Encyclopedia Astronautica
Kagoshima M


Mu launch complex. Mu Pad

Longitude: 131.0813 deg.
Latitude: 31.2510 deg.
First Launch: 1966.10.31.
Last Launch: 1995.01.15.
Number: 25 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • SS Japanese earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1970.09.25 (SS) to 1985.08.18 (SS-11 Suisei). Scientific observations in outer space. More...
  • Tansei Japanese technology satellite. 5 launches, 1971.02.16 (Tansei 1) to 1985.01.07 (SS-10 Sagikake). Series of spacecraft of varying configurations built for engineering tests of scientific satellite equipment. More...
  • Corsa A Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 1976.02.04. Japanese technology satellite. More...
  • EXOS Japanese earth ionosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1978.02.04 (SS-05 Kyokko) to 1989.02.21 (Akebono). Optical investigations of ionosphere. EXOS-C (OHZORA). More...
  • Astro Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. 4 launches, 1981.02.21 (SS-07 Hinotori) to 1993.02.20 (Asuka). X-ray experiments. Launching organization: ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science). More...
  • Hagoromo Japanese lunar orbiter. One launch, 1990.01.24. Lunar orbiter ejected from Muses A 3/19/90; contact lost after release; engineering test. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). More...
  • Hiten Japanese lunar orbiter. One launch, 1990.01.24. MUSES-A was renamed Hiten after launch. It developed of lunar swingby techniques for future missions and ejected a lunar orbiter. More...
  • Solar Japanese solar satellite. One launch, 1991.08.30. X-ray imaging of Sun. More...
  • Express 1 Japanese materials science satellite. One launch, 1995.01.15, EXPRESS RV. At first thought not to have reached orbit. Later reentry vehicle was discovered in Ghana having reentered and deployed its parachute on Jan 15. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Mu-1 Japanese test vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40 More...
  • Mu-3D Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40 More...
  • Mu-4S Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40 More...
  • Mu-3C Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-22TVC + 1 x M-3A More...
  • Mu-3H Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-13 + 1 x M-22TVC + 1 x M-3A + 1 x KM-H More...
  • Mu-3S Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-13TVC + 1 x M-22TVC + 1 x M-3A More...
  • Mu-3S-II Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-735 + 1 x M-13 + 1 x M-23 + 1 x M-3B More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kagoshima Japanese launch center for solid fueled sounding rockets and satellite launchers. Limited to two months a year due to disturbance of local fisheries. More...

Kagoshima M Chronology


1966 October 31 - . 05:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-1. LV Configuration: Mu-1 M-1-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 34 km (21 mi).

1969 August 17 - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3D. LV Configuration: Mu-3D M-3D-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1970 September 25 - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-4S. LV Configuration: Mu-4S M-4S-1. FAILURE: Fourth stage failed to ignite.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • SS - . Payload: MS-F1. Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SS. Decay Date: 1970-09-25 . COSPAR: F700925A. Apogee: 712 km (442 mi).

1971 February 16 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-4S. LV Configuration: Mu-4S M-4S-2.
  • Tansei 1 - . Payload: MS T1. Mass: 62 kg (136 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Tansei. USAF Sat Cat: 4952 . COSPAR: 1971-011A. Apogee: 1,106 km (687 mi). Perigee: 986 km (612 mi). Inclination: 29.7000 deg. Period: 106.10 min. Summary: Engineering test for the launching of scientific satellites. Injection point 29.7 N, 145.8 E .

1971 September 28 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-4S. LV Configuration: Mu-4S M-4S-3.
  • SS-01 Shinsei - . Payload: MS-F2. Mass: 65 kg (143 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SS. USAF Sat Cat: 5485 . COSPAR: 1971-080A. Apogee: 1,866 km (1,159 mi). Perigee: 872 km (541 mi). Inclination: 32.0000 deg. Period: 113.10 min. Summary: Scientific observations in outer space. Injection point 29 deg 7 min N, 145 deg 8 min E. .

1972 August 19 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-4S. LV Configuration: Mu-4S M-4S-4.
  • SS-02 Denpa - . Payload: REXS. Mass: 75 kg (165 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SS. Decay Date: 1980-05-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 6152 . COSPAR: 1972-064A. Apogee: 6,322 km (3,928 mi). Perigee: 238 km (147 mi). Inclination: 31.0000 deg. Period: 157.40 min. Summary: Ionospheric experiments. Scientific observations in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Interjection point 31 deg 15' N 11 deg 05' E. .

