Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz 11A511U-1

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,400/6,875 kg. Thrust 997.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. Current version. Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion.

Cost $ : 13.000 million.

Status: Design 2000.
Gross mass: 105,400 kg (232,300 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 6,875 kg (15,156 lb).
Height: 27.80 m (91.20 ft).
Diameter: 2.95 m (9.67 ft).
Span: 2.95 m (9.67 ft).
Thrust: 997.09 kN (224,155 lbf).
Specific impulse: 311 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 245 s.
Burn time: 286 s.
Number: 28 .

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-108-11D512 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 997 kN. Soyuz 11A511-1, Soyuz 11A511U-1. Design 2000. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. First flight 1965. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz 11A511U / Ikar Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standard Soyuz universal booster with the Ikar upper stage, derived from the propulsion system for the Kozlov Yantar series of spy satellites. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U / Fregat Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standard Soyuz universal booster with the Fregat upper stage, derived from the propulsion system for Lavochkin interplanetary probes. More...
  • Soyuz-U Russian orbital launch vehicle. Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511U. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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