Home - Search - Browse - Alphabetic Index: 0- 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9
A- B- C- D- E- F- G- H- I- J- K- L- M- N- O- P- Q- R- S- T- U- V- W- X- Y- Z
1945 Chronology

1945 - During the year - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A9/A10/A11, A9/A10/A11/A12.
  • Von Braun documents plans for future uses of rocket power. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Spacecraft: Von Braun Station.

    As part of a summary of his work on rockets during World War II, Wernher von Braun speculated on future uses of rocket power. These included an observatory in space, the construction of space stations in earth orbit, a space mirror, and interplanetary travel, beginning with trips to the moon.


January 1945 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. Launch Complex: Heidekraut. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 test site moved from Heidkraut in face of Russian advances. A total of 107 V-2 launches were made from Heidekraut. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger.

    At the end of December Dornberger made his last visit to Heidekraut. By then the Russian Army was approaching, and the test launch area had to be moved south of Wolgast, with the impact area being in the Tucheler Heide. But in fact the test battery never shot again. It was moved to the forest near Wolgast in mid February, then again to Rethen an der Weser, with an impact area off the coast of Schleswig-Holstein.


1945 January 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed .
  • V-2 Ma426 317 X9 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Failed - accuracy was 0.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 191.0 km from aim point..

1945 January 2 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma411 318 X11 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 3.6 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.9 km from aim point..

1945 January 3 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma418 321 X14 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 1.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.3 km from aim point..

1945 January 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma394 V1 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 1.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 58.0 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 5 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Madesteyn - . Nation: Germany. A-4 rockets were launched at estate of Madesteyn, between Maeweg and Monsterscheweg..

1945 January 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma381 V2 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 2.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.7 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 8 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma419 326 X19 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 1.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.3 km from aim point..

1945 January 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1945 January 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • V-2 Ma400 330 W1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Planned range 225 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 11.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 15.0 km from aim point..

1945 January 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma379 V3 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 14.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 38.0 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Arbeitstab Dornberger - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger, Speer.

    Speer puts Dornberger in charge of an office within the Munitions Ministry to oversee further development of the A4 and other rockets, drawing on staff from Peenemuende. Everyone knew the war would be over in a few months -- nothing could be accomplished. Kammler still made sure that Dornberger was only responsible for technical aspects. All further developments of the A4 had been on hold for years, and any further work was now impossible. Only simple things could be worked on, such as converting 6 cm smoke rockets to use as an air-to-air weapon. In the short turnaround typical of the times, the team drove to Kummersdorf and built a 21-cm diameter pipe that could fire a barrage of four smoke rockets. Two days later, it was reported back that the device was used successfully in combat, and it was put into production. It was first used against allied bombers over Schweinfurt in January 1945.


1945 January 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma392 V4 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 13.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 14.4 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 14 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Rheinbote.
  • Rheinbote in service. - . Nation: Germany. A battery is set up in Holland, and 200 rockets are fired on Antwerp harbour..

1945 January 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Train-launched A4 abandoned. - . Nation: Germany. Allied air superiority made the train-launched version unviable as a weapon, compared to the truck-towed missile, which was more easily moved and concealed. Further work on the system was abandoned..

January 1945 - . Launch Vehicle: V-3.
  • V-3 in action. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi). Range: 60 km (37 mi). Two shortened test versions of the gun with a 60 km range were used to bombard Antwerp and Luxembourg. Only a few shots were accomplished before the barrels blew up..

1945 January 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed 30 m above pad.
  • V-2 Ma380 V6 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 320 km. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed 20 m above pad.
  • V-2 Ma390 V7 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 320 km. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 18 - . LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: 10Kh.
  • Soviet Union begins development of copy of the V-1 missile. - . Nation: Russia. People's Commissariat of Aviation Industry Decree 7350 'On tasking OKB-51 to develop a copy of the Fi-103 missile' was issued..

1945 January 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 4301 - . Nation: Germany. Possibly correct serial number is 20 338..