1974 February 16 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3C. LV Configuration: Mu-3C M-3C-1.
  • Tansei 2 - . Payload: MS T2. Mass: 65 kg (143 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Tansei. Decay Date: 1983-01-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 7122 . COSPAR: 1974-008A. Apogee: 3,231 km (2,007 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 31.2000 deg. Period: 121.70 min. Summary: Attitude control satellite (performance test of launch vehicle). .

1975 February 24 - . 05:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3C. LV Configuration: Mu-3C M-3C-2.
  • SS-03 Taiyo - . Payload: SRATS. Mass: 86 kg (189 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SS. Decay Date: 1980-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7671 . COSPAR: 1975-014A. Apogee: 3,125 km (1,941 mi). Perigee: 254 km (157 mi). Inclination: 31.5000 deg. Period: 120.20 min. Examined solar radiation, thermospheric structure. SRATS (Solar and Thermospheric Radiation Satellite) is the third Japanese scientific satellite, to study the intereffects of solar radiation and the thermosphere of the earth. National name: Taiyo. Launch time 0525 GMT.

1976 February 4 - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3C. LV Configuration: Mu-3C M-3C-3. FAILURE: Stage 2 thrust vector control failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Corsa A - . Mass: 92 kg (202 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Corsa A. Decay Date: 1976-02-04 . COSPAR: F760204A.

1977 February 19 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3H. LV Configuration: Mu-3H M-3H-1.
  • Tansei 3 - . Payload: MS T3. Mass: 230 kg (500 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Tansei. USAF Sat Cat: 9841 . COSPAR: 1977-012A. Apogee: 3,802 km (2,362 mi). Perigee: 799 km (496 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 134.10 min. Tentative name before launching: MS-T3. Launching organization: Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. Radio frequencies: 136.725 MHz, tracking; 400.500 MHz, telemetry. Active life: two weeks. Function: (1) Test of the overall p erformance of the newly developed launch vehicle, M-3H-1. (2) Experiment of magnetic stabilization. (3) Observation of ultraviolet radiation.

1978 February 4 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3H. LV Configuration: Mu-3H M-3H-2.
  • SS-05 Kyokko - . Payload: Exos A. Mass: 103 kg (227 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: EXOS. USAF Sat Cat: 10664 . COSPAR: 1978-014A. Apogee: 3,952 km (2,455 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 134.00 min. Auroral studies. Active life - two years. Function: 1) Observation of wide angle global auroral pictures using UV television camera. 2) Spectrophotometry of ultraviolet air glow. 3) Observation of the energy spectrum of photoelectrons and auroral electrons. 4) Mass spect rometry of the ionized atmospheric species in the thermosphere. 5) Measurements of density and temperature of ambient electrons in the thermosphere. 6) Observation of electromagnetic and plasma waves and the emission associated with auroral phenomena.

1978 September 16 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3H. LV Configuration: Mu-3H M-3H-3.
  • SS-06 Jikiken - . Payload: Exos B. Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: EXOS. USAF Sat Cat: 11027 . COSPAR: 1978-087A. Apogee: 21,192 km (13,168 mi). Perigee: 251 km (155 mi). Inclination: 31.3000 deg. Period: 370.90 min. Launching organization: Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. Stimulated plasma wave experiment, natural plasma wave measurement, plasma parameter measurement by VLF Doppler technique, electric field probe and plasma density me asurement, energetic particle analysis, and controlled electron beam emission experiment. Characteristics: weight 90.5 kg, configuration - polyhedron with 38 faces, height 0.6m , diameter 0.75m, attitude control spin stabilization, life two years.

1979 February 21 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3C. LV Configuration: Mu-3C M-3C-4.
  • SS-04 Hakucho - . Payload: Corsa B. Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SS. Decay Date: 1985-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 11272 . COSPAR: 1979-014A. Apogee: 566 km (351 mi). Perigee: 543 km (337 mi). Inclination: 29.8000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Soft X-ray telescope. Launching organization: Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. Function: Observation of X-ray radiation of celestial bodies with good time resolution over a wide spectrum range. Characterstics: weight 96 kg, configuration regula r octagonal prism, height 0.66 m, diameter 0.76m, spin stabilized. Expected life 2 years.

1980 February 17 - . 00:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S. LV Configuration: Mu-3S M-3S-1.
  • Tansei 4 - . Payload: MS T4. Mass: 134 kg (295 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Tansei. Decay Date: 1983-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 11706 . COSPAR: 1980-015A. Apogee: 608 km (377 mi). Perigee: 517 km (321 mi). Inclination: 38.7000 deg. Period: 95.90 min.

