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High earth orbit
Category of spacecraft.



Subtopics

S-2 American earth magnetosphere satellite. Explorer 6. First Earth photo; radiation data. Research, Ionosphere, Magnetosphere satellite built by TRW Space Technology Laboratory (STL) for NASA, USA. Launched 1959.

P-14 American solar satellite. Magnetic field data. Research satellite built by NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center for NASA, USA. Launched 1961.

EPE American solar satellite. Radiation and solar wind data. Research satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1961 - 1964.

ERS American earth magnetosphere satellite. Environmental Research Satellites were especially designed for piggyback launching from large primary mission vehicles.

TRS American technology satellite. TRS satellites undertook a range of engineering experiments related to radiation-hardening of solar cells and spacecraft electronics. Experimental satellite built by TRW Systems Group for USAF, USA. Launched 1962 - 1963.

Vela American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. The Vela (meaning "watchman" in Spanish) series of spacecraft were designed to monitor world-wide compliance with the 1963 nuclear test ban treaty. Nuclear Detection satellite built by TRW for USAF, USA. Launched 1963 - 1965.

IMP American earth magnetosphere satellite. Research, Magnetosphere satellite built by NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center for NASA, USA. Launched 1963 - 1965.

Elektron-B Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. The Elektron mission was one of the earliest Soviet satellites to be authorized following the initial Sputnik series. Magnetospheric research satellite, Russia. Launched 1964.

OGO American earth magnetosphere satellite. Research satellite built by TRW for NASA, USA. Launched 1964 - 1969. Used 3-axis stabilized box-shaped satellite bus.

Advanced Vela American nuclear detection surveillance satellite.

OV5 American earth magnetosphere satellite. OV5 was a version of the USAF Environmental Research Satellites dedicated to radiation research and VLF plasma wave detection. Experimental satellite built by TRW Systems Group (#1 - 5, 8); AFRCL (#6, 7); Northrop (#9) for USAF, USA. Launched 1967 - 1969.

Solrad American series of satellites sponsored by the US Navy in a program to continuously monitor the Sun. SOLRAD was Satellite Techniques' first major project and NRL's first post-Vanguard satellite.

HEOS European earth magnetosphere satellite. Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite; examined magnetic fields outside of Earth's magnetosphere. Research satellite built by Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke GmbH (prime) for ESRO, Europe. Launched 1968 - 1972.

SSS American earth magnetosphere satellite. Explorer 45. Studies magnetosphere, energetic particles. Research, Magntosphere satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1971.

SRET French technology satellite. Test satellite. Technology satellite, France. Launched 1972.

Prognoz Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. This spacecraft, built by Lavochkin, was for study of geomagnetic fields, radiation, and solar physics. Science, magnetosphere satellite built by Lavochkin, Russia. Launched 1972 - 1973.

Hawkeye American solar satellite. Explorer 52. Solar wind experiments. Follow-on to Injun.

COS European technology satellite. CERS/ESRO satellite, first European Space Agency satellite. Studied extraterrestrial gamma radiation in the 25 MeV to 1 GeV energy range. Astronomy, Gamma satellite built by MBB (prime), Aerospatiale (structure) for ESRO => ESA, Europe. Launched 1975.

ESA-Geos European earth magnetosphere satellite. Magnetospheric research. European Space Agency satellite. Research satellite built by British Aircraft Corp. for ESA, Europe. Launched 1977 - 1978.

ISEE American earth magnetosphere satellite. These Explorer-class heliocentric spacecraft were part of the mother/daughter/heliocentric mission (ISEE 1, 2, and 3). Research satellite operated by NASA / ESA, USA. Launched 1977.

Magion Czech earth magnetosphere satellite. The Czechoslovak satellite MAGION researched the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth. Science, magnetosphere satellite, Czechoslovakia. Launched 1978.

SCATHA American communications technology satellite. Experimental satellite built by Martin Marietta for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1979.

CAT European technology satellite. Vehicle evaluation payload, Europe. Launched 1979 - 1981.

Dynamics Explorer American earth magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space.

