Encyclopedia Astronautica
Plesetsk LC32/1


Tsiklon launch complex. Construction of this highly-automated launch complex for the Tsiklon-3 launch vehicle started in 1970. The complex was designed by the Transmash Design bureau led by Chief Designer V N Solovyev. The complex consisted of two pads. The vehicle was assembled and integrated with its payload in the assembly building. It was then delivered to the launch pad by railway in a horizontal position. A launch pad erector placed the rocket into vertical position. No service tower was needed for the storable-propellant booster.

Longitude: 40.7872 deg.
Latitude: 62.9073 deg.
First Launch: 1980.01.23.
Last Launch: 2001.12.28.
Number: 18 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • Tselina-D Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 77 launches, 1970.12.18 (Cosmos 389) to 1994.05.25 (Tselina-D). The Tselina D was the detailed observation portion of the two-satellite Tselina ELINT satellite system. More...
  • Meteor-2 Russian earth weather satellite. 22 launches, 1975.07.11 (Meteor 2-01) to 1993.08.31 (Meteor 2-21). Successor to the Meteor-1 weather satellite. The Meteor-2 had a longer design operational life (one year vs. More...
  • AUOS Ukrainian technology satellite. 14 launches, 1976.06.19 (Intercosmos 15) to 2009.01.30 (Koronas-F). Standardized bus for low earth orbit scientific studies and testing of new systems and components of satellite under space flight conditions. More...
  • Okean-E Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1979.02.12 (Cosmos 1076) to 1980.01.23 (Cosmos 1151). First prototype of Okean series. Development of methods for obtaining operational information on the Pacific Ocean. More...
  • Geo-IK Russian earth geodetic satellite. 14 launches, 1981.01.23 (Geo-IK no. 1) to 1994.11.29 (Geo-IK). Development of a second generation geodetic satellite system began in 1977. More...
  • Okean-OE Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1983.09.28 (Cosmos 1500) to 1984.09.28 (Cosmos 1602). More...
  • Meteor-3 Russian earth weather satellite. 7 launches, 1984.11.27 (Cosmos 1612) to 1994.01.25 (Meteor 3-06). Meteor-3 began in 1972 as an improved replacement for the Meteor-2 weather satellite. More...
  • Strela-3 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1985.01.15. Said to have initially been developed for the GRU. More...
  • Okean-O1 Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 9 launches, 1986.07.28 (Cosmos 1766) to 2004.12.24 (Sich-1M). Third generation Soviet oceanographic research satellite, equipped with a side-looking radar, radiometer, and multi-spectral scanner. More...
  • Gonets-D1 Russian civilian store-dump communications satellite. 15 launches, 1992.07.13 (Cosmos 2199) to 2005.12.21 (Gonets D1M 1). Commercial version of GRU Strela-3 military store-dump satellite. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Tsiklon-3 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The Tsyklon 3 was developed in 1970-1977 as a part of a program to reduce the number of Soviet booster types. The first two stages were derived from the 8K68 version of the R-36 ICBM, while the restartable third stage was derived from that of the R-36-O. Compared to the Tsyklon 2, the launch vehicle increased payload to 4 metric tons, provided for completely automated launch operations, and had increased orbital injection accuracy. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

Plesetsk LC32/1 Chronology


1980 January 23 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1151 - . Payload: Okean-E no. 2. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: Okean-E. Completed Operations Date: 1981-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11671 . COSPAR: 1980-005A. Apogee: 589 km (365 mi). Perigee: 566 km (351 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 96.20 min. Summary: Test mission of Okean satellite without the radar. Testing of methods for obtaining operational information on the oceans..

1981 January 23 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Payload shroud failed to separate.. Failed Stage: S.
  • Geo-IK no. 1 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 1. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. Decay Date: 1981-01-23 . COSPAR: F810123A.

1981 August 24 - . 21:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1300 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 30. Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 12785 . COSPAR: 1981-082A. Apogee: 609 km (378 mi). Perigee: 589 km (365 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.

1981 September 21 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Oreol 3 - . Payload: AUOS-Z M-A-IK s/n 401. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: France. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 12848 . COSPAR: 1981-094A. Apogee: 1,672 km (1,038 mi). Perigee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 105.80 min. Carried Soviet/French magnetosphere and ionosphere experiments. Investigation of physical processes in the earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere, and study of the nature of polar aurorae. Carried scientific equipment developed by Soviet and French specialists under the joint Soviet-French project 'Arkad-3'.

1981 September 30 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1312 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 2. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 12879 . COSPAR: 1981-098A. Apogee: 1,503 km (933 mi). Perigee: 1,491 km (926 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 115.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1981 December 3 - . 11:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1328 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 32. Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 12987 . COSPAR: 1981-117A. Apogee: 619 km (384 mi). Perigee: 597 km (370 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 96.90 min.

