Encyclopedia Astronautica
Peenemuende



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Peenemuende
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Peenemuende
Location of Peenemuende
Credit: © Mark Wade
First launch site in the world, used for development of the V-1, A-4/V-2, Wasserfall, and other missiles. Among many major facilities, engine test stands were built that were capable of accommodating planned engines for the A-10 intercontinental missile. 296 known launches were made from the site between 1937 and 1945.

Minimum Inclination: 56.0 degrees. Maximum Inclination: 56.0 degrees.

Location: Heersversuchsstelle Peenemuende, Usedom, Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Longitude: 13.8012 deg.
Latitude: 54.1686 deg.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • V-2 The V-2 ballistic missile (known to its designers as the A4) was the world's first operational liquid fuel rocket. It represented an enormous quantum leap in technology, financed by Nazi Germany in a huge development program that cost at least $ 2 billion in 1944 dollars. 6,084 V-2 missiles were built, 95% of them by 20,000 slave labourer in the last seven months of World War II at a unit price of $ 17,877. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • A3 German test vehicle. The A3 was the first large rocket attempted by Wernher von Braun's rocket team. It was equipped with an ambitious guidance package consisting of three gyroscopes and two integrating accelerometers. The rocket was intended as a subscale prototype for the propulsion and control system technology planned for the much larger A4. All of the launches were failures, and a total redesign, the A5, was developed. More...
  • A5 German test vehicle. Subscale test model of A4 (V-2). Replaced the A3 in this role after its unsuccessful test series. The A5 used the same powerplant as the A3, but had the aerodynamic form of the A4 and a new control system. 25 all-up versions were flown, some several times. More...
  • V-2 The V-2 ballistic missile (known to its designers as the A4) was the world's first operational liquid fuel rocket. It represented an enormous quantum leap in technology, financed by Nazi Germany in a huge development program that cost at least $ 2 billion in 1944 dollars. 6,084 V-2 missiles were built, 95% of them by 20,000 slave labourer in the last seven months of World War II at a unit price of $ 17,877. As many as 3,225 were launched in combat, primarily against Antwerp and London, and a further 1,000 to 1,750 were fired in tests and training. Despite the scale of this effort, the inaccurate missile did not change the course of the war and proved to be an enormous waste of resources. The British, Americans, and Russians launched a further 86 captured German V-2's in 1945-1952. Personnel and technology from the V-2 program formed the starting point for post-war rocketry development in America, Russia, and France. More...
  • Wasserfall Seminal German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II, but never operational. The V-2-configuration rocket was copied in the USA as the Hermes and in the USSR as the R-101. In Russia it also became the starting point for the R-11/R-17 Scud surface-to-surface missile. More...
  • A4b German intermediate range boost-glide missile. Winged boost-glide version of the V-2 missile. The A4b designation was used to disguise work on the prohibited A9 program. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Dornberger, Walter, Peenemuende, Moewig, Berlin 1985..

Associated Launch Sites

Peenemuende Chronology


End 1933 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende.
  • The VfR rocket team unravels. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Ley; Nebel. Summary: Willy Ley decides to leave for America in the face of increased Nazi domination of German society. Most of the VfR experimenters end up at Peenemuende, working on development of the V-2. Some, such as Nebel, remain private citizens..

April 1936 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Go-ahead to build Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. The missile test range is to be a combined Army / Air Force test ground. Von Braun had found the location in December 1935, after his first choice - Briz on the island of Ruegen - was taken over by the Deutsch Arbeitsfront as a 'Kraft durch Freude' recreation camp. During his Christmas holiday, Von Braun toured the cost, and found Peenemuende. It seemed perfect - 400 km of ocean to the east for use as a missile shooting range, room along the path on the coast for tracking radars.

July 1936 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A3.
  • A4 wind tunnel tests - . Nation: Germany. The tests showed that the A3 configuration was unstable in flight and that it was going to take a lot of trial and error to identify the correct aerodynamic shape for the supersonic missile. Therefore the decision was taken to go slow on development of the A4 until tests with the A3 were complete. The 25 tonne thrust engine would also have to be built and proven in ground tests to determine its actual characteristics before a lot of effort was put into final design and construction of the rest of the rocket. So a series of test launches of the A3 to test the A4 control and guidance systems were undertaken, while Test Stand I at Peenemuende was prepared for tests of the 25 tonne engine.

August 1936 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: Paris Gun.
  • Ground broken at Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. First objective is development of the A4 strategic ballistic missile, later dubbed the V-2. The missile is to deliver a one tonne high explosive payload to double the range of the Paris Gun of World War I (250 km - the Paris Gun could deliver a ten kg, 21 cm diameter shell to 125 km range). To provide a reserve, the missile was designed for a 1500 m/s burnout velocity, which resulted in a 275 km range. Accuracy was to be 2 to 3 per mille, versus typical artillery shell accuracy of 4 to 5 per mille. These requirements indicated a 25 tonne thrust engine, powering a 12 tonne missile, with a 2100 m/s exhaust velocity, burning 8 tonnes of propellant in 65 seconds. The requirement to transport the missile by rail limited the diameter to 1.6 m, which in turn led to a 14 m length. Span with the detachable tail fins was 3.5 m.

    Several major issues had to be solved during development. The first was what wing and body shapes would be stable at supersonic velocities. Another was building adequate ground facilities for the intensive tests needed to develop the 25 tonne thrust motor. For this purpose a static test facility was built at Peenemuende capable of handling 100 tonne thrust motors, seen as the next step after the A4. Another major problem was developing high-capacity pumps to deliver the liquid oxygen at a temperature of -185 deg C.


September 1936 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • First supersonic wind tunnel. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hermann, Rudolf. Following problems with testing of the A3 (a subscale version of the planned V-2) by Dr Hermann, Von Braun proposes to the Germany army that a supersonic wind tunnel be constructed at a cost he estimates as 300,000 Marks. Other parts of the Army are not supportive of the facility, but it is finally built, costing millions more than Von Braun estimated.

February 1937 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende.
  • German rocketplane tests - . Nation: Germany. Spacecraft: He-112. Three flight tests were made between February and April in a He-112 equipped with a 300 kgf liquid fuel rocket engine by Flight-Captain Erich Warsitz from Neuhardenberg near Berlin. On the final flight Warstiz smelled something burning, and made an emergency belly landing. He survived but the aircraft had to be written off. Engine exhaust had flowed back into the space between the engine and fuselage and burnt cables. Work on this engine continued at Area 4 at Peenemuende. The planned application was a 1000 kgf JATO pod, with a burn time of 30 seconds, to boost bombers into the air.

May 1937 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemünde opened. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun; Dornberger; Thiel, Walter. Joint German Army-Air Force rocket research station opened at Peenemünde on the Baltic Sea. The Army Ordnance rocket program under Capt. Walter Dornberger moved 90 of its staff from Kummersdorf. Thiel and five staff working on V-2 rocket engine development remained at Kummersdorf until the summer of 1940, when the test stands at Peenemuende were finally completed..

1937 December 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A3. FAILURE: Engine cutoff at 6.5 seconds.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • First A3 launch - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Range: 0.30 km (0.19 mi). First launch of an A3 rocket. New facilites being built at Peenemuende were not ready, so the A3 launches were made from the offshore island of Greifswalder Oie. The A3 launched on this day was 6.5 m long and 70 cm in diameter. The engine occupied the first 2 m of the fuselage. The missile had a 750 kg lift-off mass, including 450 kg of propellant, which was pressurised to 20 atmospheres. The 1.5 tonne thrust engine had a 1900 m/s exhaust velocity and a 45 second burn time. The parachute deployed 3 seconds after launch, and the engine cutoff at 6.5 seconds. The rocket impacted and exploded 300 m from the launch point.

1937 December 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A3. FAILURE: Engine cutoff early.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • A3 launch - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Range: 0.30 km (0.19 mi). Summary: Second launch of an A3. Same result as the first - the rocket made a quarter turn after launch, then reached only 100 m before the parachute jettisoned and the missile crashed into the sea a short distance from the launch stand..

