Encyclopedia Astronautica
Cape Canaveral LC39A


Shuttle, Saturn V launch complex. LC39A and LC39B, part of the Kennedy Space Center, were built on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape) to support the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program. The sites were modified in the last half of the 1970s to support the manned Space Shuttle program. Construction began in December 1963. Complex 39A was completed on 4 October 1965. Complex 39A supported two unmanned and nine manned Saturn V/Apollo missions between 9 November 1967 and 8 December 1972. The site also supported the launch of the Skylab space station on 14 May 1973. Both complexes were modified to support Space Shuttle missions later on. Complex 39A supported the first Space Shuttle launch on 12 April 1981.

Longitude: -80.6040 deg.
Latitude: 28.6082 deg.
First Launch: 1967.11.09.
Last Launch: 2007.10.23.
Number: 79 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • Apollo CSM American manned lunar orbiter. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). The Apollo Command Service Module was the spacecraft developed by NASA in the 1960's as a standard spacecraft for earth and lunar orbit missions. More...
  • Apollo LM American manned lunar lander. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17). More...
  • DSP American military early warning satellite. 23 launches, 1970.11.06 (IMEWS 1) to 2007.11.11 (USA 176). An evolving series of satellites built by the United States to detect intercontinental ballistic missiles on launch. More...
  • PFS American lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.07.26 (Apollo 15 Subsatellite) to 1972.04.16 (Apollo 16 Subsatellite). Released from Apollo; particles and fields experiments. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). More...
  • Skylab American manned space station. One launch, 1973.05.14. First US space station. The project began life as the Orbital Workshop- outfitting of an S-IVB stage with a docking adapter with equipment launched by several subsequent S-1B launches. More...
  • Spacebus 100 French communications satellite. 12 launches, 1975.08.26 (Symphonie 2) to 1994.01.24 (Eutelsat II F5). 3-axis stabilized using bipropellant thrusters (750 kg propellant - unified with apogee insertion and maneuvering propulsion) and momentum wheels. More...
  • HS 376 American communications satellite. 56 launches, 1980.11.15 (SBS 1) to 2003.09.27 (E-Bird). Mass 654 kg at beginning-of-life in geosynchronous orbit. Spin stabilized at 50 rpm by 4 hydrazine thrusters with 136 kg propellant. More...
  • Columbia American manned spaceplane. 28 launches, 1981.04.12 (STS-1) to 2003.01.16 (STS-107). Columbia, the first orbiter in the Shuttle fleet, was named after the sloop that accomplished the first American circumnavigation of the globe. More...
  • Insat 1 Indian communications satellite. 5 launches, 1981.06.19 (Apple) to 1990.06.12 (Insat-1D; Insat 1D). Experimental communications satellite. More...
  • DSCS III American military communications satellite. 15 launches, 1982.10.30 (DSCS III-01) to 2003.08.29 (USA 170). DSCS satellites provided secure voice and data communications for the US military. More...
  • TDRS American military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1983.04.04 (TDRS 1) to 1995.07.13 (TDRS 7). Satellite communications network, for use by Shuttle and US military satellites. More...
  • Challenger American manned spaceplane. 10 launches, 1983.04.04 (STS-6) to 1986.01.28 (STS-51-L). More...
  • SPAS American military strategic defense satellite. 6 launches, 1983.06.18 (SPAS-01) to 1997.08.07 (CRISTA). More...
  • Spacelab American manned space station module. 20 launches, 1983.11.28 (Spacelab 1) to 1998.04.17 (Neurolab). More...
  • IRT American technology satellite. One launch, 1984.02.03. Deployed from STS 41B 2/5/84. More...
  • LDEF American earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1984.04.06. More...
  • HS 381 American military communications satellite. 4 launches, 1984.08.30 (Syncom IV-2) to 1985.08.27 (Syncom IV-4). The Leasat HS 381 series was developed as a commercial venture to provide dedicated communications services to the U. S. military. More...
  • Discovery American manned spaceplane. 39 launches, 1984.08.30 to 2011.02.24. More...
  • ERBS American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1984.10.05. ERBS was part of the NASA's three-satellite Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), designed to investigate how energy from the Sun is absorbed and re-emitted by the Earth. More...
  • Magnum American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1985.01.24 (USA 8) to 1990.11.15 (USA 67). Shuttle-launched geostationary ELINT satellite model that replaced Rhyolite/Aquacade. More...
  • NUSAT American military target satellite. One launch, 1985.04.29. Air traffic control radar calibration. More...
  • Spartan American solar satellite. 8 launches, 1985.06.17 (Spartan 1) to 1998.10.29 (Spartan 201). More...
  • PDP American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1985.07.29. Plasma Diagnostics Package; released by STS 51F 8/1/85, retrieved 8/2/85. More...
  • ASC British military communications satellite. 3 launches, 1985.08.27 (ASC-1) to 1991.04.13 (ASC-2 / Spacenet F4). More...
  • Atlantis American manned spaceplane. 33 launches, 1985.10.03 to 2011.07.08. The space shuttle Atlantis was the fourth orbiter to become operational at Kennedy Space Center, and the last of the original production run. More...
  • GLOMR American military store-dump communications satellite. 2 launches, 1985.10.30 (GLOMR; GLOMAR) and 1990.04.05 (USA 55). More...
  • AS 4000 American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1985.11.27 (Satcom K2) to 1998.02.04 (Inmarsat 3 F5). 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. More...
  • OEX Target American technology satellite. One launch, 1985.11.27. Shuttle autopilot software test target. More...
  • SDS-2 American military communications satellite. 4 launches, 1989.08.08 (USA 40) to 1996.07.03 (USA 125). More...
  • HS 601 American communications satellite bus. First launch 1990.01.09. 3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimbaled momentum bias wheels. More...
  • Misty American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1990.02.28 (USA 53) to 1999.05.22 (USA 144). More...
  • MPEC American military technology satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28, USA 70. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. More...
  • CRO American military strategic defense satellite. 3 launches, 1991.04.28 (CRO-C) to (CRO-A). More...
  • AFP-675 American military technology satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28. US Air Force space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • IBSS American satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28. Sensor technology test; retrieved 5/2/91. More...
  • UARS American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1991.09.12. The Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite was designed to study the physical and chemical processes occurring in the Earth's upper atmosphere (between 15 and 100 km). More...
  • Endeavour American manned spaceplane. 25 launches, 1992.05.07 to 2011.05.16. Built as a replacement after the loss of the Challenger; named after the first ship commanded by James Cook. More...
  • Spacehab American manned space station module. 14 launches, 1993.06.21 (Spacehab SH-01) to 1999.05.27 (Spacehab-DM). Founded by Bob Citron in 1982, Spacehab Inc. was the only entrepreneurial company to successfully develop a commercial manned spaceflight module. More...
  • ODERACS American military target satellite. 12 launches, 1994.02.03 (ODERACS A) to 1995.02.03 (ODERACS IIF). Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres were small, low-earth orbiting calibration targets for ground based radar and optical systems. More...
  • BremSat German re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1994.02.03. Atomic oxygen, dust particle, microgravity, reentry experiments. More...
  • WSF American materials science satellite. 2 launches, 1995.09.07 (WSF 2) and 1996.11.19 (WSF). Wake Shield Facility; released and later retrieved by the Shuttle in a single mission; semiconductor materials research. More...
  • Mir-Shuttle Docking Module Russian manned space station. One launch, 1995.11.12. A specialized SO docking module was originally designed for docking the Buran space shuttle with the Mir-2 space station. More...
  • SAC-A Argentinan technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.29. The Scientific Applications Satellite-S (SAC-A) was a small, ejectable, low cost Argentinean satellite that was launched during the STS-88 Space Shuttle Endeavour mission. More...
  • ISS Unity American manned space station. One launch, 1998.10.29, Unity. Unity was the first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station. More...
  • Simplesat American visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 2001.08.20. Simplesat was intended to test methods for building cheap astronomical satellites and controlling them from a inexpensive ground stations. More...
  • MEPSI American tether technology satellite. One launch, 2002.11.24. MEPSI (Micro-Electromechanical-based Picosat Satellite Inspection Experiment) consisted of two 1 kg boxes attached to each other by a 15-m tether. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Saturn V American orbital launch vehicle. America's booster for the Apollo manned lunar landing. The design was frozen before a landing mode was selected; the Saturn V could be used for either Earth-Orbit-Rendezvous or Lunar-Orbit-Rendezvous methods. The vehicle ended up with the same payload capability as the 'too large' Nova. The basic diameter was dictated by the ceiling height at the Michoud factory selected for first stage manufacture. More...
  • Shuttle American winged orbital launch vehicle. The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...

Cape Canaveral LC39A Chronology


1967 November 9 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-501.
  • Apollo 4 - . Payload: Apollo CSM 017 / LTA-10R / S-IVB-501. Mass: 36,656 kg (80,812 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Duration: 2.35 days. Decay Date: 1967-11-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 3032 . COSPAR: 1967-113A. Apogee: 371 km (230 mi). Perigee: 370 km (220 mi). Inclination: 32.7000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Apollo 4 (AS-501) was launched in the first all-up test of the Saturn V launch vehicle and also in a test of the CM heatshield. The Saturn V, used for the first time, carried a lunar module test article (LTA-10R) and a Block I command and service module (CSM 017) into orbit from KSC Launch Complex 39, Pad A, lifting off at 7:00:01 a.m. EST - one second later than planned. The launch was also the first use of Complex 39. The spacecraft landed 8 hours 37 minutes later in the primary recovery area in the Pacific Ocean, near Hawaii, about 14 kilometers from the planned point (30.06 N 172.32 W). CM, apex heatshield, and one main parachute were recovered by the carrier U.S.S. Bennington

    Main objectives of the mission were to demonstrate the structural and thermal integrity of the space vehicle and to verify adequacy of the Block II heatshield design for entry at lunar return conditions. These objectives were accomplished.

    The S-IC stage cutoff occurred 2 minutes 30 seconds into the flight at an altitude of about 63 kilometers. The S-II stage ignition occurred at 2 minutes 32 seconds and the burn lasted 6 minutes 7 seconds, followed by the S-IVB stage ignition and burn of 2 minutes 25 seconds. This series of launch vehicle operations placed the S-IVB and spacecraft combination in an earth parking orbit with an apogee of about 187 kilometers and a perigee of 182 kilometers. After two orbits, which required about three hours, the S-IVB stage was reignited to place the spacecraft in a simulated lunar trajectory. This burn lasted five minutes. Some 10 minutes after completion of the S-IVB burn, the spacecraft and S-IVB stage were separated, and less than 2 minutes later the service propulsion subsystem was fired to raise the apogee. The spacecraft was placed in an attitude with the thickest side of the CM heatshield away from the solar vector. During this four-and-one-half-hour cold-soak period, the spacecraft coasted to its highest apogee - 18,256.3 kilometers. A 70 mm still camera photographed the earth's surface every 10.6 seconds, taking 715 good-quality, high-resolution pictures.

    About 8 hours 11 minutes after liftoff the service propulsion system was again ignited to increase the spacecraft inertial velocity and to simulate entry from a translunar mission. This burn lasted four and one half minutes. The planned entry velocity was 10.61 kilometers per second, while the actual velocity achieved was 10.70.

    Recovery time of 2 hours 28 minutes was longer than anticipated, with the cause listed as sea conditions - 2.4-meter swells.


1968 April 4 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-502.
  • Apollo 6 - . Payload: Apollo CM 020/ SM 014 / Apollo LTA-2R / S-IVB 502. Mass: 36,806 kg (81,143 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Duration: 2.43 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 3170 . COSPAR: 1968-025A. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Apollo 6 (AS-502) was launched from Complex 39A at Kennedy Space Center. The space vehicle consisted of a Saturn V launch vehicle with an unmanned, modified Block I command and service module (CSM 020) and a lunar module test article (LTA-2R).

    Liftoff at 7:00 a.m. EST was normal but, during the first-stage (S-IC) boost phase, oscillations and abrupt measurement changes were observed. During the second-stage (S-II) boost phase, two of the J-2 engines shut down early and the remaining three were extended approximately one minute to compensate. The third stage (S-IVB) firing was also longer than planned and at termination of thrust the orbit was 177.7 x 362.9 kilometers rather than the 160.9-kilometer near-circular orbit planned. The attempt to reignite the S-IVB engine for the translunar injection was unsuccessful. Reentry speed was 10 kilometers per second rather than the planned 11.1, and the spacecraft landed 90.7 kilometers uprange of the targeted landing point.

    The most significant spacecraft anomaly occurred at about 2 minutes 13 seconds after liftoff, when abrupt changes were indicated by strain, vibration, and acceleration measurements in the S-IVB, instrument unit, adapter, lunar module test article, and CSM. Apparently oscillations induced by the launch vehicle exceeded the spacecraft design criteria.

    The second-stage (S-II) burn was normal until about 4 minutes 38 seconds after liftoff; then difficulties were recorded. Engine 2 cutoff was recorded about 6 minutes 53 seconds into the flight and engine 3 cutoff less than 3 seconds later. The remaining second-stage engines shut down at 9 minutes 36 seconds - 58 seconds later than planned.

    The S-IVB engine during its first burn, which was normal, operated 29 seconds longer than programmed. After two revolutions in a parking orbit, during which the systems were checked, operational tests performed, and several attitude maneuvers made, preparations were completed for the S-IVB engine restart. The firing was scheduled to occur on the Cape Kennedy pass at the end of the second revolution, but could not be accomplished. A ground command was sent to the CSM to carry out a planned alternate mission, and the CSM separated from the S-IVB stage.

    A service propulsion system (SPS) engine firing sequence resulted in a 442-second burn and an accompanying free-return orbit of 22,259.1 x 33.3 kilometers. Since the SPS was used to attain the desired high apogee, there was insufficient propellant left to gain the high-velocity increase desired for the entry. For this reason, a complete firing sequence was performed except that the thrust was inhibited.

    Parachute deployment was normal and the spacecraft landed about 9 hours 50 minutes after liftoff, in the mid-Pacific, 90.7 kilometers uprange from the predicted landing area (27.40 N 157.59 W). A normal retrieval was made by the U.S.S. Okinawa, with waves of 2.1 to 2.4 meters.

    The spacecraft was in good condition, including the unified crew hatch, flown for the first time. Charring of the thermal protection was about the same as that experienced on the Apollo 4 spacecraft (CM 017).

    Of the five primary objectives, three - demonstrating separation of launch vehicle stages, performance of the emergency detection system (EDS) in a close-loop mode, and mission support facilities and operations - were achieved. Only partially achieved were the objectives of confirming structure and thermal integrity, compatibility of launch vehicle and spacecraft, and launch loads and dynamic characteristics; and of verifying operation of launch vehicle propulsion, guidance and control, and electrical systems. Apollo 6, therefore, was officially judged in December as "not a success in accordance with . . . NASA mission objectives."


1968 December 21 - . 12:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-503.
  • Apollo 8 - . Call Sign: Apollo 8. Crew: Anders; Borman; Lovell. Backup Crew: Aldrin; Armstrong; Haise. Payload: Apollo CSM 103 / LTA-B / S-IVB-503N. Mass: 28,833 kg (63,565 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Anders; Borman; Lovell; Aldrin; Armstrong; Haise. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 6.13 days. Decay Date: 1968-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 3626 . COSPAR: 1968-118A. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.19 min. Apollo 8 (AS-503) was launched from KSC Launch Complex 39, Pad A, at 7:51 a.m. EST Dec. 21 on a Saturn V booster. The spacecraft crew was made up of Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders. Apollo 8 was the first spacecraft to be launched by a Saturn V with a crew on board, and that crew became the first men to fly around the moon.

    All launch and boost phases were normal and the spacecraft with the S-IVB stage was inserted into an earth-parking orbit of 190.6 by 183.2 kilometers above the earth. After post-insertion checkout of spacecraft systems, the S-IVB stage was reignited and burned 5 minutes 9 seconds to place the spacecraft and stage in a trajectory toward the moon - and the Apollo 8 crew became the first men to leave the earth's gravitational field.

    The spacecraft separated from the S-IVB 3 hours 20 minutes after launch and made two separation maneuvers using the SM's reaction control system. Eleven hours after liftoff, the first midcourse correction increased velocity by 26.4 kilometers per hour. The coast phase was devoted to navigation sightings, two television transmissions, and system checks. The second midcourse correction, about 61 hours into the flight, changed velocity by 1.5 kilometers per hour.

    The 4-minute 15-second lunar-orbit-insertion maneuver was made 69 hours after launch, placing the spacecraft in an initial lunar orbit of 310.6 by 111.2 kilometers from the moon's surface - later circularized to 112.4 by 110.6 kilometers. During the lunar coast phase the crew made numerous landing-site and landmark sightings, took lunar photos, and prepared for the later maneuver to enter the trajectory back to the earth.

    On the fourth day, Christmas Eve, communications were interrupted as Apollo 8 passed behind the moon, and the astronauts became the first men to see the moon's far side. Later that day , during the evening hours in the United States, the crew read the first 10 verses of Genesis on television to earth and wished viewers "goodnight, good luck, a Merry Christmas and God bless all of you - all of you on the good earth."

    Subsequently, TV Guide for May 10-16, 1969, claimed that one out of every four persons on earth - nearly 1 billion people in 64 countries - heard the astronauts' reading and greeting, either on radio or on TV; and delayed broadcasts that same day reached 30 additional countries.

    On Christmas Day, while the spacecraft was completing its 10th revolution of the moon, the service propulsion system engine was fired for three minutes 24 seconds, increasing the velocity by 3,875 km per hr and propelling Apollo 8 back toward the earth, after 20 hours 11 minutes in lunar orbit. More television was sent to earth on the way back.


1969 March 3 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-504.
  • Apollo 9 - . Call Sign: Gumdrop. Crew: McDivitt; Schweickart; Scott. Backup Crew: Bean; Conrad; Gordon. Payload: Apollo CSM 104 / Apollo LM 3 / Saturn S-IVB-504N. Mass: 36,511 kg (80,492 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: McDivitt; Schweickart; Scott; Bean; Conrad; Gordon. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 10.04 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 3769 . COSPAR: 1969-018A. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Apollo 9 (AS-504), the first manned flight with the lunar module (LM-3), was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, on a Saturn V launch vehicle at 11:00 a.m. EST March 3. Originally scheduled for a February 28 liftoff, the launch had been delayed to allow crew members James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell L. Schweickart to recover from a mild virus respiratory illness. Following a normal launch phase, the S-IVB stage inserted the spacecraft into an orbit of 192.3 by 189.3 kilometers. After post-insertion checkout, CSM 104 separated from the S-IVB, was transposed, and docked with the LM. At 3:08 p.m. EST, the docked spacecraft were separated from the S-IVB, which was then placed on an earth-escape trajectory. On March 4 the crew tracked landmarks, conducted pitch and roll yaw maneuvers, and increased the apogee by service propulsion system burns.

    On March 5 McDivitt and Schweickart entered the LM through the docking tunnel, evaluated the LM systems, transmitted the first of two series of telecasts, and fired the LM descent propulsion system. They then returned to the CM.

    McDivitt and Schweickart reentered the LM on March 6. After transmitting a second telecast, Schweickart performed a 37-minute extravehicular activity (EVA), walking between the LM and CSM hatches, maneuvering on handrails, taking photographs, and describing rain squalls over KSC.

    On March 7, with McDivitt and Schweickart once more in the LM, Scott separated the CSM from the LM and fired the reaction control system thrusters to obtain a distance of 5.5 kilometers between the two spacecraft. McDivitt and Schweickart then performed a lunar-module active rendezvous. The LM successfully docked with the CSM after being up to 183.5 kilometers away from it during the six-and-one-half-hour separation. After McDivitt and Schweickart returned to the CSM, the LM ascent stage was jettisoned.

    During the remainder of the mission, the crew tracked Pegasus III, NASA's meteoroid detection satellite that had been launched July 30, 1965; took multispectral photos of the earth; exercised the spacecraft systems; and prepared for reentry.

  • Apollo 9 LM - . Call Sign: Spider. Payload: Apollo LM 3. Mass: 14,530 kg (32,030 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Duration: 10.04 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 3769 . COSPAR: 1969-018x. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

1969 July 16 - . 13:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-506.
  • Apollo 11 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Aldrin; Armstrong; Collins. Backup Crew: Anders; Haise; Lovell. Payload: Apollo CSM 107 / Apollo LM 5 / EASEP / S-IVB-506. Mass: 28,800 kg (63,400 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aldrin; Armstrong; Collins; Anders; Haise; Lovell. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 11. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 8.14 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4039 . COSPAR: 1969-059A. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.19 min. First landing on moon. Apollo 11 (AS-506) - with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., aboard - was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 9:32 a.m. EDT July 16. The activities during earth-orbit checkout, translunar injection, CSM transposition and docking, spacecraft ejection, and translunar coast were similar to those of Apollo 10.

    At 4:40 p.m. EDT July 18, the crew began a 96-minute color television transmission of the CSM and LM interiors, CSM exterior, the earth, probe and drogue removal, spacecraft tunnel hatch opening, food preparation, and LM housekeeping. One scheduled and two unscheduled television broadcasts had been made previously by the Apollo 11 crew.

    The spacecraft entered lunar orbit at 1:28 p.m. EDT on July 19. During the second lunar orbit a live color telecast of the lunar surface was made. A second service-propulsion-system burn placed the spacecraft in a circularized orbit, after which astronaut Aldrin entered the LM for two hours of housekeeping including a voice and telemetry test and an oxygen-purge-system check.

    At 8:50 a.m. July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin reentered the LM and checked out all systems. They performed a maneuver at 1:11 p.m. to separate the LM from the CSM and began the descent to the moon. The LM touched down on the moon at 4:18 p.m. EDT July 20. Armstrong reported to mission control at MSC, "Houston, Tranquillity Base here - the Eagle has landed." (Eagle was the name given to the Apollo 11 LM; the CSM was named Columbia.) Man's first step on the moon was taken by Armstrong at 10:56 p.m. EDT. As he stepped onto the surface of the moon, Armstrong described the feat as "one small step for man - one giant leap for mankind."

    Aldrin joined Armstrong on the surface of the moon at 11:15 p.m. July 20. The astronauts unveiled a plaque mounted on a strut of the LM and read to a worldwide TV audience, "Here men from the planet earth first set foot on the moon July 1969, A.D. We came in peace for all mankind." After raising the American flag and talking to President Nixon by radiotelephone, the two astronauts deployed the lunar surface experiments assigned to the mission and gathered 22 kilograms of samples of lunar soil and rocks. They then reentered the LM and closed the hatch at 1:11 a.m. July 21. All lunar extravehicular activities were televised in black-and-white. Meanwhile, Collins continued orbiting moon alone in CSM Columbia.

    The Eagle lifted off from the moon at 1:54 p.m. EDT July 21, having spent 21 hours 36 minutes on the lunar surface. It docked with the CSM at 5:35 p.m. and the crew, with the lunar samples and film, transferred to the CSM. The LM ascent stage was jettisoned into lunar orbit. The crew then rested and prepared for the return trip to the earth.

    The CSM was injected into a trajectory toward the earth at 12:55 a.m. EDT July 22. Following a midcourse correction at 4:01 p.m., an 18-minute color television transmission was made, in which the astronauts demonstrated the weightlessness of food and water and showed shots of the earth and the moon.

  • Apollo 11 LM - . Call Sign: Eagle. Payload: Apollo LM 5. Mass: 15,095 kg (33,278 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 11. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Duration: 8.14 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4039 . COSPAR: 1969-059x. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.19 min.

1969 November 14 - . 16:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-507.
  • Apollo 12 - . Call Sign: Yankee Clipper. Crew: Bean; Conrad; Gordon. Backup Crew: Irwin; Scott; Worden. Payload: Apollo CSM 108 / Apollo LM 6 / ALSEP / S-IVB-507. Mass: 28,790 kg (63,470 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bean; Conrad; Gordon; Irwin; Scott; Worden. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 12. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 10.19 days. Decay Date: 1969-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4225 . COSPAR: 1969-099A. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.19 min. Apollo 12 (AS-507)-with astronauts Charles Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, Jr., and Alan L. Bean as the crewmen-was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 11:22 a.m. EST November 14. Lightning struck the space vehicle twice, at 36.5 seconds and 52 seconds into the mission. The first strike was visible to spectators at the launch site. No damage was done. Except for special attention given to verifying all spacecraft systems because of the lightning strikes, the activities during earth-orbit checkout, translunar injection, and translunar coast were similar to those of Apollo 10 and Apollo 11.