1982 March 25 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Meteor 2-08 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 8. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 13113 . COSPAR: 1982-025A. Apogee: 957 km (594 mi). Perigee: 933 km (579 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 103.90 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information and data on fluxes of penetrating radiation in circumterrestrial space. .

1982 June 10 - . 17:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1378 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 36. Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 13271 . COSPAR: 1982-059A. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 96.80 min.

1982 September 24 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1410 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 3. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 13589 . COSPAR: 1982-096A. Apogee: 1,503 km (933 mi). Perigee: 1,492 km (927 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 115.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1983 September 28 - . 07:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1500 - . Payload: Okean-OE no. 1. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: Okean-OE. Completed Operations Date: 1986-07-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 14372 . COSPAR: 1983-099A. Apogee: 621 km (385 mi). Perigee: 596 km (370 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 96.90 min. Summary: Elaboration of new kinds of information-measuring apparatus and methods of remote investigation of the Pacific Ocean in the interests of science and of various branches of the national economy of the USSR. .

1984 November 27 - . 14:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Stage 3 failed to reignite.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 1612 - . Payload: Meteor-3 s/n 1. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-3. Decay Date: 1984-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 15406 . COSPAR: 1984-120A. Apogee: 1,227 km (762 mi). Perigee: 132 km (82 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 98.30 min. Summary: Unusable orbit, however the operator was able to operate the satellite in a limited manner. First launch of new Meteor-3 spacecraft..

1985 June 14 - . 10:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1660 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 6. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 15821 . COSPAR: 1985-047A. Apogee: 1,525 km (947 mi). Perigee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1986 December 2 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1803 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 8. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 17177 . COSPAR: 1986-094A. Apogee: 1,504 km (934 mi). Perigee: 1,497 km (930 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 116.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1988 May 30 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1950 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 10. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 19195 . COSPAR: 1988-046A. Apogee: 1,522 km (945 mi). Perigee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1988 July 5 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Okean 1 - . Payload: Okean-O1 no. 3. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: Okean-O1. Completed Operations Date: 1990-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19274 . COSPAR: 1988-056A. Apogee: 633 km (393 mi). Perigee: 606 km (376 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. Summary: Oceanographic. Gathering of up-to-date oceanographic information and data on ice conditions in the interests of the Soviet economy and international cooperation. .

1990 July 30 - . 00:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2088 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 12. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 20720 . COSPAR: 1990-066A. Apogee: 1,524 km (946 mi). Perigee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.10 min. Summary: Investigation of outer space. .

2000 December 27 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: The S5M third stage steering unit failed and the vehicle crashed a few thousand km downrange near Wrangel Island.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Gonets-D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. COSPAR: F001227A. Summary: Civilian communications. Failed to orbit..
  • Strela-3 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. COSPAR: F001227E. Summary: Military Communications. Failed to orbit..
  • Strela-3 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. COSPAR: F001227F. Summary: Military Communications. Failed to orbit..
  • Strela-3 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. COSPAR: F001227D. Summary: Military Communications. Failed to orbit..
  • Gonets-D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. COSPAR: F001227B. Summary: Civilian communications. Failed to orbit..
  • Gonets-D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. COSPAR: F001227C. Summary: Civilian communications. Failed to orbit..

2001 December 28 - . 03:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2384 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27055 . COSPAR: 2001-058A. Apogee: 1,432 km (889 mi). Perigee: 1,416 km (879 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.30 min. The Tsiklon put six military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites into a medium earth orbit. Due to a launch failure in 2000 this was the first replenishment of the Strela satellite constellation since 1998. The Tsiklon second stage burn was complete at 0329:02 UTC. The S5M stage separated and ignited at 0330 and shut down at 0332:00, placing the stage and satellite dispenser in a suborbital -550 x 1400 km orbit. A second burn at apogee at 0406:15 UTC put the stage in a 1400 km circular orbit. The three Gonets satellites separated first, beginning at 0407:28 UTC; the last of the three Kosmos/Strela satellites was ejected at 0408:33, with a perigee about 15 km higher than the first of the deployments.
  • Cosmos 2385 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27056 . COSPAR: 2001-058B. Apogee: 1,426 km (886 mi). Perigee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.30 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Cosmos 2386 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27057 . COSPAR: 2001-058C. Apogee: 1,419 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.20 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Gonets D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 27058 . COSPAR: 2001-058D. Apogee: 1,419 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.10 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Gonets D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 27059 . COSPAR: 2001-058E. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,416 km (879 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.20 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Gonets D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 27060 . COSPAR: 2001-058F. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,404 km (872 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.00 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..

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