1945 January 21 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Gehlert, (5) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1945 January 23 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Gehlert, (5) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1945 January 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4b.
  • A-4b #2 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

    The first successful launch, this reached 80 km altitude and 1200 m/s. It then flew stably in supersonic flight using its 13.5 sq. m. wing. The automatic guidance system was designed to keep the missile on course in both supersonic and subsonic flight regimes. However the wing broke off shortly after the beginning of the glide. This concluded work on the A4b/A9; the increasingly chaotic situation in Germany prevented further flight tests.


1945 January 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed 1300 m above pad.
  • V-2 Ma385 V8 - . Nation: Germany. Planned range 320 km. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 26 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Gehlert, (4) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 27 - . Launch Vehicle: Wasserfall.
  • First meeting of Arbeitstab Dornberger in Berlin - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger.

    The group's first priority was to evalute the prospects for rapid development of an effective surface-to-air missile to combat the incessant Allied bombing raids. It had to be beam-riding instead of optically guided, in order to be effective at night and in bad weather. The group found there was no single 'wonder weapon' that would end the war in a few months. But Kammler still believed the Reich still could hold out for six months, enough time to develop and deploy a new weapon. Dornberger's team disagreed, but they had to try nevertheless. Therefore the Schmetterling, Wasserfall, and X4 missiles went into simultaneous final development and production. But realistically none of them could be mature enough to be sent to the front until early 1946. If the Reich could hold out that long, then it was possible it could slowly win back territory.


1945 January 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 444. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 444 leaves the Hague and sets up operations at Burgsteinfurt. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1945 January 29 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (7) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 30 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery SS 500 moves - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Battery SS 500 moves to the Estate Mataram near Emmen in Dalfsen. The Leitstrahlstellung radio guidance station moves to Ommerschans..

End January 1945 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 summary for January - . Nation: Germany.

    During January, the fifth month of the V-2 combat campaign, there were from 574 to 620 combat launches on the Western Front. The final 19 training launches from made from Heidekraut before it was abandoned in the face of Russian advances on the Eastern Front. 700 missiles were manufactured at Mittelwerk. See V-2 launches for a list of known combat launches.


1945 January 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1945 February 1 - .
  • Kammler put in charge of jet engine production. - . Nation: Germany.

    In addition to responsibility for the V-weapons, Kammler was tasked with producing jet engines for manned aircraft in the northern section of the Mittelwerk. He was successful in keeping production going, but in the end, with the cities of Germany in ruins, its air bases were full of new jet fighters, but there was no fuel to operate them. There was no longer fuel for trucks, and horses had to be used for transport. There was an even bigger backlog of aircraft and missile hardware in the tunnels of Mittelwerk, but they remained there due to lack of transport. As a weapon for the jet fighters, the 5 cm R4M powder rocket was used. Each fighter had 48 of these rockets, each of which weighed 7 kg and could propel 500 g of explosive at 400 m/s to a range of 1200 to 1500 m.


1945 February 2 - . 02:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1945 February 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1945 February 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1945 February 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failed after 47 seconds.
  • V-2 Ma376 U1 - . Nation: Germany. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Submarine-launched A4 abandoned. - . Nation: Germany. Evacuation of Peenemuende brought work on the submarine-towed version to an end..

1945 February 7 - .
  • Death of Petr Ivanovich Fedorov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Fedorov. Russian officer. First Director of NII-l 1944-1945. Oversaw the early search for the A-4..

1945 February 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1945 February 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1945 February 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma372 U2 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Accuracy 38.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Guidance failure after 8 seconds.
  • V-2 Ma370 U4 - . Nation: Germany. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
1945 February 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma375 U5 - . Nation: Germany. Accuracy 1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1945 February 15 - . 17:29 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Darfeld, rocket fired, impacted NW of Antwerp..

1945 February 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma374 U7 - . Nation: Germany. 380 km range. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 17 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Exploded after 36 seconds.
  • V-2 Ma371 U8 - . Nation: Germany. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Ma377 U9 - . Nation: Germany. 430 km range. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Last Peenemuende launch. 350 km range..
  • V-2 Ma368 U10 - . Nation: Germany. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 21 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 1./836 begins operations near Hillscheid - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Battery 1./836 begins operations in the forest near Hillscheid and Hachenburg - Target: Antwerp..

