Encyclopedia Astronautica
Baikonur



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Baikonur
Map of Baikonur cosmodrome.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Baikonur
Location of Baikonur
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Syr Darya River
Syr Darya River, south of Baikonur
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Leninsk
Lenin statue in main square of Leninsk
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Tyuratam aborigine
First inhabitants of Baikonur area - reconstruction from skeletal remains by famous Soviet 'face finder' Gerasimov.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Energia launch pad
Energia launch complex
Credit: © Mark Wade
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R-7 launch complex 1
Model of R-7 launch complex 1
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Baikonur airfield
Baikonur airfield with Su-7 gate guardian.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Baikonur airfield
Baikonur airfield control tower.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz LC-1
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz LC-1
Credit: © Mark Wade
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USSR/Russia
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur.

The remote site was selected in order to accommodate the radio guidance system of the R-7 ICBM. This system required three radio control stations - one each 150-200 km away to either side of the launch site, and the third 300 km behind the launch site. From the existing Kapustin Yar missile test site this would require control stations in the Caspian Sea or Iran. For this reason Baikonur was selected as the R-7 test site and built at tremendous expense. Each operational R-7 launch site cost 500 million rubles. This included the expense of the down-range radar and the radio control stations, each of which had to be located in taiga or bog and required the building of new roads, power lines, and so on.

A few years later Korolev informed Khrushchev that it would be possible to build an inertially guided R-7, dispensing with the radar and radio control stations. Khrushchev was dumbfounded - why then had they built Baikonur? Nevertheless use of the site continued for test of later inertially guided missiles and mammoth facilities were built to accommodate Chelomei's Proton and Korolev's N1 space launch vehicles. Before each of these projects consideration was given to setting up another, more convenient, launch site, but evidently the advantage of the existing infrastructure at Baikonur was too great.

Aside from its test role, Baikonur served as an operational missile base on and off over the years, at first for the two R-7 pads and seven R-16 ICBM launchers.

The Baikonur cosmodrome extends for 85 km from North to South, and from 125 km from East to West, a territory as great as Moldova. Aside from dozens of launch pads it includes five tracking-control centers, 9 tracking stations, and a 1500 km rocket test range.

Leninsk (Site 10), located on the Syr Darya River along the main train line, was the main living area of the cosmodrome. Its peak population was from 120,000 to 150,000. The traditional names for the areas of the cosmodrome were named as looking north from Leninsk: 'Left flank'; 'Right flank'; and 'Center'.

The '9th Center' consisted of the town of Leninsk its living and cultural centers , Krainiy Airport, Moscow Aviation Institute's S Ordzhonikidze School, and the television center. The administrative center for the cosmodrome was in the town itself.

The 'Left Flank' is located 70 km northwest of Leninsk. It was also known as the 'Chelomei arm' since it was mainly occupied by the launch pads, assembly buildings, and housing for his design bureau. It includes the launch pads for the Tsiklon-2 and Proton rockets, and a 10,000 population living area. Project work began in 1970, with construction starting in 1972, on a second Launch Complex LC-200 for the Proton and a new MIK-KA for spacecraft integration. The first pad was completed in 1977, the second in 1978, and the MIK-KA was first used in 1981. These facilities supported the military's second and third generation Proton-launched systems.

The 'Center' or 'Korolev' area included facilities for the projects of Korolev's OKB-1. It includes the R-7/Vostok/Soyuz 'Gagarin' launch pad (the first built at the cosmodrome) and the massive N-1 moon program facilities (later converted for use in the Energia-Buran program). It is located 30 km north of Leninsk. It consists of the First and Second Centers with the Gagarin pad, MIK (spacecraft/Soyuz assembly building), hotel, guest cottages, museum, and the cottages occupied by Gagarin and Korolev (now museums). Other facilities include the N-1/Energia launch complexes, including LC-110 (two launch pads), the single TK combination pad-test stand developed for launch and static test of the Energia rocket, and the cryogenics center with 12 m diameter tanks for LOX, LH2, and gaseous N2 and He (400 atmosphere storage). The TK is 40 km from Leninsk and 5 km from LC 110.

Buran-Energia facilities at the center included the MKS, with 10,000 m2, 200 technical and 50 technological areas; the N-1/Energia assembly building MIK, which was 225-240 m long x 121-190 m wide, 30-47 m high; the Buran landing field (4500 m long x 84 m wide), located 12 km northwest of LC1; and a city for 20,000 people, built for the N-1 program and later used again for Energia-Buran.

The 'Right Flank' or 'Yangel Arm' included facilities primarily for products of Yangel's design bureau. It was located 50 km from Leninsk. It includes a second R-7 pad, used as a backup pad for manned and planetary launches. 10 km south of this is the Zenit pad. This included two launch pads, a cryogenics center, and fifty technological systems. The pad was capable of automatic launch of Zenit and was rated for the manned launches that were planned using the Zenit vehicle.

Minimum Inclination: 49.0 degrees. Maximum Inclination: 99.0 degrees.