1937 December 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A3. FAILURE: Engine cutoff early.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • A3 launch - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Range: 0.30 km (0.19 mi). Summary: Third launch of an A3. No parachute deployment and the engine cut-off early. The rocket impacted into the Baltic Sea and sank..

1937 December 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A3. FAILURE: Engine cutoff early.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • A3 launch - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Final launch of the A3. The rocket is fired without the parachute that ruined the first two attempts, but in heavy fog. It is more successful than earlier shots, but at 800 to 1000 m altitude it also veers over and thrusts its way downward into the ocean. Analysis showed that the fins steering the rocket could not overcome the 8 m/s wind blowing at the time of the launch. Further study shows that at the low speed of initial rocket acceleration, a wind as little as 4 m/s would be enough to topple the rocket. A rudder area ten times greater than is needed to control the rocket at low speeds. This result leads to the decision to abandon the A3 configuration and build the A5 to support development of the A4 missile.

January 1938 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 engine tests begin - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Poehlmann; Thiel, Walter. The engine delivered 18 months after design started was so compact, that the length of the A4 could be cut in half. Walter Thiel, a gifted and systematic researcher, was responsible for the engine design. He had great difficulties in obtaining stable combustion, and preventing burn-through of the chamber walls. Various injector patterns were studied in a 1.5 tonne thrust chamber. His research finally reduced the combustion chamber length from 2 m to 30 cm, while the exhaust velocity was increased from 2000 m/s to 2100 m/s, and eventually reached 2280 m/s. However the reduction in the cooling area of the chamber also increased problems in preventing hot spots and burn through. This was finally solved by using a conical throat exit and a mixing chamber ahead of the burning chamber. The 1.5 tonne thrust engine was initially run at 15 bar pressure, versus the 50 bar desired. But whenever the combustion chamber pressure was increased, burn-throughs occurred, as well as forcing increases in the mass of the pumps and tanks. Therefore finally the decision was taken to leave the chamber pressure at 15 bar.

    The next step was to make a 4.5 tonne thrust by clustering three of the 1.5 tonne engines as preburners. However Thiel still had burn-throughs in test runs. Poehlmann suggested the use of film cooling, which finally solved the problem. For the 25 tonne thrust engine, Thiel simply used 18 x 1.5 tonne thrust chambers, feeding a common mixing chamber. This was on the test stand in early 1939.


Spring 1938 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A3; A5.
  • A5 delivered to Peenemuende. - . Nation: Germany. The first A5 drop test model is delivered to Peenemuende just weeks after the third A3 test. Production is planned at a rate of 10 per month to define the A4 aerodynamic configuration. Objective of the first tests is to break the sound barrier - in the wind tunnel no configuration of fins had managed to go through the barrier without disintegrating. The only test possibility was to drop the model from a great height, and let gravity accelerate it to supersonic speeds. The model weighs 250 kg and is 1.6 m long and 20 cm in diameter.

July 1938 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Rocket fighters - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. Spacecraft: He-176; He-122; Me-163. The first rocket fighter, the He-176, powered by a Walther engine, was tested at Peenemuende. In competition, Dornberger's team developed a 120-second duration engine to power the He-122. However loss of control in unpowered flights of the latter resulted in it crashing and being eliminated from further consideration. Dornberger's team left further rocket fighter engine development to Walther, and concentrated on the A4 and follow-on ballistic missiles.

Summer 1938 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A5.
  • A5 launches from Greifswalder Oie - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi). In the summer of 1938 the decision is made to go ahead with four A5 tests from Greifswalder Oie without the stabilising system or a parachute. The first missile ascended into a low wind, and reached 8 km altitude, nearing but not exceeding the sound barrier. Maximum altitude reached in the test series is 12 km.

September 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A5.
  • First A5 drop test. - . Nation: Germany. The model is dropped from a He-111 bomber from 7000 m. It breaks through the sound barrier at 1000 m altitude at a speed of 360 m/s. The stabilising fins keep the maximum oscillation of the model to within 5 degrees from vertical. The drogue ring parachute then deployed to decelerate the model to 100 m/s, followed by the main parachute which slows it to 5 m/s when it impacts in the ocean.

September 1938 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A5.
  • A5 stabilisation system tests - . Nation: Germany. In order to test the A4's stabilisation system, Walter, Kiel, is subcontracted to build a large number of model A5's. Like the drop test models, these are 20 cm and 1.6 m long. However they weigh only 47 kg gross lift-off mass, with a 27 kg empty mass. The rocket engine burns 85% hydrogen peroxide monopropellant using a calcium permanganate catalyst. The engine produces 120 kgf for 15 seconds, and has an exhaust velocity of 1000 m/s. The design objective is a low cost, reliable, and simple rocket, which will allow a large number of trail-and-error test launches to be made within a tight budget. The fins developed for the A4 as a result of these tests were shorter and wider than those of the A3. They owed nothing to aircraft wing designs of the times, which couldn't withstand supersonic speeds. But they were still too affected by the wind, tending to set the rocket on a rotation around its long axis during ascent.

During 1939-1940 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: Me-163.
  • JATO tests at Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. From 1939-1940 a series of rocket engine tests to support development of a JATO pod were conducted from Peenemuende-West with a He-111. It was found that liquid oxygen was not an appropriate oxidiser for civil use, so the engineers at Walther - Kiel introduced hydrogen peroxide as an alternate. The Walther engine was simpler than the rocket team's prototype, could produce 1000 kgf for 300 seconds, and was capable of taking a rocket fighter to 12 km altitude within two minutes from engine start.

April 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 in crisis - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Hitler. After Hitler's visit, it finally it became clear to Dornberger that either support for the project would have to come from the highest level, or that Peenemuende should abandon rocket research and be devoted to more pressing war needs.

    Meanwhile the results of the air war over London showed that the A4 could be an economic weapon. Bombers were averaging only 5 to 6 missions, dropping only 6 to 8 tonnes of bombs before being shot down. Once the loss of trained flying crews was considered, the bomber cost 30 times more than the A4 to deliver a tonne of explosives on London compared to the expendable A4 at its production price of 38,000 Marks. But time was being lost in convincing others in the German leadership that the missile should be put into production.


1939 September 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 full scale development authorised - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Von Brauchtisch gave the go-ahead for the A4 to enter full development as a weapon system for the German Army..

1939 September 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Rocket development given highest priority - . Nation: Germany. Von Brauchtisch obtained the highest priority for development of the A4. This was used in early 1940 to get 4,000 soldiers with the necessary engineering and technical backgrounds released from the Army and sent to Peenemuende's 'Versuchskommando-Nord'. Nevertheless there was a constant fight for priority in obtaining materials.

October 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A5. Failed Stage: 1.
  • A-5 development rockets with gyroscopic controls and parachutes - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 7.00 km (4.30 mi). New test series at Greifswalder Oie. The island had changed a lot, with massive new concrete installations. Three A3's were flown with a new Siemens control system. The first was launched vertically, reaching 7 km at 45 seconds into the flight at the time of engine cut-off. Both the drogue and main parachutes functioned correctly, and the rocket splashed down in the harbour and was recovered a half hour later by a motor boat (the rocket could float for up to two hours before water entering the empty propellant tanks would sink it).

October 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A5.
  • Second functional A5 launch. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 7.00 km (4.30 mi). Summary: This was a vertical launch, replicating the first launch of the series, and was again recovered successfully..

October 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A5.
  • Third functional A5 launch. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 4.00 km (2.40 mi). Range: 6.00 km (3.70 mi). This was the first test of the pitch-over manoeuvre required for the operational A4. The test went perfectly - the rocket pitched over 4 seconds after lift-off, reaching 4 km altitude, and was 6 km downrange from the launch point when the drogue parachute deployed. The rocket was recovered from the ocean successfully. This was finally a complete success after seven years of developmental effort. But the rocket had not broken the sound barrier.

October 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A5.
  • Further A5 test launches. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 18 km (11 mi). Summary: The German rocket team successfully fired and recovered further A5 development rockets with gyroscopic controls and parachutes, attaining altitude of 12 km and a range of 18 km..

