Encyclopedia Astronautica
Liberty 1


Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,000/2,240 kg. Thrust 245.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 270 seconds.

Cost $ : 0.750 million.

Status: Development ended 1988.
Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 2,240 kg (4,930 lb).
Height: 10.20 m (33.40 ft).
Diameter: 1.58 m (5.18 ft).
Span: 1.58 m (5.18 ft).
Thrust: 245.00 kN (55,078 lbf).
Specific impulse: 270 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 230 s.
Burn time: 157 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • Liberty-1 Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 245.2 kN. Development ended 1988. Pressure-fed engine. Isp=270s. Used on Liberty launch vehicle. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Liberty American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Private commercial launch vehicle. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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