AKA: GIK-5 / NIIP-5; Tyuratam.
Location: Kazakstan.
Longitude: 63.3503 deg.
Latitude: 45.9551 deg.
Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Meteor-M New-generation Russian weather satellite, successor to the Meteor-3M, with new electronics and designed for launch by the Soyuz ST launch vehicle rather than the discontinued Tsiklon-3 and non-Russian Zenit-2. First launched in 2009. More...
  • Sputnik 1 Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1957.10.04. Tikhonravov's 1.4 metric ton ISZ satellite was to have been launched by the new R-7 ICBM as the Soviet Union's first satellite, during the International Geophysical Year. More...
  • Sputnik 3 Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1958.04.27 (Sputnik failure) to 1958.05.15 (Sputnik 3). In July 1956 OKB-1 completed the draft project for the first earth satellite, designated ISZ (Artificial Earth Satellite). More...
  • Luna E-1 Russian lunar impact probe. 4 launches, 1958.09.23 (Luna failure) to 1959.01.02 (Luna 1). The first spacecraft to achieve escape velocity and the first to reach the Moon. The spacecraft was sphere-shaped. Five antennae extended from one hemisphere. More...
  • Luna E-1A Russian lunar impact probe. 2 launches, 1959.06.18 (Luna) to 1959.09.12 (Luna 2). First probe to impact lunar surface. Delivered a pennant to the surface of the Moon and conducted research during flight to the Moon. More...
  • Luna E-3 Russian lunar flyby probe. 3 launches, 1959.10.04 (Luna 3) to 1960.04.19 (Luna). The E-3 was designed to loop around the moon and photograph the Moon's far side. More...
  • Vostok Russian manned spacecraft. 13 launches, 1960.05.15 (Korabl-Sputnik 1) to 1963.06.16 (Vostok 6). First manned spacecraft. Derivatives were still in use in the 21st Century for military surveillance, earth resources, mapping, and biological missions. More...
  • Mars 1M Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1960.10.10 (Mars probe 1M s/n 1 failure.) to 1960.10.14 (Mars probe 1M s/n 2 failure.). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. More...
  • Venera 1VA Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1961.02.12 (Sputnik 7) to (Venera 1). The 1VA probe, the first spacecraft sent towards Venus, consisted of a cylindrical body topped by a dome, totaling 2 meters in height. More...
  • Zenit-2 Russian military surveillance satellite. 81 launches, 1961.12.11 (Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 1) to 1970.05.12 (Cosmos 344). The Zenit-2 was a derivative of the manned Vostok, and the Soviet Union's first spy satellite. More...
  • Oscar International series of amateur radio communications satellites. Operational, first launch 1961.12.12. Launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • Mars 2MV-1 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1962.08.25 (Sputnik 19) to 1962.09.01 (Sputnik 20). More...
  • Mars 2MV-4 Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1962.10.24 (Sputnik 22) to 1962.11.01 (Mars 1). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. More...
  • Mars 2MV-3 Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1962.11.04, Sputnik 24. Mars probe intended to make a soft landing on Mars. More...
  • Luna E-6 Russian lunar lander. 12 launches, 1963.01.04 (Sputnik 25) to 1966.01.31 (Luna 9). E-6 probes were designed by Korolev's OKB-1 with the objective of making the first soft landing on the moon and beaming back pictures of the surface. More...
  • Polyot Russian military anti-satellite system. 2 launches, 1963.11.01 (Polet 1; Polyot 1) to 1964.04.12 (Polet 2; Polyot 2). First prototype model of Chelomei's ASAT, used in an interceptor control and propulsion test. More...
  • Venera 3MV-1A Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1963.11.11 (Cosmos 21) to 1964.02.19 (3MV-1A). More...
  • Zenit-4 Russian military surveillance satellite. 76 launches, 1963.11.16 (Cosmos 22) to 1970.08.07 (Cosmos 355). Zenit-4 was the second Soviet photo-reconnaissance satellite, providing high-resolution imagery to complement the area coverage of the Zenit-2. More...
  • Elektron-B Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.01.30 (Elektron 2) to 1964.07.11 (Elektron 4). The Elektron mission was one of the earliest Soviet satellites to be authorized following the initial Sputnik series. More...
  • Elektron-A Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.01.30 (Elektron 1) to 1964.07.11 (Elektron 3). The Elektron mission was one of the earliest Soviet satellites to be authorized following the initial Sputnik series. More...
  • Venera 3MV-1 Russian Venus probe. 3 launches, 1964.02.19 (3MV-1 No. 2 SA) to 1964.04.02 (Zond 1). More...
  • Molniya-1 Russian military communications satellite. 37 launches, 1964.06.04 (Molniya-1 s/n 2 Failure) to 1975.09.02 (Molniya 1-31). This was the first Soviet communications satellite, using the twelve-hour elliptical orbit later dubbed a 'Molniya orbit'. More...
  • Strela-1 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 29 launches, 1964.08.18 (Cosmos 38) to 1965.09.18 (Cosmos 90). More...
  • Meteor Russian earth weather satellite. 11 launches, 1964.08.28 (Cosmos 44) to 1969.02.01 (Meteor). The first Soviet weather satellite. Development began with a decree of 30 October 1960. More...
  • Voskhod Russian manned spacecraft. 5 launches, 1964.10.06 (Cosmos 47) to 1966.02.22 (Cosmos 110). More...
  • Mars 3MV-4A Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1964.11.30 (Zond 2) to 1965.07.18 (Zond 3). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Elaboration of station systems and scientific research in interplanetary space. More...
  • OGCh Russian military orbital bombing system. 24 launches, 1965.03.05 (FOBS) to 1971.08.08 (Cosmos 433). More...
  • N-4 Russian cosmic ray astronomy satellite. 4 launches, 1965.07.16 (Proton 1) to 1966.07.06 (Proton 3). Physics experiments. Space station "Proton 1". Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic particles. More...
  • Venera 3MV-4 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1965.11.12 (Venera 2) to 1965.11.23 (Cosmos 96). Carried a TV system and scientific instruments. More...
  • Venera 3MV-3 Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1965.11.16, Venera 3. The mission of this spacecraft was to land on the Venusian surface. More...
  • US-A Russian military naval surveillance radar satellite. 38 launches, 1965.12.28 (Cosmos 102) to 1988.03.14 (Cosmos 1932). The US-A (later known as RLS) was a nuclear powered RORSAT (Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite). More...
  • Strela-2 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 5 launches, 1965.12.28 (Cosmos 103) to 1968.08.27 (Cosmos 236). More...
  • Luna E-6S Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1966.03.01 (Cosmos 111) to 1966.03.31 (Luna 10). More...
  • Luna E-6LF Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1966.08.24 (Luna 11) to 1966.10.22 (Luna 12). Photographed lunar surface and orbital space environment in preparation for manned missions. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK Russian manned spacecraft. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Development of a three-manned orbital version of the Soyuz, the 7K-OK was approved in December 1963. More...
  • Luna E-6M Russian lunar lander. One launch, 1966.12.21, Luna 13. Modernized version of the E-6 with the ALS lander mass increased from 84 kg to 150 kg. Conducted further scientific investigation of the moon and circumlunar space. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). The Soyuz 7K-L1, a modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK, was designed for manned circumlunar missions. More...
  • Luna E-6LS Russian lunar orbiter. 3 launches, 1967.05.17 (Cosmos 159) to 1968.04.07 (Luna 14). The E-6LS was a radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. More...
  • Venera 1V (V-67) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1967.06.12 (Venera 4) to 1967.06.17 (Cosmos 167). Venus probe with the announced mission of direct atmospheric studies. More...