Late 1939-1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1; V-2. Launch Vehicle: A4b; A9/A10.
  • A9 basic research and design - . Nation: Germany. By adding wings to the A4, the 800 m/s of kinetic energy the rocket had at cut-off could be exploited in a glide attack, extending the range of the missile from 250 km to 550 km. Such a supersonic aircraft had never been flown and presented many aerodynamic and engineering problems in 1943. Various tests of the A4's with wings began in early 1940. These were successful, and the configuration was dubbed the A9. The trajectory for such a missile involved a boost to an apogee of 29 km, then a stable glide at 20 km altitude at a speed of 1250 m/s. At the end of the glide, the missile would have descended to 5 km altitude, then make a vertical dive on the target in the fashion of the Fi-103/V-1. The A9 would be equipped with wings with a total area of 13.5 sq m. A manned version of this boost-glide rocketplane was also designed. This could reach a conventional airfield 600 km from the launch point in only 17 minutes, landing at a speed of 160 kph. Another possibility to further extend range would be a catapult-launched A9, using the technology developed for the V-1. This would provide an extra velocity of 350 m/s, further extending the missile's potential range.

November 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A4b; A9/A10.
  • Peenemuende wind tunnel goes into operation. - . Nation: Germany. The tunnel was used an average of 500 hours per month. 1000 cubic metres of vacuum vessels were pumped to a 98% vacuum in three to five minutes by three banks of double vacuum pumps. When vented, they provided the tunnel with 20 seconds of run time at velocities from Mach 1.2 to Mach 4.0, or 1500 m/s. Models 4 to 5 cm in diameter x 30-40 cm long could be accommodated in the tunnel, instrumented at 110 data points. These tests showed that drag increased 70% at the sound barrier and that the centre of pressure on the missile moved back one-half calibre. The wind tunnel runs showed that the basic A4 shape was all right, but that it needed load-carrying wings and a new rudder for the higher-speed A9 glider version. Huge trial and error was required to develop an A9 configuration that was stable, but not so stable that the control surfaces were too large. An arrow wing was the best performing, but the control surfaces were then in the turbulent flow of the wing and inadequate. Swept wings provided 12% less glide ratio than the arrow wing, resulting in a 60 km loss of range. Trapezoidal wings were the final solution, the end of a long iterative process.

    Peenemuende-developed delta wings were adapted to Army artillery rounds of the 105 mm flak gun and K5 280 mm cannon, decreasing drag by 35%. The result was an increase of 6 kg in the explosive load, a 6 kg increase in the iron mass of the round, but with a range increase from 59 to 90 km. Equipped with a new, lighter warhead, and a sabot boosting a slimmer round, the gun could shoot projectiles to a range of 135 to 150 km, with an accuracy of 2 per mill.


Early 1940 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 radio guidance tests - . Nation: Germany. In early 1940 a Do-17M aircraft was equipped with a Siemens fully automatic autopilot. This was designed to keep the aircraft within a 50 mhz guidance beam, which was produced at a 3 kW transmitter installed at Bornholm Island in Denmark, northeast of Peenemuende. The aircraft would capture the beam b flying within 1 degree of the its centre at a distance of 2 km from the transmitter. After a 140 km flight the aircraft would still be within 20 m of the correct position. The beam had a total effective range of 200 km. The Peenemuende team remembered its accuracy by the fact that on each test they would always fly over the same small red house in Bornholm on the coast.

    Use of the system on the A4 was complicated by the problem of the electrical charge that formed on the rocket body during flight through the atmosphere, and the electrical ions in the rocket exhaust, both of which made good reception of radio signals difficult. 90% of a 50 mhz signal was attenuated at the critical moment of engine cut-off. Another accuracy issue was oscillation of the rocket once it was out of the atmosphere - the rudders in the exhaust did not act smoothly, producing the equivalent of pilot-induced oscillations. The solution was to develop a missile that rode the beam during the entire boost phase, not just converging with it at the point of engine cut-off.

    Many partial system test stands were used to solve these control and guidance problems, most notably a full-up 'iron bird' that could be used to test the effect of new systems on existing components.


1940 March 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • First full-duration test of A4 engine. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The engine is run at 25 tonnes thrust for 60 seconds on Test Stand I at Peenemuende..

Summer 1940 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemuende test stands completed. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Thiel, Walter. Summary: Thiel and the remaining staff of the rocket team at Kummersdorf moved to Peenemuende..

1941-1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 engine improvements - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Beck; Thiel, Walter. Throughout the early 1940's Thiel and his team sought to produce a single chamber 25 tonne thrust engine in place of the kludged prototype engine that used 18 separate 1.5 tf chambers. They managed to demonstrate a 60 second burn time in the 18-chamber design, but the engine itself was considered too complicated to fabricate in production, requiring thousands of hand-assembled tubes to introduce fuel and oxidiser into the chamber. Thiel sought to replace these thousands of tubes with a simpler injection system - rows of simple bored holes on a flat injector plate at the head of the chamber. Beck at the Technische Hochschule in Dresden developed a ring-pattern injector that worked well in subscale engines. But the design proved unstable in the 25 tf engine. Therefore, it was decided to stick with the 18-head chamber for V-2 production.

During 1941 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 facilities - . Nation: Germany. The A4 assembly hall at Area 7 at Peenemuende was 30 m high and 50 m long. After assembly, the missile was moved to the cold flow test stand. There each rocket was tested and calibration documents were generated, necessary for the launch troops to take into account when preparing the rocket and programming its guidance system. The launch pad itself was ringed by a 7 m wide concrete embankment, and sunk 6 m into the ground. The viewpoint was 150 m from the pad, at the southern, smaller end of the complex.

    The pad was surrounded by instrumentation rooms. Water was delivered at 500 litres/second through a 1.20 m diameter pipe to a molybdenum steel cooling section, consisting of many pipes running around the exhaust blast diverter. Other test stands included number 10, where the effects of the rocket exhaust on different material surfaces was tested; and number 8, where newly delivered engines were fired and calibrated. These certification tests ran as long as 650 seconds on the water-cooled stand. Area 9 was used for launches of the Wasserfall surface-to-air missile, and Area 2 for tests of the A4 using nitric acid and Visol as propellants. Area 4 was devoted to firing tests of engines installed in aircraft fuselages, and Area 3 contained the 1000 kgf engine test stand. This stand included pump and steam test stands, and a hydrogen peroxide plant. Area 6 was built to the same design as the largest test stands at Kummersdorf, and used for A5 tests. Hundreds of A5's were shot from Greifswalder Oie.


December 1941 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A9/A10.
  • Mach 10 wind tunnel designed. - . Nation: Germany. In preparation for the A9/A10 transatlantic missile, the Peenemuende team completed design of a Mach 10 wind tunnel. However construction would not begin for another two years due to priority on devoting all available engineering time to getting the A4 into production.

1942-1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A9/A10/A11/A12.
  • Peenemuende team's ambitions - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. Von Braun was obsessed by grandiose futuristic fantasies, and Dornberger felt he constantly had to throw cold water on the engineer to keep them in check. But this tendency was easily overshadowed by Von Braun's fantastic ability to solve a technical problem, to throw all the extraneous ballast overboard and concentrate on the solution. In the moment the solution was technically realised, Von Braun no longer had any interest in the issue and dropped it.

    There was never any doubt that manned space travel was Von Braun's life goal. The technology needed for manned flight presented many such technical challenges. He realised early on that only multi-staged liquid propelled rockets could achieve his dream. Rockets certainly needed lighter propellant tanks, but there was a practical technical limit to this, and in any case, there still had to be a payload. Von Braun knew that liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen was the ultimate propellant combination, but also that learning how to handle liquid hydrogen would be a long-term affair. A one-year study at the Technische Hochschule in Dresden and Peenemuende showed that other propellant combinations could produce no more than a 20% improvement in specific impulse compared to the existing V-2 technology. Therefore a multistage rocket was the only way to achieve orbital spaceflight.


