology, provides the electrical power, attitude, control and propulsion for the spacecraft in orbit.

Shuttle C stage N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. .

Shuttle Orbiter OMS N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Two pods, mounted each side of vertical stabilizer, provide propulsion for orbit insertion, maneuver, and de-orbit.

Spacebus 100 French communications satellite. 3-axis stabilized using bipropellant thrusters (750 kg propellant - unified with apogee insertion and maneuvering propulsion) and momentum wheels.

Spacebus 300 French communications satellite. 3-axis stabilized using bipropellant thrusters (1220 kg propellant - unified with apogee insertion and maneuvering propulsion) and momentum wheels.

TIROC Kayser N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Satellite orientation. Tangential Injection and Rotational Combustion, the world's smallest thruster burning monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.

Transtar Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Development completed 1987. Upper stage engine using injectors, chamber, and nozzle derived from the Shuttle OMS system, but pump-fed for increased chamber pressure and Isp. Tested; no production.

XLR132 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Out of Production. Pump-fed high performance upper stage engine for perigee/apogee stages. as well as transfer vehicles and lunar and Martian missions. Tested extensively but no production.

Engines: SE-6, SE-7-100, SE-7-25, SE-7-85, SE-8, SE-7-1, RM-05, RS-14, RS-1402, RS-1403, RM-100A, RM-1-1, RM-1-2, RM-25, RM-25-1, RESA-2, RS-2101A, RS-2101C, RESA-5, OME, RM-900, RS-28, LR101-NA-7, RS-32, RS-34, RS-41, RS-42, RS-43, RS-45, XLR132, RS-51, R-4D, Transtar, KEW-1, KEW-3, KEW-2, KEW-4, Ariane 5-2 L7 Astris, RD-0242M, RD-0242M1, Aestus-2, Aerojet 2, Aerojet 21, Aerojet 445, Aerojet 62, Aestus, ATE, DMT-600 MMH, General Technology, HiPAT, Liberty-2, MRE-5/Compton Observatory, OMV Variable Thrust Engine, Press Fed, R-40A, R-40B, R-6C, R-1E engine, R-42, RS-23, RS-36, RS-72, TIROC. Spacecraft: Gemini EM, Gemini RM, Gemini, Apollo Direct SM, Apollo Direct TLM, Gemini Ferry RM, Gemini Paraglider, Gemini B RM, Spacebus 100, Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, Spacebus 300, Multi-Role Recovery Capsule, MRC DM, Endeavour, Shenzhou, Shenzhou SM, Messenger, CEV Raytheon, Orion, Orion SM. Stages: PBS, Peacekeeper S4, IABS, Liberty 2, PSLV-4, Jarvis-3, Shuttle Orbiter OMS, Shuttle C stage, Ariane 5-2, Ariane 5-2 EPS L10 Aestus.

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