  • IS-A Russian military anti-satellite system. 22 launches, 1967.10.27 (Cosmos 185) to 1982.06.18 (Cosmos 1379). First operational ASAT. Tested in 1967-1971 and deployed through the late 1970's. Design as revised by Yangel and Korolev from Chelomei's original. More...
  • Zenit-2M Russian military surveillance satellite. 101 launches, 1968.03.21 (Cosmos 208) to 1979.08.17 (Cosmos 1122). Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975. More...
  • Nauka Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 45 launches, 1968.03.21 (Nauka) to 1979.08.17 (Cosmos 1122 Nauka). The Nauka containers were flown as piggy-back payloads aboard Zenit reconnaissance satellites. They served a dual purpose. More...
  • IS-P Russian military anti-satellite system target satellite. 4 launches, 1968.04.24 (Cosmos 217) to 1970.10.20 (Cosmos 373). ASAT Target, launched by R-36. Evidently a derivative of the first IS-A ASAT itself. More...
  • Zenit-4M Russian military surveillance satellite. 61 launches, 1968.10.31 (Cosmos 251) to 1974.07.25 (Cosmos 667). Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975. More...
  • N-6 Russian cosmic ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1968.11.16, Proton 4. Cosmic ray measurements. Study of the nature of high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays and their interaction with atomic nuclei. Mass announced at time of launch 17,000 kg. More...
  • Venera 2V (V-69) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1969.01.05 (Venera 6) to 1969.01.10 (Venera 6). Spacecraft was very similar to Venera 4 / 1V (V-67) although the descent module was of a stronger design. More...
  • Luna Ye-8 Russian lunar rover. 3 launches, 1969.02.19 (Ye-8 s/n 201) to 1973.01.08 (Luna 21). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1A Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.02.21 (N-1 3L) to 1969.07.03 (N-1 5L). Hybrid spacecraft used in N1 launch tests. More...
  • Mars M-69 Russian Mars orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.03.27 (M-69 s/n 521) to 1969.04.02 (M-69 s/n 522). Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars. More...
  • Luna Ye-8-5 Russian lunar lander. 11 launches, 1969.06.14 (Ye-8-5 VA) to 1975.10.16 (Luna 24). Unmanned lunar soil sample return. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1E Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.11.28 (Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 1) and 1970.12.02 (Cosmos 382). Modification of Soyuz circumlunar configuration used in propulsion tests of the Block D stage. More...
  • Zenit-4MK Russian military surveillance satellite. 80 launches, 1969.12.23 (Cosmos 317) to 1977.06.22 (Cosmos 920). Modernized high resolution version of the Zenit-4M satellite that went into service in 1972. Maneuverable; (two-tone telemetry). More...
  • Venera 3V (V-70) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1970.08.17 (Venera 7) to 1970.08.22 (Cosmos 359). Venus lander intended to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. More...
  • LK Russian manned lunar lander. 3 launches, 1970.11.24 (Cosmos 379) to 1971.08.12 (Cosmos 434). The LK ('Lunniy korabl' - lunar craft) was the Soviet lunar lander - the Russian counterpart of the American LM Lunar Module. More...
  • Salyut 1 Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1971.04.19 (Salyut 1) and 1972.07.29 (Zarya s/n 122). Salyut 1 was the first DOS long duration orbital station. More...
  • Soyuz 7KT-OK Russian manned spacecraft. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). This was a modification of Soyuz 7K-OK with a lightweight docking system and a crew transfer tunnel. More...
  • Mars M-71 Russian Mars lander. 3 launches, 1971.05.10 (Cosmos 419) to 1971.05.28 (Mars 3). Mars spacecraft built by Lavochkin for 1971 campaign. The spacecraft consists of a bus/orbiter module and an attached descent/lander module. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-LOK Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). The two-crew LOK lunar orbiting spacecraft was the largest derivative of Soyuz developed. More...
  • Luna Ye-8-LS Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.09.28 (Luna 19) to 1974.05.29 (Luna 22). Lunar surface mapping. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). Investigation of the moon and near-lunar space from the orbit of an artificial satellite. More...
  • Venera 3V (V-72) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1972.03.27 (Venera 8) to 1972.03.31 (Cosmos 482). Venus atmospheric probe; instrumentation included temperature, pressure, and light sensors as well as radio transmitters. More...
  • Energia Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1972.04.07 (Intercosmos 6) to 1978.07.02 (Cosmos 1026). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space. More...
  • Prognoz Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 10 launches, 1972.04.14 (Prognoz 1) to 1985.04.26 (Intercosmos 23). This spacecraft, built by Lavochkin, was launched from 1972 for study of geomagnetic fields, radiation, and solar physics. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T Russian manned spacecraft. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). More...
  • Almaz OPS Russian manned space station. 3 launches, 1973.04.03 (Salyut 2) to 1976.06.22 (Salyut 5). Vladimir Chelomei's Almaz OPS was the only manned military space station ever actually flown. More...
  • Salyut 4 Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1973.05.11 (Cosmos 557) to 1974.12.26 (Salyut 4). Four of the initial DOS-1 versions of a civilian Soviet space station were built using converted Almaz military stations. More...
  • Mars M-73 Russian Mars lander. 4 launches, 1973.07.21 (Mars 4) to 1973.08.09 (Mars 7). The M-73 spacecraft series was built for 1973 Mars missions. More...
  • Raduga First Soviet geosynchronous communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1974.03.26. A single orbital group of two Radugas could handle all communications of the Russian eastern regions. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-TM Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). The Soyuz 7K-T as modified for the docking with Apollo. More...
  • Yantar-2K Russian military surveillance satellite. 30 launches, 1974.05.23 (Yantar-2K failure.) to 1983.06.28 (Cosmos 1471). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T/A9 Russian manned spacecraft. 8 launches, 1974.05.27 (Cosmos 656) to 1978.06.27 (Soyuz 30). Version of 7K-T for flights to Almaz. Known difference with the basic 7K-T included systems for remote control of the Almaz station and a revised parachute system. More...
  • Meteor-Priroda Russian earth land resources satellite. 5 launches, 1974.07.09 (Meteor 1-18) to 1981.07.10 (Meteor 1-31). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-S Russian manned spacecraft. 3 launches, 1974.08.06 (Cosmos 670) to 1976.11.29 (Cosmos 869). The Soyuz 7K-S had its genesis in military Soyuz designs of the 1960's. More...
  • US-P Russian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 37 launches, 1974.12.24 (Cosmos 699) to 1991.01.18 (Cosmos 2122). The US-P (later known as RTR) was a solar powered EORSAT (Electronic Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite). More...
  • Venera 4V-1 Russian Venus probe. 6 launches, 1975.06.08 (Venera 9) to 1981.11.04 (Venera 14). More...
  • Prognoz SPRN Russian military early warning satellite. 15 launches, 1975.10.08 (Cosmos 775) to 2008.06.26 (Cosmos 2397). Development began of the Soviet Union's Prognoz geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite in 1980. More...
  • Molniya-1T Russian military communications satellite. 63 launches, 1976.01.22 (Molniya) to 2004.02.18 (Molniya-1T). This was a modernized Molniya-1 communications satellite with the 'Beta' retransmitter which began flight tests in 1970. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-MF6 Russian manned spacecraft. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Soyuz 7K-T modified with installation of East German MF6 multispectral camera. Used for a unique solo Soyuz earth resources mission. More...
