Encyclopedia Astronautica

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,000/700 kg. Thrust 122.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All values except thrust estimated.

Status: In development.
Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Height: 9.60 m (31.40 ft).
Diameter: 1.00 m (3.20 ft).
Span: 1.00 m (3.20 ft).
Thrust: 122.50 kN (27,539 lbf).
Specific impulse: 280 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 240 s.
Burn time: 95 s.
Number: 1 .

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Associated Countries
  • Korea South South Korea became familiar with large-scale rocketry through maintenance and modification activities on American-supplied Honest John and Nike Hercules tactical missiles. By the 1990's Korea had developed an independent capability to manufacture solid propellant rocket motors of up to one tonne mass. In 1990 KARI was funded to build the first indigenous sounding rockets, flown as the KSR-I and KSR-II. In December 1997 KARI was allowed to proceed with development of liquid oxygen/kerosene rocket motor for an orbital launcher, but this was abandoned when the South Korean government decided it wanted to be among the top ten spacefaring nations by 2015. The existing program was too limited in growth potential to allow that. Therefore it was decided to leapfrog the technology by contracting with Russian companies. First launch of the KSLV-I launch vehicle from the new space centre took place in 2010. More...

Associated Engines
  • KSR-3 Korean Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. In development. Launch thrust 122.5 kN. Pressure-fed indigenous design. First flight 2002. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • KSR-III South Korean sounding rocket. Test bed for development of an orbital launch vehicle, powered by the liquid oxygen/kerosene engine planned for the KSLV-I. However flown only once in 2002. More...
  • KSLV-I 2002 South Korean orbital launch vehicle. In 2002 South Korea announced it was planning to develop a small satellite launch vehicle by 2005, based on technology flown on the KSR-III test vehicle. By 2005 this was replaced by a completely different design, based on the Russian Angara space booster. More...
  • KSLV-III South Korean launch vehicle, to consist of a Russian Angara first stage, a South Korean liquid propellant second stage, and a South Korean solid propellant apogee kick motor. Scheduled for first flight by 2015. In August 2006 the Korean press reported that the first and second stages would both be Angara-UM modules... how this configuration would work (stacked versus parallel) was unclear. More...
  • KSLV-II South Korean launch vehicle, originally scheduled for first flight by 2010. Evidently it would have consisted of a Russian Angara first stage and a South Korean liquid-propellant second stage. In August 2006 it was reported in the Korean press that this launcher configuration was cancelled. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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