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1934 Chronology

1934 January 13 - .
  • Birth of Dr Aleksandr Alekseyevich Kiselyov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kiselyov. Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966..

1934 January 30 - .
  • OSOAVIAKHIM giant stratosphere balloon reached 22 000 meters. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: OSOAVIAKHIM. Spacecraft: OSOAVIAKHIM. Apogee: 22 km (13 mi). The crew was killed when the cabin was covered with thick ice, resulting in it tearing loose from the balloon and crashing to the earth during the descent..

1934 February 3 - .
  • Austrian Defence Ministry rejects Saenger's rocketplane proposal - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Saenger. The Ministry rejects Saenger's prposed rocket bomber, on the grounds that liquid rocket engines will never be feasible due to the explosive nature of the chemical reactions involved..

1934 March 9 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gagarin. Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 1. First person in space. Due to his fame, the Soviet leadership did not want to risk him on another flight, but later relented. Died in a 1968 MiG trainer crash while requalifying for flight status..

1934 March 14 - .
  • Birth of Eugene Andrew 'Gene' Cernan - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 9, Apollo 10, Apollo 17. Eleventh person to walk on the moon and last person to step off of the moon. Space speed record (11,107 m/s)..

1934 March 15 - .
  • Saenger rocket engine - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Saenger. Saenger's Experiment Number 25 is the first to successfully sustain combustion. The water-cooled combustion chamber sustains an internal pressure of 15 atmospheres for 30 seconds..

1934 March 31 - .
  • Birth of Grigori Grigoyevich Nelyubov - . Nation: Russia, Ukraine. Related Persons: Nelyubov. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Discharged with Anikeyev and Filatuev after alcohol incident. Returned to Air Force duties in Siberia, underwent increasing depression, killed in 1966 when hit by a train..

1934 April 6 - . LV Family: ARS. Launch Vehicle: ARS.
  • American Rocket Society named. - . Nation: USA. American Interplanetary Society renamed the American Rocket Society (ARS)..

1934 April 22 - .
  • Birth of Dr George Warren Simon - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Simon. American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1978-1985..

1934 May 30 - .
  • Birth of Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Leonov. Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Voskhod 2, Soyuz 19 (ASTP). First person to walk in space. Flew in first USA/USSR docking mission. Cancelled missions included first Soviet circumlunar flight and first military space station mission..

June 1934 - .
  • Saenger studies fuel additives - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Saenger. Saenger's engine experiments showed that lithium best improved motor performance in engines with liquid oxygen oxidiser..

1934 June 5 - .
  • Birth of Dr Frank Curtis 'Curt' Michel - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Michel. American scientist astronaut, 1965-1969..

1934 June 6 - . LV Family: Zucker Rocket. Launch Vehicle: Zucker Rocket.
  • Zucker mail rocket launch at Sussex Downs - . Nation: UK. Related Persons: Zucker. Apogee: 0.60 km (0.37 mi).

    Zucker, his backer, and selected press representatives met on a hilltop on Sussex Downs. After a first successful test launch without payload, two launches were made with postal covers. The observers guessed the rockets went as high as 400 to 800 m. Banner headlines the next day announced 'The First British Rocket Mail' and carried Zucker's claim that soon he would inaugrate regular one minute rocket post service between Dover and Calais.


1934 July 13 - .
  • Birth of Aleksei Stanislavovich Yeliseyev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Yeliseyev. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 4/5, Soyuz 8, Soyuz 10. Member of first crew to transfer between spacecraft..

1934 July 16 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. Launch Complex: Kummersdorf. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Liquid rocket explosion kills three. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Wahmke. Dr Kurt Wahmke and two technicians were testing a 90% H2O2/Alcohol combination at Kummersdorf when the chamber exploded, killing them. These were the first and only deaths of technicians in the history of German rocket development..

1934 July 27 - .
  • Von Braun receives doctorate. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun.

    His public doctoral thesis, "About Combustion Tests," was completed in very little time (one source states that he joined the SS at this time). The actual thesis was later revealed to be a classified Army document. This dissertation, "Construction, Theoretical, and Experimental Solution to the Problem of the Liquid Propellant Rocket", was dated 16 April 1934 but did not surface until 70 years later. It detailed the construction and design of the A2 rocket that would fly later that year.