  • Ekran Russian communications satellite. 21 launches, 1976.10.26 (Ekran 1) to 1988.05.06 (Ekran 18). Ekran was the Soviet Union's first geosynchronous satellite. More...
  • Zenit-6U Russian military surveillance satellite. 95 launches, 1976.11.24 (Cosmos 867) to 1984.06.19 (Cosmos 1573). A universal variant of the Zenit spacecraft, used in two altitude ranges, for both observation and high resolution missions. More...
  • TKS VA Russian manned spacecraft module. 13 launches, 1976.12.15 (Cosmos 881) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). The VA reentry capsule was similar in configuration to the American Apollo, but 30% smaller. Reusable re-entry capsule. More...
  • Zenit-4MKM Russian military surveillance satellite. 39 launches, 1977.07.12 (Cosmos 927) to 1980.10.10 (Cosmos 1214). A further modification of the Zenit-4MK, accepted for military service in 1976, entered service in 1978. More...
  • TKS Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). More...
  • Salyut 6 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1977.09.29. The Salyut 6 space station was the most successful of the DOS series prior to Mir. It was aloft for four years and ten months, completing 27,785 orbits of the earth. More...
  • Progress Russian logistics spacecraft. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Progress took the basic Soyuz 7K-T manned ferry designed for the Salyut space station and modified it for unmanned space station resupply. More...
  • Soyuz T Russian manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Soyuz T had a long gestation, beginning as the Soyuz VI military orbital complex Soyuz in 1967. More...
  • Radio Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 9 launches, 1978.10.26 (Radio Sputnik 1) to 1994.12.26 (Radio-ROSTO RS-15). More...
  • Gorizont Russian communications satellite. 35 launches, 1978.12.19 (Gorizont 1) to 2000.06.06 (Gorizont). Gorizont-1 was designed specifically to support broadcast of the 1980 Olympic Games from Russia. More...
  • Yantar-4K1 Russian film-return military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 1979.04.27. Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The high resolution Yantar-4K provided that capability, while still capable of being launched by the existing Soyuz-U launch vehicle. Lifetime was 45 days. Two small capsules could return film an an interim basis before the main spacecraft with film returned to earth. More...
  • KRT-10 Soviet . One launch, 1979.06.28. 10 m diameter radio telescope. Attached to Salyut 6 docking hatch and deployed after separation of Progress from Mir. More...
  • Resurs-OE Russian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1980.06.18 (Meteor 1-30) to 1983.07.24 (Cosmos 1484). Modified Meteor; prototype for Resurs-O1. More...
  • Yantar-1KFT Russian military surveillance satellite. 21 launches, 1981.02.18 (Cosmos 1246) to 2005.09.02 (Cosmos 2415). Version of the Yantar photo satellite for topographic mapping on behalf of the Red Army. More...
  • Iskra Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 3 launches, 1981.07.10 (Iskra) to 1982.11.18 (Iskra 3). Launched from Salyut 7 airlock. Conduct of experiments in the field of amateur radio communications. More...
  • MicroSat-70 British technology satellite. 14 launches, 1981.10.06 (Oscar 9) to 2002.11.28 (Picosat). Basic Surrey Microsat bus. More...
  • Salyut 7 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1982.04.19. Salyut 7 was the back-up article for Salyut 6 and very similar in equipment and capabilities. More...
  • Potok Russian military communications satellite. 10 launches, 1982.05.18 (Cosmos 1366) to 2000.07.04 (Cosmos 2371). Potok was one element of the second generation global command and control system (GKKRS) developed according to a decree of 17 February 1976. More...
  • Astrozond Soviet earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1982.09.18. More...
  • Glonass Russian navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 1982.10.12. Glonass was a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system. More...
  • Yantar-4KS1 Russian military electro-optical surveillance satellite. Operational, first launched 1982.12.28. More...
  • Astron Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1983.03.23. Astrophysics satellite based on the Venera 4V-2 bus design. Electrophysical research of galactic and extragalactic sources of ultraviolet ray and X-ray emission. More...
  • Venera 4V-2 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1983.06.02 (Venera 15) to 1983.06.07 (Venera 16). Venera radar mappers which used an 8 cm band side-looking radar to study the surface properties of Venus. More...
  • Zenit-8 Russian military surveillance satellite. 101 launches, 1984.06.11 (Cosmos 1571) to 1994.06.07 (Cosmos 2281). More...
  • Tselina-2 Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 25 launches, 1984.09.28 (Cosmos 1603) to 2007.06.29 (Cosmos 2406). More...
  • Vega 5VK Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1984.12.15 (Vega 1) to 1984.12.21 (Vega 2). The Vega 5VK spacecraft was designed for a mission combining a flyby of the planet Venus followed by an encounter with Halley's Comet. More...
  • Foton Russian materials science satellite. 15 launches, 1985.04.16 (Cosmos 1645 / Foton 1) to 2007.09.14 (Foton M-2). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for zero-gravity materials processing tests. 400 W available to operate experiments. More...
  • Resurs-O1 Russian earth land resources satellite. 4 launches, 1985.10.03 (Cosmos 1689) to 1998.07.10 (Resurs-O1 No. 4). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. More...
  • Luch Russian military communications satellite. 5 launches, 1985.10.25 (Cosmos 1700) to 1995.10.11 (Luch 1). More...
  • AS 4000 American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1985.11.27 (Satcom K2) to 1998.02.04 (Inmarsat 3 F5). 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. More...
  • Mir Russian manned space station. One launch, 1986.02.20. Improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station with one aft docking port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. More...
  • Soyuz TM Russian manned spacecraft. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). More...
  • Orlets-2 Russian military surveillance satellite. 4 launches, 1986.10.22 (GVM) to 2000.09.25 (Cosmos 2372). More...
  • Koltso Russian military target satellite. One launch, 1986.10.22, Cosmos 1786. Calibration mission. Tentatively identified as third generation replacement for Taifun-2, perhaps to have been launched by the Tsyklon 3 launch vehicle. More...
  • Almaz-T Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. 3 launches, 1986.11.29 (Almaz-T s/n 303 Failure) to 1991.03.31 (Almaz 1). The results of the manned Almaz flights showed that manned reconnaissance from space was not worth the expense. More...
  • Ekran-M Russian communications satellite. 6 launches, 1987.01.30 (Cosmos 1817) to 2001.04.07 (Ekran-M No. 18). Ekran-M provided unique direct television broadcasting service to community users in the central Russian Federation region (Zone 3). More...
  • Plazma-A Russian ion engine technology satellite. 2 launches, 1987.02.02 (Cosmos 1818) to 1987.07.10 (Cosmos 1867). In 1987 two experimental Plazma-A satellites (Cosmos 1818 and 1867) were launched with new-generation Topaz reactors. More...
  • Kvant Russian manned space station. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). The Kvant spacecraft represented the first use of a new kind of Soviet space station module, designated 37K. More...
  • Polyus Russian military anti-satellite system. One launch, 1987.05.15. The Polyus military testbed was put together on a crash basis as an answer to America's Star Wars program. More...
  • Uragan Space Interceptor Russian manned combat spacecraft. 2 launches, 1987.08.01 (Cosmos 1871) to 1987.08.28 (Cosmos 1873). Russian sources continue to maintain that the Uragan manned spaceplane project never existed. More...