    During the translunar coast astronauts Conrad and Bean transferred to the LM one-half hour earlier than planned in order to obtain full TV coverage through the Goldstone tracking station. The 56-minute TV transmission showed excellent color pictures of the CSM, the intravehicular transfer, the LM interior, the earth, and the moon.

    At 10:47 p.m. EST, November 17, the spacecraft entered a lunar orbit of 312.6 x 115.9 kilometers. A second service propulsion system burn circularized the orbit with a 122.5-kilometer apolune and a 100.6-kilometer perilune. Conrad and Bean again transferred to the LM, where they perfomed housekeeping chores, a voice and telemetry test, and an oxygen purge system check. They then returned to the CM.

    Conrad and Bean reentered the LM, checked out all systems, and at 10:17 p.m. EST on November 18 fired the reaction control system thrusters to separate the CSM 108 (the Yankee Clipper) from the LM-6 (the Intrepid). At 1:55 a.m. EST November 19, the Intrepid landed on the moon's Ocean of Storms, about 163 meters from the Surveyor III spacecraft that had landed April 19, 1967. Conrad, shorter than Neil Armstrong (first man on the moon, July 20), had a little difficulty negotiating the last step from the LM ladder to the lunar surface. When he touched the surface at 6:44 a.m. EST November 19, he exclaimed, "Whoopee! Man, that may have been a small step for Neil, but that's a long one for me."

    Bean joined Conrad on the surface at 7:14 a.m. They collected a 1.9-kilogram contingency sample of lunar material and later a 14.8-kilogram selected sample. They also deployed an S-band antenna, solar wind composition experiment, and the American flag. An Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package with a SNAP-27 atomic generator was deployed about 182 meters from the LM. After 3 hours 56 minutes on the lunar surface, the two astronauts entered the Intrepid to rest and check plans for the next EVA.

    The astronauts again left the LM at 10:55 p.m. EST November 19. During the second EVA, Conrad and Bean retrieved the lunar module TV camera for return to earth for a failure analysis, obtained photographic panoramas, core and trench samples, a lunar environment sample, and assorted rock, dirt, bedrock, and molten samples. The crew then examined and retrieved parts of Surveyor III, including the TV camera and soil scoop. After 3 hours 49 minutes on the lunar surface during the second EVA, the two crewmen entered the LM at 2:44 a.m. EST November 20. Meanwhile astronaut Gordon, orbiting the moon in the Yankee Clipper, had completed a lunar multispectral photography experiment and photographed proposed future landing sites.

    At 9:26 a.m. EST November 20, after 31 hours 31 minutes on the moon, Intrepid successfully lifted off with 34.4 kilograms of lunar samples. Rendezvous maneuvers went as planned. The LM docked with the CSM at 12:58 p.m. November 20. The last 24 minutes of the rendezvous sequence was televised. After the crew transferred with the samples, equipment, and film to the Yankee Clipper, the Intrepid was jettisoned and intentionally crashed onto the lunar surface at 5:17 p.m. November 20, 72.2 kilometers southeast of Surveyor III. The crash produced reverberations that lasted about 30 minutes and were detected by the seismometer left on the moon.

    At 3:49 p.m. EST November 21, the crew fired the service propulsion system engine, injecting the CSM into a transearth trajectory after 89 hours 2 minutes in lunar orbit. During the transearth coast, views of the receding moon and the interior of the spacecraft were televised, and a question and answer session with scientists and the press was conducted.

  • Apollo 12 LM - . Call Sign: Intrepid. Payload: Apollo LM 6. Mass: 15,223 kg (33,560 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 12. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Duration: 10.19 days. Decay Date: 1969-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4225 . COSPAR: 1969-099x. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.19 min.

1970 April 11 - . 19:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-508.
  • Apollo 13 - . Call Sign: Odyssey. Crew: Haise; Lovell; Swigert. Backup Crew: Duke; Mattingly; Young. Support Crew: Brand; Lousma; Kerwin. Payload: Apollo CSM 109 / Apollo LM 7 / ALSEP / S-IVB-508. Mass: 28,790 kg (63,470 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Haise; Lovell; Swigert; Duke; Mattingly; Young; Brand; Lousma; Kerwin. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 13. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. Duration: 5.95 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4371 . COSPAR: 1970-029A. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.31 min. Apollo 13 (AS-508) was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 2:13 p.m. EST April 11, with astronauts James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr., aboard. The spacecraft and S-IVB stage entered a parking orbit with a 185.5-kilometer apogee and a 181.5-kilometer perigee. At 3:48 p.m., onboard TV was begun for five and one-half minutes. At 4:54 p.m., an S-IVB burn placed the spacecraft on a translunar trajectory, after which the CSM separated from the S-IVB and LM Aquarius. (The crew had named lunar module 7 Aquarius and CSM 109 Odyssey.) The CSM then hard-docked with the LM. The S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system made an evasive maneuver after CSM/LM ejection from the S-IVB at 6:14 p.m. The docking and ejection maneuvers were televised during a 72-minute period in which interior and exterior views of the spacecraft were also shown.

    At 8:13 p.m. EST a 217-second S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system burn aimed the S-IVB for a lunar target point so accurately that another burn was not required. The S-IVB/IU impacted the lunar surface at 8:10 p.m. EST on April 14 at a speed of 259 meters per second. Impact was 137.1 kilometers from the Apollo 12 seismometer. The seismic signal generated by the impact lasted 3 hours 20 minutes and was so strong that a ground command was necessary to reduce seismometer gain and keep the recording on the scale. The suprathermal ion detector experiment, also deployed by the Apollo 12 crew, recorded a jump in the number of ions from zero at the time of impact up to 2,500 shortly thereafter and then back to a zero count. Scientists theorized that ionization had been produced by 6,300 K to 10,300 K (6,000 degrees C to 10,000 degrees C) temperature generated by the impact or that particles had reached an altitude of 60 kilometers from the lunar surface and had been ionized by sunlight.

    Meanwhile back in the CSM/LM, the crew had been performing the routine housekeeping duties associated with the period of the translunar coast. At 30:40 ground elapsed time a midcourse correction maneuver took the spacecraft off a free-return trajectory in order to control the arrival time at the moon. Ensuring proper lighting conditions at the landing site. The maneuver placed the spacecraft on the desired trajectory, on which the closest approach to the moon would be 114.9 kilometers.

    At 10:08 p.m. EST April 13, the crew reported an undervoltage alarm on the CSM main bus B, rapid loss of pressure in SM oxygen tank No. 2, and dropping current in fuel cells 1 and 3 to a zero reading. The loss of oxygen and primary power in the service module required an immediate abort of the mission. The astronauts powered up the LM, powered down the CSM, and used the LM systems for power and life support. The first maneuver following the abort decision was made with the descent propulsion system to place the spacecraft back in a free-return trajectory around the moon. After the spacecraft swung around the moon, another maneuver reduced the coast time back to earth and moved the landing point from the Indian Ocean to the South Pacific.

  • Apollo 13 LM - . Call Sign: Aquarius. Payload: Apollo LM 7. Mass: 15,192 kg (33,492 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 13. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Duration: 5.95 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4371 . COSPAR: 1970-029x. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.31 min.

1971 January 31 - . 21:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-509.
  • Apollo 14 - . Call Sign: Kitty Hawk. Crew: Mitchell; Roosa; Shepard. Backup Crew: Cernan; Engle; Evans. Support Crew: Chapman; McCandless; Pogue. Payload: Apollo CSM 110 / Apollo LM 8 / ALSEP / S-IVB-509. Mass: 29,230 kg (64,440 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mitchell; Roosa; Shepard; Cernan; Engle; Evans; Chapman; McCandless; Pogue. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 14. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4900 . COSPAR: 1971-008A. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 31.1200 deg. Period: 88.18 min. The Apollo 14 (AS-509) mission - manned by astronauts Alan B. Shepard, Jr., Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell - was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 4:03 p.m. EST January 31 on a Saturn V launch vehicle. A 40-minute hold had been ordered 8 minutes before scheduled launch time because of unsatisfactory weather conditions, the first such delay in the Apollo program. Activities during earth orbit and translunar injection were similar to those of the previous lunar landing missions. However, during transposition and docking, CSM 110 Kitty Hawk had difficulty docking with LM-8 Antares. A hard dock was achieved on the sixth attempt at 9:00 p.m. EST, 1 hour 54 minutes later than planned. Other aspects of the translunar journey were normal and proceeded according to flight plan. A crew inspection of the probe and docking mechanism was televised during the coast toward the moon. The crew and ground personnel were unable to determine why the CSM and LM had failed to dock properly, but there was no indication that the systems would not work when used later in the flight.

    Apollo 14 entered lunar orbit at 1:55 a.m. EST on February 4. At 2:41 a.m. the separated S-IVB stage and instrument unit struck the lunar surface 174 kilometers southeast of the planned impact point. The Apollo 12 seismometer, left on the moon in November 1969, registered the impact and continued to record vibrations for two hours.

    After rechecking the systems in the LM, astronauts Shepard and Mitchell separated the LM from the CSM and descended to the lunar surface. The Antares landed on Fra Mauro at 4:17 a.m. EST February 5, 9 to 18 meters short of the planned landing point. The first EVA began at 9:53 a.m., after intermittent communications problems in the portable life support system had caused a 49-minute delay. The two astronauts collected a 19.5-kilogram contingency sample; deployed the TV, S-band antenna, American flag, and Solar Wind Composition experiment; photographed the LM, lunar surface, and experiments; deployed the Apollo lunar surface experiments package 152 meters west of the LM and the laser-ranging retroreflector 30 meters west of the ALSEP; and conducted an active seismic experiment, firing 13 thumper shots into the lunar surface.

    A second EVA period began at 3:11 a.m. EST February 6. The two astronauts loaded the mobile equipment transporter (MET) - used for the first time - with photographic equipment, tools, and a lunar portable magnetometer. They made a geology traverse toward the rim of Cone Crater, collecting samples on the way. On their return, they adjusted the alignment of the ALSEP central station antenna in an effort to strengthen the signal received by the Manned Space Flight Network ground stations back on earth.

    Just before reentering the LM, astronaut Shepard dropped a golf ball onto the lunar surface and on the third swing drove the ball 366 meters. The second EVA had lasted 4 hours 35 minutes, making a total EVA time for the mission of 9 hours 24 minutes. The Antares lifted off the moon with 43 kilograms of lunar samples at 1:48 p.m. EST February 6.

    Meanwhile astronaut Roosa, orbiting the moon in the CSM, took astronomy and lunar photos, including photos of the proposed Descartes landing site for Apollo 16.

    Ascent of the LM from the lunar surface, rendezvous, and docking with the CSM in orbit were performed as planned, with docking at 3:36 p.m. EST February 6. TV coverage of the rendezvous and docking maneuver was excellent. The two astronauts transferred from the LM to the CSM with samples, equipment, and film. The LM ascent stage was then jettisoned and intentionally crashed on the moon's surface at 7:46 p.m. The impact was recorded by the Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 ALSEPs.

    The spacecraft was placed on its trajectory toward earth during the 34th lunar revolution. During transearth coast, four inflight technical demonstrations of equipment and processes in zero gravity were performed.

    The CM and SM separated, the parachutes deployed, and other reentry events went as planned, and the Kitty Hawk splashed down in mid-Pacific at 4:05 p.m. EST February 9 about 7 kilometers from the recovery ship U.S.S. New Orleans. The Apollo 14 crew returned to Houston on February 12, where they remained in quarantine until February 26.

    All primary mission objectives had been met. The mission had lasted 216 hours 40 minutes and was marked by the following achievements:

    • Third manned lunar landing mission and return.
    • Use of mobile equipment transporter (MET).
    • Payload of 32,500 kilograms placed in lunar orbit.
    • Distance of 3.3 kilometers traversed on lunar surface.
    • Payload of 43.5 kilograms returned from the lunar surface.
    • Lunar surface stay time of 33 hours.
    • Lunar surface EVA of 9 hours 47 minutes.
    • Use of shortened rendezvous technique.
    • Service propulsion system orbit insertion.
    • Active seismic experiment.
    • Inflight technical demonstrations.
    • Extensive orbital science period during CSM solo operations.
  • Apollo 14 LM - . Call Sign: Antares. Payload: Apollo LM 8. Mass: 15,279 kg (33,684 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 14. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4900 . COSPAR: 1971-008x. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 31.1200 deg. Period: 88.18 min.

1971 July 26 - . 13:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-510.
  • Apollo 15 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Irwin; Scott; Worden. Backup Crew: Brand; Gordon; Schmitt. Payload: Apollo CSM 112/LM 10/ ALSEP/ LRV-1/PFS 1/S-IVB-510. Mass: 30,343 kg (66,894 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Irwin; Scott; Worden; Brand; Gordon; Schmitt. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 12.30 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 5351 . COSPAR: 1971-063A. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 29.6800 deg. Period: 87.84 min. Apollo 15 (AS-510) with astronauts David R. Scott, Alfred M. Worden, and James B. Irwin aboard was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 9:34 a.m. EDT July 26. The spacecraft and S-IVB combination was placed in an earth parking orbit 11 minutes 44 seconds after liftoff. Activities during earth orbit and translunar injection (insertion into the trajectory for the moon) were similar to those of previous lunar landing missions. Translunar injection was at about 12:30 p.m., with separation of the CSM from the LM/S-IVB/IU at 12:56 p.m. At 1:08 p.m., onboard color TV showed the docking of the CSM with the LM.

    S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system burns sent the S-IVB/IU stages toward the moon, where they impacted the lunar surface at 4:59 p.m. EDT July 29. The point of impact was 188 kilometers northeast of the Apollo 14 landing site and 355 kilometers northeast of the Apollo 12 site. The impact was detected by both the Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 seismometers, left on the moon in November 1969 and February 1971.

    After the translunar coast, during which TV pictures of the CSM and LM interiors were shown and the LM communications and other systems were checked, Apollo 15 entered lunar orbit at 4:06 p.m. EDT July 29.

    The LM-10 Falcon, with astronauts Scott and Irwin aboard, undocked and separated from the Endeavor (CSM 112) with astronaut Worden aboard. At 6:16 p.m. EDT July 30, the Falcon landed in the Hadley-Apennine region of the moon 600 meters north-northwest of the proposed target. About two hours later, following cabin depressurization, Scott performed a 33-minute standup EVA in the upper hatch of the LM, during which he described and photographed the landing site.

    The first crew EVA on the lunar surface began at 9:04 a.m. July 31. The crew collected and stowed a contingency sample, unpacked the ALSEP and other experiments, and prepared the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) for operations. Some problems were encountered in the deployment and checkout of the LRV, used for the first time, but they were quickly resolved. The first EVA traverse was to the Apennine mountain front, after which the ALSEP was deployed and activated, and one probe of a Heat Flow experiment was emplaced. A second probe was not emplaced until EVA-2 because of drilling difficulties. The first EVA lasted 6 hours 33 minutes.

    At 7:49 a.m. EDT August 1, the second EVA began. The astronauts made a maintenance check on the LRV and then began the second planned traverse of the mission. On completion of the traverse, Scott and Irwin completed the placement of heat flow experiment probes, collected a core sample, and deployed the American flag. They then stowed the sample container and the film in the LM, completing a second EVA of 7 hours 12 minutes.

    The third EVA began at 4:52 a.m. August 2, included another traverse, and ended 4 hours 50 minutes later, for a total Apollo 15 lunar surface EVA time of 18 hours 35 minutes.

    While the lunar module was on the moon, astronaut Worden completed 34 lunar orbits in the CSM operating scientific instrument module experiments and cameras to obtain data concerning the lunar surface and environment. X-ray spectrometer data indicated richer abundance of aluminum in the highlands, especially on the far side, but greater concentrations of magnesium in the maria.

    Liftoff of the ascent stage of the LM, the first one to be televised, occurred at 1:11 p.m. EDT August 2. About two hours later the LM and CSM rendezvoused and docked, and film, equipment, and 77 kilograms of lunar samples were transferred from the LM to the CSM. The ascent stage was jettisoned and hit the lunar surface at 11:04 p.m. EDT August 2. Its impact was recorded by the Apollo 12, Apollo 14, and Apollo 15 seismometers, left on the moon during those missions. Before leaving the lunar orbit, the spacecraft deployed a subsatellite, at 4:13 p.m. August 4, in an orbit of 141.3 by 102 kilometers. The satellite would measure interplanetary and earth magnetic fields near the moon. It also carried charged-particle sensors and equipment to detect variations in lunar gravity caused by mascons (mass concentrations).

    A transearth injection maneuver at 5:23 p.m. August 4 put the CSM on an earth trajectory. During the transearth coast, astronaut Worden performed an inflight EVA beginning at 11:32 a.m. August 5 and lasting for 38 minutes 12 seconds. He made three trips to the scientific instrument module (SIM) bay of the SM, twice to retrieve cassettes and once to observe the condition of the instruments in the SIM bay.

  • Apollo 15 LM - . Call Sign: Falcon. Payload: Apollo LM 10. Mass: 16,437 kg (36,237 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Duration: 12.30 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 5351 . COSPAR: 1971-063x. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 29.6800 deg. Period: 87.84 min.
  • Apollo 15 Subsatellite - . Payload: PFS 1. Mass: 36 kg (79 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: PFS. USAF Sat Cat: 5377 . COSPAR: 1971-063D. Summary: Released from Apollo 15 into 102 x 142 km lunar orbit on 4 August 1971 at 20:13:29 GMT; studied lunar particles and included fields experiments. Last telemetry from lunar orbit in 1984..

1972 April 16 - . 17:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-511.
  • Apollo 16 - . Call Sign: Caspar. Crew: Duke; Mattingly; Young. Backup Crew: Haise; Mitchell; Roosa. Payload: Apollo CSM 113/LM 11/ ALSEP/ LRV-2/PFS 2/S-IVB-511. Mass: 30,358 kg (66,927 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Duke; Mattingly; Young; Haise; Mitchell; Roosa. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 16. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 11.08 days. Decay Date: 1972-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 6000 . COSPAR: 1972-031A. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 32.5420 deg. Period: 88.93 min. The Apollo 16 (AS-511) space vehicle was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 12:54 p.m. EST April 16, with a crew of astronauts John W. Young, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Charles M. Duke, Jr. After insertion into an earth parking orbit for spacecraft system checks, the spacecraft and the S-IVB stage were placed on a trajectory to the moon at 3:28 p.m. CSM transposition and docking with the LM were achieved, although a number of minor anomalies were noted.

    One anomaly, an auxiliary propulsion system leak on the S-IVB stage, produced an unpredictable thrust and prevented a final S-IVB targeting maneuver after separation from the CSM. Tracking of the S-IVB ended at 4:04 p.m. EST April 17, when the instrument unit's signal was lost. The stage hit the lunar surface at 4:02 p.m. April 19, 260 kilometers northeast of the target point. The impact was detected by the seismometers left on the moon by the Apollo 12, 14, and 15 missions.

    Spacecraft operations were near normal during the coast to the moon. Unexplained light-colored particles from the LM were investigated and identified as shredded thermal paint. Other activities during the translunar coast included a cislunar navigation exercise, ultraviolet photography of the earth and moon, an electrophoresis demonstration, and an investigation of the visual light-flash phenomenon noted on previous flights. Astronaut Duke counted 70 white, instantaneous light flashes that left no after-glow.

    Apollo 16 entered a lunar orbit of 314 by 107.7 kilometers at 3:22 p.m. April 19. After separation of LM-11 Orion from CSM 112 Casper, a CSM active rendezvous kept the two vehicles close together while an anomaly discovered on the service propulsion system was evaluated. Tests and analyses showed the redundant system to be still safe and usable if required. The vehicles were again separated and the mission continued on a revised timeline because of the 5 3/4-hour delay.

    The lunar module landed with Duke and Young in the moon's Descartes region, about 230 meters northwest of the planned target area at 9:23 p.m. EST April 20. A sleep period was scheduled before EVA.

    The first extravehicular activity began at 11:59 a.m. April 21, after the eight-hour rest period. Television coverage of surface activity was delayed until the lunar roving vehicle systems were activated, because the steerable antenna on the lunar module could not be used. The lunar surface experiments packages were deployed, but accidental breaking of the electronics cable rendered the heat flow experiment inoperable. After completing activities at the experiments site, the crew drove the lunar roving vehicle west to Flag Crater, where they performed the planned tasks. The inbound traverse route was just slightly south of the outbound route, and the next stop was Spook Crater. The crew then returned via the experiment station to the lunar module and deployed the solar wind composition experiment. The duration of the extravehicular activity was 7 hours 11 minutes. The distance traveled by the lunar roving vehicle was 4.2 kilometers. The crew collected 20 kilograms of samples.

    The second extravehicular traverse, which began at 11:33 a.m. April 22, was south-southeast to a mare-sampling area near the Cinco Craters on Stone Mountain. The crew then drove in a northwesterly direction, making stops near Stubby and Wreck Craters. The last leg of the traverse was north to the experiments station and the lunar module. The second extravehicular activity lasted 7 hours 23 minutes. The distance traveled by the lunar roving vehicle was 11.1 kilometers.

    Four stations were deleted from the third extravehicular traverse, which began 30 minutes early at 10:27 a.m. April 23 to allow extra time. The first stop was North Ray Crater, where "House Rock" on the rim of the crater was sampled. The crew then drove southeast to "Shadow Rock." The return route to the LM retraced the outbound route. The third extravehicular activity lasted 5 hours 40 minutes, and the lunar roving vehicle traveled 11.4 kilometers.

    Lunar surface activities outside the LM totaled 20 hours 15 minutes for the mission. The total distance traveled in the lunar roving vehicle was 26.7 kilometers. The crew remained on the lunar surface 71 hours 14 minutes and collected 96.6 kilograms of lunar samples.

    While the lunar module crew was on the surface, Mattingly, orbiting the moon in the CSM, was obtaining photographs, measuring physical properties of the moon and deep space, and making visual observations. Essentially the same complement of instruments was used to gather data as was used on the Apollo 15 mission, but different areas of the lunar surface were flown over and more comprehensive deep space measurements were made, providing scientific data that could be used to validate findings from Apollo 15 as well as add to the total store of knowledge of the moon and its atmosphere, the solar system, and galactic space.

    The LM lifted off from the moon at 8:26 p.m. EST April 23, rendezvoused with the CSM, and docked with it in orbit. Young and Duke transferred to the CSM with samples, film, and equipment, and the LM was jettisoned the next day. LM attitude control was lost at jettison; therefore a deorbit maneuver was not possible and the LM remained in lunar orbit, with an estimated orbital lifetime of about one year.

    The particles and fields subsatellite was launched into lunar orbit and normal system operation was noted. However, the spacecraft orbital shaping maneuver was not performed before ejection and the subsatellite was placed in a non-optimum orbit that resulted in a much shorter lifetime than the planned year. Loss of all subsatellite tracking and telemetry data on the 425th revolution (May 29) indicated that the subsatellite had hit the lunar surface.

    The mass spectrometer deployment boom stalled during a retract cycle and was jettisoned before transearth injection. The second plane-change maneuver and some orbital science photography were deleted so that transearth injection could be performed about 24 hours earlier than originally planned.

    Activities during the transearth coast phase of the mission included photography for a contamination study for the Skylab program and completion of the visual light-flash-phenomenon investigation that had been partially accomplished during translunar coast. A 1-hour 24-minute transearth extravehicular activity was conducted by command module pilot Mattingly to retrieve the film cassettes from the scientific instrument module cameras, inspect the equipment, and expose a microbial-response experiment to the space environment. Two midcourse corrections were made on the return flight to achieve the desired entry interface conditions.