Late February 1945 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Final Von Braun visit to Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. All launch activity has been shut down..

1945 February 22 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, impacted N of Antwerp..

1945 February 23 - . 03:28 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to Esbeek - . Nation: Germany. Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, impacted near Esbeek, Netherlands..

1945 February 24 - . 12:02 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired (impact unknown). This rocket was plotted by radar for only 66 seconds, indicating an impact well short of its target..

1945 February 25 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, impacted NE of Antwerp.

1945 February 26 - . 16:27 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen - . Nation: Germany. Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, crashed in Wijhe near the farm De Hakke van J. Westhof in Marle..

1945 February 27 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen - . Nation: Germany. Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, (failure). Exploded at high altitude..

End February 1945 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 summary for February - . Nation: Germany.

    During February, the sixth month of the V-2 combat campaign, there were from 528 to 644 combat launches on the Western Front. 617 missiles were manufactured at Mittelwerk. This was the peak month of the campaign and the first month that launches exceeded production. See V-2 launches for a list of known combat launches.


1945 February 28 - . 14:26 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, impacted Linkeroever, Antwerp (near Dry Docks)..

1945 March 1 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Armsen - . Nation: Germany. Part of the unit Battery 444 fired two new test series A-4/V-2s in the first days of March at a place called Armsen (southeast of Verden an der Aller) in the direction of the North Sea, northern Germany..

1945 March 2 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, impacted Linkeroever: Borgerweertpolder, Antwerp. No damage or casualties..

1945 March 3 - . 21:54 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, impacted in SW Antwerp..

1945 March 4 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Berchem - . Nation: Germany. Burgsteinfurt Site 163 (Heek - Oerscher Wald), rocket fired, impacted Berchem. One property destroyed, 54 seriously damaged..

1945 March 5 - . 22:29 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Rainham   - . Nation: Germany. The Hague,  rocket fired, impacted Rainham.  .

1945 March 6 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, impacted Antwerp on military hospital in St. Jozef straat, 17 killed, 43 injured, 27 houses destroyed. 19 Allied soldiers killed, 23 injured..

1945 March 7 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Burgsteinfurt Site 163 (Heek - Oerscher Wald), rocket fired, impacted Korte Herentalsestraat, Antwerp. 4 properties destroyed, 26 seriously damaged. 4 fatalities. .

1945 March 8 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery SS 500 moves - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Battery SS 500 moves back to its old firing site at Hellendoorn. The Leitstrahlstellung radio guidance system is moved to Vroomshoop..

1945 March 9 - . 15:48 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Hellendoorn, Eelerberg, rocket fired, impacted NW of Antwerp..

1945 March 10 - . 01:21 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hoek Van Holland to Brentwood - . Nation: Germany. Hoek Van Holland, rocket fired, impacted Brentwood..

1945 March 11 - .
  • Death of Walter Hohmann - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hohmann. German architect who became interested in interplanetary spaceflight, defined the minimum energy transfer orbit which bears his name in 1916. Rocket enthusiast with VfR but broke off contact after military took over development..

1945 March 11 - . 19:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Eindhoven - . Nation: Germany. Burgsteinfurt Site 163 (Heek - Oerscher Wald), rocket fired, impacted approximately 15km NE of Eindhoven, Netherlands..

1945 March 12 - . 08:27 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Hellouw - . Nation: Germany. Burgsteinfurt Site 163 (Heek - Oerscher Wald), rocket fired, impacted NW of Hellouw, Netherlands..

1945 March 13 - . 15:03 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Kirburg, rocket fired, impacted NW of Antwerp, near Lillo..

1945 March 14 - . 19:43 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Belsele - . Nation: Germany. Burgsteinfurt Site 163 (Heek - Oerscher Wald), rocket fired, impacted near Belsele..

1945 March 15 - . Launch Site: Toulon. Launch Vehicle: EA 1941. FAILURE: Exploded after 5 seconds..
  • EA 1941 - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Launched from Toulon, France. Intended to take a 25 kg payload to 100 km altitude, the rocket instead veered off course and crashed after 5 seconds of flight..