During 1942 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 series production - . Nation: Germany. Summary: An initial series of prototypes were built at the factories of Dip-Ing Stahlknecht, then a second line was opened up at Dr Eckener's Zeppelinwerke..

1942 February 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 s/n 1 moved to Test Stand VII at Peenemuende. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The missile was used for facility checks and checking of launch procedures..

1942 March 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 s/n 1 explodes during engine test run. - . Nation: Germany. The missile was being tested on Test Stand VII; no launch had been planned. G Harry Stine noticed that the German rocket scientists at White Sands were very reluctant to talk about the details of the failure, but finally managed to get the real story from Konrad Dannenberg:
    The first A.4 missile was a hand-made job. Motor tests preceding the first flight were to be carried out in a huge, mobile test stand, which held the entire missile. However, this first A.4 never flew; it found its end in the test stand. In order to clamp the missile into the stand without attaching the thrust mounts to the missile structure, a large steel corset was built. Unfortunately, the builders of this corset did not take into account the shrinkage of the missile components when the frigid liquid oxygen was pumped aboard. The first A4 shrank, dropped out of the corset, and was a total wash-out.
    The test was to have examined the behavior of the guidance system and the graphite steering vanes in the exhaust flow. The corset had pivot mountings on it to allow the missile to be deflected while its motor was being fired, to see how fast the steering vanes responded, and what amount of corrective force they developed. After the failure, the Peenemuende team was embarrassed by the fact that they had overlooked something as obvious as the fact that cold things shrink.

1942 March 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende Tower. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-001.
  • V-2 4001 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: First full-scale static testing .

May 1942 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1; V-2.
  • A4 reliability development - . Nation: Germany. The early failure rate of the A4 prototype missiles was extremely high, so the Peenemuende rocket team had to develop new measures to test and improve reliability down to the component level. This included improved quality control during manufacture, and test of the missile's components in all weathers, not just in heated laboratories. This resulted in the overall missile failure rate declining from 17% in the early test series to 4% in the final series. The V-1/Fi-103 cruise missile had a 28% higher failure rate, even though it was a simpler design.

1942 June 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-002. FAILURE: Unstable; rolled. Explosion at T+36 seconds. Range 1.3 km .
Summer 1942 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Submarine launch of powder rockets - . Nation: Germany. Solid propellant rockets were fired from a submerged platform off Greifswalder Oie to test the concept of a submarine-launched missile. The idea came from Steihoff, an engineer on the rocket team whose brother was a submarine captain. 20 to 30 Wurfgeraete of the Army's smoke corps, equipped with flammable oil or explosive warheads, were shot at the coast from up to 3 km away. The concept was to put enemy coastal oil storage tanks into flames. At Swinemuende a launcher was installed aboard a Submarine and salvoes of 20 rockets successfully fired from 10 to 15 m under water. The launcher was unnoticeable on the submarine, and the dispersion of the rockets was only a bit worse than a shot from land. But the German Navy wouldn't accept simply using an existing Army launcher. They insisted on developing a different one themselves, which would take a year, putting deployment of the system beyond the end of the war.

1942 August 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-003. FAILURE: Nose section break-up at T+45 seconds. Range 8.7 km .
1942 October 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-004.
  • V-2 4004 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Steep climb. Range 190 km .

1942 October 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-005.
  • V-2 4005 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Steam generator fault. Range 147 km..

1942 November 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-006.
  • V-2 4006 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Vetical test to 67 km. Range 14 km..

1942 November 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-007. FAILURE: Tumbled after vane failure at T+37 seconds. Range 8.6 km.
End 1942 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A9/A10; A9/A10/A11; A9/A10/A11/A12.
  • Peenemuende team's spaceflight plans - . Nation: Germany. Using catapults and wings an A9 might nearly achieve 1000 km range, but the only solution for transatlantic missions was the two-stage A9/A10. The A10 boost stage was to have a total mass of 87 tonnes, of which 62 tonnes would be propellant. The stage's 200 tonne thrust motor would burn for 50 to 60 seconds, taking the A9 upper stage to 1200 m/s. Then the A9 would separate and burn its engine, reaching an apogee of 55 km, followed by a long hypersonic glide in the atmosphere. The second stage would be equipped with air brakes for deceleration over the target, followed by a parachute for recovery in the water. The A9/A10 would reach a maximum velocity of 2800 m/s, and have a range of 4100 km, and a total flight time of 35 minutes. Full-scale development was underway, when further significant work on the project was stopped at the end of 1942. Only the Advanced Projects Group, under the direction of Dip-Ing Roth and Ing Palt, continued design of the missile. It was also planned to develop, after the war, a stratospheric rocket that could travel in 40 minutes from Europe to America. After that, the target was orbital spaceships that could reach 8 km/sec and 500 km orbital altitude. Beyond that, space stations and the burial in space of the embalmed bodies of the rocket developers and men of the rocket service. Manned expeditions to the moon were also a popular theme for research. Finally, the use of nuclear energy to achieve interstellar travel was studied by the Advanced Projects Group.

1942 December 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Train-launched A4. - . Nation: Germany. A rail-launched A4 was considered from the beginning of the project. At the end of 1942 the first train launcher wagon was completed and trials began from Test Stand VII at Peenemuende. In service the trains would have hidden in double-tracked train tunnels. Development was interrupted to get the vehicle-towed standard version of the weapon into service.

December 1942 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 priority - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Speer. Summary: Dornberger clashes with Speer over priority for the A4..

1942 December 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-009. FAILURE: Steam generator explosion at T+4 seconds. Range 0.1 km.
1943-1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 guidance development - . Nation: Germany. Using its original gyroscopic guidance package, the A4 demonstrated a 4.5 km CEP up to 1943, with 100% of the shots falling within 18 km of the target. Many factors contributed to this inaccuracy - out of tolerance guidance system components, and poor alignment of the gyro platform prior to firing. One solution developed was a radio correction system similar to that used by aircraft for landings in poor visibility. A moving radio beam would follow the correct course, and the rocket would manoeuvre to stay within the beam. But there was no support within the Army for full development of such a system - their priority was in developing and deploying distance-measuring radio navigation systems for the aviation forces. A radio guidance unit was not used aboard an A4 until near the war's end, and that used an adaptation of a system designed for a beam-riding air-launched missile. But even using the radio correction technique, the engineers were unable to get the rocket's CEP under 2 km.

1943 January 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-010. FAILURE: Exploded at ignition.
1943 January 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-011.
  • V-2 4011 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Steep roll; Burnout at T+64.5 seconds. Range 105 km.

1943 February 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemuende privatisation - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Degenkolb; Dornberger; Siemens. In a meeting with Professor Hettlage, of the Financial and Organisational Ministry of the German Defence Industry, it was proposed that Peenemuende be made a private country, with the Nazi Party and selected corporations (AEG, Siemens, Lorenz, Rheinmetall) being its shareholders. Dornberger saw Degenkolb behind this plan, and was determined to keep Peenemuende an Army proving ground. He felt that an asset, on which several hundred million Marks had been invested by the government, was being handed over to private hands for 1 to 2 million Marks. The investors intended to recover their entire investment back on a fee paid for each missile built. In the end Dornberger managed to keep Peenemuende an Army proving ground, but then he had to fight off an attempt by AEG to take over the electronics side of the development team. The rocket team's electronic engineers were years ahead of the rest of the industry, and a tempting target.

1943 February 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-012.
  • V-2 4012 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Flat trajectory; Burnout at T+61 seconds. Range 196 km.

1943 February 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-013. FAILURE: Tail fire. Explosion at T+18 seconds. Range 4.8 km.
March 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 production plans - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Degenkolb. A4 missiles were to be produced at Peenemuende, Friedrichshafen, and the Raxwerken at Wiener Neustadt. But problems began immediately - the Army expected the rockets to be as easy to build as locomotives; there was no engineering staff or time available to productionise the prototype design; there were no staff available to properly train production engineers and technicians. Degenkolb threatened to imprison the rocket team's engineers if they didn't get the missile into production on schedule. He was oblivious to the difficulties of achieving this.

