Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz ST-1


Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,400/6,875 kg. Thrust 999.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion.

Status: In production.
Gross mass: 105,400 kg (232,300 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 6,875 kg (15,156 lb).
Height: 27.80 m (91.20 ft).
Diameter: 2.95 m (9.67 ft).
Span: 2.95 m (9.67 ft).
Thrust: 999.60 kN (224,719 lbf).
Specific impulse: 311 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 245 s.
Burn time: 286 s.
Number: 33 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-118 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 999.601 kN. In production. Isp=311s. Update of RD-107, used in Soyuz ST launcher. Little performance change from RD-107, changes may mainly relate to use of all-Russian components. First flight 2001. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz FG Uprated Soyuz booster designed for high performance Russian government missions and delivery of Soyuz and Progress spacecraft to the International Space Station. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Unknown differences to Soyuz ST. More...
  • Soyuz ST Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern digital avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Can be used with either Ikar or Fregat upper stages. The 'FG' was the military version. More...
  • Soyuz ST / Fregat ST Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Uses Fregat upper stage. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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