1945 March 16 - . Launch Site: Toulon. Launch Vehicle: EA 1941. FAILURE: Exploded on pad..
  • EA 1941 - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Launched from Toulon, France. The rocket exploded on the launch pad, destroying it..

1945 March 17 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 attack on Remagen. - . Nation: Germany. The SS Werfer Battery 500, on orders from Himmler, fired 11 rockets at the Remagen bridgehead, which had recently been captured by the Allies, in an attempt to disrupt the advancing American troops crossing over the Rhine..

1945 March 18 - . 03:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hoek Van Holland to Ightham - . Nation: Germany. Hoek Van Holland, rocket fired, impacted Ightham, Kent..

1945 March 19 - . 13:28 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Brasschaat - . Nation: Germany. Hellendoorn, Eelerberg, rocket fired, impacted Brasschaat..

1945 March 20 - . 19:32 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Apeldoorn, - . Nation: Germany. Hellendoorn, Eelerberg, rocket fired, impacted SE of Apeldoorn, Netherlands.

1945 March 21 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Hampstead - . Nation: Germany. The Hague, Statenkwartier, rocket fired, impacted Primrose Hill, Hampstead..

1945 March 22 - . 00:56 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hoek Van Holland - . Nation: Germany. Hoek Van Holland, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1945 March 23 - . 04:24 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hoek van Holland to Stepney - . Nation: Germany. Hoek van Holland, rocket fired, impacted Stepney (airburst)..

1945 March 24 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Burgsteinfurt (Strönfeld), rocket fired, impacted Acacialaan, Antwerp. 9 properties seriously damaged..

1945 March 25 - . 07:34 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt - . Nation: Germany. Burgsteinfurt (Strönfeld), rocket fired (impact unknown) .

1945 March 26 - . 00:55 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Burgsteinfurt (Stroenfeld), rocket fired, impacted NW of Antwerp. Mar. 26, (02.10 hours) - Battery 3./485, The Hague, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 March 27 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Mortsel - . Nation: Germany. Burgsteinfurt Site 117 (Strönfeld), rocket fired. Impacted Antwerpsestraat/Lieven Gevaetstraat, Mortsel, causing 23 casualties, 62 injured, 29 houses destroyed..

1945 March 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • The end of V-2 Battery SS 500 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

    Battery SS 500 departs Hellendoorn piecemeal before the Allied advance and disintegrates. Some units were equipped with 15 cm Nebelwerfer rockets and ordered to participate in the defence of Berlin. But the war was over before they could reach their destination.


1945 March 31 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • 217 V-2's are fired from The Hague in March, with 19 known failures. - . Nation: Germany.

End March 1945 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 summary for March - . Nation: Germany.

    During March, the seventh and final month of the V-2 combat campaign, there were from 617 to 775 combat launches on the Western Front. 362 missiles were manufactured at Mittelwerk. The collapse of the German rail network under allied bombing led to disruptions of supplies of component parts to Mittelwerk, of missiles from Mittelwerk to the Front, and production and distribution of rocket propellants and motor vehicle fuel needed by the launch units. By the end of the month Allied advances on the Western Front had forced all of the V-2 firing batteries to abandon their positions. See V-2 launches for a list of known combat launches.


1945 April 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island.
  • Wallops Island authorized. - . Nation: USA. Supplemental appropriation passed by Congress authorized expanded research on guided missiles at NACA Langley Laboratory, including establishment of a rocket launch facility at Wallops Island, Va..

1945 April 1 - . LV Family: Private. Launch Vehicle: Private F.
  • Private F rockets tested. - . Nation: USA. 17 JPL Private F rockets were fired at Hueco Range, Fort Bliss, Tex..

1945 April 1 - .
  • The end of the V-weapons. - . Nation: Germany.

    The V-weapon launch corps remained in service until the end of March. Then Kammler went to the Harz Mountains, to command a planned final effort to use the weapons to prevent a link-up of the American and Soviet forces - a plan that came to nothing. In all, 9,300 V-1's had been fired at Great Britain in its seven months of service, of which 6,000 reached the coast. 4,300 V-2's had been launched in combat, 1,500 at London, and 2,100 at Antwerp. 20% of these used the radio guidance system. The V-1's range had been extended in test models to 370 km, although only a few of these modifications had reached the front. On the other hand, the range of the V-2 had been extended to 350 km, and this was the version provided to the front-line troops in the last months. But at the end of March 1945 the Germans evacuated the V-weapon firing areas in Holland.