1981 February 21 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S. LV Configuration: Mu-3S M-3S-2.
  • SS-07 Hinotori - . Payload: Astro A. Mass: 185 kg (407 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Astro. Decay Date: 1991-07-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 12307 . COSPAR: 1981-017A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 31.3000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: Hinotori (ASTRO-A). Launching organisation: Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. Investigation of solar flare by X-ray telescope and spectrograph. .

1983 February 20 - . 05:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. Launch Pad: M1. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S. LV Configuration: Mu-3S M-3S-3.
  • SS-08 Tenma - . Payload: Astro B. Mass: 185 kg (407 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Astro. Decay Date: 1988-12-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 13829 . COSPAR: 1983-011A. Apogee: 438 km (272 mi). Perigee: 431 km (267 mi). Inclination: 31.5000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. X-ray experiments. Astro-B (Tenma). Launch 0510 GMT. Launching organization: ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science). X-ray observation of X-ray stars in our galaxy as well as X-ray galaxies using a scintillating proportional counter, a transient X-ray source mo nitor, an X-ray foucsing collector, a radiation belt monitor, a gamma ray burst detector and a star sensor.

1984 February 14 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. Launch Pad: M1. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S. LV Configuration: Mu-3S M-3S-4.
  • SS-09 Onzora - . Payload: Exos C. Mass: 180 kg (390 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: EXOS. Decay Date: 1988-12-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 14722 . COSPAR: 1984-015A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 74.6000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Optical investigations of ionosphere. EXOS-C (OHZORA). Optical study of the stratosphere and middle atmosphere. Study of the specific phenomena of the ionospheric plasma over the southern Atlantic geomagnetic anomaly zone which was discovered by the third scientific satellite 'TAIYO'. Launch vehicle Mu-3S-4, launching organization ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science). Launch time 0800 GMT.

1985 January 7 - . 19:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. Launch Pad: M1. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-II. LV Configuration: Mu-3S-II M-3S2-1.
  • SS-10 Sagikake - . Payload: MS T5. Mass: 141 kg (310 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Tansei. USAF Sat Cat: 15464 . COSPAR: 1985-001A. Sakigake ('Pioneer') was a test spacecraft similar to Suisei (Planet-A). Objectives were :verification of fundamental technology related to interplanetary missions, including deep-space communication, attitude control, attitude determination; study and observation of solar wind and plasma waves and interplanetary magnetic field. It carried three instruments to measure plasma wave spectra, solar wind ions, and interplanetary magnetic fields. The spacecraft was spin-stabilized at two different rates (5 and 0.2 rpm). It was equipped with hydrazine thrusters for attitude and velocity control, star and sun sensors for attitude determination, and a mechanically despun off-set parabolic dish for long-range communication. Launched into an initial heliocentric orbit with a period of 318.8 days, at 151.4 x 121.9 million km (0.815 x 1.012 AU), 1.439 degree inclination. Flew by Comet Halley on its sunward side at a distance of about 7 million kilometers on March 11, 1986. It later made an Earth swingby on January 8, 1992 with a closest approach of 88,997 km. This was the first planet-swingby for a Japanese spacecraft. During the approach, Sakigake observed the geotail, with passage occurring at 290 Re on 14 June 1993 before ISTP's multi-spacecraft investigation of that region. The second Earth swingby was on June 14, 1993 at 40 Re, and the third on October 28, 1994 at 86 Re. Almost no hydrazine remained so no further maneuvers were accomplished. Telemetry contact was lost on 15 November 1995 at a distance of 106 million km. Future mission planning had included a 23.6 km/s, 10,000 km flyby of Comet Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova on Feb 3, 1996 (approaching the nucleus along the tail) some 0.17 AU from the Sun, and a 14 million km passage of Comet Giacobini-Zinner on Nov 29, 1998.

1985 August 18 - . 23:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. Launch Pad: M1. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-II. LV Configuration: Mu-3S-II M-3S2-2.
  • SS-11 Suisei - . Payload: Planet A. Mass: 141 kg (310 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SS. USAF Sat Cat: 15967 . COSPAR: 1985-073A. Rendezvoused with comet Halley 3/8/86. Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). PLANET-A (SUISEI). Launch time 2333 GMT. Imaging of the hydrogen coma of Halley's comet by the hydrogen Lyman alpha line. Measurement of the solar wind in the cruising phase and in the vicinity of the comet. Launching organiza tion ISAS. Heliocentric orbit parameters 282 days, inclination 0.888 deg, 151.42 x 100.5 million km (1.0122 x 0.6718 AU).

