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1941 Chronology

1941 - . Launch Vehicle: V-3.
  • The V-3 Hochdruckpumpe supergun conceived - . Nation: Germany.

    Coenders at Saar Roechling proposed the concept of sequentially electrically activated angled side chambers to provide additional acceleration of a shell during its passage up the barrel of the gun. This allowed a muzzle velocity of over 1500 m/s. A 140 m long cannon using this concept would be capable of delivering a 140 kg shell over a 165 km range. Funding is finally obtained to build a subscale prototype.


1941 January 1 - .
  • Aerial torpedo proposed. - . Nation: USA. RCA proposed to NDRC design and developoment of rocket-propelled, radio-controlled aerial torpedo with TV nose, which was given code name "Dragon." The National Bureau of Standards was assigned the task of developing a suitable airframe..

During 1941 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 facilities - . Nation: Germany.

    The A4 assembly hall at Area 7 at Peenemuende was 30 m high and 50 m long. After assembly, the missile was moved to the cold flow test stand. There each rocket was tested and calibration documents were generated, necessary for the launch troops to take into account when preparing the rocket and programming its guidance system. The launch pad itself was ringed by a 7 m wide concrete embankment, and sunk 6 m into the ground. The viewpoint was 150 m from the pad, at the southern, smaller end of the complex.

    The pad was surrounded by instrumentation rooms. Water was delivered at 500 litres/second through a 1.20 m diameter pipe to a molybdenum steel cooling section, consisting of many pipes running around the exhaust blast diverter. Other test stands included number 10, where the effects of the rocket exhaust on different material surfaces was tested; and number 8, where newly delivered engines were fired and calibrated. These certification tests ran as long as 650 seconds on the water-cooled stand. Area 9 was used for launches of the Wasserfall surface-to-air missile, and Area 2 for tests of the A4 using nitric acid and Visol as propellants. Area 4 was devoted to firing tests of engines installed in aircraft fuselages, and Area 3 contained the 1000 kgf engine test stand. This stand included pump and steam test stands, and a hydrogen peroxide plant. Area 6 was built to the same design as the largest test stands at Kummersdorf, and used for A5 tests. Hundreds of A5's were shot from Greifswalder Oie.


1941-1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 engine improvements - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Beck, Thiel, Walter.

    Throughout the early 1940's Thiel and his team sought to produce a single chamber 25 tonne thrust engine in place of the kludged prototype engine that used 18 separate 1.5 tf chambers. They managed to demonstrate a 60 second burn time in the 18-chamber design, but the engine itself was considered too complicated to fabricate in production, requiring thousands of hand-assembled tubes to introduce fuel and oxidiser into the chamber. Thiel sought to replace these thousands of tubes with a simpler injection system - rows of simple bored holes on a flat injector plate at the head of the chamber. Beck at the Technische Hochschule in Dresden developed a ring-pattern injector that worked well in subscale engines. But the design proved unstable in the 25 tf engine. Therefore, it was decided to stick with the 18-head chamber for V-2 production.


1941 January 6 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • Goddard Series P Section C rocket static test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Static test, highest lift so far recorded, 985 lb. .

1941 January 7 - .
  • Birth of Frederick Drew 'Fred' Gregory - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gregory. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-B, STS-33, STS-44. USAF helicopter pilot who would fly his T-38 trainer at alarmingly low altitude during cross-country trips. Paradoxically later appointed NASA Administrator for Safety..

1941 January 15 - . Launch Vehicle: EA 1941.
  • Barre repot - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre.

    Barre completed a comprehensive report on the military potential of rocketry. He sketeched out ballistic missiles with 1000 km range, powered by liquid oxygen/gasoline engines. Armor-piercing rockets could reach 2000 m/s and defeat any tank armor. Anti-aircraft rockets would intercept aircraft in half the time. Rocket-boosted bombs would destroy enemey emplacements. Air-augmented rockets could reach even higher range and efficiencies.


1941 January 18 - .
  • Birth of Anthony Hugh Boyle - . Nation: UK, USA. Related Persons: Boyle. British-American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1984..

1941 January 23 - .
  • Glenn Research Center founded. - . Nation: USA.

1941 February 26 - .
  • Birth of Dmitri Andreyevich Yuyukov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Yuyukov. Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1973-1987. Graduated from MAI, 1965 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Trained for a TKS flight to the Almaz military space station. Sector Head, NPO Mashinostroyeniye. From worked at GKNPTs Khrunishchev..

1941 March 1 - .
  • Birth of Dr Michael Logan Lampton - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lampton. American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1978-1990..

1941 March 21 - .
  • Birth of Dirk Dries David Damian Frimout - . Nation: Belgium. Related Persons: Frimout. Belgian engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-45. First Belgian astronaut..

1941 April 11 - .
  • Birth of Frederick Hamilton 'Rick' Hauck - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hauck. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-7, STS-51-A, STS-26..

1941 April 14 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Pavlovich Fyodorov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Fyodorov. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1974. Graduated from E.N. Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School, 1963. Cosmonaut training November 1965-December 1967. Flight controller in Kaliningrad until he retired in 1992..