  • Apollo 16 LM - . Call Sign: Orion. Payload: Apollo LM 11. Mass: 16,437 kg (36,237 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 16. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Duration: 11.08 days. Decay Date: 1972-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 6000 . COSPAR: 1972-031x. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 32.5420 deg. Period: 88.93 min.
  • Apollo 16 Subsatellite - . Payload: PFS 2. Mass: 36 kg (79 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Flight: Apollo 16. Spacecraft: PFS. Decay Date: 1972-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6009 . COSPAR: 1972-031D. Summary: Released from Apollo 16 into lunar orbit on 24 April 1972 at 21:56:09 GMT into a 96 km x 122 km orbit; fields and particles data; impacted lunar surface 29 May 1972..

1972 December 7 - . 05:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-512.
  • Apollo 17 - . Call Sign: America. Crew: Cernan; Evans; Schmitt. Backup Crew: Duke; Roosa; Young. Payload: Apollo CSM 114/LM 12/ ALSEP/ LRV-3/S-IVB-512. Mass: 30,342 kg (66,892 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan; Evans; Schmitt; Duke; Roosa; Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 17. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 12.58 days. Decay Date: 1972-12-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 6300 . COSPAR: 1972-096A. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 28.5260 deg. Period: 87.83 min. Apollo 17 (AS-512), the final Apollo manned lunar landing mission, was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 12:33 a.m. EST December 7. Crew members were astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, and Harrison H. Schmitt. The launch had been delayed 2 hours 40 minutes by a countdown sequencer failure, the only such delay in the Apollo program caused by a hardware failure.

    All launch vehicle systems performed normally in achieving an earth parking orbit of 170 by 168 kilometers. After checkout, insertion into a lunar trajectory was begun at 3:46 a.m.; translunar coast time was shortened to compensate for the launch delay. CSM 114 transposition, docking with LM-12, and LM ejection from the launch vehicle stage were normal. The S-IVB stage was maneuvered for lunar impact, striking the surface about 13.5 kilometers from the preplanned point at 3:27 p.m. EST December 10. The impact was recorded by the passive seismometers left on the moon by Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16.

    The crew performed a heat flow and convection demonstration and an Apollo light-flash experiment during the translunar coast. The scientific instrument module door on the SM was jettisoned at 10:17 a.m. EST December 10. The lunar orbit insertion maneuver was begun at 2:47 p.m. and the Apollo 17 spacecraft entered a lunar orbit of 315 by 97 kilometers. After separation of the LM Challenger from the CSM America and a readjustment of orbits, the LM began its powered descent and landed on the lunar surface in the Taurus-Littrow region at 2:55 p.m. EST on December 11, with Cernan and Schmitt.

    The first EVA began about 4 hours later (6:55 p.m.). Offloading of the lunar roving vehicle and equipment proceeded as scheduled. The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package was deployed approximately 185 meters west northwest of the Challenger. Astronaut Cernan drove the lunar roving vehicle to the experiments deployment site, drilled the heat flow and deep core holes, and emplaced the neutron probe experiment. Two geological units were sampled, two explosive packages deployed, and seven traverse gravimeter measurements were taken. During the 7-hour 12-minute EVA, 14 kilograms of samples were collected.

    The second extravehicular activity began at 6:28 p.m. EST December 12. Because of geological interest, station stop times were modified. Orange soil was discovered and became the subject of considerable geological discussion. Five surface samples and a double core sample were taken in the area of the orange soil. Three explosive packages were deployed, seven traverse gravimeter measurements were taken, and observations were photographed. Samples collected totaled 34 kilograms during the 7 hours and 37 minutes of the second EVA.

    The third and final EVA began at 5:26 p.m. EST December 13. Specific sampling objectives were accomplished. Samples - including blue-gray breccias, fine-grained vesicular basalts, crushed anorthositic rocks, and soils - weighed 66 kilograms. Nine traverse gravimeter measurements were made. The surface electrical properties experiment was terminated. Before reentering the LM, the crew selected a breccia rock to dedicate to the nations represented by students visiting the Mission Control Center. A plaque on the landing gear of the lunar module, commemorating all of the Apollo lunar landings, was then unveiled. After 7 hours 15 minutes, the last Apollo EVA on the lunar surface ended. Total time of the three EVAs was approximately 22 hours; the lunar roving vehicle was driven 35 kilometers, and about 115 kilograms of lunar sample material was acquired.

    While Cernan and Schmitt were exploring the lunar surface, Evans was conducting numerous scientific activities in the CSM in lunar orbit. In addition to the panoramic camera, the mapping camera, and the laser altimeter, three new scientific instrument module experiments were included in the Apollo 17 orbital science equipment. An ultraviolet spectrometer measured lunar atmospheric density and composition; an infrared radiometer mapped the thermal characteristics of the moon; and a lunar sounder acquired data on the subsurface structure.

    Challenger lifted off the moon at 5:55 p.m. EST December 14. Rendezvous with the orbiting CSM and docking were normal. The two astronauts transferred to the CM with samples and equipment and the LM ascent stage was jettisoned at 1:31 a.m. December 15. Its impact on the lunar surface about 1.6 kilometers from the planned target was recorded by four Apollo 17 geophones and the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 seismometers emplaced on the surface. The seismic experiment explosive packages that had been deployed on the moon were detonated as planned and recorded on the geophones.

    During the coast back to earth, Evans left the CSM at 3:27 p.m. EST December 17 for a 1-hour 7-minute inflight EVA and retrieved lunar sounder film and panoramic and mapping camera cassettes from the scientific instrument module bay. The crew conducted the Apollo light- flash experiment and operated the infrared radiometer and ultraviolet spectrometer.

    Reentry, landing, and recovery were normal. The command module parachuted into the mid-Pacific at 2:25 p.m. EST December 19, 6.4 kilometers from the prime recovery ship, U.S.S. Ticonderoga. The crew was picked up by helicopter and was on board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga 52 minutes after the CM landed. All primary mission objectives had been achieved.

  • Apollo 17 LM - . Call Sign: Challenger. Payload: Apollo LM 12. Mass: 16,448 kg (36,261 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 17. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Duration: 12.58 days. Decay Date: 1972-12-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 6300 . COSPAR: 1972-096x. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 28.5260 deg. Period: 87.83 min.

1973 May 14 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V-2 SA-513.
  • Skylab 1 - . Payload: Skylab Orbital Workshop. Mass: 74,783 kg (164,868 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Skylab. Decay Date: 1979-07-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6633 . COSPAR: 1973-027A. Apogee: 439 km (272 mi). Perigee: 427 km (265 mi). Inclination: 50.0000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. First and only US space station to date. Project began life as Apollo Orbital Workshop - outfitting of an S-IVB stage with docking adapter with equipment launched by several subsequent S-1B launches. Curtailment of the Apollo moon landings meant that surplus Saturn V's were available, so the pre-equipped, five times heavier, and much more capable Skylab resulted.

    An unexpected telemetry indication of meteoroid shield deployment and solar array wing 2 beam fairing separation was received 1 minute and 3 seconds after liftoff. However, all other systems of the OWS appeared normal, and the OWS was inserted into a near-circular Earth orbit of approximately 435 km altitude. The payload shroud was jettisoned, and the ATM with its solar array was deployed as planned during the first orbit. Deployment of the Workshop solar array and the meteoroid shield was not successful. In fact the xternal solar/meteoroid shield had ripped off 63 seconds into ascent, tearing away one solar panel wing and debris jamming the remaining panel. Without shield temperatures soared in station. Repairs by crews led to virtually all mission objectives being met.

    Following the final manned phase of the Skylab mission, ground controllers performed some engineering tests of certain Skylab systems--tests that ground personnel were reluctant to do while men were aboard. Results from these tests helped to determine causes of failures during the mission and to obtain data on long term degradation of space systems.

    Upon completion of the engineering tests, Skylab was positioned into a stable attitude and systems were shut down. It was expected that Skylab would remain in orbit eight to ten years. It was to have been visited by an early shuttle mission, reboosted into a higher orbit, and used by space shuttle crews. But delays in the first flight of the shuttle made this impossible.

    On July 11, 1979, Skylab disintegrated when it re-entered the earth's atmosphere after a worldwide scare over its pending crash. The debris stretched from the south-east Indian Ocean into Western Australia. Additional Details: here....


1979 July 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A.
  • First test STS stack move from VAB to LC39A - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Enterprise (OV-101), ET, SRBs transported on mobile launcher platform from Launch Complex 39-A to Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC.

1981 April 12 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-1.
  • STS-1 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Crippen; Young. Payload: Columbia F01 / DFI. Mass: 4,909 kg (10,822 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen; Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-1. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 2.26 days. Decay Date: 1981-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12399 . COSPAR: 1981-034A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 240 km (140 mi). Inclination: 40.3000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: First flight of Space Transportation System (aka Space Shuttle).. Payloads: Development Flight Instrumentation and Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package..
  • DFI - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1981-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12399 . COSPAR: 1981-034xx. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 260 km (160 mi). Inclination: 40.3000 deg. Period: 89.80 min.

1981 November 12 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-2.
  • STS-2 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Engle; Truly. Payload: Columbia F02 / DFI. Mass: 8,517 kg (18,776 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-2. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 2.26 days. Decay Date: 1981-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12953 . COSPAR: 1981-111A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Second shuttle test flight. Payloads: Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-1 experiments, Orbiter Experiments (OEX)..
  • DFI - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1981-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12953 . COSPAR: 1981-111xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.
  • OSTA-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1981-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12953 . COSPAR: 1981-111xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.

1982 March 22 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-3.
  • STS-3 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Fullerton; Lousma. Payload: Columbia F03 / OSS-1. Mass: 10,301 kg (22,709 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Lousma. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-3. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 13106 . COSPAR: 1982-022A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 241 km (149 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Payloads: Office of Space Science (OSS) experiments, Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Electro-phoresis Verification Test (EEVT), Plant Lignification Experiment..
  • DFI - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1982-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 13106 . COSPAR: 1982-022xx. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.
  • OSS-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1982-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 13106 . COSPAR: 1982-022xx. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.

1982 June 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-4.
  • STS-4 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Hartsfield; Mattingly. Payload: Columbia F04 / DoD 82-1. Mass: 11,109 kg (24,491 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hartsfield; Mattingly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-4. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 7.05 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 13300 . COSPAR: 1982-065A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 295 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Manned two crew. Fourth space shuttle test flight. Payloads: Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), Development Flight Instrumentation (DFl), Orbiter Experiments (OEX), first NASA getaway special (GAS), Night/Day Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment, Vapor Phase Compression (VPC) freezer heat exchanger dynamics for freezing samples, Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package (AClP) experiment.
  • DoD 82-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1982-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 13300 . COSPAR: 1982-065xx. Apogee: 319 km (198 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.
  • DFI - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1982-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 13300 . COSPAR: 1982-065xx. Apogee: 319 km (198 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.

1982 November 11 - . 12:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-5.
  • STS-5 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Allen; Brand; Lenoir; Overmyer. Payload: Columbia F05 / SBS 3 [PAM-D] / Anik C3 [PAM-D]. Mass: 14,551 kg (32,079 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen; Brand; Lenoir; Overmyer. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-5. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 5.09 days. Decay Date: 1982-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13650 . COSPAR: 1982-110A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 294 km (182 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Manned four crew. First mission to deploy commercial communications satellites (SBS 3, Anik C3). Payloads: : Satellite Business Systems (SBS)-C with Payload Assist ; (PAM)-D; Telesat-E (Canadian communications satellite) with PAM-D. Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), three getaway specials (GAS), Student experiments, GLOW experiment, Vestibular experiment, Oxygen Interaction With Materials experiment.
  • Anik C3 (Telesat 6) - . Payload: Anik C3 [PAM-D]. Mass: 632 kg (1,393 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1997-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 13652 . COSPAR: 1982-110C. Apogee: 35,902 km (22,308 mi). Perigee: 35,871 km (22,289 mi). Inclination: 7.9000 deg. Period: 1,441.20 min. Deployed from STS-5 11 November 1982. Telecommunications, operated by Telesat Canada. Transmit power 11.2 W per frequency at input of transmit antenna (typical saturated carrier). Anik C-3 Transmit frequency (MHz): 11730, 11743, 11791, 11804, 11852 , 11865, 11913, 11926, 11974, 11987, 12035, 12048, 12096, 12109 , 12157, 12170. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 117.5 deg W in 1982-1989; 115 deg W in 1989-1997 As of 5 September 2001 located at 15.95 deg E drifting at 1.305 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 114.85W drifting at 1.353W degrees per day.
  • DFI - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1982-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13650 . COSPAR: 1982-110xx. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.
  • SBS 3 - . Payload: SBS 3 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,117 kg (2,462 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SBS. Program: SBS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1995-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 13651 . COSPAR: 1982-110B. Apogee: 35,910 km (22,310 mi). Perigee: 35,855 km (22,279 mi). Inclination: 7.8000 deg. Period: 1,441.00 min. Deployed from STS-5 11 November 1982. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 94 deg W in 1982-1983; 95 deg W in 1983-1993; 74 deg W in 1994-1995 As of 4 September 2001 located at 41.59 deg E drifting at 1.235 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 117.46E drifting at 1.221W degrees per day. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1983 April 4 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-6.
  • STS-6 - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Bobko; Musgrave; Peterson; Weitz. Payload: Challenger F01 / TDRS 1 [IUS]. Mass: 21,305 kg (46,969 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bobko; Musgrave; Peterson; Weitz. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-6. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 5.02 days. Decay Date: 1983-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 13968 . COSPAR: 1983-026A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 288 km (178 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Manned four crew. First flight of space shuttle Challenger; deployed TDRSS. Payloads: Deployment of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-A with Inertial Upper Stage (lUS)-2, Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Night/Day Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment, three getaway specials (GAS).
  • TDRS 1 - . Payload: TDRS A. Mass: 2,268 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 13969 . COSPAR: 1983-026B. Apogee: 35,976 km (22,354 mi). Perigee: 35,835 km (22,266 mi). Inclination: 7.4000 deg. Period: 1,442.20 min. Element of satellite communications network, deployed from STS-6 5 April 1983. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 67 deg W in 1983; 41 deg W in 1983-1989; 79 deg W in 1989-1990; 170 deg W in 1990-1993; 85 deg E in 1994-1995; 49 deg W in 1996-on. As of 5 September 2001 located at 49.36 deg W drifting at 0.010 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 48.98W drifting at 0.029W degrees per day.

1983 June 18 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-7.
  • STS-7 - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Crippen; Fabian; Hauck; Ride; Thagard. Payload: Challenger F02 / OSTA-2. Mass: 16,839 kg (37,123 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen; Fabian; Hauck; Ride; Thagard. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-7. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 6.10 days. Decay Date: 1983-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 14132 . COSPAR: 1983-059A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 299 km (185 mi). Inclination: 28.3000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned five crew. Deployed Anik C2, Palapa B1; deployed and retrieved SPAS platform. Payloads: Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-2 experiments, deployment of PALAPA-B1 communications satellite for Indonesia with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D and Telesat-F communications satellite for Canada with PAM-D, German Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS)-01, seven getaway specials (GAS), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES).
  • OSTA-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1983-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 14132 . COSPAR: 1983-059xx. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.
  • Anik C2 (Telesat 7) - . Payload: Anik C2 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,238 kg (2,729 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1998-01-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 14133 . COSPAR: 1983-059B. Apogee: 36,273 km (22,538 mi). Perigee: 35,949 km (22,337 mi). Inclination: 7.8000 deg. Period: 1,452.70 min. Deployed by STS-7 6/19/83. Telecommunications. Operating entity TELESAT Canada. Longitude 110 W. Transmit power 11.2 W on each frequency. Frequencies 11730, 11743, 11791, 11804, 11852, 11865, 11913, 11926, 11974, 11987, 12035, 12048, 12096, 12109, 12157, 12170 MHz. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 112 deg W in 1983; 105 deg W in 1983-1985; 110 deg W in 1985-1991; 109 deg W in 1991-1993;76 deg W in 1993-1997; 115 deg W in 1997-1998 As of 4 September 2001 located at 113.76 deg E drifting at 4.144 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 68.60E drifting at 4.154W degrees per day.
  • Palapa B1 - . Payload: Palapa B1 [PAM-D. Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1995-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 14134 . COSPAR: 1983-059C. Apogee: 35,840 km (22,260 mi). Perigee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Inclination: 8.6000 deg. Period: 1,437.90 min. Deployed by STS-7 6/18/83. Palapa B satellites were four times as powerful and twice the size of their predecessors, the Palapa A series. While the A series was designed for domestic/regional communications within Indonesia, the new system also served the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. Palapa B2 was originally placed into a useless orbit due to malfunctions of its PAM-D upper stage. The Indonesian government claimed $75 million insurance and ordered a replacement (B2P), which was successfully orbited 3 years later. The original B2 was recovered by the STS-51A mission on November 12, 1984 under an arrangement between the satellite's insurers, NASA and Hughes. The satellite was then sold by the insurers to an intermediary company, refurbished, and then resold back to Indonesia following its launch in 1990. Spacecraft: Based on Hughes HS-376 design. Cylindrical structure. Spin stabilised. Hydrazine propulsion system for attitude control, orbit maintenance. Body mounted solar cells provide 1060 W BOL. Despun antenna platform. Payload: Each carried 24 C-band transponders (+6 spares). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 108 deg E in 1983-1990; 118 deg E in 1990-1992; 134 deg E in 1992-1995 As of 1 September 2001 located at 156.84 deg E drifting at 0.192 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 169.93W drifting at 0.283W degrees per day.
  • SPAS-01 - . Payload: Challenger F2 / SPAS 1. Nation: USA. Agency: MBB. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: SPAS. Decay Date: 1983-06-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 14142 . COSPAR: 1983-059F. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 295 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Ten experiments mounted on Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS-01) performed research in forming metal alloys in microgravity and use of remote sensing scanner. Orbiter's small control rockets fired while SPAS-01 held by remote manipulator system to test movement on extended arm.

1983 August 30 - . 06:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-8.
  • STS-8 - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Bluford; Brandenstein; Gardner; Thornton, Bill; Truly. Payload: Challenger F03 / PFTA. Mass: 13,642 kg (30,075 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford; Brandenstein; Gardner; Thornton, Bill; Truly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-8. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 6.05 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 14312 . COSPAR: 1983-089A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. First night launch and night landing. Deployed Insat 1B. Payloads: Deployment of INSAT (lndia communica-tion satellite) with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D, Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA)/ Payload Deployment Retrieval System (PDRS), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis (CFES), biomedical experiments. 250,000 express mail envelopes with special cachet for U.S. Postal Service were carried for a first-day cover.
  • PFTA - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1983-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 14312 . COSPAR: 1983-089xx. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.
  • DFI/USPS - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1983-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 14312 . COSPAR: 1983-089xx. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.
  • Insat-1B; Insat 1B - . Payload: Insat 1B. Mass: 1,152 kg (2,539 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 1. Completed Operations Date: 1993-08-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 14318 . COSPAR: 1983-089B. Apogee: 35,824 km (22,259 mi). Perigee: 35,811 km (22,251 mi). Inclination: 3.6000 deg. Period: 1,437.70 min. Released from STS 8 8/31/83; also carried transponders for domestic communications. Operational multipurpose satellite for telecommunications, meteorological imaging and data relay, radio and television programme distribution and direct television broadcasting for community reception. Geostationary longitude 74.0 +/ - 0.1 deg E. Deployment from US Space Transportation System flight no 8, orbiter Challenger, on 31 Aug 1983. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 74 deg E in 1983-1992; 93 deg E in 1992-1993 As of 26 August 2001 located at 125.27 deg E drifting at 0.152 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 80.35E drifting at 0.392E degrees per day.

1983 November 28 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-9.
  • STS-9 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Garriott; Lichtenberg; Merbold; Parker; Shaw; Young. Payload: Columbia F06 / Spacelab 1 Pallet. Mass: 15,088 kg (33,263 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Garriott; Lichtenberg; Merbold; Parker; Shaw; Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-9. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 10.32 days. Decay Date: 1983-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 14523 . COSPAR: 1983-116A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 241 km (149 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Carried ESA Spacelab. Payloads: Payload: Spacelab-1 experiments, habitable Spacelab and pallet, carried 71 experiments. The six-man crew was divided into two 12-hour-day red and blue teams to operate experiments. First high-inclination orbit of 57 degrees.
  • Spacelab 1 - . Payload: SL 1 LM. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1983-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 14523 . COSPAR: 1983-116xx. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.
  • Spacelab 1 Pallet - . Payload: SL 1 PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1983-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 14523 . COSPAR: 1983-116xx. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.

1984 February 3 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-11/41-B.
  • STS-41-B - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Brand; Gibson; McCandless; McNair; Stewart. Payload: Challenger F04 / SPAS 1A. Mass: 15,362 kg (33,867 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brand; Gibson; McCandless; McNair; Stewart. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-B. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 7.97 days. Decay Date: 1984-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 14681 . COSPAR: 1984-011A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 307 km (190 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min. Manned five crew. Deployed Westar 6, Palapa B2; tested Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). Payloads: PALAPA-B2 (Indonesian communications satellite) with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D and WESTAR (Western Union communications satellite)-Vl with PAM-D. Both satellites were deployed but the PAM-D in each satellite failed to ignite, leaving both satellites in earth orbit. Both satellites were retrieved and returned to earth for renovation on the STS-51-A mission. The manned maneuvering unit (MMU) was tested with extravehicular astronauts as free flyers without tethers as far as 98 m from the orbiter. Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS)-01 experiments, Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Isoelectric Focusing Experiment (lEF), Acoustic Containerless Experiment System (ACES), Cinema 360 cameras, five getaway specials (GAS), Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification (ACIP)/High Resolution Accelerom-eter Package (HIRAP).
  • MMU 3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. COSPAR: 1984-011xx.
  • IRT - . Payload: Challenger F4 / Westar 6 [PAM-D] / Palapa B2 [PAM-. Mass: 91 kg (200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: IRT. Decay Date: 1984-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 14689 . COSPAR: 1984-011C. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 279 km (173 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Deployed from STS 41B on 5 February 1984; Integrated Rendezvous Target..
  • SPAS 1A - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: SPAS. Decay Date: 1984-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 14681 . COSPAR: 1984-011xx. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 270 km (160 mi). Inclination: 28.6000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: German-built Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS), first flown on STS-7, became first satellite refurbished and flown again. SPAS remained in payload bay due to electrical problem with Remote Manipulator System (RMS)..
  • Westar 6 - . Payload: Westar 6 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: WUTC. Program: Westar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Decay Date: 1984-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 14688 . COSPAR: 1984-011B. Apogee: 1,220 km (750 mi). Perigee: 307 km (190 mi). Inclination: 27.7000 deg. Period: 100.10 min. Deployed from STS 41B 4 February 1984; failed to reach proper orbit; recovered by STS-51A. The Westar series of geostationary spacecraft provide commercial communications services for Western Union. Westar 6 failed to achieve geosynchronous orbit after being deployed from the Space Shuttle. It was later retrieved by another Shuttle mission (November 14, 1984) and returned for refurbishment and relaunch. All Westars have been launched by NASA on a reimbursable basis. Spacecraft: Westar uses the Hughes HS-376 spacecraft design. Spin stabilised with a despun antenna section. Body mounted solar cells. Once on orbit, an outer cylinder deploys downward in 'dixie-cup' fashion to increase the solar panel area. Payload: Westar spacecraft typically carried 12 to 24 transponders in the 4-6 GHz range. A single antenna reflector (72 inch diameter) is used with an array of offset feed horns. The reflector uses two polarisation-selective surfaces for horizontal and vertical polarised signals.
  • MMU 2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. COSPAR: 1984-011xx.
  • Palapa B2 - . Payload: Palapa B2 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Decay Date: 1984-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 14692 . COSPAR: 1984-011D. Apogee: 1,190 km (730 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 28.2000 deg. Period: 99.50 min. Summary: Deployed from STS 41B 4 February 1984; failed to reach proper orbit; recovered by STS-51A..