1934 July 31 - . LV Family: Zucker Rocket. Launch Vehicle: Zucker Rocket.
  • Zucker mail rocket explosion at Harris - . Nation: UK. Related Persons: Zucker. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

    Zucker announced a demonstration firing of his rocket over 1600 m of water between the town of Harris and the Isle of Scarp. Government officials watched as the rocket exploded, blowing the burning payload of postal covers all over the beach. The British found Zucker to be a 'threat to the income of the post office and the security of the country'. He was deported to Germany, where he was immediately arrested by the Germans on suspicion of espionage or collaboration with Britain.


August 1934 - .
  • Saenger motor - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Saenger. Saenger's rocket engine achieves a sustained thrust of 30 kgf. Saenger is the first to observe shock diamonds in the exhaust..

1934 August 2 - .
  • Birth of Valeri Fyodorovich Bykovsky - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bykovsky. Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 5, Soyuz 22, Salyut 6 EP-4..

1934 August 15 - .
  • Birth of Valentin Stepanovich Varlamov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Varlamov. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961. Left team after fracturing a vertebra in a diving accident in July 1960. Worked in the Soviet space program as a flight instructor for new cosmonauts within the TsPK..

1934 September 9 - . LV Family: ARS. Launch Vehicle: ARS.
  • ARS Rocket No. 4 reaches 130 m - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 0.13 km (0.08 mi). ARS Rocket No. 4 launched at Marine Island, Staten Island, New York. It reached 130 m altitude and crashed into New York Bay 407 meters downrange. It featured a single thrust chamber with four canted nozzles.

1934 September 14 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard A.
  • Goddard obtained funding allowing liquid rocket flight tests to be resumed in Roswell, New Mexico. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard.

    This funding would continue through 1941. The first test series was designated the A Series (A1-A14). The A series rockets used simple pressure feed, gyroscopic control by means of vanes, and parachute. The rockets in this series averaged in length from 13 ft 6 in. to 15 ft 3 1/4 in.; their weight empty varied from 58 lb to 85 lb.


1934 September 25 - .
  • Birth of John Sumter Bull - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bull, John. American test pilot astronaut, 1966-1968..

1934 November 14 - .
  • Birth of Rudolf Alekseyevich Gulyayev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gulyayev, Rudolf. Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1968. Scientist, Institute of Terrastrial Magnetism & Radiowaves of AN. Cosmonaut training May 1967 - August 1968. Left cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Worked as a research scientist at IZMIRAN..

December 1934 - .
  • Saenger paper on rocket-propelled aircraft - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Saenger. Eugen Saenger published Neuere Ergebnisse der Rakenflugtechnik (New Possibilities for Rocket Flight Technology) in Vienna. However the dean of the Vienna Technische Hochschule prohibits Saenger from conducting any further rocket experiments..

1934 December 3 - .
  • Birth of Viktor Vassilyevich Gorbatko - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gorbatko. Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 7, Soyuz 24, Salyut 6 EP-7..

1934 December 18 - .
  • Birth of Boris Valentinovich Volynov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Volynov. Jewish-Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 5, Soyuz 21..

1934 December 19 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Borkum. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A2.
  • A2 rocket 'Max' successfully launched. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 2.20 km (1.37 mi).

    Von Braun's German Ordnance group launches A-2 'Max' from the Island of Borkum in the North Sea before the Commander-in-Chief of the German Army. The rocket is at an altitude of 1.7 km at burn-out, and reaches 2.2 km before falling back to impact 800 m from the launch point.


1934 December 20 - . 06:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Borkum. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A2.
  • A2 rocket 'Moritz' successfully launched. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 3.50 km (2.10 mi).

    Von Braun's German Ordnance group launches the second of two A-2 rockets ('Moritz') successfully to a height of 3.5 km on the Island of Borkum in the North Sea. Burnout is at 1.8 km, and the rocket ascends more vertically than the test the previous day, reaching a greater altitude and impacting 500 m from the launch point.



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