1943 March 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-016. FAILURE: Explosion at T+33 seconds. Range 1 km.
1943 March 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-018.
  • V-2 4018 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Vertical; Burnout at T+60 seconds. Range 133 km.

1943 March 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-019. FAILURE: Burnout at T+60.5s Flight duration 268 seconds. .
April 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Himmler visits Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. This was the first review of the facilities by the SS commander. He pledged support, but instead the SS set up its own rocket research centre at Grossendorf, near Danzig. This marked yet another struggle for control of the programme. Himmler was defeated in this effort, but he would take his revenge later.

1943 April 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-017.
  • V-2 4017 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+64.5s Flight duration 310 seconds..

1943 April 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-020.
  • V-2 4020 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+64s; 287 km; nav err. Range 287 km.

1943 April 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-021.
  • V-2 4021 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+60s; 252 km; nav err. Range 252 km.

1943 May 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-022.
  • V-2 4022 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Switch failure. Burnout at T+62 seconds. Range 250 km..

1943 May 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1; V-2.
  • V-1/V-2 fly-off - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Degenkolb; Dornberger; Speer. A government commission, consisting of Speer, Milch, Doenitz, and Fromm viewed launches of the competing missiles at Peenemuende. The V-1/Fi-103 was much cheaper than the V-2/A4, but it was slow and low - it operated at 160 m/s at an altitude of between 200 and 2000 m - and vulnerable to enemy flak batteries and interceptors. It provided the enemy with a forewarning of attack by its characteristic engine noise and the cut-off of that noise when it went into its terminal dive. It could only be launched from fixed concrete launch ramps, making the launchers vulnerable to enemy air attack. The V-2 was mobile, more accurate, could not be intercepted, and gave the enemy no warning of attack in its supersonic ballistic course to the target. In the end, the commission could find no overwhelming advantage to either of the very different weapons, and both were ordered into production. The positive advantages of each weapon outweighed the negatives. In the tests before the commission, the Fi-103 had bad luck, and achieved no successful shots for two of the A4. '2:0 for your team', Milch told Dornberger. Speer claimed he 'always supported' the A4 but Dornberger ruefully noted they had lost 18 months in delays, primarily due to Degenkolb's incompetence. Speer pressed Dornberger - if Degenkolb really can't make it happen, then just give me the word. He'll be dismissed. But Degenkolb was not dismissed - he had Saur's complete backing.

1943 May 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-026.
  • V-2 4026 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+66s; Flight duration 349 seconds. Range 265 km.

1943 May 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-025. FAILURE: Burnout at T+43s; Flight duration 200 seconds. Range 27 km.
1943 May 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-024.
  • V-2 4024 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+56s; Flight duration 248 seconds. Range 138 km.

1943 May 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Dornberger promoted - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Degenkolb; Dornberger. Dornberger was promoted to Major General. But Degenkolb was still in charge of A4 production, and had sent four engineers to spy at Peenemuende, asking them to provide recommendations on reorganisation of the place, promising the four that they would be made directors of the new enterprise.

June 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 development - . Nation: Germany. Area 7 was used for tests of the A4's pyrotechnic igniters. The missile could be ordered to cut off its engine by radio if it veered inland. Delays in development were inevitable - a 'Peenemuende Minute' corresponded to 11 minutes or more on the watch. On one memorable occasion, the missile ignited, but its fuel pump did not reach full speed. The rocket reached only 4.5 m altitude before hovering, its abnormally low thrust exactly counterbalancing the mass of the missile. The film operator kept his post, only 100 m from the fantastic sight. As the rocket consumed propellant, its weight was reduced, and it slowly moved skyward, reaching 10 m, then 22 m, and slowly drifting out of the launch pad area. It finally crashed only 40 m beyond the blast wall. The cameraman stayed at his post through all of this.

1943 June 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-023.
  • V-2 4023 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+62s; Flight duration 287 seconds. Range 62 km.

1943 June 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-029.
  • V-2 4029 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+63s; Flight duration 291 seconds. Range 238 km.

1943 June 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-031.
  • V-2 4031 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+61 seconds. Range 238 km.

1943 June 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-028.
  • V-2 4028 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+63s; Exploded at 70 seconds. Range 75 km.

1943 June 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-030.
  • V-2 4030 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+65s; Flight duration 318 seconds. Range 287 km .

1943 June 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-036.
  • V-2 4036 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+65 seconds. Range 235 km.

1943 June 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Himmler's second visit to Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. The rocket team and SS entourage discussed politics until 4 am. The next morning, the first demonstration launch of a V-2 failed - the missile turned west at an altitude of 200 m, and crashed in the woods outside of Peenmuende-West, destroying three aircraft on the nearby runway. Fortunately no one was killed. The second launch in the afternoon was successful. But the bureaucratic efforts by the SS and other organisations to take over the rocket program from the Army continued.

1943 June 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-040.
  • V-2 4040 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+64 seconds. Range 236 km.

1943 June 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-038. FAILURE: Fell on airstrip. Range 3 km.
1943 July 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-033. FAILURE: Exploded at T+2 seconds..
1943 July 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemuende given highest priority - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Hitler; Speer; Steinhoff, Ernst. Dornberger, Von Braun, and Steinhoff (at the controls) fly aboard a He-111 to the Fuehrer bunker in East Prussia. There they give Hitler a review of the V-2 program, the first since his visit to Kummersdorf in March 1939. The appointment was for 11:30, but then delayed to 17:00.

    When they were finally ushered into his presence, Dornberger was shocked at the terrible and changed appearance of the Fuehrer. The team begins their briefing, in the presence of Hitler, Keitel, Jodl, Butale, and Speer. The presentation began with a film of preparations and launch of an A4 on the 3 October 1942. Von Braun narrated the film, which had proven a real crowd-pleaser in the past. It showed the A4 in production at the vast assembly hall at Peenemuende, the vertical roll-out, the huge launch complex, and finally launch. Von Braun then presented a model and plans for the hardened production/launch bunker that was being built on the English Channel.

    Hitler loved the bunker model, and declared he wanted to build not one, but three such facilities. Dornberger argued that mobile launchers would be militarily less vulnerable and less costly, but Hitler was unconvinced. The 7 m thick bunker walls, he declared, would 'draw every allied bomber like flies to honey. Every bomb they drop there will be one that does not fall on Germany'. Hitler asks if the payload can be increased to 10 tonnes (in order to accommodate a nuclear warhead) or if a 2,000 per month production rate was possible (in order to make mass attacks on Britain with conventional explosive or chemical payloads). Dornberger replies that it would take four to five years to develop a missile with greater payload, and that production was limited by the German industrial capacity for alcohol (used as fuel in the missile).

    Dornberger noted that they did not dream of the possibility of short-term availability of nuclear energy in 1936, when the specifications for the missile were set. In any case, after the loss of the heavy water plant in Norway, it would take years to develop nuclear weapons. Hitler was visibly upset that the V-2 would not turn out to be a war-deciding weapon. But Dornberger pointed out it was a great psychological weapon - unstoppable, something against their which there was no defence.

    Hitler stated that 'I have only had to excuse myself to two men in my life - and one of them was von Brauchtisch, who always championed the importance of your work, and the other is you. If we had this weapon in 1939, Britain would have conceded, and there would have been no war.

    Hitler finally ordered that the V-1 and V-2 missile programs be given the highest priority in the defence ministry. Immediately needed staff and material began flowing into the program. Saur immediately ordered a production goal of 2,000 missiles per month, despite the fact that there was no prospect of producing enough alcohol fuel or training enough launch crews to actual fire the missiles at such a rate. However, there was no disagreement, since any industry leader who did not commit to meeting this production goal was threatened with immediate replacement. German alcohol production would mean the maximum number that could ever be fired was 900 per month.