1984 April 6 - . 13:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-13/41-C.
  • STS-41-C - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Crippen; Hart; Nelson; Scobee; van Hoften. Payload: Challenger F05 / LDEF 1 / MMU 3. Mass: 17,357 kg (38,265 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen; Hart; Nelson; Scobee; van Hoften. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-C. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 6.99 days. Decay Date: 1984-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 14897 . COSPAR: 1984-034A. Apogee: 468 km (290 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Manned five crew. First repair on orbit of a satellite, Solar Maximum Mission, by James van Hoften and George Nelson. Deployed LDEF. Payloads:Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) repair, manned maneuvering unit (MMU) satellite support, deployment of Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in earth orbit free drift. LDEF contained 57 experiments and weighed about 10,000 kg. Cinema 360 and IMAX 70-mm cameras.
  • LDEF - . Payload: Challenger F5 / LDEF 1. Mass: 3,625 kg (7,991 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Earth. Type: Micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft: LDEF. Decay Date: 1990-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 14898 . COSPAR: 1984-034B. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 344 km (213 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Summary: Long Duration Exposure Facility; deployed from STS 41C 7 April 1984; retrieved by STS-32 20 January 1990. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..
  • MMU 3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1984-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 14897 . COSPAR: 1984-034xx. Apogee: 496 km (308 mi). Perigee: 494 km (306 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.50 min.
  • SMRM-FSS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1984-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 14897 . COSPAR: 1984-034xx. Apogee: 496 km (308 mi). Perigee: 494 km (306 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.50 min.
  • MMU 2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1984-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 14897 . COSPAR: 1984-034xx. Apogee: 496 km (308 mi). Perigee: 494 km (306 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.50 min.

1984 June 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Discovery Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-41-D. Spacecraft: Discovery. Summary: The countdown for the second launch attempt for Discovery's maiden flight ended at T- 4 seconds when the orbiter's computers detected a sluggish valve in main engine #3. The main engine was replaced and Discovery was finally launched on August 30, 1984..

1984 August 30 - . 12:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-14/41-D.
  • STS-41-D - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Coats; Hartsfield; Hawley; Mullane; Resnik; Walker. Payload: Discovery F01 / SBS 4[PAM-D] / Telstar 302[PAM-D]. Mass: 21,552 kg (47,514 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Coats; Hartsfield; Hawley; Mullane; Resnik; Walker. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-D. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 6.04 days. Decay Date: 1984-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 15234 . COSPAR: 1984-093A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned six crew. First flight of space shuttle Discovery; deployed SBS 4, Leasat 1, Telstar 3C. Payloads: Satellite Business System (SBS)-D commu-nications satellite with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D deployment, Syncom IV-2 communica-tions satellite with its unique stage deployment, Telstar (American Telephone and Telegraph) 3-C with PAM-D deployment, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)-1 experiments. Deployment and restowing of large solar array. Continuous Flow Electrophoresis (CFES). IMAX camera.
  • OAST 1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1984-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 15234 . COSPAR: 1984-093xx. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 294 km (182 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.
  • Syncom IV-2 - . Payload: Discovery F1 / SBS 4 [PAM-D] / Telstar 302 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,315 kg (2,899 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 381. Completed Operations Date: 1996-10-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 15236 . COSPAR: 1984-093C. Apogee: 36,741 km (22,829 mi). Perigee: 36,448 km (22,647 mi). Inclination: 13.0000 deg. Period: 1,477.60 min. Released from STS 41D 8/31/84; 105 deg W; leased to U.S. government. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg W in 1984-1987; 177 deg W in 1987; 72 deg E in 1988-1990; 177 deg W in 1990-1996 As of 1 September 2001 located at 17.02 deg W drifting at 10.139 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 57.99E drifting at 10.147W degrees per day.
  • SBS 4 - . Payload: SBS D / PAM-D. Mass: 1,117 kg (2,462 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SBS. Program: SBS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 15235 . COSPAR: 1984-093B. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 6.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Released from STS 41D 8/31/84; 101 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 101 deg W in 1984-1985; 91 deg W in 1985-1993; 77 deg W in 1993-on. As of 1 September 2001 located at 77.06 deg W drifting at 0.019 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 113.88W drifting at 5.445W degrees per day.
  • Telstar 3C - . Payload: Telstar 302 [PAM-D]. Mass: 625 kg (1,377 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ATT. Program: Telstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1997-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 15237 . COSPAR: 1984-093D. Apogee: 35,948 km (22,337 mi). Perigee: 35,901 km (22,307 mi). Inclination: 5.7000 deg. Period: 1,443.20 min. Released from STS 41D 9/1/84; stationed at 125 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 86 deg W in 1984-1987; 85 deg W in 1987-1997; 97 deg W in 1997 As of 26 August 2001 located at 148.40 deg W drifting at 1.778 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 128.46W drifting at 1.794W degrees per day.

1984 October 5 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-17/41-G.
  • STS-41-G - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Crippen; Garneau; Leestma; McBride; Ride; Scully-Power; Sullivan. Payload: Challenger F06 / ERBS / LFC / ORS. Mass: 10,643 kg (23,463 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen; Garneau; Leestma; McBride; Ride; Scully-Power; Sullivan. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-G. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 8.22 days. Decay Date: 1984-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 15353 . COSPAR: 1984-108A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Manned seven crew. Deployed ERBS; performed high resolution Earth imagery. Payloads: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) deployment, Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-3 experiments, Large Format Camera (LFC). First use of Orbital Refueling System (ORS) with extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, IMAX camera.
  • LFC/ORS - . Payload: MPESS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1984-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 15353 . COSPAR: 1984-108xx. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.
  • ERBS - . Payload: Challenger F6 / ERBS. Mass: 226 kg (498 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ERBS. USAF Sat Cat: 15354 . COSPAR: 1984-108B. Apogee: 589 km (365 mi). Perigee: 576 km (357 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 96.30 min. Summary: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..
  • OSTA-3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1984-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 15353 . COSPAR: 1984-108xx. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

1984 November 8 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-19/51-A.
  • STS-51-A - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Allen; Fisher; Gardner; Hauck; Walker, Dave. Payload: Discovery F02 / PLT. Mass: 20,550 kg (45,300 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen; Fisher; Gardner; Hauck; Walker, Dave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-A. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.99 days. Decay Date: 1984-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 15382 . COSPAR: 1984-113A. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Manned five crew. First retrieval of two satellites (PALAPA B-2 and WESTAR Vl) for return to earth. Deployed Anik D2, Leasat 2; recovered Westar 6, Palapa B2. Payloads: Telesat (Canada communications satellite)-H with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D deploy-ment, Syncom IV-1 communications satellite deployment with its unique stage, retrieval of PALAPA B-2 and WESTAR VI communications satellites with PAM-D which failed to ignite on the STS-41-B mission. Manned maneuvering unit (MMU) used for retrieval. Diffusive Mixing of Organic Solutions (DMOS) experiment.
  • Anik D2 - . Payload: Anik D2 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1995-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 15383 . COSPAR: 1984-113B. Apogee: 36,271 km (22,537 mi). Perigee: 36,076 km (22,416 mi). Inclination: 6.7000 deg. Period: 1,455.90 min. Released 9 November 1984 from STS 51A; 82 deg W. Telecommunications. Longitude 111.5 deg W. Operating entity Telesat Canada. Transmitter power 8.9 watts at each frequency. Frequencies 3720 to 4180 MHz spaced by 20 MHz. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 111 deg W in 1984-1986; 110 deg W in 1986-1991; 82 deg W in 1991-1993; 20 deg E in 1993-1995 As of 28 August 2001 located at 178.69 deg W drifting at 4.912 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 25.98W drifting at 4.913W degrees per day.
  • Syncom IV-1 - . Payload: Discovery F2 / Anik D2 / Syncom-4 1. Mass: 1,315 kg (2,899 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 381. Completed Operations Date: 1992-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 15384 . COSPAR: 1984-113C. Apogee: 36,403 km (22,619 mi). Perigee: 36,152 km (22,463 mi). Inclination: 7.6000 deg. Period: 1,461.20 min. Released from STS 51A 10 November 1984; 105 deg W; leased to U.S. government. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 15 deg W in 1984-1992 As of 3 September 2001 located at 170.37 deg W drifting at 6.220 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 100.08W drifting at 6.233W degrees per day.

1985 January 24 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-20/51-C.
  • STS-51-C - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Buchli; Mattingly; Onizuka; Payton; Shriver. Payload: Discovery F03 / Magnum 1 [IUS]. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Buchli; Mattingly; Onizuka; Payton; Shriver. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-C. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 3.06 days. Decay Date: 1985-01-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 15496 . COSPAR: 1985-010A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Manned five crew. Deployed USA 8 (Aquacade ELINT spacecraft). Orbits of Earth: 48. Landed at: Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Landing Speed: 342 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 839.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,240.00 m. Payloads: Department of Defence classified payloads.
  • USA 8 - . Payload: Magnum 1 [IUS]. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Magnum. USAF Sat Cat: 15543 . COSPAR: 1985-010B. Apogee: 34,670 km (21,540 mi). Perigee: 341 km (211 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 612.30 min. Summary: New Magnum model geostationary ELINT satellite model replaced earlier Rhyolite/Aquacade. Deployed from STS-51C 24 January 1985. Boosted to geostationary orbit. As of 2003 Apr 30 located at 69.16E drifting at 0.038W degrees per day..

1985 April 12 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-23/51-D.
  • STS-51-D - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bobko; Garn; Griggs; Hoffman; Seddon; Walker; Williams, Donald. Payload: Discovery F04 / Anik C1[PAM-D] / Syncom-4 3 /Orbus. Mass: 16,249 kg (35,822 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bobko; Garn; Griggs; Hoffman; Seddon; Walker; Williams, Donald. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-D. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1985-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 15641 . COSPAR: 1985-028A. Apogee: 535 km (332 mi). Perigee: 445 km (276 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Manned seven crew. Payloads: Telesat (Canada communications satellite)-I with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D deployment, Syncom IV-3 communications satellite deploy-ment with its unique stage (unique stage failed to ignite), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis (CFES), Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE), student experiments, two getaway specials (GAS) Informal science studies (Toys in Space).
  • Syncom IV-3 - . Payload: Discovery F4 / Anik C1 [PAM-D] / Syncom-4 3 [Orbus. Mass: 1,315 kg (2,899 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 381. Completed Operations Date: 1996-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 15643 . COSPAR: 1985-028C. Apogee: 37,080 km (23,040 mi). Perigee: 36,401 km (22,618 mi). Inclination: 14.4000 deg. Period: 1,485.10 min. Released by STS 51D 4/13/85; failed to orbit and subsequently repaired by STS 51-I on 8/31/85; 178 deg E; leased by U.S. government. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 175 deg W in 1985-1987; 105 deg W in 1987-1996 As of 31 August 2001 located at 106.85 deg E drifting at 11.920 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 158.41W drifting at 11.917W degrees per day.
  • Anik C1 - . Payload: Anik C1 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,238 kg (2,729 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 2000-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 15642 . COSPAR: 1985-028B. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Released by STS 51D 4/13/85; 107.5 deg W. Telecommunications. Operating entity TELESAT Canada. Longitude 107.5 W. Transmit power 11.2 W on each frequency. Frequencies 11730, 11743, 11791, 11804, 11852, 11865, 11913, 11926, 11974, 11987, 12035, 12048, 12096, 12109, 12157, 121 70 MHz. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 107 deg W in 1985-1991; 109 deg W in 1991-1993; 72 deg W in 1993-1997; 118 deg W in 1997-1998; 106 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 63.20 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 112.29E drifting at 2.201W degrees per day.

1985 April 29 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-21/51-B.
  • STS-51-B - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Gregory; Lind; Overmyer; Thagard; Thornton, Bill; van den Berg; Wang. Payload: Challenger F07 / SL 3 MPESS. Mass: 14,245 kg (31,404 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gregory; Lind; Overmyer; Thagard; Thornton, Bill; van den Berg; Wang. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-B. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 7.01 days. Decay Date: 1985-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15665 . COSPAR: 1985-034A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 346 km (214 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Manned seven crew. Deployed Nusat; carried Spacelab 3. Payloads: Spacelab-3 experiments, habitable Spacelab and mission peculiar experiment support structure. The experiments represented a total of five different disciplines: materials processing in space, environmental observa-tions, life science, astrophysics, and technology experiments. Two getaway specials (GAS). The flight crew was split into gold and silver shifts working 12-hour days during the flight.
  • NUSAT-1 - . Payload: Challenger F7 / Nusat / GLOMR [1]. Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Weber. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: NUSAT. Decay Date: 1986-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 15666 . COSPAR: 1985-034B. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 345 km (214 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Summary: Air traffic control radar calibration. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .
  • GLOMR - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1985-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15665 . COSPAR: 1985-034xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 346 km (214 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
  • SL 3 MPESS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1985-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15665 . COSPAR: 1985-034xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 346 km (214 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
  • Spacelab 3 - . Payload: SL 3 LM. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1985-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15665 . COSPAR: 1985-034xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 346 km (214 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.

1985 June 17 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-25/51-G.
  • STS-51-G - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Al-Saud; Baudry; Brandenstein; Creighton; Fabian; Lucid; Nagel. Payload: Discovery F05 / Morelos 1[PAM-D] / Telstar 303. Mass: 20,174 kg (44,476 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Al-Saud; Baudry; Brandenstein; Creighton; Fabian; Lucid; Nagel. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-G. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.07 days. Decay Date: 1985-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 15823 . COSPAR: 1985-048A. Apogee: 369 km (229 mi). Perigee: 358 km (222 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 1; launched Morelos 1, Arabsat 1B, Telstar 3D.Payloads: Shuttle Pointed Autono-mous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN)-1; Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF); High Precision Tracking Experiment (HPTE); Orbiter Experiments (OEX); French Echocardiograph Experiment (FEE) and French Pocket Experiment (FPE).
  • Spartan 1 - . Payload: Spartan 101. Mass: 1,008 kg (2,222 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1985-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 15831 . COSPAR: 1985-048E. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Perigee: 359 km (223 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Released by STS 51G 20 June 1985, retrieved 22 June 1985..
  • Telstar 3D - . Payload: Telstar 303 / PAM-D. Mass: 630 kg (1,380 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ATT. Program: Telstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1999-02-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 15826 . COSPAR: 1985-048D. Apogee: 35,911 km (22,314 mi). Perigee: 35,888 km (22,299 mi). Inclination: 5.4000 deg. Period: 1,441.90 min. Released by STS 51G 19 June 1985; stationed at 76 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 125 deg W in 1985-1992; 123 deg W in 1992-1996; 120 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 31 August 2001 located at 16.95 deg W drifting at 1.400 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 6.47W drifting at 1.400W degrees per day.
  • Arabsat 1B - . Payload: Discovery F5 / Morelos 1 [PAM-D] / Telstar 303 [PA. Mass: 592 kg (1,305 lb). Nation: Arab States. Agency: Arabsat. Program: Arabsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. Completed Operations Date: 1992-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15825 . COSPAR: 1985-048C. Apogee: 35,746 km (22,211 mi). Perigee: 35,737 km (22,205 mi). Inclination: 1.9000 deg. Period: 1,433.80 min. Summary: Released by STS 51G 18 June 1985; 26 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 26 deg E in 1985-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 135.45 deg W drifting at 0.555 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 165.57E drifting at 0.400E degrees per day..
  • Morelos 1 - . Payload: Morelos-A / PAM-D. Mass: 512 kg (1,128 lb). Nation: Mexico. Agency: Morelos. Program: Morelos. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1994-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 15824 . COSPAR: 1985-048B. Apogee: 36,030 km (22,380 mi). Perigee: 35,999 km (22,368 mi). Inclination: 6.3000 deg. Period: 1,447.80 min. Released by STS 51G 17 June 1985; 113.5 deg W. Coverage of the national territory with television, radio and telephony signals and data transmission. Geostationary satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 113 deg W in 1985-1994 As of 4 September 2001 located at 123.32 deg W drifting at 2.909 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 176.84E drifting at 2.883W degrees per day.

1985 July 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Challenger Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-51-F. Spacecraft: Challenger. Summary: The countdown for Challenger's launch was halted at T-3 seconds when on-board computers detected a problem with a coolant valve on main engine #2. The valve was replaced and Challenger was launched on July 29, 1985..

1985 July 29 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-26/51-F.
  • STS-51-F - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Acton; Bartoe; Bridges; England; Fullerton; Henize; Musgrave. Payload: Challenger F08 / PDP / Spacelab 2 PLT. Mass: 15,603 kg (34,398 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Acton; Bartoe; Bridges; England; Fullerton; Henize; Musgrave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-F. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 7.95 days. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15925 . COSPAR: 1985-063A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Manned seven crew. At 5 minutes, 45 seconds into ascent the number one engine shut down prematurely due to a a sensor problem and an abort to orbit was declared. Despite the anomaly the mission continued. Launched PDP; carried Spacelab 2. Payloads: Spacelab-2 with 13 experiments, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX), Protein Crystal Growth (PCG). The flight crew was divided into a red and blue team. Each team worked 12-hour shifts for 24-hour-a-day operation.
  • Spacelab 2 PLT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15925 . COSPAR: 1985-063xx. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.
  • PDP - . Payload: Challenger F8 / PDP. Mass: 285 kg (628 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: PDP. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15929 . COSPAR: 1985-063B. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 311 km (193 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 90.90 min. Summary: Plasma Diagnostics Package; released by STS 51F 8/1/85, retrieved 8/2/85. .
  • Spacelab 2 PLT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15925 . COSPAR: 1985-063xx. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.
  • Spacelab 2 PLT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15925 . COSPAR: 1985-063xx. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.
  • CRNE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15925 . COSPAR: 1985-063xx. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.

1985 August 27 - . 10:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-27/51-I.
  • STS-51-I - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Covey; Engle; Fisher, William; Lounge; van Hoften. Payload: Discovery F06 / Syncom-4 4 [Orbus-7S] / Aussat A1. Mass: 19,952 kg (43,986 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Covey; Engle; Fisher, William; Lounge; van Hoften. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-I. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.10 days. Decay Date: 1985-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 15992 . COSPAR: 1985-076A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 351 km (218 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Manned five crew. Launched Aussat 1, ASC 1, Leasat 4; repaired Leasat 3. Payloads: Deploy ASC (American Satellite Company)-1 with Payload Assist Modue (PAM)-D. Deploy AUSSAT (Australian communications satellite)-1 with PAM-D. Deploy Syncom IV-4 communications satellite with its unique stage. Retrieve Leasat-3 communications satellite, repair and deploy by extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts. Physical Vapor Transport Organic Solids (PVTOS) experiment.
  • Aussat A1 - . Payload: Aussat A1 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,260 kg (2,770 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: Aussat. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1993-08-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 15993 . COSPAR: 1985-076B. Apogee: 35,934 km (22,328 mi). Perigee: 35,922 km (22,320 mi). Inclination: 7.0000 deg. Period: 1,443.30 min. Released by STS 51I 8/27/85. Aussat A1 was decommissioned in early 1993 at the ned of its nominal life. It is currently in a non-synchronous graveyard orbit.. It spent its active life at 160 deg. E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 160 deg E in 1985-1993 As of 5 September 2001 located at 174.28 deg W drifting at 1.831 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 120.19E drifting at 1.838W degrees per day.
  • Syncom IV-4 - . Payload: Discovery F6 / Syncom-4 4 [Orbus-7S] / Aussat A1 [. Mass: 1,388 kg (3,060 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 381. Completed Operations Date: 1996-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 15995 . COSPAR: 1985-076D. Apogee: 36,503 km (22,681 mi). Perigee: 36,486 km (22,671 mi). Inclination: 9.5000 deg. Period: 1,472.40 min. Released by STS 51I 8/29/85; 178 deg E; leased by U.S. government. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 177 deg W in 1985-1987 As of 3 September 2001 located at 149.81 deg W drifting at 8.908 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 84.34W drifting at 8.912W degrees per day.
  • ASC-1 - . Mass: 1,271 kg (2,802 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ASC. Program: GTE. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ASC. Completed Operations Date: 1994-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15994 . COSPAR: 1985-076C. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Released by STS 51I 8/27/85; stationed at 81 deg E. C, Ku band communications satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg W in 1985-1994 As of 5 September 2001 located at 99.97 deg W drifting at 0.156 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 119.21W drifting at 0.126W degrees per day.

1985 October 3 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-28/51-J.
  • STS-51-J - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Bobko; Grabe; Hilmers; Pailes; Stewart. Payload: Atlantis F01 / DSCS-3 2 / DSCS-3 3 [IUS]. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bobko; Grabe; Hilmers; Pailes; Stewart. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-J. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.07 days. Decay Date: 1985-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 16115 . COSPAR: 1985-092A. Apogee: 486 km (301 mi). Perigee: 476 km (295 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.20 min. Manned five crew. Atlantis (first flight); deployed USA 11, USA 12. Reusable space transportation system.

    Orbits of Earth: 63. Landed at: Runway 23 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Touchdown miss distance: 754.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,455.00 m. Payloads: Classified DoD Mission - Record altitude (as of 5/93).

  • USA 11 - . Payload: DSCS III F-2. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS III. USAF Sat Cat: 16116 . COSPAR: 1985-092B. Apogee: 35,963 km (22,346 mi). Perigee: 35,434 km (22,017 mi). Inclination: 0.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Summary: Released from STS 51J 10/4/85. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit; at 12 deg W in 1986; 42 deg W in 1995..
  • USA 12 - . Payload: DSCS III F-3. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS III. USAF Sat Cat: 16117 . COSPAR: 1985-092C. Apogee: 35,963 km (22,346 mi). Perigee: 35,633 km (22,141 mi). Inclination: 0.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Released from STS 51J 4 October 1985; boosted into orbit with DSCS 3 F3 on single IUS booster. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit; at 180 deg E in 1994.

1985 October 30 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-29/61-A.
  • STS-61-A - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Bluford; Buchli; Dunbar; Furrer; Hartsfield; Messerschmid; Nagel; Ockels. Payload: Challenger F09 / GLOMR 1. Mass: 14,451 kg (31,859 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford; Buchli; Dunbar; Furrer; Hartsfield; Messerschmid; Nagel; Ockels. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-A. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 7.03 days. Decay Date: 1985-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 16230 . COSPAR: 1985-104A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 319 km (198 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Manned eight crew. Launched GLOMR; carried Spacelab D1. Payloads: Spacelab D-1 with habitable module and 76 experiments. Six of the eight crew members were divided into a blue and red team working 12-hour shifts for 24-hour-a-day operation. The remaining two crew members were 'switch hitters.'.
  • GLOMR; GLOMAR - . Payload: Challenger F9 / GLOMR 1. Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: GLOMR. Decay Date: 1986-12-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 16231 . COSPAR: 1985-104B. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Summary: Released from STS 61A 11/1/85. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..
  • USS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1985-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 16230 . COSPAR: 1985-104xx. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 322 km (200 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.10 min.
  • Spacelab D-1 - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1985-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 16230 . COSPAR: 1985-104xx. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 322 km (200 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.10 min.