1987 February 5 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. Launch Pad: M1. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-II. LV Configuration: Mu-3S-II M-3S2-3.
  • Ginga - . Payload: Astro C. Mass: 420 kg (920 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Astro. Decay Date: 1991-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 17480 . COSPAR: 1987-012A. Apogee: 450 km (270 mi). Perigee: 395 km (245 mi). Inclination: 31.0000 deg. Period: 93.00 min. Summary: Studyied galactic gamma ray, X-ray sources. ASTRO-C (Ginga). Observation of variabilities of X-rays from active galactic nuclei and galactic compact sources. Launching organization ISAS. Launch time 0630 GMT. .

1989 February 21 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. Launch Pad: M1. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-II. LV Configuration: Mu-3S-II M-3S2-4.
  • Akebono - . Payload: Exos D. Mass: 295 kg (650 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: EXOS. USAF Sat Cat: 19822 . COSPAR: 1989-016A. Apogee: 8,554 km (5,315 mi). Perigee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 75.1000 deg. Period: 185.90 min. Summary: Studied aurora borealis, auroral australis. EXOS-D (Akebono). Observation in high precision of behaviour and acceleration mechanism of aurora particles in Earth magnetosphere. Launching organization ISAS. Launch time 2330 GMT. .

1990 January 24 - . 11:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. Launch Pad: M1. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-II. LV Configuration: Mu-3S-II M-3S2-5.
  • Hiten - . Payload: Muses A. Mass: 185 kg (407 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Program: Muses. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Hiten. Decay Date: 1993-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 20448 . COSPAR: 1990-007A. Apogee: 286,183 km (177,825 mi). Perigee: 262 km (162 mi). Inclination: 30.6000 deg. Period: 9,597.60 min. MUSES-A was renamed Hiten after launch. It developed of lunar swingby techniques for future missions and ejected a lunar orbiter. Launching organization ISAS. On 1990 Jan 25: Period 6.665 days, inclination 30.63 deg, 262.49 x 286182.72 km. On 1992 Feb 17: Period 4.53 days, inclination 38.90 deg, perilune 2289.67 km, apolune 49013.93 km.
  • Hagoromo - . Payload: Muses A. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Program: Muses. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Hagoromo. USAF Sat Cat: 20618 . COSPAR: 1990-007B. Summary: Lunar orbiter ejected from Muses A 3/19/90; contact lost after release; engineering test. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). .

1991 August 30 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. Launch Pad: M1. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-II. LV Configuration: Mu-3S-II M-3S2-6.
  • Solar-A - . Payload: Yohkoh. Mass: 420 kg (920 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Solar. Decay Date: 2005-09-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 21694 . COSPAR: 1991-062A. Apogee: 754 km (468 mi). Perigee: 516 km (320 mi). Inclination: 31.3000 deg. Period: 97.40 min. Summary: X-ray imaging of Sun..

1993 February 20 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. Launch Pad: M1. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-II. LV Configuration: Mu-3S-II M-3S2-7.
  • Asuka - . Payload: Astro D. Mass: 420 kg (920 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Program: Astro. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Astro. Decay Date: 2001-03-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 22521 . COSPAR: 1993-011A. Apogee: 646 km (401 mi). Perigee: 539 km (334 mi). Inclination: 31.1000 deg. Period: 96.50 min. Summary: X-ray imaging and astronomy. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of various astronomical objects (stars and galaxies) in the X-ray band. Launching organization ISAS. Launch time 0200 GMT. Astro-D 'ASCA'..

1995 January 15 - . 13:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. Launch Pad: M1. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-II. LV Configuration: Mu-3S-II M-3S2-8. FAILURE: Failure of second stage attitude control system.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Express 1 - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft: Express 1. Decay Date: 1995-01-15 . COSPAR: F950115A. At first thought not to have reached orbit. Later the re-entry vehicle was discovered in Ghana having reentered and deployed its parachute on January 15. At T+103 sec, during the second stage burn, the vehicle veered off course. The payload service module entered a 110 x 250 km x 33 degree orbit, instead of the intended 270 x 380 km and re-entered on its second orbit. The re-entry capsule was found later in Ghana. A failure of the second stage attitude control system was blamed, although it was considered likely that the payload was too heavy for the vehicle, being twice the mass of earlier MU-3S payloads.

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