1945 April 1 - .
  • Death of Albin Sawatzki - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Sawatzki. German engineer, head of productionisation of the A4 missile, and technical director at Mittelwerk. His family believes that he was captured by the U.S. Army near the end of the war, perhaps tortured, and died in custody..

1945 April 3 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 training and test batteries dissolved. - . Nation: Germany. Kammler ordered further training of troops and test launches discontinued..

1945 April 3 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Dornberger's group evacuated to Bavaria. - . Nation: Germany. Kammler has the 450 scientists moved from Berlin to Oberammergau..

1945 April 6 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • American tanks reach Bleicherode at Bad Sachsen. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. Just ahead of the troops the rocket team's documentation was moved in a truck convoy to the south. Kammler, Dornberger, and Von Braun hold their last meeting. In Bavaria, spring is just emerging from the snow..

1945 April 8 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Complex: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • The end of V-2 Battery 836 and the V-2 missile campaign. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

    After being forced to retreat from its operational area in late March 1945, Battery 836 was to have moved first to a location 16 km west of Osnabruck for firing operations, but the situation on the ground prevented this. They then moved to Celle (about 30 km north of Hanover). From there the remaining rockets were to be fired against Russian forces at Kostrzyn, 100 km northeast of Berlin. The unit could not set up in time to accomplish this before Kammler ordered the rocket units to be dissolved and convert to infantry. On April 8 the battery destroyed its rockets and launching equipment and ceased to exist. In all, 1593 V-2's had been fired against Antwerp, 1225 against London, and 461 against other cities and targets, by one accounting. A total of 3000 to 3280 missiles had been fired in combat launches, and another 440 to 1000 in test and training launches. A total of 6,100 missiles had been manufactured, at least 1,800 of which were early production versions that were either scrapped or cannibalised for later production.


1945 April 10 - .
  • Birth of Eric Edward Sundberg - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Sundberg. American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Later stationed at Pentagon. Retired from USAF in August 1997. Later with NRO..

1945 April 20 - .
  • Birth of Gregory Hammond 'Greg' Olsen - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Olsen. American scientist cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EP-9. Space tourist.

1945 April 28 - .
  • Yalta Conference (Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin) - . Nation: International.

1945 April 30 - .
  • Birth of Michael John Smith - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Smith. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident..

1945 May 1 - .
  • Birth of Dr Ernst Willi Messerschmid - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Messerschmid. German physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-A..

1945 May 2 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemuende rocket team contacts American forces - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. English-speaker Magnus Von Braun is sent to contact US forces in order to surrender the German rocket team to the Americans..

1945 May 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemünde occupied. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: von Braun. Russian ground forces occupied Peenemünde, Germany..

1945 May 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende.
  • Soviet Army occupies Peenemuende. - . Nation: Germany.

    Little is found. Western intelligence is convinced that the Soviets conduct missile tests from Peenemuende in the late 1940's (the Scandinavian 'ghost rockets'). But Russian historical sources available after the downfall of the Soviet Union do not support this belief.


1945 May 7 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Germany surrenders - . Nation: Germany.

1945 May 9 - . Launch Vehicle: V-3.
  • V-3 complex at Mimoyecques blown up by British Forces - . Nation: Germany. The action was taken to prevent the French from using the facility against Britain at some future date..

1945 May 16 - .
  • Birth of Brewster Hopkinson Jr Shaw - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shaw. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-61-B, STS-28..

1945 May 19 - .
  • Birth of Pierre Joseph Thuot - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thuot. American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-36, STS-49, STS-62..

1945 May 20 - .
  • Birth of Nikolai Nikolayevich Fefelov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Fefelov. Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1970-1995..