1943 July 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-041. FAILURE: Exploded and fell on pump building..
1943 July 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-034. FAILURE: Exploded at T+1.4 seconds..
August 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 program in crisis - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Degenkolb; Dornberger; Thiel, Walter. With only four months to go before Degenkolb's mandated production of 900 missiles per month, the engineers declare the missile is not ready for production. A workable engine has been developed, but it is complex, suitable for prototypes only, and the engineers involved do not have the experience to turn it into something designed for mass production. Continuous changes on the engine also affect other parts of the rocket, resulting in drawing changes simultaneous with the effort to mass-produce detailed parts. Thiel and his team declare that in fact development of the A4 can never be finished before the war's end. They recommend that plans to put it into production should be stopped. Thiel, at the verge of a nervous breakdown, led this engineering 'revolt', although Rees was the spokesman. They declare they would stop work at Peenemuende and retire to the university. Von Braun argued against this position, demanding that production continue. Dornberger suffered a crisis of confidence in the rocket team as a result of this fight, but decided to continue trying to get the missile in production and fielded with the Germany Army.

1943 August 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-054.
  • V-2 4054 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+68 seconds. Flight duration 270 seconds..

1943 August 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemünde attacked by RAF. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun; Reitsch; Thiel, Walter. The Royal Air Force attacked Germany's Peenemünde Rocket Research Center, causing heavy damage and delaying V-weapon program by months.

    With the V-2 development program already in crisis, the Allies launch a massive bombing raid against Peenemuende. On that evening test pilot Hanna Reitsch was visiting the launch site. At 23:30 the air raid siren sounded. 600 British bombers drop 1500 tonnes of ordnance on the launch centre. However many bombs fell in the ocean around the peninsula, or buried themselves harmlessly in sand dunes. The resident area was hardest hit, while the Luftwaffe station at Peenemuende West was not touched. 47 British bombers were shot down - they were told before the raid that this was the most important mission of the war, and that their commanders would accept a 50% loss rate. 735 people were killed in the raid on the ground, including 178 of the 4000 inhabitants of the residential area. A large number of the foreign slave workers in the Trassenheide concentration camp barracks were also killed.

    After the tremendous raid the rocket team wander around the devastated facility, half-clothed, the buildings bathed in a weird light and everything covered in fine sand, as if flour was dropped over everything. Thiel and Walther - the two leading rocket engineers in Germany - were killed in the raid, and virtually all major facilities were damaged. The saving grace was that the soft sand of Peenemuende attenuated the blast of many bombs. Nine bombs hit the main assembly hall, but while there was splinter damage to some of the machine tools, there was no decisive hit that would prevent production from continuing. It was estimated that operations could resume in 4 to 6 weeks.

    The raid was not unexpected. The high altitude contrails of the V-2 test launches were called 'frozen lightning' and could be seen from Sweden on clear days. The location and purpose of Peenemuende appeared in a crossword puzzle in a illustrated magazine published in central Germany in early 1943. British reconnaissance flights to locate the launch facilities had been recognised for what they were.

    This raid, together with the bombing of V-2 production lines at the Zeppelinwerke in Friedrichshafen and the Raxwerke in Wiener Neustadt convinced Saur to reduce the V-2 production rate goal to 900 per month.


1943 August 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 production facilities bombed - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hitler; Todt. Ten days after the raid on Peenemuende, the British bomb the V-2 production/launch bunker under construction at Watten. Seven further bunkers (four in Pas-de-Calais, three at Cherbourg) continued to be built. Soon thereafter, V-2 production plants at Wiener Neustadt and Friedrichshafen are also bombed. Clearly the Allies had detected and targeted the infrastructure of the V-2 production program. In response to the raids, the decision was made that Organisation Todt would build an underground V-2 factory at a chalk mine in Witzen. The bunker at Watten would be used only as a liquid oxygen production plant. Hitler had mandated a 7 m thick protective roof there, which cannot be penetrated by Allied bombs. It was decided that the roof would be jacked up, the sides filled with concrete, and construction work would continue underground despite the perpetual bombing.

September 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Dornberger meets with Hitler - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Hitler. Summary: Hitler decides to continue work on the bunkers. In Dornberger's opinion, this wastes resources that could have resulted in an earlier, full deployment of the V-2 using motorised, mobile batteries..

Fall 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Submarine-launched V-2 - . Nation: Germany. Director Lafferenz of the German Worker's Front proposed towing of a 3 m diameter x 30 m long capsule containing a single V-2 by submarine. This was later refined to a single submarine towing three 500 tonne capsules, each with a V-2, its propellants, and launch equipment. At the launch point water tanks would be flooded in the capsule to bring it upright, with the top above the surface. The top would be opened, then launch troops would enter to prepare and fuel the rocket, followed by launch. But the pressing problem of solving the A4's reliability problems and getting it into production delayed any further work on the concept until the end of 1944.

October 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: V-1.
  • German 'ski ramps' - . Nation: Germany. British photo-intelligence interpreters discover what they call 'ski ramps' along the Atlantic coast of occupied Europe. These are 100 m long, and a total of 21 are discovered by mid-November. It is soon noted that whatever their location, all of the ramps point toward London. Fantastic theories are proposed - they are iceberg or poison gas launchers.

1943 October 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-049.
  • V-2 4049 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: First Field Battery launch. Burnout at T+64 seconds. Flight duration 272 seconds..

1943 October 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-071.
1943 October 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-067.
1943 October 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-069.
  • V-2 4069 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+63 seconds. Flight duration 286 seconds..

1943 November 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-043.
December 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A9/A10.
  • Mach 10 wind tunnel construction begins. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: A4 development is completed, so Peenemuende engineers can turn to full-scale development of the A9/A10. Construction of a Mach 10 wind tunnel to test hypersonic aerodynamic configurations for the missile begins..

1943 December 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: V-1.
  • Decision to destroy the ski ramps - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Although their purpose is not understood, it is decided to start a bombing campaign to destroy the German 'ski ramps'. By December 1, 64 had been found, and 75 by 21 December..

1943 December 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-073.
  • V-2 4073 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+63 seconds. Flight duration 286 seconds..

1943 December 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-060.
  • V-2 4060 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+69 seconds. Flight duration 247 seconds..

1943 December 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-059.
  • V-2 4059 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+33 seconds. Flight duration 104 seconds..

1943 December 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: V-1.
  • Raid against V-1 launchers - . Nation: Germany. Summary: A raid is launched by Allied 1300 aircraft. The tactics have been developed at Eglin AFB, Florida, where a replica 'ski ramp' was built in an effort to understand its purpose and how best to bomb it..

1943 December 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-091.
During 1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 guidance development - . Nation: Germany. Early A4's were equipped with a radio-controlled cut-off system. These were replaced in service versions by self-contained integrating accelerometers. Professors Bucholz and Wagner at Darmstadt had developed the system, which was shown to have the same accuracy as the radio-controled system. This system had been tested as early as the fall of 1939, but no production quantities were available until mid-1944. Gyroscopic guidance systems from Kresselgeraete GmbH were tested, but found to have inferior accuracy to the acceleromter-based system. For better precision a double integrator system was needed, but this could not be developed before the war's end. Virtually all A4 systems were developed by the engineers at Peenemuende rather than by industry. Some said that it would have been better handled by industry, but in fact there was no such thing as rocket technology when Von Braun's team began their work - it all had to be created.

Beginning of 1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 sounding rockets - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi). The Peenemuende team developed scientific payloads for a sounding rocket version of the V-2, to measure cosmic rays, meteoroid flux, and so on. However due to the pressure to solve the missile's reliability problems, these were never flown from Germany. Only after the war could these plans be implemented in New Mexico. However during the war there were some vertical shots of the missile to test its stability and behaviour in a vacuum. On one such shot the missile reached 189 km altitude. On another occasion four launch troops were killed when the missile ascended, then veered 90 degrees, turned again, and impacted in the launch pit at the point of launch.