  • Eurostar 2000 French communications satellite. 24 launches, 1988.03.11 (Telecom 1C) to 2006.11.08 (Badr 4 ARABSAT 4B). More...
  • IRS Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. Operational, first launch 1988.03.17. Remote sensing of the Earth for natural resources management applications. More...
  • Fobos 1F Russian Mars orbiter. 5 launches, 1988.07.07 (Phobos 1) to 1988.07.12 (1F PPS). The 1F spacecraft was flown on the Phobos mission to Mars, consisting of 2 nearly identical spacecraft. More...
  • Buran Russian manned spaceplane. One launch, 1988.11.15. Soviet copy of the US Space Shuttle. Unlike the Shuttle, the main engines were not mounted on Buran and were not reused. More...
  • 37KB Russian manned space station module. One launch, 1988.11.15. Carried in the payload bay of the Buran space shuttle. They could remain attached to the bay or (modified to the 37KBI configuration) be docked to the Mir-2 station. More...
  • Etalon Russian earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1989.01.10 (Cosmos 1989) to 1989.05.31 (Cosmos 2024). Passive geodetic satellites, 1415 kg, 1.294 m in diameter, covered with 306 antenna arrays, each with 14 corner cubes for laser reflection. More...
  • FS-1300 American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 1989.06.05. More...
  • Raduga-1 Russian communications satellite. 8 launches, 1989.06.21 (Raduga 1-1) to 2007.12.09 (Raduga-1). The Raduga-1 geosynchronous communications satellite was to have been the basis for the YeSSS-2 second generation Unified Satellite Communication System. More...
  • Orlets-1 Russian military surveillance satellite. 8 launches, 1989.07.18 (Cosmos 2031) to 2006.09.14 (Cosmos 2423). Multi-purpose satellite, designed for both close-look and survey missions, equipped with a panoramic camera, equipped with 8 film return capsules. More...
  • Progress M Russian logistics spacecraft. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Progress M was an upgraded version of the original Progress. New service module and rendezvous and docking systems were adopted from Soyuz T. More...
  • Kvant-2 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1989.11.26, Kvant 2. Kvant-2 was a utility module launched to the Mir station. It provided an airlock, additional electric power, and additional gyrodynes for orienting the station. More...
  • Granat Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1989.12.01. Granat was a Lavochkin design with the mission of making gamma ray observations in energy ranges of 3 to 200 keV. More...
  • HS 601 American communications satellite bus. First launch 1990.01.09. 3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimbaled momentum bias wheels. More...
  • Kristall Russian manned space station. One launch, 1990.05.31. Kristal was a dedicated zero-gravity materials and biological science research module for the Mir space station, launched in January 1990 More...
  • Gamma Russian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1990.07.11. The Gamma USSR/France gamma/x-ray astronomical telescope spacecraft was derived from the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an unusually long gestation. More...
  • Badr Pakistani communications technology satellite. 3 launches, 1990.07.16 (Badr-A) to 2008.07.07 (Badr B). Pakistani experimental series with a variety of payloads. More...
  • Mak Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.17 (Mak 1) and 1992.10.27 (Mak 2). Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere. More...
  • Tubsat German communications technology satellite. 7 launches, 1991.07.17 (Tubsat-A) to 2007.01.10 (Maroc-Tubsat). Germany's Technical University of Berlin (TUB) built a successful series of 40 kg 'Tubsat' experimental technology satellites. More...
  • Znamya Russian . One launch, 1992.10.27. Reflector mirror, deployed from Progress M-15 after separation from Mir space station. More...
  • US-PU Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 13 launches, 1993.03.30 (Cosmos 2238) to 2006.06.24 (Cosmos 2421). More...
  • Gals Russian communications satellite. 2 launches, 1994.01.20 (Gals) and 1995.11.17 (Gals-2). Direct broadcasting satellite (new generation of satellites) intended for development of the Russian television system and international cooperation. More...
  • Ekspress Russian communications satellite. 15 launches, 1994.10.13 to 2009-02-11. The Ekspress series communications satellite closely resembled the Gals spacecraft and shared a similar spacecraft bus. More...
  • Elektro Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 1994.10.31. Elektro was to be the geostationary component of a third generation Soviet meteorological system. Following extended development, it flew only once, in 1994. More...
  • Gurwin Israeli technology satellite. 2 launches, 1995.03.28 (Gurwin 1) and 1998.07.10 (Gurwin Techsat 1B). Gurwin satellites were built by the Technion Institute of Technology, Israel. More...
  • GFZ-1 German earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1995.04.19 (GFZ-1) and 1998.07.10 (WESTPAC). GFZ-1 was a geodetic satellite designed to improve the current knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. More...
  • Spektr Russian manned space station. One launch, 1995.05.20. Spektr was a module of the Mir space station. It began life as a dedicated military research unit. More...
  • Radarsat Canadian earth resources radar satellite. Two launches, 1995.11.04 (Radarsat) and 2007.12.14 (Radarsat). Canada's Radarsat was a radar satellite featuring variable resolution, and different view angles at a number of preset positions. More...
  • Skipper Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1995.12.28. Aerobraking investigation; satellite provided by Russia, instruments by Utah State University; solar array shorted immediately following deployment and ended mission. More...
  • Priroda Russian manned space station. One launch, 1996.04.23. Priroda was the last Mir module launched. It was originally an all-Soviet remote sensing module for combined civilian and military surveillance of the earth. More...
  • AMOS Israeli communications satellite. 3 launches, 1996.05.16 (AMOS) to 2008.04.28 (Amos-2). 7 Ku-band transponders. Israeli indigenous communications satellite program. More...
  • AS 2100 American communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1996.09.08 (GE 1). Cost per satellite $100 million for the spacecraft including ground support equipment, but not including launch costs. 3-axis stabilized. More...
  • Mars M1 Russian Mars orbiter. 5 launches, 1996.11.16 (Mars-96 (Mars 8)) to (Mars-96 (Mars 8)). More...
  • LM 700 American communications satellite. 98 launches, 1997.05.05 (Iridium 8) to 2002.06.20 (Iridium SV98 ). The LM 700 had its first use in the Iridium system, a commercial communications network comprised of a minimum of 66 LEO spacecraft. More...
  • Arkon-1 Russian military surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1997.06.06 (Cosmos 2344) to 2002.07.25 (Cosmos 2392). More...
  • Inspector German logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1997.10.05, X-Mir Inspector. Robotic spacecraft designed for free flight and camera inspection of the exterior of the Space Shuttle or International Space Station. More...
  • PS Model Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 2 launches, 1997.10.05 (Sputnik-40) to 1998.10.25 (Spoutnik-41). Two subscale models of Sputnik 1, were built by students for hand-launch from Mir on fortieth anniversary of Sputnik 1. More...
  • YES European tether technology satellite. 2 launches, 1997.10.30 (YES) and 2007.09.14 (YES). Young Engineers Satellite sponsored by the European Space Tech. More...
  • Kupon Russian military communications satellite. One launch, 1997.11.12. Kupon was originally developed by Lavochkin for the third generation GKKRS (Global Space Command and Communications System). Other satellites in the network included Potok and Geizer. More...
  • Star bus American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 1997.11.12 (Cakrawarta 1). The Orbital Star bus was designed for reliable and robust performance in a variety of LEO and GEO missions. More...