1945 May 26 - .
  • Soviet Union makes plans for industrial reconstruction after war with Germany. - . Nation: Russia. State Committee for Defence (GKO) Decree 8803 'On Measures to Reconstruct Industry in Connection with Maintaining Production of Armaments -- post-war rearmament plan' was issued..

1945 May 27 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • American recover 14 tonnes of V-2 documentation - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. The German rocket team provides directions to the Americans to the mine in the Harz Mountains where they have hidden the technical documentation taken from Peenemuende..

1945 June 13 - .
  • Birth of Ronald John 'Ron' Grabe - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Grabe. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-J, STS-30, STS-42, STS-57..

1945 June 20 - .
  • Von Braun team to be brought to the US. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull approved the transfer of von Braun's German rocket specialists to the United States. This transfer was known as Operation Paperclip..

1945 June 20 - .
  • Birth of James Frederick 'Jim' Buchli - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Buchli. American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-C, STS-61-A, STS-29, STS-48..

1945 July - .
  • Goddard's rocket team ends its work. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2.

    Goddard's rocket team ends its work at the Naval Engineering Experiment Station at Annapolis, Maryland. During the previous three years the team had developed a variable-thrust rocket motors. This required hundreds of proving-stand tests, but eventually producing a successful motor, later used on the Bell X-2 rocket plane.


1945 July 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island.
  • First launch from Wallops Island. - . Nation: USA.

    First launching of a two-stage rocket-propelled research model, the Tiamat missile, which employed six rockets as boosters, had automatic stabilization, its maneuvers were programed, and its testing was the first research program of the NACA's Wallops Island Station.


1945 July 4 - . Launch Vehicle: Corporal.
  • Baby Wac rocket flies. - . Nation: USA. Baby Wac rocket, one-fifth scale model of Wac Corporal proposal, flight tested at Camp Irwin by JPL..

1945 July 5 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Soviets occupy Mittelwerk. - . Nation: Germany. The Americans withdraw from the Soviet zone, having taken key V-2 tooling and parts..

1945 July 6 - . Launch Site: Toulon. Launch Vehicle: EA 1941. FAILURE: Engine cut-off after 7.5 seconds instead of 13 seconds planned..
  • EA 1941 - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi). Launched from Toulon, France. Most successful launch attempt. Not recovered, but estimated to have reached 1400 m/s and to have impacted in the ocean 60 km downrange..

1945 July 6 - . Launch Site: Toulon. Launch Vehicle: EA 1941. FAILURE: Accelerated at a high rate and exploded after 1.2 seconds flight..
  • EA 1941 - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Launched from Toulon, France. The rocket took off at high acceleration, exploding after 1.2 seconds..

1945 July 6 - . Launch Site: Toulon. Launch Vehicle: EA 1941. FAILURE: Veered off, impacted 10 km from the launch pad..
  • EA 1941 - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi). Launched from Toulon, France. The rocket left the launch pad at low acceleration, veered off, and crashes at sea 10 km from the pad..

1945 July 18 - . Launch Site: Toulon. Launch Vehicle: EA 1941. FAILURE: Failed to generate sufficient thrust for lift-off..
  • EA 1941 - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

    Launched from Toulon, France. The pad was damaged, requiring substantial repairs. The source of the rocket's problem is finally found to be burn-through and loss of a portion of the inner wall of the combustion chamber, which blocked the nozzle exit. Ironically the last EA-1941 is ground run for full duration in the summer of 1946 without incident. However plans to develop it further as a sounding rocket are abandoned.


1945 July 18 - . Launch Site: Toulon. Launch Vehicle: EA 1941. FAILURE: Failed to generate sufficient thrust for lift-off..
  • EA 1941 - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Launched from Toulon, France..

1945 July 23 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • German space plans revealed to US public. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Life magazine published drawings of a manned space station as envisioned by the German rocket scientists of Peenemünde..

1945 August 1 - .
  • XCALT-6000 rocket engine delivered. - . Nation: USA. First successful U.S. chemical gas, generator-driven, turbopump fed, regeneratively cooled rocket engine (XCALT-6000), delivered to AAF by Aerojet-General Corp..