1944 January 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-032. FAILURE: Exploded at T+43 seconds. Flight duration 104 seconds..
1944 January 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-082.
1944 January 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-077.
1944 January 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-074.
1944 January 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17003. FAILURE: First Mittelwerk test flight. Failed..
1944 February 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-106.
1944 February 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17009.
1944 February 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17007.
1944 February 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17010.
1944 February 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17001.
1944 February 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-098.
1944 February 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17004.
1944 February 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-085.
1944 February 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17021.
1944 February 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17006.
1944 February 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17011.
1944 February 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17015.
1944 February 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-112.
1944 February 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. Launch Pad: GWO?. Launch Vehicle: Wasserfall. LV Configuration: Wasserfall 2. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 March 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-084. FAILURE: Exploded.
1944 March 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17016.
1944 March 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-151.
1944 March 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-126.
1944 March 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. Launch Pad: GWO?. Launch Vehicle: Wasserfall. LV Configuration: Wasserfall 3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1944 March 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17020.
1944 March 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-116.
1944 March 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-088.
  • V-2 4088 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+59 seconds. Flight duration 282 seconds..

1944 March 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-128.
1944 March 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 problems begin to be understood - but Peenemuende Rocket Team leaders arrested by SS - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Hitler; Riedel, Walter; Steinhoff, Ernst. The cause of early detonation of the warhead during the engine burn time is understood, but the crashes at the end of the trajectory are still a mystery. Dornberger is ordered to report to Hitler at Berchtesgaden. The call is received at 7 pm in the evening, following a bomb raid and ice storm. Dornberger is told that on the following morning Von Braun, Riedel II, and Groettrup are to be arrested for sabotage of the A4 program. Groettrup selects Dr Steinhoff as his representative. The men are accused of not putting all their energy in development of the A4 as a weapon - instead only using the financing of the Reich to support their private plans for manned spaceflight. Dornberger know he cannot complete the program without these men - Von Braun and Riedel were the key leaders, and Groettrup was head of the electrical systems section. Dornberger finally achieves their release by demonstrating to the SS that the biggest impediment to the program was Hitler's dream that the A4 would never reach London. After a few days in detention, Von Braun was moved to Schwedt, and then freed. The others were allowed out a bit later.

1944 March 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17022.
1944 March 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17018.
1944 March 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17033.
1944 March 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-145.
1944 March 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-121.
1944 March 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17031.
1944 March 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17019.
1944 March 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-132.
1944 April 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17098.
1944 April 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-086. FAILURE: Exploded at T+17 seconds..
1944 April 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17043.
1944 April 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17063.
1944 April 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17108.
1944 May 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17200.
1944 May 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-152.
1944 May 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17320.
1944 May 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-136.
  • V-2 4136 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+65 seconds. Flight duration 263 seconds..

1944 May 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17323.
1944 May 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-144. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 May 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17312.
1944 May 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17309.
1944 May 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-170. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 May 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-146.
  • V-2 4146 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+58 seconds. Flight duration 260 seconds..

June 1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Renewed effort by the SS to take over Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. The plan this time was for the launch centre to be privatised, made part of Siemens, with the SS running day-to-day operations. Dornberger was unsuccessful in fighting this effort off, and in July-August 1944 a series of government decrees gave the SS full control.

1944 June 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17558.
1944 June 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-140.
  • V-2 4140 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+60seconds. Flight duration 259 seconds..

1944 June 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17656.
1944 June 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17746.
1944 June 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17557.
1944 June 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-171.
  • V-2 4171 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at 69 seconds. Flight duration 315 seconds..

1944 June 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-159. FAILURE: Burnout at T+11seconds. Flight duration 35 seconds..
1944 June 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-158.
  • V-2 4158 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+68seconds. Flight duration 264 seconds..

1944 June 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-209.
  • V-2 4209 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+61seconds. Flight duration 296 seconds..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: First Oie launch..

1944 June 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-089.
1944 June 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17727.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Launched by Battery 1./485.

1944 June 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17840.
1944 June 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17839.
1944 June 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18012.
  • V-2 M 5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Launched by Battery 1./485.

1944 June 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18014.
1944 June 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18017.
1944 June 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-157.
1944 June 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18007.
1944 June 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18013.
1944 June 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18015.
1944 June 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-208.
  • V-2 4208 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+59seconds. Flight duration 296 seconds..

1944 June 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-167.
1944 June 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-173.
1944 June 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-211.
1944 July 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18011.
1944 July 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18010.
1944 July 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-212.
1944 July 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18143.
1944 July 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18144.
1944 July 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-214.
1944 July 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18020.
1944 July 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-210.
  • V-2 4210 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+60seconds. Flight duration 187 seconds..

1944 July 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-160.
1944 July 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18019.
1944 July 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-178.
1944 July 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-205.
  • V-2 4205 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+67 seconds.Range 237 km.

1944 August 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18203.
  • V-2 Ma24 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Launched by Battery 1./485.
  • V-2 Ma28 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: By the end of July there were a total of 125 Peenemuende shots. Presumably the difference 141-125=16 were Oie shots..

1944 August 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18204.
1944 August 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-202.
  • V-2 4202 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+21 seconds. Range 2 km.

1944 August 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-179.
1944 August 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Obergruppenfuehrer Kammler of the SS put in charge of the V-2 program. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Hitler. Dornberger was relegated to command of the training batteries for the rocket troops. Von Braun spoke to Dornberger, telling him that he must accept the situation and assist Kammler. Following the July 1944 assassination and coup attempt against Hitler, Dornberger had no backing in the leadership for keeping the program in Army hands. Dornberger finally agreed to cooperate - rockets had been his life's work, and he could not bear not to be involved. Dornberger hoped to 'put my words in Kammler's mouth and make them appear to be his'. All Army commanders in the rocket program were dismissed and replaced by SS officers - Kammler was in complete control.

1944 August 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18200.
1944 August 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P12. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-182. FAILURE: Exploded at 70 m. T+10 seconds..
1944 August 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18266. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 August 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18263.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+61seconds. Flight duration 302 seconds. Range 227 km (First 11/18000).

1944 August 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18239.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+66seconds. Flight duration 327 seconds. Range 284 km.

1944 August 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18243.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+64seconds. Flight duration 282 seconds. Range 235 km.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+66seconds. Flight duration 290 seconds. Range 239 km.

1944 August 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-216.
  • V-2 4216 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+57seconds. Flight duration 282 seconds. Range 196 km .
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+67seconds. Flight duration 291 seconds. Range 224 km.

1944 August 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-226.
1944 August 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18222.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+64seconds. Flight duration 254 seconds. Range 189 km.

1944 August 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18240.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+61seconds. Flight duration 252 seconds. Range 226 km.

1944 August 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18299.
1944 September 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-225.
1944 September 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18293.
1944 September 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-206.
1944 September 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-230.
1944 September 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-222.
  • V-2 4222 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18278..

1944 September 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-231. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 September 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-223.
1944 September 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18257.
1944 September 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18330.
1944 September 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-234.
  • V-2 4234 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18330..
  • V-2 Ma87 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Launched by Battery 3./485.

1944 September 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-239.
1944 September 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-232.
1944 September 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18179.
  • V-2 4219 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18205..

1944 September 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-241.
1944 September 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-238. FAILURE: Possibly correct launch date is 27.09.1944..
1944 September 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-242.
1944 October 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18786. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 October 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18889.
1944 October 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-245.
  • V-2 4245 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18 789..

1944 October 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18787.
1944 October 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-248.
1944 October 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-249.
  • V-2 4249 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18 787..

1944 October 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-237. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 October 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18782.
1944 October 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-250.
1944 October 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-251.
1944 October 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-252.
  • V-2 4252 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18 830..

1944 October 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-246.
1944 October 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-256.
1944 October 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-247.
1944 October 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-257.
1944 October 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: Wasserfall.
  • Wasserfall test - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Goering. Apogee: 18 km (11 mi). Range: 26 km (16 mi). The Wasserfall surface to air missile was launched from a table, as was the V-2. The missile was optically steered to its target, and had a potential range of 26 km and ceiling of 18 km, with a flight speed of 600 m/s. Goering observed the first launch from Test Stand IX. He was immensely fat, wearing a fantastical outfit, downing pills every five minutes, and uninterested in the proceedings. Dornberger ruefully noted that the Reich is losing the war due to the leadership's shortsightedness. They had not accepted Von Braun's rocket plans in 1939 or the Panzerfaust in 1942. They only became interested in the latter when the first American bazooka fell into German hands in Tunisia.

