Encyclopedia Astronautica
Zefiro 23


Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 26,900/3,000 kg. Thrust 1,200.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds. The Zefiro 23 was derived from a 16-tonne solid rocket motor development (Zefiro 16) initiated by Fiat-Avio, now Avio S.p.A., with company funding and contracted by the Italian space agency ASI.

The Zefiro-16 motor had already completed three successful firing tests by the end of 2006. The Zefiro-23 motor features included: a 1.9 m diameter carbon epoxy filament wound case; a low density EPDM insulation; HTPB 1912 composite propellant; a nozzle based on a flexible joint technology; a consumable igniter; and an electromechanical thrust vector control system.

Propellant Formulation: HTPB 1912.

Status: In production.
Gross mass: 26,900 kg (59,300 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Height: 7.50 m (24.60 ft).
Diameter: 1.90 m (6.20 ft).
Span: 1.90 m (6.20 ft).
Thrust: 1,200.00 kN (269,700 lbf).
Specific impulse: 289 s.
Burn time: 72 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • Zefiro 23 Fiat-Avio solid rocket engine. 1200 kN. In production. Isp=289s. Carbon epoxy filament wound case; low density EPDM insulation; HTPB 1912 composite propellant. Used on Vega launch vehicle. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Solid Solid propellants have the fuel and oxidiser embedded in a rubbery matrix. They were developed to a high degree of perfection in the United States in the 1950's and 1960's. In Russia, development was slower, due to a lack of technical leadership in the area and rail handling problems. Solid propellants have the fuel and oxidiser embedded in a rubbery matrix. They were developed to a high degree of perfection in the United States in the 1950's and 1960's. In Russia, development was slower, due to a lack of technical leadership in the area and rail handling problems. More...

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