Encyclopedia Astronautica
Angara Stage 1

Credit: © Mark Wade
Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500,000/40,000 kg. Thrust 8,181.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Unique configuration with oxidizer in core and fuel in two tanks strapped on in parallel - all of rail-transportable 3.9 m diameter. Product of Khrunichev. Masses estimated based on engine selected and vehicle performance.

Status: Development 2004.
Gross mass: 500,000 kg (1,100,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb).
Height: 22.50 m (73.80 ft).
Diameter: 3.90 m (12.70 ft).
Span: 12.00 m (39.00 ft).
Thrust: 8,181.13 kN (1,839,191 lbf).
Specific impulse: 337 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 311 s.
Burn time: 180 s.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-171 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7903 kN. Zenit stage 1. In production. Isp=337s. RD-171 used two-plane gimablling versus one-plane gimablling on RD-170 developed in parallel for Energia. First flight 1985. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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