1945 August 6 - .
  • U.S. drops atomic bomb on Japanese city of Hiroshima - . Nation: Japan.

1945 August 9 - .
  • U.S. drops atomic bomb on Japanese city of Nagasaki - . Nation: Japan.

1945 August 10 - .
  • Dr. Robert Goddard died in Baltimore. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard.

1945 August 20 - .
  • Soviet Union begins development of the atomic bomb. - . Nation: Russia. State Committee for Defence (GKO) Decree 9887/ss/op 'On a Special Committee Under the GKO's Jurisdiction--creation of Special Committee and its subordinate First Chief Directorate of GKO (later of Council of Ministers) for the development of atomic bomb'.

1945 August 24 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island.
  • First successful launch from Wallops Island. - . Nation: USA. First successful use of a telemetry system in a rocket-propelled flight research model, the two-stage Tiamat at NACA Wallops Island, Va..

1945 August 31 - .
  • Birth of Leonid Ivanovich Popov - . Nation: Ukraine. Related Persons: Popov. Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-4, Salyut 6 EP-10, Salyut 7 EP-2..

1945 September - .
  • LL rocket-powered transonic aerodynamic testbed authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Russian Rocket Fighters. Spacecraft: LL. In 1946 to 1948 the LL-1 flew 30 times and the LL-3 100 times, with test pilots M Ivanov, Amet-Khan Sultan, Anokhin, and Rybko at the controls..

1945 September 1 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Von Braun in America - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Von Braun and a small contingent fly to Fort Bliss, Texas. Over 100 Peenemuende rocket engineers will follow by sea..

1945 September 2 - .
  • Japan signs official surrender on V-J Day - . Nation: Japan.

1945 September 10 - .
  • Birth of Richard Michael 'Mike' Mullane - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mullane. American test engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-27, STS-36. Author of the frankest astronaut biography ever published..

1945 September 10 - .
  • Birth of Stephen Lee Cunningham - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cunningham, Stephen. American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1986..

1945 September 17 - .
  • Birth of Mary Helen Johnston - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnston. American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1983-1985..

1945 September 21 - .
  • Birth of Bjarni Valdimar Tryggvason - . Nation: Canada, Iceland. Related Persons: Tryggvason. Icelandic-Canadian engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-85. CSA; Alternate Payload Specialist to MacLean for STS-52 Mission LAGEOS-2 and Test of the Canadian Space Vision System..

1945 September 26 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Pad: ALA1. Launch Vehicle: Tiny Tim.
  • Booster test - . Nation: USA. Agency: ORD. Apogee: 4.00 km (2.40 mi).

1945 September 26 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Pad: ALA1. Launch Vehicle: Tiny Tim.
  • Booster test - . Nation: USA. Agency: ORD. Apogee: 4.00 km (2.40 mi).

1945 September 26 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Pad: ALA1. Launch Vehicle: Tiny Tim.
  • Booster test - . Nation: USA. Agency: ORD. Apogee: 4.00 km (2.40 mi).

1945 September 27 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: WAC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Dummy launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Launcher/booster stage test. No upper stage..

1945 September 27 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Pad: ALA1. Launch Vehicle: Tiny Tim.
  • Booster test - . Nation: USA. Agency: ORD. Apogee: 4.00 km (2.40 mi).

1945 September 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: WAC.
  • Dummy launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi). Launcher/booster stage test. No upper stage..

1945 October 1 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Project Paperclip begun - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun.

    Secretary of War Patterson approved plan to bring top German scientists to United States to aid military research and development. Small group of German rocket specialists brought to United States under Project Paperclip to work on missile development at Fort Bliss and White Sands Proving Ground.


1945 October 1 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: WAC.
  • 1 / 4 Charge test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi). Launcher/booster stage test. No upper stage..

1945 October 1 - . 13:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cuxhaven. Launch Complex: Cuxhaven. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Project Backfire first attempted V-2 launch. - . Nation: UK. Attempted launch of a V-2 from Altenwalde by German technicians under British direction in order to document launch procedures. The launch was aborted on the pad and a different missile was selected for the next attempt..

1945 October 2 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. Launch Vehicle: WAC.
  • 1 / 4 Charge test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi). Launcher/booster stage test. No upper stage..