1985 November 27 - . 00:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-30/61-B.
  • STS-61-B - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Cleave; Neri, Vela; O Connor; Ross; Shaw; Spring; Walker. Payload: Atlantis F02 / EASE / ACCESS. Mass: 21,791 kg (48,040 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cleave; Neri, Vela; O Connor; Ross; Shaw; Spring; Walker. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-B. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 6.88 days. Decay Date: 1985-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 16273 . COSPAR: 1985-109A. Apogee: 370 km (220 mi). Perigee: 361 km (224 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Manned seven crew. Deployed Morelos 2, Aussat 2, Satcom K2, OEX. Payloads: Deploy SATCOM (RCA-Satellite Communi-cations) Ku-2 with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D II. Deploy Morelos (Mexico communications satellite)-B with PAM-D. Deploy AUSSAT (Australian communications satellite)-2 with PAM-D. EASE/ACCESS (Assembly of Structures— Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures) by extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, Continuous Flow Electrophore-sis System (CFES), Diffusive Mixing of Organic Solutions (DMOS), IMAX camera, one getaway special (GAS), Linhof camera and Hasseblad camera.
  • Aussat A2 - . Payload: Aussat A2 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,259 kg (2,775 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: Aussat. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 16275 . COSPAR: 1985-109C. Apogee: 35,886 km (22,298 mi). Perigee: 35,866 km (22,286 mi). Inclination: 6.7000 deg. Period: 1,440.70 min. Released by STS 61B 11/28/85; 156 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 156 deg E in 1985-1993; 164 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 24.67 deg W drifting at 1.153 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 133.30E drifting at 1.163W degrees per day.
  • Satcom K2 - . Payload: Satcom-K 2 / PAM-D2. Mass: 1,812 kg (3,994 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: RCA Amer. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Satcom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 16276 . COSPAR: 1985-109D. Apogee: 36,002 km (22,370 mi). Perigee: 35,944 km (22,334 mi). Inclination: 4.2000 deg. Period: 1,445.60 min. Released by STS 61B 11/28/85; 81 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 81 deg W in 1985-1996; 85 deg W in 1996-1997; 81 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 80.95 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 157.11W drifting at 2.398W degrees per day.
  • Morelos 2 - . Payload: Morelos-B / PAM-D. Mass: 645 kg (1,421 lb). Nation: Mexico. Agency: Morelos. Program: Morelos. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 16274 . COSPAR: 1985-109B. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Released by STS 61B 11/27/85. Coverage of the national territory with television, radio and telephony signals and data transmission. Geostationary satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 116 deg W in 1985-1998; 120 deg W in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 120.20 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 148.53W drifting at 2.555W degrees per day.
  • EASE/ACCESS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1985-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 16273 . COSPAR: 1985-109xx. Apogee: 385 km (239 mi). Perigee: 323 km (200 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
  • OEX Target - . Payload: Atlantis F2 / Aussat A2 [PAM-D] / Morelos 2 [PAM-D. Mass: 16 kg (35 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: OEX Target. Decay Date: 1987-03-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 16277 . COSPAR: 1985-109E. Apogee: 386 km (239 mi). Perigee: 373 km (231 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Released from STS 61B 11/30/85; shuttle autopilot software test target. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1986 January 12 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-32/61-C.
  • STS-61-C - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Bolden; Cenker; Chang-Diaz; Gibson; Hawley; Nelson; Nelson, Bill. Payload: Columbia F07 Satcom-K 1 [PAM-D2]. Mass: 14,724 kg (32,460 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden; Cenker; Chang-Diaz; Gibson; Hawley; Nelson; Nelson, Bill. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-C. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 6.09 days. Decay Date: 1986-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 16481 . COSPAR: 1986-003A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Manned seven crew. Launched Satcom K1. Payloads: Deploy SATCOM (RCA-Satellite Communi-cations) Ku-1 with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D II. Materials Science Laboratory, Comet Halley Active Monitoring Experiment (CHAMP), Hitchhiker (HH) Goddard (G)-1, thirteen getaway specials (GAS), student experiment, Initial Blood Storage Equipment (lBSE), Characterization of Space Motion Sickness (SMS).
  • MSL-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1986-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 16481 . COSPAR: 1986-003xx. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 322 km (200 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.20 min.
  • Satcom K1 - . Payload: Satcom-K 1 / PAM-D2. Mass: 1,923 kg (4,239 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: RCA Amer. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Satcom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. Completed Operations Date: 1997-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 16482 . COSPAR: 1986-003B. Apogee: 36,016 km (22,379 mi). Perigee: 35,965 km (22,347 mi). Inclination: 4.5000 deg. Period: 1,446.50 min. Summary: Stationed at 81 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg W in 1986-1997; 87 deg W in 1997 As of 31 August 2001 located at 61.19 deg W drifting at 2.593 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 125.55E drifting at 2.586W degrees per day..
  • GBA-1 - . Payload: GAS Bridge. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1986-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 16481 . COSPAR: 1986-003xx. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 322 km (200 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.20 min.

1990 January 9 - . 12:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-32R.
  • STS-32 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Brandenstein; Dunbar; Ivins; Low; Wetherbee. Payload: Columbia F09 / Syncom-4 5 [Orbus-7S]. Mass: 12,014 kg (26,486 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brandenstein; Dunbar; Ivins; Low; Wetherbee. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-32. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 10.88 days. Decay Date: 1990-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 20409 . COSPAR: 1990-002A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 296 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Manned five crew. Deployed Leasat 5, retrieved LDEF. Night landing. Payloads: Deployment of Syncom IV-5, retrieval of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA)-3, Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) III-2, Latitude/Longitude Locator (L3), American Flight Echocardiograph (AFE), Characterization of Neurospora Circadian Rhythms in Space (CNCR)-01, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS)-4, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE), IMAX, Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (lOCM).
  • Leasat 5 - . Payload: Columbia F9 / Syncom-4 5 [Orbus-7S]. Mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Leasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 20410 . COSPAR: 1990-002B. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 4.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Deployed from STS 32 1/10/89; 177 deg W; leased to U.S. government. The Leasat series was developed as a commercial venture to provide dedicated communications services to the U. S. military. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 178 deg E in 1990; 72 deg E in 1990-1997; 77 deg E in 1997-1998; 155 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 155.70 deg E drifting at 0.023 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 100.05E drifting at 0.003E degrees per day. Additional Details: here....

1990 February 28 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-36R.
  • STS-36 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Casper; Creighton; Hilmers; Mullane; Thuot. Payload: Atlantis F06 / KH-12 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Casper; Creighton; Hilmers; Mullane; Thuot. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-36. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.43 days. Decay Date: 1990-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 20512 . COSPAR: 1990-019A. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 62.0000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Landed at: Runway 23 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Landing Speed: 368 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 494.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,407.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission - Record altitude (through 5/93).
  • USA 53 - . Payload: KH-12 no. 1. Mass: 19,600 kg (43,200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Misty. Decay Date: 1990-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 20516 . COSPAR: 1990-019B. Apogee: 207 km (128 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 62.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Deployed from STS-36 February 28, 1990. Said to be designated 'Misty', and believed to be the first maneouvering stealth satellite. Barely visible, it was rediscovered by amateur observors in October 1990, with a ground track that repeated every nine days. It maneouvered again in early November 1990, changing its inclination by 1.2 degrees and entering a lower orbit with a three-day repeating ground track. Amateurs again found it in 1996 and 1997 in a 66.2 degree orbit with a 99.4 minute period. The decay date for the active satellite is believed to refer instead to debris; the actually satellite was probably deorbited after 1997, perhaps after USA 144 (Misty 2?) was put into operation.

1990 November 15 - . 23:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-38.
  • STS-38 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Covey; Culbertson; Gemar; Meade; Springer. Payload: Atlantis F07 / DoD. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Covey; Culbertson; Gemar; Meade; Springer. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-38. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.91 days. Decay Date: 1990-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 20935 . COSPAR: 1990-097A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 78 km (48 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 87.50 min. Summary: Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Orbits of Earth: 79. Payloads: DoD Mission..
  • USA 67 - . Payload: Magnum 3. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Magnum. USAF Sat Cat: 20963 . COSPAR: 1990-097B. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 78 km (48 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 87.50 min. Summary: Deployed from STS 38 15 November 1990. Boosted to geostationary orbit. Last known longitude (31 December 1990) 99.16 deg W drifting at 0.050 deg W per day..

1991 April 28 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-39.
  • STS-39 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bluford; Coats; Hammond; Harbaugh; Hieb; McMonagle; Veach. Payload: Discovery F12. Mass: 9,712 kg (21,411 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford; Coats; Hammond; Harbaugh; Hieb; McMonagle; Veach. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-39. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.31 days. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Manned seven crew. Deployed USA 70, CRO A, CRO B, CRO C; deployed and retrieved IBSS. Payloads: Infrared Background Signature Survey (lBSS), Air Force Program (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-I, Multi-Purpose Experiment Canister (MPEC), Cloud Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS)-1A, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll.
  • SPAS-II - . Payload: SPAS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: SPAS. COSPAR: 1991-031xx. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Shuttle Pallet Satellite-II (SPAS-II) experiments were carried out on this classified mission. No details on whether SPAS was released or nature of experiments..
  • CRO-B - . Payload: Discovery F12 / IBSS-SPAS 02 / CRO A / CRO B / CRO. Mass: 197 kg (434 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: CRO. Decay Date: 1991-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 21246 . COSPAR: 1991-031E. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi). Perigee: 68 km (42 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 85.80 min. Summary: Chemical Release Observation; deployed 2 May 1991; released gases for observation by IBSS..
  • CRO-C - . Payload: Discovery F12 / IBSS-SPAS 02 / CRO A / CRO B / CRO. Mass: 197 kg (434 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: CRO. Decay Date: 1991-05-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 21245 . COSPAR: 1991-031D. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi). Perigee: 67 km (41 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 85.70 min. Summary: Chemical Release Observation; deployed 2 May 1991; released gases for observation by IBSS..
  • CRO-A - . Payload: Discovery F12 / IBSS-SPAS 02 / CRO A / CRO B / CRO. Mass: 197 kg (434 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: CRO. Decay Date: 1991-05-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 21247 . COSPAR: 1991-031F. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Chemical Release Observation; deployed 3 May 1991; released gases for observation by IBSS..
  • STP-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.
  • AFP-675 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: AFP-675. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.
  • USA 70 - . Payload: MPEC. Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Program: STS. Class: Technology. Type: Military technology satellite. Spacecraft: MPEC. USAF Sat Cat: 21262 . COSPAR: 1991-031C. Summary: Classified subsatellite released from shuttle..
  • IBSS - . Payload: SPAS-2. Mass: 1,901 kg (4,190 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: IBSS. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21244 . COSPAR: 1991-031B. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 245 km (152 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Infrared Background Signature Survey; sensor technology test; retrieved 2 May 1991..

1991 August 2 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-43.
  • STS-43 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Adamson; Baker, Mike; Blaha; Low; Lucid. Payload: Atlantis F09 / TDRS 5 [IUS]. Mass: 21,265 kg (46,881 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Adamson; Baker, Mike; Blaha; Low; Lucid. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-43. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 8.89 days. Decay Date: 1991-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 21638 . COSPAR: 1991-054A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 5 satellite. Payloads: Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-E/lnertial Upper Stage (lUS), Space Station Heatpipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE)-ll, Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) instrument 03, Optical Communications Through the Shuttle Window (OCTW), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test, Auroral Photography Experiment (APE)-B, Bioserve-lnstrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BlMDA)-02, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP)-03, Protein Crystal Growth Ill Block Il, Space Acceleration Measure-ment System (SAMS), Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE)-02, Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE).
  • TDRS 5 - . Payload: TDRS E. Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 21639 . COSPAR: 1991-054B. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. NASA communications; 174 deg W; deployed from STS-43 8/2/91. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 174 deg W in 1991-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 174.28 deg W drifting at 0.011 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 171.61W drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.

1991 September 12 - . 23:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-48.
  • STS-48 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Brown, Mark; Buchli; Creighton; Gemar; Reightler. Payload: Discovery F13 / UARS. Mass: 7,854 kg (17,315 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown, Mark; Buchli; Creighton; Gemar; Reightler. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-48. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 5.35 days. Decay Date: 1991-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 21700 . COSPAR: 1991-063A. Apogee: 580 km (360 mi). Perigee: 575 km (357 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 96.20 min. Manned five crew. Deployed UARS; conducted materials and biological research. Payloads: Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM)-03, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE)-01, Protein Crystal Growth (PCG)-ll-2, Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics, Experiment (MODE)-01, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP)-04, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM-02), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll-06, Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM)-03, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.
  • UARS - . Payload: Discovery F13 / UARS. Mass: 6,795 kg (14,980 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: UARS. Decay Date: 2011-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 21701 . COSPAR: 1991-063B. Apogee: 582 km (361 mi). Perigee: 574 km (356 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 96.20 min. Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite; deployed from STS-48 on 15 Sepetember 1991. It studied the depletion of the ozone layer, confirming that CFCs cause the `ozone hole', and improved models of upper atmosphere chemistry, including studies of methane in the Antarctic, sulphur dioxide from volcanoes, and global wind measurements. Some media hysteria surrounded its reentry on 24 September 2011, but it apparently came down unobserved in the Pacific Ocean east of Hawaii.

1991 November 24 - . 23:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-44.
  • STS-44 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Gregory; Hennen; Henricks; Musgrave; Runco; Voss. Payload: Atlantis F10 / DSP 16 [IUS]. Mass: 20,242 kg (44,625 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gregory; Hennen; Henricks; Musgrave; Runco; Voss. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-44. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 6.95 days. Decay Date: 1991-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21795 . COSPAR: 1991-080A. Apogee: 371 km (230 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Manned six crew. Deployed Defense Support Program satellite. Payloads: Defense Support Program satellite/ Inertial Upper Stage, Interim Operational Contamination Monitor, Terra Scout, Military Man in Space, Shuttle Activation Monitor, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor, Radiation Monitoring Equipment Ill, Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument, Visual Function Tester 1.
  • USA 75 - . Payload: DSP-1 Block 14 F16. Mass: 2,360 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. USAF Sat Cat: 21805 . COSPAR: 1991-080B. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Inclination: 2.5000 deg. Period: 1,421.90 min. DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite, deployed from shuttle STS-44 on 25 November 1991. Only DSP launched from the shuttle before the Challenger disaster moved the payload to the Titan 4. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 130 deg W in 1992; 70 deg E in 1992; 8 deg E in 1999; 40 deg W in 2000. Still in service as of March 2007.

1992 January 22 - . 14:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-42.
  • STS-42 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bondar; Grabe; Hilmers; Merbold; Oswald; Readdy; Thagard. Payload: Discovery F14 / GBA-3. Mass: 13,001 kg (28,662 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bondar; Grabe; Hilmers; Merbold; Oswald; Readdy; Thagard. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-42. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.05 days. Decay Date: 1992-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21846 . COSPAR: 1992-002A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Manned seven crew. Carried International Microgravity Laboratory-1. Payloads: International Microgravity Laboratory (lML)-1, getaway special (GAS) bridge with 10 getaway specials, IMAX camera, Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR)-1, Investigations Into Polymer Mem-brane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll, Student Experiment 81-09: Convection in Zero Gravity, Student Experiment 83-02: Capillary Rise of Liquid Through Granular Porous Media.
  • Spacelab IML-1 - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1992-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21846 . COSPAR: 1992-002xx. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 286 km (177 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.
  • GBA-3 - . Payload: GAS Bridge. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21846 . COSPAR: 1992-002xx. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 286 km (177 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

1992 March 24 - . 13:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-45.
  • STS-45 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Bolden; Duffy; Foale; Frimout; Leestma; Lichtenberg; Sullivan. Payload: Atlantis F11 / Atlas 1 Fwd. Mass: 8,020 kg (17,680 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden; Duffy; Foale; Frimout; Leestma; Lichtenberg; Sullivan. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-45. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 8.92 days. Decay Date: 1992-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 21915 . COSPAR: 1992-015A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 282 km (175 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Manned seven crew. Carried ATLAS-1 experimental package. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS)-1, Shuttle Solar Backscat-ter Ultraviolet (SSBUV)-4, Getaway Special Experiment G-229, Space Tissue Loss (STL)-1, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lIl, Visual Function Tester (VFT)-lI, Cloud Logic To Opti-mize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS)-1A, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Process-ing (IPMP), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-Il, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl).
  • Atlas 1 Aft - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 21915 . COSPAR: 1992-015xx. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 283 km (175 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min.
  • Atlas 1 Fwd - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 21915 . COSPAR: 1992-015xx. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 283 km (175 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min.

1992 June 25 - . 16:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-50.
  • STS-50 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Baker; Bowersox; DeLucas; Dunbar; Meade; Richards; Trinh. Payload: Columbia F12 / USML-1 / OAST. Mass: 11,153 kg (24,588 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Baker; Bowersox; DeLucas; Dunbar; Meade; Richards; Trinh. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-50. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 13.81 days. Decay Date: 1992-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22000 . COSPAR: 1992-034A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 302 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Carried United States Microgravity Laboratory. First extended-duration mission. Payloads: United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-1; Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE); Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-ll; Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl) .
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22000 . COSPAR: 1992-034xx. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 245 km (152 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.
  • USML-1 - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1992-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22000 . COSPAR: 1992-034xx. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 245 km (152 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.

1992 December 2 - . 13:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-53.
  • STS-53 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bluford; Cabana; Clifford; Voss; Walker, Dave. Payload: Discovery F15 / USA-89. Mass: 11,868 kg (26,164 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford; Cabana; Clifford; Voss; Walker, Dave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-53. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.31 days. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 365 km (226 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Manned five crew. Deployed classified military satellite USA 89. The ODERACS payload was unable to be deployed because of payload equipment malfunction. Payloads: Department of Defense (DOD)1; Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); Orbital Debris Radar Calibration System (ODERACS); Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); Cloud Logic To Optimize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS) 1A; Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Equipment (FARE); Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HER-CULES); Microencapsulation in Space (MIS)-1; Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME) III; Spare Tissue Loss (STL); Visual Function Tester (VFT)2.
  • ODERACS E - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086xx. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.
  • USA 89 - . Payload: SDS B-3. Mass: 5,900 kg (13,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: SDS-2. USAF Sat Cat: 22518 . COSPAR: 1992-086B. Apogee: 377 km (234 mi). Perigee: 366 km (227 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Summary: Deployed from STS-53 12/2/92..
  • ODERACS F - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086xx. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.
  • ODERACS D - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086xx. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.
  • ODERACS C - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086xx. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.
  • ODERACS B - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086xx. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.
  • ODERACS A - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086xx. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.

1993 March 22 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Columbia Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-55. Spacecraft: Columbia. The countdown for Columbia's launch was halted by on-board computers at T-3 seconds following a problem with purge pressure readings in the oxidizer preburner on main engine #2 Columbia's three main engines were replaced on the launch pad, and the flight was rescheduled behind Discovery's launch on STS-56. Columbia finally launched on April 26, 1993.

1993 April 26 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-55.
  • STS-55 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Harris; Henricks; Nagel; Precourt; Ross; Schlegel; Walter. Payload: Columbia F14/USS/Spacelab D-2 LM. Mass: 12,185 kg (26,863 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Harris; Henricks; Nagel; Precourt; Ross; Schlegel; Walter. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-55. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 9.99 days. Decay Date: 1993-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 22640 . COSPAR: 1993-027A. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 304 km (188 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. Summary: Manned seven crew. Carried German Spacelab-D2. Payloads: Spacelab D-2 with long module, unique support structure (USS), and Reaction Kinetics in Glass Melts (RKGM) getaway special, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II..
  • USS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. COSPAR: 1993-027xx.
  • Spacelab D-2 LM - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. COSPAR: 1993-027xx.

1994 February 3 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-60.
  • STS-60 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bolden; Chang-Diaz; Davis; Krikalyov; Reightler; Sega. Backup Crew: Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Discovery F18 / GBA-6. Mass: 13,006 kg (28,673 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden; Chang-Diaz; Davis; Krikalyov; Reightler; Sega; Titov, Vladimir. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-60. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.30 days. Decay Date: 1994-02-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 348 km (216 mi). Inclination: 56.4000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Deployed ODERACS A-F, Bremsat, carried Wake Shield Facility. Payloads: Wake Shield Facility (WSF) 1 and SPACEHAB 02. Getaway special bridge assembly experiments: Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL), Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS), University of Bremen Satellite (BREMSAT), G-514, G-071, and G-536. Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II; Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).
  • BremSat 1 - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 63 kg (138 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DARA; Bremen. Class: Technology. Type: Re-entry vehicle technology satellite. Spacecraft: BremSat. Decay Date: 1995-02-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 22998 . COSPAR: 1994-006H. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi). Perigee: 156 km (96 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 87.70 min. Summary: Atomic oxygen, dust particle, microgravity, reentry experiments. .
  • ODERACS B - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: ODERACS. Decay Date: 1994-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 22991 . COSPAR: 1994-006C. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Summary: Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere; deployed from STS-60. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • ODERACS C - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: ODERACS. Decay Date: 1994-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 22992 . COSPAR: 1994-006D. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 329 km (204 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 91.35 min. Summary: Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere; deployed from STS-60. .
  • ODERACS D - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: ODERACS. Decay Date: 1994-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 22993 . COSPAR: 1994-006E. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 329 km (204 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 91.35 min. Summary: Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere; deployed from STS-60. .
  • ODERACS E - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: ODERACS. Decay Date: 1995-03-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 22994 . COSPAR: 1994-006F. Apogee: 356 km (221 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Summary: Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere; deployed from STS-60. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • ODERACS F - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: ODERACS. Decay Date: 1995-02-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 22995 . COSPAR: 1994-006G. Apogee: 356 km (221 mi). Perigee: 338 km (210 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Summary: Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere; deployed from STS-60. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • ODERACS A - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: ODERACS. Decay Date: 1994-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 22990 . COSPAR: 1994-006B. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 327 km (203 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Summary: Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere; deployed from STS-60. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • Spacehab SH-02 - . Payload: Spacehab 2. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1994-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
  • Wake Shield Facility - . Payload: WSF. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
  • GBA-6 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.

1994 April 9 - . 11:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-59.
  • STS-59 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Apt; Chilton; Clifford; Godwin; Gutierrez; Jones. Payload: Endeavour F06 / MAPS. Mass: 12,490 kg (27,530 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt; Chilton; Clifford; Godwin; Gutierrez; Jones. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-59. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 11.24 days. Decay Date: 1994-04-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 23042 . COSPAR: 1994-020A. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Carried SIR-C SAR radar. Payloads: Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) 1; Consortium for Materials Development in Space Com-plex Autonomous Payload (CONCAP) IV; three getaway special (GAS) payloads; Space Tissue Loss (STL) A, B; Visual Function Tester (VFT) 4; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II.
  • SRL-1 - . Payload: SRL PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23042 . COSPAR: 1994-020xx. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.
  • MAPS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23042 . COSPAR: 1994-020xx. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

1994 July 8 - . 16:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-65.
  • STS-65 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Cabana; Chiao; Halsell; Hieb; Mukai; Thomas; Walz. Backup Crew: Favier. Payload: Columbia F17 / EDO. Mass: 10,811 kg (23,834 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cabana; Chiao; Halsell; Hieb; Mukai; Thomas; Walz; Favier. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-65. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 14.75 days. Decay Date: 1994-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 23173 . COSPAR: 1994-039A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Carried IML-2; microgravity, biology experiments. Payloads: International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) 2, Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX).
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 23173 . COSPAR: 1994-039xx. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.40 min.
  • Spacelab IML 2 - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1994-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 23173 . COSPAR: 1994-039xx. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.40 min.

1994 August 18 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Endeavour Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-68. Spacecraft: Endeavour. The countdown for Endeavour's first launch attempt ended 1.9 seconds before liftoff when on-board computers detected higher than acceptable readings in one channel of a sensor monitoring the discharge temperature of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump in main engine #3. A test firing of the engine at the Stennis Space Center in Mississippi on September 2nd confirmed that a slight drift in a fuel flow meter in the engine caused a slight increase in the turbopump's temperature. The test firing also confirmed a slightly slower start for main engine #3 during the pad abort, which could have contributed to the higher temperatures. After Endeavour was brought back to the Vehicle Assembly Building to be outfitted with three replacement engines, NASA managers set October 2nd as the date for Endeavour's second launch attempt.

1994 September 30 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-68.
  • STS-68 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Baker, Mike; Bursch; Jones; Smith, Steven; Wilcutt; Wisoff. Payload: Endeavour F07 / SRL-2. Mass: 12,510 kg (27,570 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Baker, Mike; Bursch; Jones; Smith, Steven; Wilcutt; Wisoff. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-68. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 11.24 days. Decay Date: 1994-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23285 . COSPAR: 1994-062A. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Carried SIR-C SAR. Landed at Edwards Air Force Base on October 11. Payloads: Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) 2, five Getaway Special payloads, Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX) 5, Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) 01, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG).
  • MAPS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23285 . COSPAR: 1994-062xx. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.
  • SRL-2 - . Payload: SRL PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23285 . COSPAR: 1994-062xx. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

1995 March 2 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-67.
  • STS-67 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Durrance; Gregory, William; Grunsfeld; Jernigan; Lawrence; Oswald; Parise. Payload: Endeavour F08 / ASTRO-2 Fwd. Mass: 13,116 kg (28,915 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Durrance; Gregory, William; Grunsfeld; Jernigan; Lawrence; Oswald; Parise. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-67. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 16.63 days. Decay Date: 1995-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23500 . COSPAR: 1995-007A. Apogee: 305 km (189 mi). Perigee: 305 km (189 mi). Inclination: 28.4500 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Carried Astro 2 astronomy payload with 3 UV telescopes.(attached to Endeavour).Payloads: Ultraviolet Astronomy (ASTRO) 2; Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE); Protein Crystal Growth—Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) 03; Protein Crystal Growth—Single-Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) 02; Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Minilab/Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc. Experiments (CMIX) 03; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II; two getaway special experiments.
  • ASTRO-2 Aft - . Payload: ASTRO-2 PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1995-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23500 . COSPAR: 1995-007xx. Apogee: 363 km (225 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.
  • ASTRO-2 Fwd - . Payload: ASTRO-2 PLT + Igloo. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1995-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23500 . COSPAR: 1995-007xx. Apogee: 363 km (225 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1995-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23500 . COSPAR: 1995-007xx. Apogee: 363 km (225 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.

