Encyclopedia Astronautica

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 90,600/9,000 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 349 seconds.

Cost $ : 15.000 million.

Status: Active.
Gross mass: 90,600 kg (199,700 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb).
Height: 11.50 m (37.70 ft).
Diameter: 3.90 m (12.70 ft).
Span: 3.90 m (12.70 ft).
Thrust: 912.00 kN (205,025 lbf).
Specific impulse: 349 s.
Burn time: 315 s.
Number: 85 .

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-120 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 833 kN. Zenit stage 2. In production. Isp=350s. High altitude engine used in the Zenit second stage. First production Russian engine to be test fired in the United States (3 test burns were made). First flight 1985. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Zenit-2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version that continued to be used for launch of Russian military satellites tailored to it after the fall of the Soviet Union. More...
  • Zenit-2 11K77.05 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version with a dispenser for multiple Globalstar communications satellite launches. More...
  • Zenit-3SL Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. From the beginning of the program a Zenit-3 version was proposed for geosynchronous launches using the N1/Proton Block D third stage. This had the potential of replacing the Proton in the role of geosynchronous launcher. It was considered for launch from Australia / Cape York in the 1980's. Finally a joint US-Norwegian-Ukraininan-Russian consortium was formed to launch the three stage commercial Zenit from the Odyssey floating launch platform in the Pacific Ocean. More...
  • Zenit-2SLB Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version of the Zenit-3SL booster developed for the Sea Launch program, modified for launch from ground facilities at Baikonur. Uses the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with no upper stage. More...
  • Zenit-3SLB Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Zenit-3SL modified for launch from existing ground facilities at Baikonur, using the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with an upper stage Block DM-SLB designed by RSC Energia (Russia) and a new payload fairing designed by NPO Lavochkin (Russia). More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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