1945 October 2 - . 13:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cuxhaven. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Backfire 1 test - . Nation: UK. Agency: WO. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Launch of V-2 from Altenwalde by German technicians under British direction in order to document launch procedures. The launch was successful and the missile reached an altitude of 90 km..

1945 October 3 - .
  • US Navy studies satellite launcher. - . Nation: USA. A Navy Committee for Evaluating the Feasibility of Space Rocketry (CEFSR) was established by BuAer. In November 1945, CEFSR recommended high priority for satellite development and estimated cost between $5 and $8 million..

1945 October 4 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cuxhaven. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Partial failure.
  • Backfire 2 test - . Nation: UK. Agency: WO. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi). Partial failure; the rocket only reached 20 km altitude..

1945 October 11 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: WAC. Launch Vehicle: WAC A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi). First 'all-up' Wac Corporal launch. Recovery system failed..

1945 October 12 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: WAC. Launch Vehicle: WAC A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi). The parachute failed, but the nose cone also came off. This set the rocket on a tumbling re-entry, providing sufficient braking that it hit the ground pretty well intact..

1945 October 13 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • R-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1945 October 14 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • R-5 - . Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1945 October 15 - . 14:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Cuxhaven. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Backfire 3 test - . Nation: UK. Agency: WO. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

    Third and final launch in Project Backfire, with allied observors. Glushko, Sokolov, Pobedonostsev; Korolev and Gaidukov kept outside fence; Von Karman, Merrill, Seifert, Pickering from US. The launch was successful and the missile reached an altitude of 90 km.


1945 October 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: WAC. Launch Vehicle: WAC A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 27 km (16 mi).

1945 October 19 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: WAC. Launch Vehicle: WAC A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi). The nose ejected just after the rocket cleared the tower..

1945 October 20 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Ivanovich Kozlov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kozlov, Vladimir. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1970-1973. Graduated from Higher Air Force School of Pilots, 1968 Soviet Air Force parachutist. Left cosmonaut group due to medical problems. Served on Russian Air Force Staff. Retired as a Colonel on 6 March 1996..

1945 October 24 - .
1945 October 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: WAC. Launch Vehicle: WAC A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi). Night launch, the nose failed to eject. Last development flight..

1945 October 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: WAC. Launch Vehicle: WAC A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi). Emergency launch when the parachute igniter fired..

1945 October 31 - . Launch Vehicle: Rascal.
  • US Strategic Missile Programs Begin - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho.

    Request For Proposals were issued to 17 contractors by the US Army Air Force for studies of a 10-year R&D program of four missile types. The missiles were to be air-, rail-, road-, or ship- transportable, and fit in three range categories: 280 to 800 km; 800 to 2400 km; and 2400 to 8000 km. Minimum speed was 970 kph, requiring turbojet, ramjet, or rocket propulsion.


1945 November 30 - .
  • SKB-88 formed (later OKB-1 and RKK Energia). - . Nation: Russia. People's Commissariat of Armaments Decree 'On organisation of Special Design Bureau for rocket technology at Plant No. 88' was issued..

1945 December 4 - .
  • Birth of Roberta Lynn Bondar - . Nation: Canada. Related Persons: Bondar. Canadian physician payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-42. Neurologist. First Canadian female astronaut. IML-1 payload specialist..

1945 December 14 - .
  • X-2 rocket airplane development starts. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2. AAF contracted with Bell for development of three supersonic flight research aircraft, powered by liquid rockets. Designated XS-2, and later X-2..

1945 December 17 - .
  • NRL begins sounding rocket work. - . Nation: USA. Rocket-Sonde Research Branch constituted in Naval Research Laboratory to conduct scientific exploration of the upper atmosphere..

1945 December 21 - .
  • Birth of Dr Millie Elizabeth Hughes-Fulford - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hughes-Fulford. American biologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-40. Biochemist. US Army.


Home - Search - Browse - Alphabetic Index: 0- 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9
A- B- C- D- E- F- G- H- I- J- K- L- M- N- O- P- Q- R- S- T- U- V- W- X- Y- Z
© 1997-2017 Mark Wade - Contact
© / Conditions for Use