1944 October 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P6. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-260.
1944 October 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: Wasserfall.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 17 km (10 mi).

1944 October 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-259.
1944 November 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-253.
1944 November 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-220.
1944 November 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-262.
1944 November 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19304.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: First 12/19000 series launch..

1944 November 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-263.
1944 November 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-261.
1944 November 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-266.
1944 November 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-265.
1944 November 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-267.
1944 November 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-221.
  • V-2 4221 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18 335..

1944 November 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-268.
1944 November 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19862.
  • V-2 Ma332 R1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 367 km. No data returned but accuracy 4.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 18.6 km from aim point..
  • V-2 Ma336 R2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 369 km. Airburst 15 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 81.4 km from aim point..

1944 November 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-271.
1944 November 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende Rail. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19864.
1944 November 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende Rail. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19861. FAILURE: Exploded on pad.
  • V-2 Ma328 R4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range over 300 km..

1944 November 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-272.
1944 November 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19868.
  • V-2 Ma335 R5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 370 km. No data returned but accuracy 22.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 93.8 km from aim point..

1944 November 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende Rail. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19873.
  • V-2 Ma330 R6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 360 km. No data returned but accuracy 4.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 45.2 km from aim point..

1944 November 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19305.
1944 December 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Work resumes on train-launched A4. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: At Kammler's orders work resumes on getting the train-launched version of the A4 into service..

1944 December 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende Rail. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19302.
1944 December 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19020?.
1944 December 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende Rail. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19301.
1944 December 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-254. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 December 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19874.
  • V-2 Ma333 R9 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 373 km. No data returned but accuracy 18 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 30.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-278.
1944 December 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A4b.
  • Boosted A4b test planned. - . Nation: Germany. 10 solid propellant rockets were delivered from the Wehrmacht to Pruefstand XII. Work was to be completed by the end of March to begin flight test of an extended-range using solid rocket boost. However Peenemuende was evacuated before the first flight test could be undertaken.

1944 December 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19020.
  • V-2 290 R10 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 354 km. Circular error 7.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-282.
1944 December 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18783.
  • V-2 Ma191 R11 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 354 km. No data returned but accuracy 2.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 70.1 km from aim point..

1944 December 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-283.
1944 December 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Submarine-launched A4 work resumes. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The first construction drawings were released for the submarine-launched version..

1944 December 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-288.
1944 December 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-289.
1944 December 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-291.
1944 December 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A4b. LV Configuration: V-2 18484. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • A-4b #1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Work on a winged version of the A4 had been stopped in early 1943. Now, with the Allies overrunning launch sites in Belgium and Holland, Kammler ordered it resumed in order to have a long-range version of the weapon that could reach England and Allied continental rear areas from Germany. Within weeks the wind tunnel results generated since 1940 were reviewed, and a prototype winged version of the missile built. On the first launch, the steering failed at 30 m, and the missile crashed a short distance from the pad. Several more test articles were on hand, but testing could not resume immediately due to a shortage of alcohol fuel.

1944 December 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-290.
1944 December 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-286.
1944 December 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A4b; Taifun; Wasserfall.
  • Peenemuende rocket team faces the New Year - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hitler. It was for them a depressing time. The V-2 came too late to affect the outcome of the war. The years 1939-1942, when Hitler had blocked development and production of the V-2, were lost years. By this time, the Peenemuende staff was allocated as follows: 135 were working on Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket; 1940 were working on the V-2; 1220 were working on the Wasserfall surface-to-air missile; 270 were working on the A4b winged V-2; and 660 were in administrative positions. Meanwhile Kammler was constantly underway, trying to deploy the wonder weapons he believed would save the Reich. He could only be met at one-hour meetings at autobahn intersections, on his way from one place to another.

1945 January 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-287.
1945 January 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20835.
  • V-2 Ma394 V1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 1.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 58.0 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20826.
  • V-2 Ma381 V2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 2.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.7 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-294.
1945 January 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-292.
1945 January 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20821.
  • V-2 Ma379 V3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 14.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 38.0 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Arbeitstab Dornberger - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Speer. Speer puts Dornberger in charge of an office within the Munitions Ministry to oversee further development of the A4 and other rockets, drawing on staff from Peenemuende. Everyone knew the war would be over in a few months -- nothing could be accomplished. Kammler still made sure that Dornberger was only responsible for technical aspects. All further developments of the A4 had been on hold for years, and any further work was now impossible. Only simple things could be worked on, such as converting 6 cm smoke rockets to use as an air-to-air weapon. In the short turnaround typical of the times, the team drove to Kummersdorf and built a 21-cm diameter pipe that could fire a barrage of four smoke rockets. Two days later, it was reported back that the device was used successfully in combat, and it was put into production. It was first used against allied bombers over Schweinfurt in January 1945.

1945 January 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20840.
  • V-2 Ma392 V4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 13.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 14.4 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Train-launched A4 abandoned. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Allied air superiority made the train-launched version unviable as a weapon, compared to the truck-towed missile, which was more easily moved and concealed. Further work on the system was abandoned..

1945 January 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20348.
  • V-2 Ma384 V5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 11.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 12.8 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20850. FAILURE: Failed 30 m above pad.
  • V-2 Ma380 V6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20832. FAILURE: Failed 20 m above pad.
  • V-2 Ma390 V7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-301.
  • V-2 4301 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 20 338..

1945 January 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-295.
  • V-2 4302 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 20 840..

1945 January 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. Launch Vehicle: A4b. LV Configuration: V-2 18543.
  • A-4b #2 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. The first successful launch, this reached 80 km altitude and 1200 m/s. It then flew stably in supersonic flight using its 13.5 sq. m. wing. The automatic guidance system was designed to keep the missile on course in both supersonic and subsonic flight regimes. However the wing broke off shortly after the beginning of the glide. This concluded work on the A4b/A9; the increasingly chaotic situation in Germany prevented further flight tests.

1945 January 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20829. FAILURE: Failed 1300 m above pad.
  • V-2 Ma385 V8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20827. FAILURE: Failed 100 m above pad.
  • V-2 Ma383 V9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20338.
1945 January 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-303.
1945 February 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-284.
1945 February 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-274.
1945 February 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-285.
1945 February 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-309.
  • V-2 Ma376 U1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Submarine-launched A4 abandoned. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Evacuation of Peenemuende brought work on the submarine-towed version to an end..

1945 February 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-296.
  • V-2 Ma373 U3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-310.
1945 February 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-298.
  • V-2 4298 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct launch date is 08.02.1945..

1945 February 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-270.
1945 February 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 21404.
  • V-2 Ma372 U2 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Accuracy 38.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 21405. FAILURE: Guidance failure after 8 seconds.
  • V-2 Ma370 U4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-273. FAILURE: Failure.
1945 February 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 21406.
  • V-2 Ma375 U5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Accuracy 1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..
  • V-2 Ma369 U6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-255.
1945 February 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 21407.
  • V-2 Ma374 U7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: 380 km range. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 21399. FAILURE: Exploded after 36 seconds.
  • V-2 Ma371 U8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 21408.
  • V-2 Ma377 U9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: 430 km range. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 21400. FAILURE: Last Peenemuende launch. 350 km range..
  • V-2 Ma368 U10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

Late February 1945 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Final Von Braun visit to Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: All launch activity has been shut down..

1945 May 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende.
  • Soviet Army occupies Peenemuende. - . Nation: Germany. Little is found. Western intelligence is convinced that the Soviets conduct missile tests from Peenemuende in the late 1940's (the Scandinavian 'ghost rockets'). But Russian historical sources available after the downfall of the Soviet Union do not support this belief.

1945 May 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemünde occupied. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Russian ground forces occupied Peenemünde, Germany..

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