1995 June 27 - . 19:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-71.
  • STS-71 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Baker; Budarin; Dunbar; Gibson; Harbaugh; Precourt; Solovyov. Backup Crew: Onufrienko; Usachyov. Payload: Atlantis F14 / Spacelab-Mir LM. Mass: 12,191 kg (26,876 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Baker; Budarin; Dunbar; Gibson; Harbaugh; Precourt; Solovyov; Onufrienko; Usachyov. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-71; Mir EO-19; Mir EO-18. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 9.81 days. Decay Date: 1995-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 23600 . COSPAR: 1995-030A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 342 km (212 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Mir Expedition EO-19. Transferred Budarin, Solovyov to Mir, returned Soyuz TM-21 crew to Earth. After undocking from Mir on July 4, Atlantis spent several days on orbit, carrying out medical research work with the Spacelab-Mir module in the cargo bay. Payloads: Shuttle/Mir Mission 1, Spacelab-Mir, IMAX camera, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX).
  • External Airlock/ODS - . Payload: EAL/ODS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Flight: STS-71; Mir EO-19; Mir EO-18. Decay Date: 1995-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 23600 . COSPAR: 1995-030xx. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 48 km (29 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.
  • Spacelab-Mir LM - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Flight: STS-71; Mir EO-19; Mir EO-18. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1995-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 23600 . COSPAR: 1995-030xx. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 48 km (29 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

1995 September 7 - . 15:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-69.
  • STS-69 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Cockrell; Gernhardt; Newman; Voss; Walker, Dave. Payload: Endeavour F09 / Spartan / WSF. Mass: 11,499 kg (25,350 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cockrell; Gernhardt; Newman; Voss; Walker, Dave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-69. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 10.85 days. Decay Date: 1995-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23667 . COSPAR: 1995-048A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 321 km (199 mi). Inclination: 28.4500 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 201, WSF 2. Payloads: Wake Shield Facility (WSF) 2; Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for As-tronomy (SPARTAN) 201; International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH)1; Inter-Mars Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (ITEPC); Extravehicular Activity Development Flight Test (EDFT) 2; Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL) 2/ getaway special (GAS) bridge assembly with five GAS payloads; Auroral Photography Experiment (APE) B; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC); Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Configuration A; Electrolysis Perfor-mance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS); Space Tissue Loss (STL)/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Cells (C); Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX).
  • Spartan 201 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1995-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23668 . COSPAR: 1995-048B. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Summary: Released by STS-69 9/8/95; retrieved 9/10/95; examined solar corona..
  • WSF 2 - . Payload: Wake Shield Facility. Mass: 1,935 kg (4,265 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SII. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft: WSF. Decay Date: 1995-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23669 . COSPAR: 1995-048C. Apogee: 405 km (251 mi). Perigee: 397 km (246 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 92.60 min. Summary: Wake Shield Facility; released by STS-69 9/11/95; retrieved 9/14/95; semiconductor materials research. Retrieved by Endeavour Sep 14 .
  • GBA-8/CAPL - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1995-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23667 . COSPAR: 1995-048xx. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 339 km (210 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.40 min.
  • IEH-1 - . Payload: IEH-1/HH-M. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1995-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23667 . COSPAR: 1995-048xx. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 339 km (210 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.40 min.

1995 November 12 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-74.
  • STS-74 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Cameron; Hadfield; Halsell; McArthur; Ross. Payload: Atlantis F15 / 316GK SM. Mass: 6,134 kg (13,523 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cameron; Hadfield; Halsell; McArthur; Ross. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-74; Mir EO-20. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 8.19 days. Decay Date: 1995-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23714 . COSPAR: 1995-061A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 257 km (159 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Rendezvoused and docked with Mir space station on November 15. Delivered the Russian-built 316GK Shuttle-Mir docking module to Mir.Payloads: Shuttle-Mir Mission 2; docking module with two attached solar arrays; IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC); Glow Experiment (GLO-4)/ Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment (PASDE) Payload (GPP); Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II.
  • Mir-Shuttle Docking Module - . Payload: DM 316GK s/n 1. Mass: 6,134 kg (13,523 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-74; Mir EO-20. Spacecraft: Mir-Shuttle Docking Module. Duration: 8.19 days. COSPAR: 1995-061xx. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 356 km (221 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Summary: Atlantis rendezvoused and docked with Mir space station on Nov 15. After departure the Russian-built 316GK Shuttle-Mir docking module remained attached to Mir to provide easier docking capability in the future..
  • External Airlock/ODS - . Payload: EAL/ODS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Flight: STS-74; Mir EO-20. Decay Date: 1995-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23714 . COSPAR: 1995-061xx. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min.

1996 September 16 - . 08:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-79.
  • STS-79 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Blaha; Readdy; Wilcutt; Akers; Apt; Walz. Payload: Atlantis F17 / External Airlock/ODS. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Blaha; Readdy; Wilcutt; Akers; Apt; Walz. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-79; Mir NASA-2; Mir NASA-1; Mir EO-22. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 10.14 days. Decay Date: 1996-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 24324 . COSPAR: 1996-057A. Apogee: 386 km (239 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. On September 19 Atlantis docked with the Russian Mir space station. Aboard Atlantis in the payload bay were the Orbiter Docking System, the modified Long Tunnel, and the Spacehab Double Module, containing supplies for the Mir. Astronaut John Blaha relieved Shannon Lucid as NASA resident on the complex. Atlantis undocked from the Mir complex on September 23 at 23:33 GMT. Valeriy Korzun, Aleksandr Kaleri and John Blaha remain on Mir. On September 26 Atlantis closed its payload bay doors, and at 11:06 GMT fired its OMS engines for a three minute long deorbit burn. After entry interface at 11:42 GMT the spaceship flew across Canada and the US for a landing at the Kennedy Space Center's Runway 15 at 12:13 GMT.
  • External Airlock/ODS - . Payload: Orbiter Docking System. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Decay Date: 1996-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 24324 . COSPAR: 1996-057xx. Apogee: 386 km (239 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.10 min.
  • Spacehab Double Module - . Payload: Spacehab FU2/STA. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1996-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 24324 . COSPAR: 1996-057xx. Apogee: 386 km (239 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Remained attached to OV-104.

1997 February 11 - . 08:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-82.
  • STS-82 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bowersox; Horowitz; Lee; Tanner; Hawley; Harbaugh; Smith, Steven. Payload: Discovery F22 / SAC. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bowersox; Horowitz; Lee; Tanner; Hawley; Harbaugh; Smith, Steven. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: North American. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-82. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 9.98 days. Decay Date: 1997-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 24719 . COSPAR: 1997-004A. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min. After a spectacular night launch, the Shuttle completed its rendezvous with Hubble Space Telescope on February 13. Over the next four days five spacewalks were undertaken to renovate Hubble.

    The Hubble Space Telescope was released back into orbit at 06:41 GMT on February 19. Discovery landed on Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center at 08:32 GMT on February 21.

  • External Airlock - . Payload: EAL. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 24719 . COSPAR: 1997-004xx. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.
  • SAC - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 24719 . COSPAR: 1997-004xx. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.
  • ORUC - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 24719 . COSPAR: 1997-004xx. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.
  • FSS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 24719 . COSPAR: 1997-004xx. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.

1997 April 4 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-83.
  • STS-83 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Halsell; Kilrain; Voss, Janice; Gernhardt; Crouch; Linteris; Thomas. Backup Crew: Coleman. Payload: Columbia F22 / Spacelab LM Unit 1 / EDO. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Halsell; Kilrain; Voss, Janice; Gernhardt; Crouch; Linteris; Thomas; Coleman. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-83. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 3.97 days. Decay Date: 1997-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 24755 . COSPAR: 1997-013A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. The launch of STS-83, the first Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission, was postponed for a day to replace some insulation around a water coolant line in Columbia's payload bay. Liftoff was further delayed 20 minutes due to anomalous oxygen readings in the orbiter's payload bay. STS-83 was cut short due to a problem with one of the three fuel cells that provide electricity and water to Columbia (flight rules required that all three must be operating). At 14:30 GMT on April 6 the crew were ordered to begin a Minimum Duration Flight (MDF). On April 8 the OMS engines ignited at 17:30 GMT for the deorbit burn, and Columbia landed on Runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center at 18:33 GMT.

    With delays in International Space Station construction leaving ample room in the shuttle schedule, NASA made the unique decision to leave the equipment installed in Columbia and refly this mission with the same crew later in 1997 as STS-94.

  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 24755 . COSPAR: 1997-013xx. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.
  • MSL-1 Spacelab - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module 1. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Bremen. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1997-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 24755 . COSPAR: 1997-013xx. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Remained attached to OV-102.

1997 May 15 - . 08:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-84.
  • STS-84 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Precourt; Collins, Eileen; Clervoy; Lu; Noriega; Kondakova; Foale. Backup Crew: Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Atlantis F19 / Spacehab Double Module. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Precourt; Collins, Eileen; Clervoy; Lu; Noriega; Kondakova; Foale; Titov, Vladimir. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-84; Mir NASA-4; Mir NASA-3; Mir EO-23. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 9.22 days. Decay Date: 1997-05-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 24804 . COSPAR: 1997-023A. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 377 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Atlantis blasted off on a night launch to Mir, docking with the station on May 17 at 02:33 GMT. Jerry Linenger, who had begun his stay on Mir in mid-January aboard STS-81, would return aboard STS-84. Michael Foale would be left at the station for his stint as the American crew member of Mir. The crew transfered to Mir 466 kg of water, 383 kg of U.S. science equipment, 1,251 kg of Russian equipment and supplies, and 178 kg of miscellaneous material. Returned to Earth aboard Atlantis were 406 kg of U.S. science material, 531 kg of Russian logistics material, 14 kg of ESA material and 171 kg of miscellaneous material. Atlantis undocked from Mir at 01:04 GMT on May 22. After passing up its first landing opportunity due to clouds over the landing site, the Shuttle fired its OMS engines on the deorbit burn at 12:33 GMT on May 24. Atlantis landed at 13:27 GMT at Kennedy Space Center's runway 33.
  • External Airlock/ODS - . Payload: EAL/ODS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Decay Date: 1997-05-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 24804 . COSPAR: 1997-023xx. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 377 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.
  • Spacehab Double Module - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1997-05-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 24804 . COSPAR: 1997-023xx. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 377 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

1997 July 1 - . 18:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-94.
  • STS-94 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Halsell; Kilrain; Voss, Janice; Gernhardt; Thomas; Crouch; Linteris. Payload: Columbia F23 / Spacelab LM Unit 1 / EDO. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Halsell; Kilrain; Voss, Janice; Gernhardt; Thomas; Crouch; Linteris. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Bremen. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-94. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.70 days. Decay Date: 1997-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 24849 . COSPAR: 1997-032A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 296 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. STS-94 was the reflight, with the same equipment and crew, of the curtailed STS-83 mission. Cargo Bay Payloads:

    • MSL-1: The Microgravity Science Laboratory included the first test of the International Space Station’s EXPRESS Rack. MSL-1 also contained numerous other experiment payloads to test materials and combustion processes in zero gravity.
    • CRYOFD: The Cryogenic Flexible Diode (CRYOFD) heat pipe was a Hitchhiker payload.
    • OARE: The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment was a self-calibrating instrument that monitored extremely small accelerations and vibrations experienced during orbit of the Shuttle.
    In-Cabin Payloads: SAREX, MSX

    The mission this time went for its full two week duration and the crew completed the full list of experiments. The deorbit burn was on July 17, 1997 at 09:44 GMT and Columbia landed on KSC's Runway 33 at 10:46:34 GMT.

  • Spacelab MSL-1R - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Bremen. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1997-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 24849 . COSPAR: 1997-032xx. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 296 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Remained attached to OV-102.
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 24849 . COSPAR: 1997-032xx. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 296 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.

1997 August 7 - . 14:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-85.
  • STS-85 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Brown; Rominger; Davis; Curbeam; Robinson; Tryggvason. Payload: Discovery F23 / CRISTA-SPAS-2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Rominger; Davis; Curbeam; Robinson; Tryggvason. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: North American. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-85. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 11.85 days. Decay Date: 1997-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 24889 . COSPAR: 1997-039A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 249 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Deployed and retrieved the CRISTA-SPAS-2 (the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2) designed to study Earth's middle atmosphere. The CRISTA-SPAS-2 was making its second flight on the Space Shuttle and represented the fourth mission in a cooperative venture between the German Space Agency (DARA) and NASA.

    CRISTA-SPAS was deployed by the RMS arm at 22:27 GMT on August 7 and was recaptured by Discovery's RMS arm at 15:14 GMT on August 16. Because of unfavorable weather conditions at the primary shuttle landing site at the Kennedy Space Center, Discovery was waved off for its scheduled August 18 landing. STS-85 landed the next day, at Kennedy Space Center at 11:08 GMT.

  • TAS-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 24889 . COSPAR: 1997-039xx. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 249 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.
  • CRISTA - . Payload: ASTRO-SPAS. Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SPAS. Decay Date: 1997-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 24890 . COSPAR: 1997-039B. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 282 km (175 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Recaptured August 16..
  • MFD - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 24889 . COSPAR: 1997-039xx. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 249 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.
  • IEH-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 24889 . COSPAR: 1997-039xx. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 249 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.

1997 September 26 - . 02:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-86.
  • STS-86 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Wetherbee; Bloomfield; Titov, Vladimir; Parazynski; Chretien; Lawrence; Wolf. Payload: Atlantis F20 / Spacehab-DM. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Wetherbee; Bloomfield; Titov, Vladimir; Parazynski; Chretien; Lawrence; Wolf. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-86; Mir NASA-5; Mir NASA-4; Mir EO-24. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 10.81 days. Decay Date: 1997-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 24964 . COSPAR: 1997-055A. Apogee: 381 km (236 mi). Perigee: 354 km (219 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Atlantis was launched on a mission to the Russian Mir space station. The TI rendevous terminal initiation burn was carried out at 17:32 GMT on September 27, and Atlantis docked with the SO (Docking Module) on the Mir complex at 19:58 GMT. The crew exchange was completed on September 28, with David Wolf replacing Michael Foale on the Mir crew. On October 1 cosmonaut Titov and astronaut Parazynski conducted a spacewalk from the Shuttle payload bay while Atlantis was docked to Mir. They retrieved four MEEP (Mir Environmental Effects Payload ) exposure packages from Mir's SO module and installed the Spektr solar array cap. The MEEP experiments had been attached to the Docking Module by astronauts Linda Godwin and Rich Clifford during Shuttle mission STS-76 in March 1996. In addition to retrieving the MEEP, Parazynski and Titov were to continue an evaluation of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), a small jet-backpack designed for use as a type of life jacket during station assembly.

    Atlantis undocked from Mir at 17:28 GMT on October 3 and conducted a flyaround focused on the damaged Spektr Module to determine the location of the puncture in its hull. The Mir crew pumped air into the Spektr Module using a pressure regulator valve, and the Shuttle crew observed evidence that, as expected, the leak seemed to be located at the base of the damaged solar panel. Final separation of Atlantis from Mir took place around 20:28 GMT. After two landing attempts were waved off on October 5 due to heavy cloud cover, the crew fired the engines to deorbit at 20:47 GMT on October 6 and landed at Kennedy Space Center at 21:55.

  • Spacehab Double Module - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1997-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 24964 . COSPAR: 1997-055xx. Apogee: 381 km (236 mi). Perigee: 354 km (219 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Summary: Remained attached to OV-104.
  • External Airlock/ODS - . Payload: EAL/ODS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Decay Date: 1997-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 24964 . COSPAR: 1997-055xx. Apogee: 381 km (236 mi). Perigee: 354 km (219 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.90 min.

1998 January 23 - . 02:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-89.
  • STS-89 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Wilcutt; Edwards; Reilly; Anderson; Thomas, Andrew; Dunbar; Sharipov. Payload: Endeavour F12 / Spacehab Double Module. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Wilcutt; Edwards; Reilly; Anderson; Thomas, Andrew; Dunbar; Sharipov. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Douglas. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: Mir NASA-5; Mir EO-24; STS-89; Mir NASA-6. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 8.82 days. Decay Date: 1998-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 25143 . COSPAR: 1998-003A. Apogee: 382 km (237 mi). Perigee: 359 km (223 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Penultimate Shuttle mission to Mir. Andy Thomas replaced David Wolf as the resident NASA astronaut. Endeavour docked with the SO module on Mir at 20:14 GMT on January 24, 1998.

    Payloads included:

    • Orbiter middeck: CEBAS (German/US biological module with fish and snails); dinosaur skull (part of a museum educational program)
    • Bay 1: Tunnel Adapter
    • Bay 3: Orbiter Docking System/External Airlock
    • Bay 4-7: Transfer Tunnel
    • Bay 8-12: Spacehab Double Module (payloads included supplies for Mir, X-ray crystallography detector planned for the International Space Station)
    • Bay 13P: Getaway Special GABA carrier with G-141, G-145 (German materials processing experiments)
    • Bay 13S: Getaway Special GABA carrier with G-093 (University of Michigan fluid dynamics experiment), G-432 (Chinese materials processing experiment)

    Despite fits problems with his Sokol emergency spacesuit, Andy Thomas replaced David Wolf as a Mir crew member on January 25. Endeavour undocked from Mir on January 29 at 16:57 GMT and made one flyaround of the station before departing and landing at Kennedy Space Center's runway 15 at 22:35 GMT on January 31.

  • Spacehab Double Module - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacehab. COSPAR: 1998-003xx.
  • External Airlock/ODS - . Payload: EAL/ODS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Decay Date: 1998-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 25143 . COSPAR: 1998-003xx. Apogee: 382 km (237 mi). Perigee: 359 km (223 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.00 min.

1998 June 2 - . 22:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-91.
  • STS-91 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Precourt; Gorie; Lawrence; Chang-Diaz; Kavandi; Ryumin. Payload: Discovery F24 / Spacehab. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Precourt; Gorie; Lawrence; Chang-Diaz; Kavandi; Ryumin. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-91; Mir NASA-6; Mir EO-25. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 9.83 days. Decay Date: 1998-06-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 25356 . COSPAR: 1998-034A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. The final shuttle-Mir mission, STS-91 recovered NASA astronaut Andy Thomas from the Mir station and took Russian space chief and ex-cosmonaut Valeri Ryumin to Mir for an inspection tour of the ageing station. This was the first test of the super lightweight Aluminium-Lithium alloy external tank, designed to increase shuttle payload to the Mir / International Space Station orbit by 4,000 kg. At 22:15 GMT Discovery entered an initial 74 x 324 km x 51.6 deg orbit, with the OMS-2 burn three quarters of an hour later circulising the chase orbit. Discovery docked with the SO module on Mir at 17:00 GMT on June 4. NASA equipment was retrieved from the station, and Discovery undocked at 16:01 GMT on June 8, and landed on Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center at 18:00 GMT on June 12.
  • Spacehab - . Payload: Spacehab FU1. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacehab. COSPAR: 1998-034xx.
  • Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer - . Payload: AMS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. COSPAR: 1998-034xx.
  • Spacehab - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1998-06-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 25356 . COSPAR: 1998-034xx. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.80 min.
  • External Airlock/ODS - . Payload: EAL/ODS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Decay Date: 1998-06-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 25356 . COSPAR: 1998-034xx. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.80 min.

1998 December 4 - . 08:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-88.
  • STS-88 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Cabana; Sturckow; Ross; Currie; Newman; Krikalyov. Payload: Endeavour F13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cabana; Sturckow; Ross; Currie; Newman; Krikalyov. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: North American. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-88. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 11.80 days. Decay Date: 1998-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 25549 . COSPAR: 1998-069A. Apogee: 399 km (247 mi). Perigee: 382 km (237 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. First attempted launch of STS-88 was scrubbed at 09:03 GMT on December 3 due to a problem with a hydraulic system sensor. Launch came the next day, with Endeavour entering an initial 75 km x 313 km x 51.6 degree orbit. Half an orbit after launch, at 09:19 GMT, Endeavour fired its OMS engines to raise the orbit to 180 km x 322 km x 51.6 degree.

    On December 5 at 22:25 GMT Nancy Currie unberthed the Unity space station node from the payload bay using the RMS arm. She then moved the Unity to a position docked to the Orbiter Docking System in the payload bay in readiness for assembly with the Russian-launched Zarya FGB ISS component. After rendezvous with the Zarya FGB module, on December 6 at 23:47 GMT Endeavour grappled Zarya with the robot arm, and at 02:07 GMT on December 7 it was soft docked to the PMA-1 port on Unity. After some problems hard dock was achieved at 02:48 GMT. Unity and Zarya then formed the core of the future International Space Station. Ross and Newman made three space walks to connect cables between Zarya and Unity, on December 7, 9 and 12. On the last EVA a canvas tool bag was attached to the exterior of Unity to provide tools for future station assembly workers. Docking cables were disconnected to prevent Unity and Zarya from inadvertently undocking. Following an internal examination of the embryonic space station, Endeavour undocked at 20:30 GMT on December 13. The SAC-A and Mightysat satellites were ejected from the payload bay on December 14 and 15. Deorbit burn was December 16 at 03:48 GMT, and Endeavour landed at 04:53:29 GMT, on Runway 15 at the Kennedy Space Center.

    Payloads included:

    • Sill: RMS arm No. 303
    • Bay 1-2: Tunnel Adapter 002
    • Bay 3-4: Orbiter Docking System/External Airlock (Boeing/Palmdale)
    • Bay 7-13: Unity (Node 1) (Boeing/Huntsville), including the PMA-1 and PMA-2 docking adapters (Boeing/Huntington Beach)
    • Bay 2 Port: GABA adapter with SAC-A satellite
    • Bay 4 Starboard: Carrier with Tool Stowage Assembly
    • Bay 5 Port: GABA adapter with two PFR space walk platforms and one PFR stanchion.
    • Bay 5 Starboard: GABA adapter with two more PFR space walk platforms and one PFR stanchion.
    • Bay 6 Port: GABA adapter with Mightysat
    • Bay 6 Starboard: APC carrier with TCS laser rendezvous sensor
    • Bay 7 Starboard: APC carrier with TCS laser rendezvous sensor
    • Bay 13 Port: GABA adapter with SEM-7 and G-093 canisters
    • Bay 13 Starboard: GABA adapter with IMAX Cargo Bay Camera
  • Mightysat 1 - . Mass: 320 kg (700 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: McLean. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Mightysat 1. Decay Date: 1999-11-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 25551 . COSPAR: 1998-069C. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Perigee: 381 km (236 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Summary: First flight of a USAF Philips Laboratory/Space Experiments Directorate ejectable technology demonstration platform. Four advanced technologies demonstrated, including composite structure, advanced solar cells, advanced electronics, and a shock device..
  • SAC-A - . Mass: 68 kg (149 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Manufacturer: INVAP. Program: SAC. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SAC-A. Decay Date: 1999-10-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 25550 . COSPAR: 1998-069B. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 381 km (236 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Summary: SAC-A was to provide engineering bench testing for new space science technology instruments and equipment that will be used in a more complex spacecraft for the Argentine space program..
  • Unity - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Douglas. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: ISS Unity. Decay Date: 1972-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 25575 . COSPAR: 1998-069F. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi). Perigee: 387 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 92.43 min.