  • Globalstar American communications satellite. 72 launches, 1998.02.14 (Globalstar FM1) to 2007.10.20 (Globalstar D). The Globalstar constellation was a Medium Earth Orbit system for mobile voice and data communications. More...
  • Safir German civilian store-dump communications satellite. One launch, 1998.07.10. Relay satellite built by OHB System of Bremen. More...
  • MiniSat-400 British technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.21 (UoSAT-12) to 2005.12.28 (Giove-A). Basic Surrey Minisat bus. More...
  • Megsat Italian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.28 (Megsat-0) and 2000.09.26 (MegSat-1). The first private Italian satellites, Megsats were microsatellites designed to transmit scientific and commercial data. More...
  • Okean-O Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1999.07.17. More...
  • Yamal Russian communications satellite. 4 launches, 1999.09.06 (Yamal 101) to 2003.11.24 (Yamal-200 KA-2). The Yamal communications satellite bus was developed by RKK Energia for Gazprom. More...
  • LMI Russian communications satellite. One launch, 1999.09.26. Lockheed Martin Intersputnik's LMI-1 satellite was a joint Russian-American venture. LMI-1 provided communications services to Eastern Europe and Central Asia. More...
  • HS 702 American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launched 1999.12.22. More...
  • Progress M1 Russian logistics spacecraft. 11 launches, 2000.02.01 (Progress M1-1) to 2004.01.29 (Progress M1-11). Progress M1 was a modified version of the Progress M resupply spacecraft capable of delivering more propellant than the basic model to the ISS or Mir. More...
  • IRDT Russian manned rescue spacecraft. First launch 2000.02.08. Inflatable re-entry and descent technology vehicle designed to return payloads from space to the earth or another planet. Tested three times, with only one partially successful recovery. More...
  • ISS Zvezda Russian manned space station. One launch, 2000.07.12, Zvezda. The Zvezda service module of the International Space Station had its origins a quarter century before it was launched. More...
  • Rubin German technology microsatellite. 8 launches, the first on 2000.07.15 (Rubin). Rubin was developed by OHB and students of the Hochschule Bremen. More...
  • Cluster 2 European earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 2000.07.16 (Samba) to 2000.08.09 (Tango). More...
  • UniSat Italian technology satellite. 3 launches, 2000.09.26 (UniSat) to 2004.06.29 (Unisat 3). Experimental satellite developed by the GAUSS (Gruppo di Astrodinamica dell' Universita degli Studi 'la Sapienza') in Roma. More...
  • Saudisat Saudi amateur radio communications satellite. 7 launches, 2000.09.26 (SaudiSat 1A) to 2007.04.17 (Saudisat 2). More...
  • Progress M-SO Russian docking and airlock module for the International Space Station. First launch 2001.09.14. Delivered to the station by the Progress service module, which was jettisoned after docking. More...
  • Kompas Russian earth seismology satellite. 2 launches, 2001.12.10 (Kompas) and 2006.05.26 (Kompas). More...
  • Reflektor Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2001.12.10. The 8 kg Reflektor was built by NII KP in Russia for space debris studies in a joint experiment with the Air Force Research Lab. More...
  • Meteor-3M Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 2001.12.10. The Meteor-3 weather satellite was to be followed in 1996 by the first of the Meteor-3M class, which was finally put into orbit in 2001. No further launches, and succeeded by the Meteor-M in 2010. More...
  • Kolibri Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2002.03.19. Kolibri was a joint Russian-Australian educational project to allow school children to monitor low frequency waves and particle fluxes in low orbit. More...
  • Integral European gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2002.10.17. INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) was a European (ESA) astrophysics satellite. The four-ton (with fuel) cylindrical (5 m height and 3. More...
  • Soyuz TMA Russian three-crew manned spacecraft. Operational, first launch 2002.10.30. Designed for use as a lifeboat for the International Space Station. After the retirement of the US shuttle in 2011, Soyuz TMA was the only conveying crews to the ISS. Except for the Chinese Shenzhou, it became mankind's sole means of access to space. More...
  • AprizeSat American civilian store-dump communications satellite. 6 launches, 2002.12.20 (LatinSat 1) to 2009.07.29. Aprize's satellites were miniature spacecraft designed and optimized for data relay with very low power consumption. More...
  • Mars Express European Mars orbiter. One launch, 2003.06.02. The European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter, designed to be built more quickly than any other comparable planetary mission, was a resounding success. More...
  • Cubesat American low-cost nanosatellite bus. Used in dozens of launches, the first on 2003.06.30. More...
  • Demeter French earth seismology satellite. One launch, 2004.06.29. Demeter studied disturbances of the ionosphere due to seismo electromagnetic effects and human activities (power lines, VLF transmitters, HF broadcasting stations). More...
  • Amsat Echo American military communications satellite. One launch, 2004.06.29. More...
  • MS-1 Ukrainian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 2004.12.24 (Mikron) to 2007.04.17 (MisrSat 1). Ukrainian microsatellite bus that could be equipped with imaging or other scientific or technical equipment. More...
  • Spacebus 4000 European communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2005.02.03. The Spacebus 4000 represented a new larger platform to meet customer demand. More...
  • Nanosputnik Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2005.02.28. Nanosatellite delivered by Progress M-52 to the International Space Station. 30 cm long, it was released from during a spacewalk on 28 March 2005. More...
  • Eurostar 3000 French communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2005.03.11 (Inmarsat 4-F1). Third generation of Matra Marconi Space GEO satellite platforms serving mainly commercial telecommunications applications. More...
  • Kirari Japanese communications satellite. One launch, 2005.08.23. Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite. Its laser communications experiment was be used in with ESA's Artemis geostationary satellite. More...
  • Reimei Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2005.08.23. Plasma Science Technology. INDEX, renamed Reimei ("Dawn") after launch, was a test satellite with new lightweight satellite components, and a demonstration auroral imager payload. More...
  • Venus Express European Venus probe. One launch, 2005.11.09. European Union probe to Venus, with the primary mission of studying the atmosphere and space environment of the planet. More...
  • Yakhta Russian communications satellite. One launch, 2006.06.17, Kazsat 1. RKK Energia-developed communications satellite, believed to be a larger development of the Yamal. More...
  • Metop European earth weather satellite. One launch, 2006.10.19. MetOp was Europe's first polar-orbiting satellite dedicated to operational meteorology. More...
  • Corot French visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 2006.12.27. More...
  • TerraSAR-X German civilian surveillance radar satellite. First launch 2007.06.15. Scientific / commercial surveillance satellite, equipped with an X-band synthetic aperture radar with 1 meter resolution More...
  • Galileo Navsat European navigation satellite. One launch, 2008.04.26, GIOVE B. Galileo was to be Europe's own global navigation satellite system, providing a highly accurate, guaranteed global positioning service under civilian control. More...
  • SSTL-150 German civilian surveillance satellite. Surrey satellite bus, notably used for the RapidEye constellation of five environmental monitoring satellites. Mass of 152 kg including 12 kg of propellant. More...