Astron Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. Astrophysics satellite based on the Venera 4V-2 bus design. Electrophysical research of galactic and extragalactic sources of ultraviolet ray and X-ray emission. Astronomy, UV satellite, Russia. Launched 1983. Used Venera-Bus.

Exosat European x-ray astronomy satellite. EXOSAT was a space research satellite of the European Space Agency. Astronomy, X-Ray satellite built by MBB (prime) for ESA, Europe. Launched 1983.

AMPTE American earth magnetosphere satellite. Charge Composition Explorer; detected tracer ions released into magnetosphere by IRM.

Viking (Sweden) Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. Viking. Sweden's first satellite, Viking, was originally initiated as a means of providing experience in satellite system development and management. Built by SAAB (prime), Boeing (bus) for SSC, Sweden. Launched 1986.

Granat Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. Granat was a Lavochkin design with the mission of making gamma ray observations in energy ranges of 3 to 200 keV. Astronomy, X-Ray, Gamma satellite, Russia. Launched 1989. Used Venera-Bus.

CRRES American earth magnetosphere satellite. Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite. Chemical release experiment. Reseach, Magnetosphere satellite built by Ball Aerospace for USAF STP (Space Test Program), NASA, USA. Launched 1990.

KRT-25 Radio Telescope Russian radio astronomy satellite. Study 1990. In collaboration with the European Space Agency, a 25 m diameter space radio telescope was studied for launch by Energia in 2001.

Geotail Japanese earth magnetosphere satellite. Measured magnetosphere and Earth's geomagnetic tail; Diffuse Ultraviolet Explorer package bolted to Delta 2 second stage. Magnetosphere satellite ISAS, NASA, Japan. Launched 1992.

STRV British technology satellite. Technology satellite built by Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA) for DERA, BMDO, ESA, UK. Launched 1994 - 2000.

Wind American earth magnetosphere satellite. Wind was designed to provide continuous measurement of the solar wind, particularly charged particles and magnetic field data. Scientific satellite built by Lockheed Martin Astro for NASA, USA. Launched 1994.

Prognoz-M Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. Interbol was originally an Intercosmos project with a launch planned for the late 1980's.

ISO European infrared astronomy satellite. Infrared astrophysics. Astronomy, Infra-Red satellite built by Aerospatiale (prime), DASA (payload) for ESA, Europe. Launched 1995.

Polar American earth magnetosphere satellite. Polar was designed to measure the entry, energization, and transport of plasma into the magnetosphere as part of the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP). Scientific satellite built by Lockheed Martin Astro for NASA, USA. Launched 1996.

Haruka Japanese radio astronomy satellite. The Muses B satellite was renamed 'Haruka', meaning 'Far-away', after launch. It formed the space segment of the VLBI Space Observatory Program.

MAQSAT European technology satellite. MAQSATs were mass model and technology satellites built by Kayser-Threde, Munich, and lofted during the test flights of the Ariane 5. Vehicle evaluation payload built by Kayser-Threde for Arianespace, Europe. Launched 1997.

YES European tether technology satellite. Young Engineers Satellite sponsored by the European Space Tech. ESA / ESTEC satellite built by Delta-Utec for ESA / ESTEC, Europe. Launched 1997.

Equator-S German earth magnetosphere satellite. German geophysics satellite. Science, magnetosphere satellite built by Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) for DARA, Germany. Launched 1997.

Kakehashi Japanese communications satellite. Name means 'Bridge', was called Communications and Broadcasting Experimental Test Satellite (COMETS) before launch. It contained Ka-band communications and inter-satellite data relay payloads.

Chandra American x-ray astronomy satellite. Astronomy, X-Ray satellite built by TRW for NASA, USA. Launched 1999.

XMM European x-ray astronomy satellite. ESA's X-ray Multi-Mirror space observatory was the biggest science satellite ever built in Europe. The spacecraft's X-ray optics covered a spectral range of 1-120 nanometers (12keV-0.1keV). Astronomy, X-Ray satellite built by Daimler Chrysler Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme for ESA, Europe. Launched 1999.

IMAGE American solar satellite. The IMAGE spacecraft imaged remote particle populations in the magnetosphere. Research satellite built by Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space (Sunnyvale) for NASA, USA. Launched 2000.

Cluster 2 European earth magnetosphere satellite.



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