2000 February 11 - . 17:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-99.
  • STS-99 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Kregel; Gorie; Kavandi; Voss, Janice; Mohri; Thiele. Payload: Endeavour F14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kregel; Gorie; Kavandi; Voss, Janice; Mohri; Thiele. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-99. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 11.23 days. Decay Date: 2000-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 26088 . COSPAR: 2000-010A. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. On an extremely successful mission the space shuttle Endeavour deployed the 61 metre long STRM mast. This was a side-looking radar that digitally mapped with unprecedented accuracy the entire land surface of the Earth between latitudes 60 deg N and 54 deg S. Sponsors of the flight included the US National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), NASA, and the German and Italian space agencies. Some of the NIMA data would remain classified for exclusive use by the US Department of Defense.

2000 May 19 - . 10:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-101.
  • STS-101 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Halsell; Horowitz; Weber; Williams, Jeffrey; Voss; Helms; Usachyov. Payload: Atlantis F21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Halsell; Horowitz; Weber; Williams, Jeffrey; Voss; Helms; Usachyov. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-101. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 9.84 days. Decay Date: 2000-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 26368 . COSPAR: 2000-027A. Apogee: 381 km (236 mi). Perigee: 352 km (218 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. ISS Logistics flight. Launch delayed three times by weather. Objective of mission STS-101 was repair, resupply and construction tasks aboard the international space station. This was the first launch with new electronic cockpit displays and other upgrades. The solid boosters separated at 10:13 GMT and the main engines cutoff at 10:19 GMT. The external tank, ET-102 then separated, with both orbiter and ET-102 in a 52 x 320 km initial orbit. At 10:54 GMT the OMS engines fired to raise perigee to 159 x 329 km x at 51.6 deg. Atlantis docked with the International Space Station's PMA-2 docking adapter on the Unity node at 04:31 GMT on May 21. At that time the ISS was in a 332 x 341 km orbit.

    On May 22 mission specialists Jeff Williams and James carried out external maintenance work on the ISS.

    On May 23 at 00:03 GMT the Atlantis crew opened the first hatch to PMA-2 and entered the Station. The crew replaced a set of batteries in Zarya, installed fans and ducting to improve airflow, and delivered supplies and equipment. Three hour-long orbit raising burns on May 24 and 25 by the RCS engines on Atlantis raised the station to a 372 x 380 km x 51.6 deg orbit.

    The STS-101 crew left the station on May 26, closing the PMA-2 hatch at 08:08 GMT and undocking at 23:03 GMT. Atlantis performed a 180 degree flyaround of the station and departed the vicinity around 23:44 GMT.

    Atlantis closed its payload bay doors around 02:30 GMT on May 29 and fired the OMS engines for deorbit at 05:12 GMT. The vehicle landed on RW15 at Kennedy Space Center at 06:20 GMT. Atlantis was to be turned around for the next ISS shuttle flight, STS-106.

    Left in orbit was the renovated International Space Station, equipped with an upgraded electrical system, new fans, filters, fire extinguishers, smoke detectors and communications gear.


2000 October 11 - . 23:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-92.
  • STS-92 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Duffy; Melroy; Chiao; McArthur; Wisoff; Lopez-Alegria; Wakata. Payload: Discovery F28. Mass: 115,127 kg (253,811 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Duffy; Melroy; Chiao; McArthur; Wisoff; Lopez-Alegria; Wakata. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-92. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 12.90 days. Decay Date: 2000-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 26563 . COSPAR: 2000-062A. Apogee: 394 km (245 mi). Perigee: 386 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.5749 deg. Period: 92.28 min. ISS Logistics flight. 100th shuttle flight. Launch delayed from October 6. STS-92 brought the Z-1 Truss (mounted on a Spacelab pallet), Control Moment Gyros, Pressurised Mating Adapter-3 (PMA-3) and two DDCU (Heat pipes) to the International Space Station.

    The RSRM-76 solid rocket boosters separated at 23:19 GMT and main engine cut-off (MECO) came at 23:25 GMT. External tank ET-104 separated into a 74 x 323 km x 51.6 deg orbit. At apogee at 00:01 GMT on Oct 12, Discovery's OMS engines fired to raise perigee to a 158 x 322 km x 51.6 deg orbit; ET-104 re-entered over the Pacific around 00:30 GMT. At Oct 12 on 03:01 GMT the NC1 burn raised the orbit to 180 x 349 km; NC3 on Oct 12 to 311 x 375 km; and the TI burn at 14:09 GMT on Oct 13 to 375 x 381 km x 51.6 deg. Discovery's rendezvous with the International Space Station came at 15:39 GMT on Oct 13, with docking at 17:45 GMT. The spaceship docked with PMA-2, the docking port on the +Y port of the Space Station's Unity module. Hatch was open to PMA-2 at 20:30 GMT the same day.

    STS-92 Cargo Manifest

    • Bay 1-2: Orbiter Docking System + 3 EMU spacesuits
    • Bay 5 Port: Adapter Beam with DDCU-HP control unit
    • Bay 5 Starboard: Adapter Beam with DDCU-HP control unit
    • Bay 7-8: Spacelab Pallet MD003 with PMA-3
    • Bay 10-12: ISS Z1 first segment of the space station truss
    • Bay 13 Adapter Beam with IMAX Cargo Bay Camera
    • Sill: Canadarm RMS 301

    Total payload bay cargo: ca. 14,800 kg

    The Z1 first segment of the space station truss was built by Boeing/Canoga Park and was 3.5 x 4.5 meters in size. It was attached to the +Z port on Unity. Z1 carried the control moment gyros, the S-band antenna, and the Ku-band antenna.

    PMA-3, built by Boeing/Huntington Beach, was docked to the -Z port opposite Z1. PMA-3 was installed on a Spacelab pallet for launch.

    On October 14 at 16:15 GMT the Z1 segment was unberthed from the payload bay and at around 18:20 GMT it was docked to the zenith port on the Unity module.

    On October 15 at 14:20 GMT the ODS airlock was depressurised, beginning a spacewalk by Bill McArthur and Leroy Chiao. Official NASA EVA duration (battery power to repress) was 6 hours 28 minutes.

    The second spacewalk was on October 16, with Jeff Wisoff and Mike Lopez-Alegria. The suits went to battery power at 14:15 GMT and Wisoff left the airlock at 14:21 GMT. Repressurisation began at 21:22 GMT for a duration of 7 hours 07minutes.

    Leroy Chiao and Bill McArthur began the third STS-92 EVA at 15:30 GMT on October 17, completing their work at 22:18 GMT for a total time of 6 hours 48 minutes.

    After the spacewalk, Discovery completed the second of the three station reboosts scheduled for STS-92. They fired reaction control system jets in a series of pulses of 1.4 seconds each, over a 30-minute period, gently raising the station's orbit by about 3.1 km.

    The last of four successful spacewalks began on 18 October at 16:00 GMT and ended at 22:56 GMT, lasting 6 hours and 56 minutes. Jeff Wisoff and Mike Lopez-Alegria each jetted slowly through space above Discovery's cargo bay.

    After the space walk, Discovery completed the third and final reboost of the space station.

    On 19 October the astronauts worked within the ISS. They completed connections for the newly installed Z1 external framework structure and transferred equipment and supplies for the Expedition One first resident crew of the Station. The crew also tested the four 290-kg gyroscopes in the truss, called Control Moment Gyros, which will be used to orient the ISS as it orbits the Earth. They will ultimately assume attitude control of the ISS following the arrival of the U.S. Laboratory Destiny. The tests and the transfer of supplies into the Russian Zarya Module took longer than expected. As a result, the crew's final departure from the Station's Unity module was delayed. Melroy and Wisoff took samples from surfaces in Zarya to study the module's environment. They then unclogged the solid waste disposal system in the Shuttle's toilet, which was restored to full operation after a brief interruption in service.

    Discovery undocked from the ISS at 16:08 GMT on 20 October. The final separation burn was executed about 45 minutes after undocking. The crew had added 9 tonnes to the station's mass, bringing it to about 72 tonnes. The return to earth, planned for 22 October, was delayed repeatedly due to high winds at the Kennedy landing site. The landing was finally made at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on October 24, at 22:00 GMT.


2001 February 7 - . 23:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-98.
  • STS-98 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Cockrell; Polansky; Curbeam; Ivins; Jones. Payload: Atlantis F23. Mass: 90,225 kg (198,912 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cockrell; Polansky; Curbeam; Ivins; Jones. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-98. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 12.89 days. Decay Date: 2001-02-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 26698 . COSPAR: 2001-006A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.71 min. ISS Assembly flight. Launch delayed from January 18 and February 6. International Space Station assembly mission; delivered the Destiny and PMA-2 modules. Destiny was an American ISS module, an 8.4 meter long and 4.2 meter wide cylindrical structure with a mass of 15 tonnes. It was to function as a science and technology module and the primary control module for the ISS. The shuttle orbiter was placed in an initial 74 x 323 km x 51.6 deg orbit. At 2357 GMT the OMS engines fired for the OMS-2 burn which raised Atlantis' orbit to 204 x 322 km x 51.6 deg. Atlantis docked with the Station at 1651 GMT on February 9 at the PMA-3 port on Unity's nadir. At 1500 GMT on Feb 10 Marsha Ivins used the RMS arm to unberth the PMA-2 docking port from Unity. Tom Jones and Bob Curbeam then conducted three spacewalks on Februay 10 to 14 to attach the Destiny and PMA-2 modules to the station. The crew also delivered over a tonne of food, fuel and equipment to the ISS. Atlantis undocked from Alpha at 1406 GMT on February 16. Atlantis landed at Edwards AFB on February 20; plans to land on February 18 and 19 were called off due to persistent wind problems at Kennedy Space Center. The deorbit burn was at 1927 GMT and lowered the orbit from 370 x 386 km to about 50 x 380 km. The nominal entry interface at 122 km came at 2002 GMT and touchdown on runway 22 was at 20:33 GMT. On March 1 Atlantis was flown on the back of NASA's SCA 911 carrier aircraft to Altus AFB, Oklahoma, en route to Kennedy.

2001 April 19 - . 18:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-100.
  • STS-100 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Rominger; Ashby; Hadfield; Phillips; Parazynski; Guidoni; Lonchakov. Payload: Endeavour F16 / Raffaello, Canadarm-2. Mass: 103,506 kg (228,191 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rominger; Ashby; Hadfield; Phillips; Parazynski; Guidoni; Lonchakov. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-100. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 11.90 days. Decay Date: 2001-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 26747 . COSPAR: 2001-016A. Apogee: 404 km (251 mi). Perigee: 378 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Space Shuttle OV-105 Endeavour was launched on mission STS-100 to carry out International Space Station Flight 6A continued the outfitting of the Station. The crew of four Americans, one Russian, one Canadian and one Italian were to install an 18 meter, 1,700 kg Canadian robotic arm named Canadarm-2 on the ISS, and to transport an Italian cargo container, Raffaello, which delivered 4,500 kg of supplies and equipment to the station. Total payload of 13,744 kg consisted of:

    • Bay 1-2: Orbiter Docking System, External Airlock, 3 EMU spacesuits - 2160 kg including 360 kg for the 3 suits
    • Bay 3 Starboard: Adapter Beam with DCSU switching unit - 180kg
    • Bay 5: Spacelab Pallet with Canadarm-2 SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System, 1800 kg mass), LDA, and 56 kg UHF antenna - 3256 kg
    • Bay 6 Port: Adapter Beam with IMAX Camera - 238 kg
    • Bay 8-12: Rafaello Module (MPLM-2) with MPLM racks and 3400 kg cargo - 7500 kg
    • Sill: Canadarm RMS 303 - 410 kg
    Endeavour reached an 80 x 317 km orbit at 1849 GMT; at 1924 GMT the OMS engines fired to raise perigee. After a series of rendezvous burns, the spaceship docked with the PMA-2 port on the ISS at 1359 GMT on April 21.

    On 23 April the SSRMS station manipulator was unberthed from the SLP Spacelab pallet at 1114 GMT and latched on to the PDGF fixture on the Destiny ISS module at 1416 GMT. This was followed at 1458 GMT with the MPLM-2 Raffaello module being moved from Endeavour's payload bay by the Shuttle's RMS and berthed to the nadir port on the ISS Unity module at 1600 GMT. Over the next few days, the cargo racks on the MPLM were transferred to Destiny. Raffaello was then unberthed from Unity at 2003 GMT on April 27 and reberthed in the rear of Endeavour's bay for return to earth at 2059 GMT.

    Undocking of Endeavour was delayed by a series of computer problems at the Station. Failures in the Station's command and control computers left only one of the three computers operating.

    They were all restarted by April 29, and the Shuttle RMS grappled the Spacelab pallet at 2044 GMT . The station's Canadarm-2 released it at 2106 GMT, and the RMS berthed the pallet back in the Shuttle cargo bay. Endeavour undocked from the Station at 1734 GMT on April 29. The weather in Florida was bad at the planned May 1 landing time, so Endeavour landed in California. The deorbit burn was at 1502 GMT on May 1, with landing at 1610:42 GMT on runway 22 at Edwards. Endeavour returned to the Kennedy Space Center atop a Boeing 747 SCA aircraft on May 9.


2001 August 10 - . 21:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-105.
  • STS-105 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Horowitz; Sturckow; Barry; Forrester; Culbertson; Dezhurov; Tyurin. Payload: Discovery F30 / Leonardo. Mass: 116,914 kg (257,751 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Horowitz; Sturckow; Barry; Forrester; Culbertson; Dezhurov; Tyurin. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-105; ISS EO-3. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 11.88 days. Decay Date: 2001-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 26888 . COSPAR: 2001-035A. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi). Perigee: 373 km (231 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. STS 105 was an American shuttle that carried a crew of ten (including three crew for the ISS - one American and two Russian), five tonnes of supplies, hardware, and a bedroom suite to accommodate a third astronaut in the Destiny module. The crew installed in the station two new science experiment racks that were carried in the Leonardo container which was first lifted out of the shuttle and bolted to the Unity module. Leonardo then carried back all the trash from the ISS back to the shuttle. They crew installed the MISSE (Materials International Space Station Experiment) container outside the ISS to test the effect of radiation on materials and some low-cost science experiments such as microgravity cell growth studies inside the station.

    The 15,107 kg payload consisted of:

    • Bay 1-2: Orbiter Docking System/External Airlock and 3 EMU spacesuits - 2160 kg
    • Bay 4P: Adapter beam with G-780 (Mayo High School, Rochester, Minnesota experiment to study germination of faba beans) and PSP-1 (NASA-GSFC canister with passive experiments and ballast) - 200 kg
    • Bay 5: Integrated Cargo Carrier/KYD - 1280 kg, with the Early Ammonia Servicer for the station's P6 truss- 640 kg and two small exposure experiments PEC-1 and PEC-2, to be installed on the be installed on the ISS Quest module as part of the MISSE materials exposure program
    • Bay 7-12: MPLM FM1 (Leonardo) module - 9800 kg total including 3300 kg of payload to be transferred to the Station
    • Bay 13P: Adapter beam with G-774 (Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment) and SEM-10 (canister with 11 school experiments) - 410 kg
    • Bay 13S: Adapter beam with Simplesat and ACE avionics - 355 kg
    • Sill: RMS arm - 410 kg
    STS-105 main engine cutoff was at 2118 GMT placed Discovery and external tank ET-110 into a 58 x 234 km x 51.6 deg orbit. At 2148 GMT Discovery reached apogee and fired its OMS engines to enter a 155 x 233 km x 51.6 deg orbit; another burn at 0100 GMT raised the orbit to 198 x 277 km. Discovery docked at the Station's PMA-2 port at 1842 GMT on August 12. After some problems aligning the docking system, the docking ring was retracted and latched at 1905 GMT and the hatch was opened to ISS at 2042 GMT. Expedition 3 began on August 13 at 1915 GMT when the new crew's seat liners were installed on the Soyuz transport ship. The formal EX-2/EX-3 change-of-command ceremony was held on August 17 in Destiny.

    The Leonardo MPLM module was lifted out of Discovery's payload bay at 1326 GMT on August 13 and docked to Unity's nadir at 1554 GMT. 3300 kg of cargo from Leonardo was transferred to the Station. Then 1700 kg of station garbage and materials were loaded into Leonardo. It was unberthed from Unity at 1816 GMT on August 19 and returned to the payload bay for the return to Earth at 1917 GMT.

    Discovery undocked at 1452 GMT on August 20 with the Expedition 2 crew aboard, leaving Expedition 3 at the Station.

    At 1830 GMT on August 20 the Simplesat test satellite was ejected from a GAS canister in the cargo bay. Discovery landed at Kennedy Space Center at 1822:58 GMT on August 22 on runway 15, after a deorbit burn at 1715 GMT. The Expedition Two crew of Usachyov, Voss and Helms had been in space for 167 days. Discovery was taken out of service after the flight for structural inspections. Its last maintenance down period was in 1995-1996.

  • Simplesat - . Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Simplesat. Decay Date: 2002-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 26889 . COSPAR: 2001-035B. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi). Perigee: 130 km (80 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 87.10 min. Summary: Simplesat was small astronomical test satellite ejected from a GAS Cannister in shuttle Discovery's payload bay. No contact was ever made with Simplesat after its release; evidently the satellite failed. .

2002 March 1 - . 11:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-109.
  • STS-109 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Altman; Carey; Currie; Grunsfeld; Linnehan; Newman; Massimino. Payload: Columbia F27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Altman; Carey; Currie; Grunsfeld; Linnehan; Newman; Massimino. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-109. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 10.92 days. Decay Date: 2002-03-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 27388 . COSPAR: 2002-010A. Apogee: 578 km (359 mi). Perigee: 486 km (301 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Hubble Servicing Mission 3B. STS-109 main engine cutoff came at 1130 UTC with Columbia in a 55 x 574 km x 28.5 deg transfer orbit. The OMS-2 burn at about 1207 UTC raised perigee to about 195 km. There was a problem with a freon cooling loop on the Orbiter, but it wasn't quite bad enough to affect the mission. The Hubble Space Telescope closed its aperture door on March 2 in preparation for the rendezvous. Columbia got within 100m of HST by 0852 UTC on March 3 and grappled it with the RMS at 0931 UTC. HST was berthed on the FSS in Columbia's payload bay by 1032 UTC.

    In the course of five spacewalks, the crew installed new equipment on HST. This was the first flight of Columbia since the launch of Chandra in 1999 following refurbishment. In the first two spacewalks, two new solar arrays were installed, and the two old arrays stowed on the RAC carrier. The RWA-1R reaction wheel assembly on the MULE carrier replaced the faltering RWA-1 in the telescope. The third spacewalk was the most difficult, as HST was entirely powered down while astronauts replaced its power controller unit, not designed for on-orbit replacement. On the fourth spacewalk the astronauts removed the European FOC camera, aboard HST since launch in 1990, and replaced it with the new ACS (Advanced Camera for Surveys). They also installed the CASH wire harness, part of the aft shroud cooling system. On the final spacewalk, the astronauts installed the NCS (NICMOS cooling system) cryocooler in the aft shround and the associated NCS radiator on the telescope's exterior. The NICMOS infrared camera had been idle since its original thermal control system failed. With the removal of FOC, the COSTAR device (which deployed contact lenses for the original instruments) became obsolete, since the newer instruments made the corrections to the incorrect HST mirror internally. Cargo manifest:

    • Middeck:4 EMU spacesuits - 480 kg
    • Bay 4: RAC (Rigid Array Carrier) - 2393 kg. The RAC carried the two folded SA-III rigid solar arrays which replaced the SA-II roll-up arrays. It calso carried the DBA2 diode box assembly which controlled the arrays, and a wire harness and containers associated with the NICMOS cooling system.
    • Bay 7-8: SAC (Second Axial Carrier) - 2517 kg. The SAC was a specially designed pallet that flew on the first two Hubble SM flights, STS-61 and STS-82. On this flight it carried the ACS camera up (and the FOS camera down) as well as the NCS cryocooler, the PCU-R power controller, the CASH wire harness, and the thermal covers used in the PCU replacement.
    • Bay 11: FSS (Flight Support System) - 2111 kg. The FSS first flew on STS 41-C (the Solar Max Repair) and was reused for each of the HST SM flights. It carried the BAPS Berthing and Positioning System, which was the docking ring for HST. Stowed on the FSS were a support post for BAPS and a cover for the HST low gain antenna.
    • Bay 12: MULE (Multi-Use Lightweight Equipment Carrier) - 1409 kg. The MULE carried the NCS radiator, the NCS electronics support module, and the RWA-1R reaction wheel unit. MULE first flew on STS-48 carrying the UARS satellite, and then on STS-95 carrying the HOST payload which tested out the NCS.
    • Sill: RMS arm No 201 - 410 kg

2002 June 5 - . 21:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-111.
  • STS-111 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Cockrell; Lockhart; Chang-Diaz; Perrin; Korzun; Whitson; Treshchev. Payload: Endeavour F18 / Leonardo. Mass: 105,000 kg (231,000 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cockrell; Lockhart; Chang-Diaz; Perrin; Korzun; Whitson; Treshchev. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-111; ISS EO-5. Spacecraft: Endeavour . Duration: 13.86 days. Decay Date: 2002-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 27440 . COSPAR: 2002-028A. Apogee: 387 km (240 mi). Perigee: 349 km (216 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Launch delayed from May 2, 6, 30, 31 and June 4. STS-111 reached a 58 x 224 km x 51.6 deg orbit at 2131 UTC and separated from the External Tank. It coasted to apogee at 2201 UTC and carried out the OMS-2 burn to raise the orbit to 158 x 235 km. The mission of STS-111 (UF-2 ISS utilization flight) was to swap the Expedition 4 and 5 crews and deliver the MBS Mobile Base System and some interior experiment racks. Endeavour docked with the Station at 1625 UTC on June 7. The Leonardo MPLM module was attached to the Station on June 8. Cargo manifest:
    • Bay 1-2: Orbiter Docking System - 1800 kg + 2 EMU spacesuits - 240 kg
    • Bay 4: Mobile Base System (MBS) - 1600 kg. The Mobile Base System was made by MD Robotics of Brampton, Ontario. It was to be attached to the Mobile Transporter and used to mount the SSRMS Canadarm-2 arm and heavy payloads.
    • Bay 6P: Adapter Beam / Wrist Roll Joint - 150 kg. The WRJ (Wrist Roll Joint) would be swapped with the broken one on the SSRMS arm.
    • Bay 7-12: MPLM FM1 "Leonardo" - 10557 kg. The Leonardo module carried 8 Resupply Stowage Racks and 4 Resupply Stowage Plaftorms, with equipment to be transferred to the station. It also carried two science racks: the MSG (Microgravity Science Glovebox) and Express-3, which would be installed on Destiny. Leonardo, built by Alenia Spazio in Torino, also flew on STS-102 and STS-105.
    • Bay 13P: ICAPC Beam / PGDF - 75 kg. The PGDF (Power-Data Grapple Fixture) would be installed on the P6 truss.
    • Bay 13S: Adapter Beam / SMDP - 200 kg. The Service Module Debris Panels (SMDP) package contained 6 panels which would be stowed on PMA-1 until a later spacewalk attached them to the Zvezda module to protect it from space debris hits.
    • Total: 14622 kg

2002 November 24 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: STS-113.
  • MEPSI - . Mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: MEPSI. Decay Date: 2003-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 27562 . COSPAR: 2002-052B. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. MEPSI (Micro-Electromechanical-based Picosat Satellite Inspection Experiment) consisted of two 1 kg boxes attached to each other by a 15-m tether. The boxes included an imaging camera and a MEM transceiver. They were ejected from the PLA (Picosat Launch Assembly) of shuttle Endeavour, a 6 kg box attached to an Adaptive Payload Carrier (APC) on the payload bay side wall.
  • STS-113 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Wetherbee; Lockhart; Lopez-Alegria; Herrington; Bowersox; Budarin; Pettit. Payload: Endeavour F19 / P1. Mass: 115,000 kg (253,000 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Wetherbee; Lockhart; Lopez-Alegria; Herrington; Bowersox; Budarin; Pettit. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-113; ISS EO-6. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 13.78 days. Decay Date: 2002-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 27556 . COSPAR: 2002-052A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 379 km (235 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. ISS assembly mission ISS-11A delayed from August 22, September 6, 19, October 6, November 2, 10, 11, 19 and 23 due to SSME problems and then damage to the Shuttle's manipulator arm. Shuttle mission STS-113 carried a crew of seven astronauts (six American and one Russian) and a 13.7-m truss of 12.5 tons to the International Space Station (ISS). During several hours of EVA, the crew installed and secured the truss assembly. The truss was to provide structural support for the station's thermal control radiators, and brought the total mass of the ISS to over 200 tons. Prior to leaving the ISS, the shuttle released a pair of tethered (15-m long) picosatellites. It was to leave the ISS on December 2.

