Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz M-3

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 20.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 360 seconds. Empty mass estimated. Multiple restart engine.

Status: Development ended 2000.
Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Height: 2.70 m (8.80 ft).
Diameter: 2.40 m (7.80 ft).
Span: 2.40 m (7.80 ft).
Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf).
Specific impulse: 360 s.
Burn time: 700 s.
Number: 0 .

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-161-1 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 19.6 kN. Development ended 2000. Proposed for use on Soyuz M-3. Basic version. Engine Cycle: closed gas generator. Feed Method: turbopump. Isp=360s. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz M Rus project was to result in first major propulsion upgrade to R-7 family in forty years, using first stage engines derived from those developed for Zenit second stage to boost performance. It would have permitted launches from Plesetsk with same or greater payload than launch of standard Soyuz-U from Baikonur, permitting move of more launch operations back onto Russian territory. Instead the more modest Soyuz ST / Soyuz FG upgrades were made. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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