See also
  • Ariane 5 The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. More...
  • Energia The Energia-Buran Reusable Space System (MKS) began development in 1976 as a Soviet booster that would exceed the capabilities of the US shuttle system. Following extended development, Energia made two successful flights in 1987-1988. But the Soviet Union was crumbling, and the ambitious plans to build an orbiting defense shield, to renew the ozone layer, dispose of nuclear waste, illuminate polar cities, colonize the moon and Mars, were not to be. Funding dried up and the Energia-Buran program completely disappeared from the government's budget after 1993. More...
  • Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • MR-UR-100 The Yangel MR-UR-100 was designed as a replacement for Chelomei's UR-100 at the end of its 10 year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Chelomei, the UR-100N, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other. More...
  • N1 The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed. More...
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...
  • R-16 The Soviet Union's first practical ICBM, a two stage vehicle using storable propellants. Development began in 1956 and the missile was in service from 1962 to 1974. Peak deployment consisted of 186 launchers, about a third of them in missile silos, the rest in fixed 'soft' installations. More...
  • R-36M The super-heavy Ukrainian R-36M ICBM replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. The fall of the Soviet Union ended production and the need for replacement. Nevertheless they remained in Russian service into the 21st Century, some being modified for use as space launchers. More...
  • R-9 ICBM developed by Korolev OKB using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. The Soviet military favoured storable propellants as advocated by Glushko and implemented by Yangel and Chelomei. Development of the R-9 was protracted and it was deployed in only very limited numbers between 1964 and 1974. More...
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...
  • Tsiklon The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...
  • UR-100 The UR-100 lightweight ICBM was the Soviet answer to the US Minuteman and was deployed in larger numbers than any other in history. It remained an enigma outside of intelligence circles in the West until after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It allowed the Soviet Union to match, and then surpass the United States in strategic deterrent capability. As such it was Vladimir Chelomei's crowning legacy to his country. More...
  • UR-100N The UR-100N was designed as a replacement for the UR-100 at the end of its ten year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Yangel, the MR-UR-100, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other. More...
  • UR-200 Universal rocket designed by Chelomei to cover the ICBM, FOBS, satellite launch vehicle, and spaceplane booster roles. Flight tested in 1963-1964 but cancelled in favour of Yangel's R-36. More...
  • Zenit Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium. More...