2003 January 16 - . 15:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-107.
  • STS-107 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Husband; McCool; Anderson; Chawla; Brown, David; Clark; Ramon. Payload: Columbia F28 / Spacehab. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Husband; McCool; Anderson; Chawla; Brown, David; Clark; Ramon. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-107. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.94 days. Decay Date: 2003-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 27647 . COSPAR: 2003-003A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 263 km (163 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: The last solo shuttle earth orbit mission ended in tragedy when the shuttle Columbia disintegrated during re-entry at an altitude of 63.15 km and a speed of Mach 18. Launch delayed from May 23, June 27, July 11 and 19, November 29, 2002..

2007 June 8 - . 23:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-117.
  • STS-117 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Sturckow; Archambault; Forrester; Swanson; Olivas; Reilly; Anderson, Clayton. Return Crew: Sturckow; Archambault; Forrester; Swanson; Olivas; Reilly; Williams. Payload: Atlantis F28 / S3, S4. Mass: 122,685 kg (270,474 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Sturckow; Archambault; Forrester; Swanson; Olivas; Reilly; Anderson, Clayton; Williams. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: ISS EO-15; ISS EO-15-1; STS-117; ISS EO-15-2. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 13.84 days. Decay Date: 2007-06-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 31600 . COSPAR: 2007-024A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. The shuttle delivered the S3 and S4 truss segments to the starboard side of the International Space Station. The crew made three spacewalks to install these truss segments, conduct other station reconfiguration and installation work, deploy the solar arrays and prepare them for operation. A fourth spacewalk was added to repair loose re-entry insulation on the shuttle and get-ahead installation work on the outside of the station. The shuttle delivered NASA long-term ISS crew member Clayton Anderson to the station; and returned Suni Williams to earth. At the conclusion of this mission the station finally achieved its full-power, dual-boom configuration first conceived for Space Station Freedom in the 1980's.

2007 August 8 - . 22:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-118.
  • STS-118 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Kelly, Scott; Hobaugh; Caldwell; Mastracchio; Williams, Dave; Morgan; Drew. Payload: Endeavour F20 / S5, Spacehab. Mass: 14,036 kg (30,944 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kelly, Scott; Hobaugh; Caldwell; Mastracchio; Williams, Dave; Morgan; Drew. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: ISS EO-15; STS-118; ISS EO-15-1. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 12.75 days. Decay Date: 2007-08-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 32008 . COSPAR: 2007-035A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Space Shuttle Endeavour was launched on Aug 8 at 2236 UTC. The STS-118 stack comprised Orbiter OV-105, solid rockets RSRM-97 and external tank ET-117. The solid boosters separated 2 min after launch. At 2245 UTC the orbiter main engines cut off and ET-117 separated into an approximately 57 x 225 km x 51.6 deg orbit. The OMS-2 burn at 2313 UTC put Endeavour in a higher 229 x 317 km orbit as the ET fell back to reentry around 2346 UTC.

    During ascent a large chunk of external tank foam was observed to hit the underside of the orbiter. Examination in orbit using the robotic arm showed a hole in a heat shield tile that went down to the felt mounting pad. There was considerable press discussion of the danger, but as the mission drew to a close NASA decided that no lasting damage would be incurred during reentry to the orbiter structure, and called off a potential extra spacewalk to repair the tile.

    Endeavour docked at the PMA-2 adapter on the Station at 18:02 GMT on 10 August; the hatches were opened at 20:04.

    The 14036 kg of cargo broke down as follows:

    • Bay 1-2: Orbiter Docking System, 1800 kg
    • Bay 1-2: EMU 3010, 130 kg
    • Bay 1-2: EMU 3017, 130 kg
    • Bay 3: Tunnel Adapter, 112 kg
    • Bay 5-7: Spacehab-SM Single Module, 5480 kg: Loaded with research experimental equipment and consumables to be left at the station.
    • Bay 8P: SPDU: Station Power Distribution Unit, will be left at the ISS and allow the Orbiter to draw electricity from the station while docked, allowing longer missions
    • Bay 8-10: S5 Truss, 1584 kg: a short spacer truss installed at the end of the ISS S4 truss during the mission, to eliminate interference with the S6 solar panels when they would be added later
    • Bay 11-12: ESP-3, 3400 kg: External Stowage Platform 3, left at the ISS, provided external storage for spare parts, and was delivered with a spare nitrogen tank for the truss cooling system, a spare truss battery charge/discharge unit (BCDU), a spare Canadarm-2 robot arm pitch roll joint, and a replacement Control Moment Gyro for the Z1 truss
    • Bay 11-12: CMG-3R ORU, 540 kg
    • Sill: OBSS, 450 kg
    • Sill: RMS 201, 410 kg
    The shuttle's RMS 201 robotic arm moved the S5 truss from the payload bay at 20:50 on 10 August. It was handed over to the station's Canadarm-2 robotic arm, which then attached it to the S4 truss at 17:30 on 11 August, with astronauts assisting on the first of four spacewalks of the mission. On 14 August, ESP-3 was unberthed from Endeavour's payload bay and attached to the P3 truss on the Station, where its spare parts can be reached if needed.

    Following successful completion of all cargo delivery and station assembly tasks, the crew returned to Endeavour on 18 August, undocking the next day at 11:56 GMT. Landing was moved up a day ahead of schedule because of concern a hurricane might force evacuation of the Houston Control Center on the originally-planned return date. Endeavour began its deorbit burn at 15:25 GMT on August 21 and lowered its orbit from 336 x 347 km to -28 x 342 km. It landed on runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center at 16:32 GMT. Landing mass was 100,878 kg.


2007 October 23 - . 15:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-120.
  • STS-120 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Melroy; Zamka; Parazynski; Wheelock; Wilson; Nespoli; Tani. Return Crew: Melroy; Zamka; Parazynski; Wheelock; Wilson; Nespoli; Anderson, Clayton. Payload: Discovery F33 / Harmony / ISS-10A. Mass: 123,400 kg (272,000 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Tani; Melroy; Zamka; Parazynski; Wheelock; Wilson; Nespoli; Anderson, Clayton. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-120; ISS EO-15; ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-1; ISS EO-15-1. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 15.10 days. Decay Date: 2007-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 32272 . COSPAR: 2007-050A. Apogee: 344 km (213 mi). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Main mission objectives were delivery of the Harmony module to the station, and external work to move the P6 truss to its final location and put the ISS into its full-power configuration for the first time. Discovery docked with the ISS at the Destiny module at 12:40 GMT on 25 October. The cargo of 17,390 kg was as follows:
    • Orbiter Docking System - Bay 1-2 - 1800 kg
    • Spacesuit EMU 3004 - 130 kg
    • Spacesuit EMU 3003 - 130 kg
    • Station Power Distribution Unit SPDU - Bay 3P - 100 kg
    • Fixture for return of S-band Antenna - SASA FSE - Bay 3P - 4S - 100 kg
    • Power/Data Grapple Fixture for Node-2 - PDGF - Bay 5P - 50 kg
    • Main Bus Switching Unit - MBSU - Bay 6S - 238 kg
    • MBSU adapter - Bay 6S - 122 kg
    • Station Power Distribution Unit - SPDU - Bay 6S - 7P - 100 kg
    • Node-2 Harmony module - Bays 8-12 - 14,300 kg
    • OBSS 203 - Sill 450 kg
    • RMS 301 - Sill 410 kg

2008 February 7 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-122.
  • STS-122 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Frick; Poindexter; Melvin; Walheim; Schlegel; Love; Eyharts. Payload: Atlantis F29 / Columbus. Mass: 117,850 kg (259,810 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Frick; Poindexter; Melvin; Walheim; Schlegel; Love; Eyharts. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-122; ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-2; ISS EO-16-1. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 12.77 days. Decay Date: 2008-02-20 14:07:00 . USAF Sat Cat: 32486 . COSPAR: 2008-005A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 329 km (204 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. ISS flight 1E's primary mission was the long-delayed delivery and installation of the European Columbus module. The shuttle entered an initial 58 km x 230 km orbit at 19:54 GMT. The OMS-2 circularization burn at 20:23 GMT put it into a 215 km x 233 km chase orbit. Atlantis docked with the PMA-2 port of the ISS at 17:17 GMT on 9 February. Eyharts was dropped off at the station, Tani, already aboard the ISS, returned to Earth on Atlantis. Atlantis undocked from the ISS on 20 February at 09:24 GMT; began its deorbit burn at 12:59; and landed at the Kennedy Space Center at 14:07.

2008 March 11 - . 06:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-123.
  • STS-123 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Gorie; Johnson, Gregory H; Behnken; Foreman; Linnehan; Doi; Reisman. Payload: Endeavour F21 / Dextre, Kibo ELM-PS. Mass: 118,950 kg (262,230 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Johnson, Gregory H; Behnken; Foreman; Linnehan; Doi; Reisman. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-123; ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-3; ISS EO-16-2. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 15.76 days. Decay Date: 2008-03-27 00:40:41 . USAF Sat Cat: 32699 . COSPAR: 2008-009A. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi). Perigee: 341 km (211 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Endeavour's main task was delivery of the Canadian Dextre robotic manipulator (fitted to the end of the Canadarm-2 robotic arm already installed on the station) and the Japanese Kibo ELM-PS Experiment Logistics Module - Pressurized. It also brought astronaut Reisman to the station, replacing Eyharts on the long-duration crew. The orbiter was placed in an initial 58 km x 220 km orbit at main engine shutdown, adjusted by the OMS-2 firing 38 minutes later to a 220 km x 233 km chase orbit. On 13 March the shuttle docked with the PMA-2 port of the International Space Station at 03:49 GMT. Mission accomplished, Endeavour undocked at 00:25 GMT on March 25, completed the customary ISS flyaround at 01:36 GMT, deorbited at 23:33 GMT the next day, and landed at 00:39 GMT at Kennedy Space Center.

2008 May 31 - . 21:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-124.
  • STS-124 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Kelly, Mark; Ham; Nyberg; Garan; Fossum; Hoshide; Chamitoff. Payload: Discovery F34 / Kibo PM / ISS-1J. Mass: 119,190 kg (262,760 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kelly, Mark; Ham; Nyberg; Garan; Fossum; Hoshide; Chamitoff. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-124; ISS EO-17; ISS EO-17-1; ISS EO-16-3. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 13.76 days. Decay Date: 2008-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 32960 . COSPAR: 2008-027A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 338 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Discovery delivered to the International Space Station the Kibo Pressurized Module, the primary element of the Japanese portion of the station. Half an earth away from jettison of external tank ET-128, a 76 m/s OMS-2 burn at 21:40 GMT put the Shuttle in its low-altitude chase lorbit. Discovery docked at the PMA-2 port of the station at 18:03 GMT on 2 June. Using the shuttle and station's robotic arms, with assistance from spacewalking astronauts, the Kibo module was attached to the station's Harmony module at 23:01 GMT on 4 June. The previously-delivered Japanese Logistics Module was transferred from Harmony to Kibo on 6 June at 20:04 GMT. The Shuttle undocked from the station on 11 June at GMT and landed on 14 June at 15:15 GMT at the Kennedy Space Center.

2008 November 15 - . 00:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-126 / OV-105 / ET-129 / RSRM-04.
  • STS-126 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Ferguson; Boe; Pettit; Bowen; Stefanyshyn-Piper; Kimbrough; Magnus. Return Crew: Ferguson; Boe; Pettit; Bowen; Stefanyshyn-Piper; Kimbrough; Magnus. Payload: Endeavour F22 / MPLM-1 / ULF-2. Mass: 116,500 kg (256,800 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ferguson; Boe; Pettit; Bowen; Stefanyshyn-Piper; Kimbrough; Magnus. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-126; ISS EO-18; ISS EO-17-1; ISS EO-18-1. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 15.85 days. Decay Date: 2008-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 33441 . COSPAR: 2008-059A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 344 km (213 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. ISS resupply and internal outfitting flight, docked at the Harmony module of the sation at 22:01 GMT on 16 November. The Leonardo module contained 6956 kg of cargo, mainly devoted to allowing a future full ISS crew of six: two crew quarters racks, a Galley rack, a Waste and Hygiene Compartment rack, two Water Recovery System racks, an experiment rack, a Combustion integration rack, and miscellaneous supplies in three Resupply Stowage Racks and six Resupply Stowage Platforms. On 17 November at 17:09 GMT the ISS robot arm moved the Leonardo module from the shuttle's payload bay to the Harmony module nadir port for unloading. The mission also rotated the ISS long-term NASA crew member, replacing Chamitoff with Magnus. Four spacewalks were conducted, primarily to repair a broken ISS Solar Array Rotary Joint.

    The unloaded Leonardo module was returned to the shuttle bay on 26 November. The shuttle undocked from the ISS at 14:47 GMT on 28 November. The next day, at 20:33 GMT, it released a 7 kg PicoSat Solar Cell Testbed Experiment, a prototype for a later picosat mission to geostationary transfer orbit to study degradation of solar cells while passing through the earth's radiation belts.

    Following two wave-offs for a Kennedy Space Center landing due to weather, Endeavour made its 89 m/s deorbit maneuver at 20:19 on 29 November, and landed at Runway 04L/22R at Edwards AFB at 21:25 GMT.

    Cargo Manifest, Total = 17,370 kg:

    • Bay 1-2: Orbiter Docking System = 1800 kg + EMUs 3005 and 3011 = 260 kg
    • Bay 3 Port: APC/SPDU = 100 kg
    • Bay 3 Starboard: APC/SSPL Picosat launcher = 50 kg + PSSC Picosats = 7 kg
    • Bay 7 Starboard: ROEU 751 umbilical = 50 kg
    • Bay 7-12: Leonardo (MPLM-1) = 12748 kg
    • Bay 13: Lightweight MPESS Carrier (LMC)= 1495 kg
    • Sill: RMS 201 = 410 kg + OBSS = 450 kg

2009 March 15 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • STS-119 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Archambault; Antonelli; Phillips; Swanson; Acaba; Arnold, Ricky. Payload: Discovery F35 /. Mass: 120,860 kg (266,450 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-119. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 12.81 days. Decay Date: 2009-03-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 34541 . COSPAR: 2009-012A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 335 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Summary: Crew: Archambault, Antonelli, Phillips, Swanson, Acaba, Arnold. ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the fourth starboard truss segment (ITS S6) and fourth set of solar arrays and batteries..

2009 May 11 - . 18:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • STS-125 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Altman; Johnson, Gregory C; Good; McArthur, Megan; Grunsfeld; Massimino; Feustel. Payload: Atlantis F30 /. Mass: 119,820 kg (264,150 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Hubble. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-125; ISS EO-19. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 12.90 days. Decay Date: 2009-05-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 34933 . COSPAR: 2009-025A. Apogee: 566 km (351 mi). Perigee: 302 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Hubble Servicing Mission SM-4. Atlantis rendezvoused with the Hubble space observatory, grappled it with the RMS arm, and secured it in the payload bay at 18:12 GMT on 13 May. After repairs and upgrades over four EVA's, the satellite was released at 12:57 GMT on 19 May. Atlantis landed at Edwards AFB at 15:39 GMT on 24 May.

2009 July 15 - . 22:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • STS-127 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Polansky; Hurley; Cassidy; Payette; Marshburn; Wolf; Kopra. Payload: Endeavour F23 / ISS 2J/4. Mass: 120,000 kg (260,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-127; ISS EO-20; ISS EO-19. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 15.60 days. Decay Date: 2009-07-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 35633 . COSPAR: 2009-038A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 328 km (203 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Crew: Polansky, Hurley, Cassidy, Marshburn, Wolf, Payette. Deliver to the ISS and install the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF); Kibo Japanese Experiment Logistics Module - Exposed Section (ELM-ES); and Spacelab Pallet - Deployable 2 (SLP-D2).
  • Dragonsat - . Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Clemson. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Decay Date: 2010-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 35690 . COSPAR: 2009-038B. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 326 km (202 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Ejected from the Endeavour on 30 July at 12:34 GMT. Dragonsat consisted of two 1.5 kg cubesats, BEVO-1 from the University of Texas at Austin and Aggiesat 2 from Texas A&M University. The two satellites were ejected attached to each other, but failed to separate as planned.
  • ANDE Passive(Pollux) - . Nation: USA. Agency: Clemson. Decay Date: 2010-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 35690 . COSPAR: 2009-038E. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 326 km (202 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Summary: Ejected from the Endeavour on 30 July at 12:33 GMT. Upper atmosphere studies..
  • ANDE Active (Castor) - . Nation: USA. Agency: Clemson. Decay Date: 2010-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 35690 . COSPAR: 2009-038F. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 326 km (202 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Summary: Ejected from the Endeavour on 30 July at 12:33 GMT. Upper atmosphere studies..

2009 August 29 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • STS-128 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Sturckow; Ford; Forrester; Hernandez; Fuglesang; Olivas; Stott. Payload: Discovery F36 /. Mass: 121,420 kg (267,680 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: STS-128; ISS EO-20; ISS EO-19. Spacecraft: Discovery . Duration: 13.87 days. Decay Date: 2009-09-12 00:53:00 . USAF Sat Cat: 35811 . COSPAR: 2009-045A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 310 km (190 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Crew: Sturckow, Ford, Forrester, Hernandez, Fuglesang, Olivas. Deliver to the ISS and install the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM); Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC); Three-crew quarters, galley, and second treadmill (TVIS2); and the Crew Health Care System 2 (CHeCS 2).
  • Leonardo - . Nation: USA. Agency: Clemson. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. COSPAR: 2009-045x.

2009 November 16 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
2010 February 8 - . 09:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
2010 April 5 - . 10:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • STS-131 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Poindexter; Dutton; Metcalf-Lindenburger; Wilson; Mastracchio; Yamazaki; Anderson, Clayton. Payload: Discovery F37 /. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-131; ISS EO-23; ISS EO-22. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 15.12 days. Decay Date: 2010-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 36507 . COSPAR: 2010-012A. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi). Perigee: 322 km (200 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Summary: Crew: Poindexter;Dutton;Metcalf-Lendenburger;Wilson;Mastracchiio;Yamazaki;Anderson,Clayton. Contingency flight to assure ISS completion; nominal payload EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 3 (ELC3) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC4)..

2010 May 14 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Shuttle s/n OV104.
  • STS-132 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Ham; Antonelli; Good; Sellers; Bowen; Reisman. Payload: Atlantis F32 /. Mass: 110,000 kg (240,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-132; ISS EO-23; ISS EO-22. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 11.77 days. Decay Date: 2010-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 36572 . COSPAR: 2010-019A. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Summary: Crew: Ham;Antonelli;Good;Sellers;Bowen;Reisman. Deliver to the ISS and install Node 3 with Cupola. With this mission ISS assembly is to have been completed..

2011 February 24 - . 21:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Shuttle s/n OV105 / ET s/n ET-137 / RSRM-122.
  • STS-133 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Lindsey; Boe; Drew; Bowen; Barratt; Stott. Payload: Discovery F38 /. Mass: 121,840 kg (268,610 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-133; ISS EO-26; ISS EO-25. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 12.80 days. Decay Date: 2011-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 37371 . COSPAR: 2011-008A. Apogee: 355 km (220 mi). Perigee: 318 km (197 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Final flight of the space shuttle Discovery. The spaceplane docked with the International Space Station at 19:14 GMT on 26 February. The ELC-4 Express Logistics Carrier 4 was transferred from the Shuttle to the S3 station truss on 27 February. The station's SSRMS robot arm moved the Leonardo Permanent Multipurpose Module from the shuttle to the nadir port of the Unity module between 13:46 and 15:05 UTC on 1 March. Following cargo unloading and three spacewalks devoted to station repair and assembly, Discovery undocked from the station for the last time at 12:00 GMT on 7 March, landing at the Kennedy Space Center at 16:57 GMT on 9 March.

2011 May 16 - . 12:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Shuttle s/n OV105 / ET s/n ET-122 / RSRM-113.
  • STS-134 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Kelly, Mark; Johnson, Gregory H; Fincke; Chamitoff; Feustel; Vittori. Payload: Endeavour F25 / ELC-3 / AMS-02. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-134; ISS EO-27. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 15.74 days. Decay Date: 2011-06-01 . COSPAR: 2011-020A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Final space station assembly mission. Also delivered spare parts. Endeavour docked with the Station at 10:14 GMT on 18 May. The ELC-3 carrier was unberthed from the shuttle at 13:27 GMT and installed on the Station's truss at 16:09 GMT. The AMS-02 Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer was unberthed at 06:59 GMT on 19 May and bolted to the Station's S3 truss at 09:46 GMT. Cargo Bay Manifest:
    • External Airlock/ODS: 1800 kg
    • EMU spacesuits 3004, 3018: 260
    • RMS arm 201: 410 kg
    • Orbiter Boom Sensor System: 382 kg
    • Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (particle detector to search for antimatter): 6917
    • STORRM (lidar to test rendezvous and docking technology for the Orion spacecraft): 17 kg
    • PPSU-2 electronics box: 17 kg
    • SPDU: 17 kg kg
    • ROEU 755 umbilical for ELC-3: 90 kg
    • ROEU 751 umbilical for AMS-02: 78 kg
    • MISSE carriers (3): 171 kg
    • MISSE 8 experiment (studies the effect of exposing various materials to space): 45 kg
    • Express Logistics Carrier:
      • ELC-3 plus support hardware: 3207 kg
      • Cargo Transport Container: 476 kg
      • SASA-2R S-band antenna: 116 kg
      • SASA-3R S-band antenna: 116 kg
      • SPDM Arm 3/OCTM: 342 kg
      • SPDM support hardware: 269 kg
      • HPGA oxygen tank: 552 kg
      • ATA-2 ammonia tank: 772 kg
      • STP-H3 experiment package (set of US DoD Space Test Program experiments, including thermal control systems and space environment sensors): 500 kg
    • Total Payload: 16,554 kg

2011 July 8 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3F. LV Configuration: Zenit-3F/Fregat.
  • PSSC-2 - . Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37752 . COSPAR: 2011-031B. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 307 km (190 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Summary: Picosatellite Solar Cell Testbed 2. Ejected from STS-135 prior to re-entry..
  • STS-135 - . Payload: Atlantis F33 / Rafaello MPLM-2. Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-135; ISS EO-27; ISS EO-28. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 12.77 days. Decay Date: 2011-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 37736 . COSPAR: 2011-031A. Apogee: 385 km (239 mi). Perigee: 371 km (230 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Final Space Shuttle flight, denoting the end of the space age. Atlantis docked with the Harmony module of the ISS on 10 June at 15:07 GMT. Primary payload was the Raffaello MultiPurpose Logistics Module delivering consumables and spare parts to the station sufficient to support the six crew members through the end of 2012 should delays occur in NASA's commercial robotic resupply program. Main crew task while docked with the station was to unload Rafaello and return of the station's failed coolant Pump Module for analysis. Atlantis undocked on 19 July at 06:28 GMT. The Picosat Solar Cell Experiment satellite was released from the cargo bay on 20 July. Atlantis made the final shuttle landing at the Kennedy Space Center on 21 July at 09:57 GMT. Payload delivered was:
    • External Airlock/ODS: 1800 kg
    • EMU spacesuits 3015, 3006: 260 kg
    • RMS arm 301: 410 kg
    • Orbiter Boom Sensor System: 382 kg
    • MPLM-2 Rafaello: 11,556 kg
    • SPDU: 17 kg
    • ROEU 755 umbilical for MPLM: 78 kg
    • Lightweight MPESS Carrier: 1050 kg
    • Robotic Refuelling Mission: 300 kg
    • Picosat Launcher: 22 kg
    • PSSC-2/MTV Aerospace Corporation Picosat Solar Cell Experiment satellite: 4 kg
    • Total payload: 15,879 kg

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