1941 May 8 - . Launch Site: Roswell. LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • Goddard Series P Section C rocket flight test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0800 km (0.0497 mi). Second flight with pumps, altitude 250 ft; then heeled away from tower..

1941 May 21 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Semyonovich Levchenko - . Nation: Ukraine. Related Persons: Levchenko. Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir LII-1. Graduated from Chernigov Higher Air Force School, 1964. Buran test pilot; cosmonaut training December 1978 - July 1980. Later a civil test pilot for the Soviet Air Force Ministry..

1941 June 20 - .
  • Birth of Dr Ulf Dietrich Merbold - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Merbold. German physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-42, Mir Euromir 94..

1941 June 23 - . Launch Vehicle: EA 1941.
  • EA 1941 development authorised. - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre.

    Barre's report worked its way through the wartime bureaucracy, finally reaching the Minister of State for War in Vichy France. It is immediately classived top secret, and Barre is given 300,000 francs to start development of a liquid propellant rocket. In order to keep the work from the notice of the occupying Germans, it is officially for development of automotive gas generators.


1941 July 9 - .
  • Go-ahead for the BI-1 high speed rocket plane. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Isayev. Spacecraft Bus: Russian Rocket Fighters. Spacecraft: BI-1. Stalin gives the go-ahead for production of the Bereznyak-Isayev BI-1 high speed rocket plane..

1941 July 14 - .
  • Birth of Tatyana Dmitryevna nee Pitskhelauri Kuznetsova - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kuznetsova. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969..

1941 July 17 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • Goddard Series P Section C rocket static test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Static test: duration 34 sec; average thrust 825+ lb; gas ejection velocity 4060 ft/sec; average thrust per pound of fuel per second 128; mechanical horsepower 3040; liquid oxygen 131.7 lb; gasoline 91.5 lb; ratio oxygen to gasoline 1.43. .

1941 July 20 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Afanasyevich Lyakhov - . Nation: Russia, Ukraine. Related Persons: Lyakhov. Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-3, Salyut 7 EO-2, Mir EP-3..

August 1941 - . Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Full-scale development of A4 authorised. - . Nation: Germany. Following the loss of the air war with Britain, the German military leadership realises that missiles offer the only possibility of attacking London. Development of the A4 to the point of production-readiness is authorised..

1941 August 5 - .
  • Birth of Leonid Denisovich Kizim - . Nation: Ukraine. Related Persons: Kizim. Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-5, Salyut 7 EO-3, Mir EO-1. Member of first crew to fly between two space stations during a single mission. 374 cumulative days in space..

1941 August 12 - . Launch Vehicle: JATO.
  • Ercoupe first flight. - . Nation: USA. An Ercoupe light aircraft, impelled by 12 powder rockets of 50 pounds thrust each, piloted by Lt. Homer A. Boushey, first flew on rocket power alone after an initial boost from a towing automobile..

1941 August 15 - .
  • Birth of Viktor Mikhailovich Pisarev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Pisarev. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1967-1968..

1941 August 27 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Vassilyevich Malyshev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Malyshev. Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EP-6, Salyut 7 EP-3..

1941 September 1 - . LV Family: German Rocketplanes. Launch Vehicle: Me-163.
  • Me-163A first flight. - . Nation: Germany.

    Messerschmitt Me-163A powered by "cold" H. Walther rocket successfully flown at Augsburg, Germany, development of which had begun in 1937, but "cold" engine proved unreliable. Flights were also made in October which reached speeds of 1,003 km/hr, or Mach 0.85.


1941 September 15 - .
  • Birth of Miroslaw 'Mirek' Hermaszewski - . Nation: Poland. Related Persons: Hermaszewski. Polish pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EP-3. First Polish astronaut..

1941 October 19 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • End of Goddard sounding rocket tests - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard.

    The Goddard P series pump-turbine tests had run from November 1939-October 1941. The series included 15 proving-stand tests and nine attempts at flight tests, of which only two resulted in flights. Average interval between tests was 28 days. This also ended Goddard development of liquid fuel rockets for space flight. Beginning in September 1941 with the impending involvement of the US in the world war, the Goddard rocket establishment worked under contracts with the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department and the Army Air Forces. Up to that point Goddard's team had completed 103 liquid rocket proving stand tests and made 48 attempts at flight tests, of which 31 resulted in rocket flights


1941 November 9 - .
  • Von Braun promoted to SS Obersturmfuehrer. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun.

1941 November 15 - . Launch Vehicle: EA 1941.
  • EA 1941 engine run. - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. Barre conducts his first engine test of his EA-1941 surface-to-air rocket at Lazarc. The engine runs for 42 seconds before exploding..

December 1941 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A9/A10.
  • Mach 10 wind tunnel designed. - . Nation: Germany.

    In preparation for the A9/A10 transatlantic missile, the Peenemuende team completed design of a Mach 10 wind tunnel. However construction would not begin for another two years due to priority on devoting all available engineering time to getting the A4 into production.


1941 December 23 - .
  • Birth of Nail Sharipovich Sattarov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Sattarov. Tatar-Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1980..


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