Associated Flights
  • Vostok 1 Crew: Gagarin. First manned spaceflight, one orbit of the earth. Strap attaching service module failed to separate from capsule, leading to wild ride before it burned through during re-entry. Backup crew: Titov, Nelyubov. More...
  • Vostok 2 Crew: Titov. Second manned orbital flight. After 17.5 orbits, the spacecraft reentered and the cosmonaut landed safely. First astronaut to experience space sickness. Day-long flight was a huge blow to America, which had not even orbited a man in space yet. Backup crew: Nikolayev, Nelyubov. More...
  • Vostok 3 Crew: Nikolayev. Joint flight with Vostok 4; two Vostok capsules were launched one day apart, coming within a few kilometers of each other. Record flight duration. First simultaneous flight of two manned spacecraft. Backup crew: Bykovsky, Volynov. More...
  • Vostok 4 Crew: Popovich. Joint flight with Vostok 3. Problems with life support system, resulted in cabin temperature dropping to 10 deg C. Returned to earth a day early due to communications secret code mix-up. First Ukrainian astronaut. Backup crew: Komarov, Volynov. More...
  • Vostok 5 Crew: Bykovsky. Joint flight with Vostok 6. Record flight duration. Spacecraft ended up in a lower than planned orbit and quickly decayed - temperatures in the service module reached very high levels and the flight returned early. Backup crew: Volynov, Leonov. More...
  • Vostok 6 Crew: Tereshkova. Joint flight with Vostok 5. First woman in space. Tereshkova did not reply during several communications sessions. To this day it is not known if she was paralysed with fear, or if there was an equipment failure. Backup crew: Solovyova, Ponomaryova. More...
  • Voskhod 1 Crew: Feoktistov, Komarov, Yegorov. First three-crew spaceflight. Altitude record (336 km). First crew to fly without spacesuits. First non-pilot crew (engineer that designed the spacecraft and a physician). Backup crew: Katys, Lazarev, Volynov. More...
  • Voskhod 2 Crew: Belyayev, Leonov. First space walk. Speed and altitude records. A disaster: astronaut unable to reenter airlock due to spacesuit stiffness; cabin flooded with oxygen; manual reentry, landed in mountains, crew not recovered until next day. Further Voskhod flights cancelled. Backup crew: Gorbatko, Khrunov, Zaikin. More...
  • Soyuz 1 Crew: Komarov. Space disaster that put back Soviet lunar program 18 months. Soyuz 1 was to dock with Soyuz 2 and transfer crew. Instead Soyuz 1 solar panel didn't deploy; manual reentry; tangled parachute lines; astronaut killed on impact with earth. Backup crew: Gagarin. More...
  • Soyuz 3 Crew: Beregovoi. Second manned Soyuz flight. Rendezvoused with the unmanned Soyuz 2 but failed to dock, blamed on manual control by cosmonaut who repeatedly overrode automatic systems, and used nearly all of his orientation fuel in his first attempt to dock. Backup crew: Shatalov, Volynov. More...
  • Soyuz 4 Crew: Shatalov. First Russian docking. Mission successfully completed the simulated lunar orbit docking and crew transfer mission attempted by Soyuz 1 in April 1967. Two crew from Soyuz 5 returned in Soyuz 4. Backup crew: Shonin. More...
  • Soyuz 5 Crew: Volynov. Two crew transferred to and returned in Soyuz 4. Remaining astronaut barely survived nose-first reentry of Soyuz 5, still attached to its service module. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Kubasov. More...
  • Soyuz 6 Crew: Kubasov, Shonin. First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. First vacuum welding in space. Rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft, scrubbing three-way spacecraft rendezvous mission. Backup crew: Shatalov, Yeliseyev. More...
  • Soyuz 7 Crew: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Volkov. First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. The spacecraft was to have docked with Soyuz 8 and exchanged one crew member from each spacecraft while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft. Backup crew: Kolodin, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. More...
  • Soyuz 8 Crew: Shatalov, Yeliseyev. First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. The spacecraft was to have docked with Soyuz 7 and exchanged one crew member from each spacecraft while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft. Backup crew: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. More...
  • Soyuz 9 Crew: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Record flight duration. Head-over-heels rotation of Soyuz to conserve fuel and lack of exercise resulted in terrible condition of astronauts on return. The Soviets almost reconsidered their space station plans as a result. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Grechko.Support crew: Lazarev, Yazdovsky. More...
  • Soyuz 10 Crew: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Intended first space station mission. Hard dock with station could not be achieved. Then stuck and could separate from the station only after repeated attempts. Toxic fumes in air supply during landing overcame one astronaut. Backup crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov.Support crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. More...
  • Soyuz 11 Crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. First space station mission. Record flight duration. Main telescope inoperative. Fire in space station put out. Fail-safe valve opening during re-entry, resulted in decompression and death of entire crew. Backup crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov. More...
  • Soyuz 12 Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability. Backup crew: Grechko, Gubarev.Support crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. More...
  • Soyuz 13 Crew: Klimuk, Lebedev. First Byelorussian astronaut. First space mission devoted to a single scientific instrument. A unique flight of the 7K-T/AF modification of the Soyuz spacecraft. The orbital module was dominated by the large Orion 2 astrophysical camera. Backup crew: Vorobyov, Yazdovsky. More...
  • Soyuz 14 Crew: Artyukhin, Popovich. First military space station mission. Manned military reconnaissance of the earth's surface, assessing the fundamental value of such observations, and some supplemental medico-biological research. Backup crew: Demin, Sarafanov.Support crew: Rozhdestvensky, Volynov, Zholobov, Zudov. More...
  • Soyuz 15 Crew: Demin, Sarafanov. Second phase of manned operations aboard the Salyut 3 military space station, aborted when the Igla rendezvous system electronics failed and no docking was made. Backup crew: Volynov, Zholobov.Support crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov. More...
  • Soyuz 16 Crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov. ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz systems modified for Apollo-Soyuz docking in space. Backup crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov.Support crew: Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. More...
  • Soyuz 17 Crew: Grechko, Gubarev. First successful Russian civilian space station mission. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov.Support crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. More...
  • Soyuz 18-1 Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. First manned spaceflight abort. During launch third stage separation failed to occur. Crew aborted to 20 G landing in mountains near Chinese border, sliding down a slope towards a cliff until their parachute snagged on a tree. Backup crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. More...
  • Soyuz 18 Crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Backup crew: Kovalyonok, Ponomaryov. More...
  • Soyuz 19 (ASTP) Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. First docking between two spacecraft launched from different nations. Culmination of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, a post-moon race 'goodwill' flight to test a US/Soviet common docking system. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov.Support crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov, Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. More...
  • Soyuz 21 Crew: Volynov, Zholobov. Military space station mission. Hand-docked with the Salyut 5 station after failure of automated Igla system. Crew member became psychotic and mission was returned to earth from space station early. Toxic gases in station were suspected. Backup crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov.Support crew: Berezovoi, Glazkov, Gorbatko, Lisun. More...
  • Soyuz 22 Crew: Aksyonov, Bykovsky. Surplus Soyuz ASTP spacecraft modified with a multi-spectral camera manufactured by Carl Zeiss-Jena in place of the universal docking apparatus. Eight days were spent photographing the earth. Backup crew: Malyshev, Strekalov.Support crew: Andreyev, Popov. More...
  • Soyuz 23 Crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov. Docking with Salyut 5 military station aborted due to electronics failure. Crew nearly froze to death after an emergency landing in a lake in a blizzard at -20 deg C. It took hours before the capsule could be dragged to shore. Backup crew: Glazkov, Gorbatko.Support crew: Berezovoi, Lisun. More...
  • Soyuz 24 Crew: Glazkov, Gorbatko. First complete change of cabin atmosphere for a space station. Special apparatus brought up to Salyut 5 to vent the entire station through the EVA airlock. However analysis after arrival showed no toxins in the air. Backup crew: Berezovoi, Lisun.Support crew: Kozelsky, Preobrazhensky. More...
  • Soyuz 25 Crew: Kovalyonok, Ryumin. Manned two crew. Unsuccessful mission. Failed to dock with Salyut 6 due to damage to spacecraft's docking mechanism. Backup crew: Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. More...
  • Soyuz T-8 Crew: Serebrov, Strekalov, Titov Vladimir. Manned three crew. Unsuccessful mission. Igla approach system antenna was damaged during ascent; failed to rendezvous with Salyut 7. Further attempts toman Salyut 7 could not take place for two months because of launch and abort lighting constraints. Backup crew: Aleksandrov, Lyakhov, Savinykh. More...
  • Soyuz T-10-1 Crew: Strekalov, Titov Vladimir. First manned pad abort. Launch vehicle blew up on pad, crew rescued by launch escape tower, which pulled their capsule away at 20 G's. Backup crew: Kizim, Solovyov Vladimir. More...
  • Soyuz TM-3 Crew: Aleksandrov. Aleksandrov replaced the ailing EO-2 crew member Laveykin and remained aboard Mir with Romanenko. Backup crew: Savinykh. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-7 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The world's first ICBM and first orbital launch vehicle. The 8K71 version was never actually put into military service, being succeeded by the R-7A 8K74. More...
  • Sputnik 8K71PS Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Relatively unmodified R-7 ICBM test vehicles used to launch first two Sputniks. More...
  • Sputnik 8A91 Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Modified R-7 ICBM used to launch Sputnik 3. More...
  • Luna 8K72 Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-7 ICBM with single-engine upper stage used for early Soviet unmanned lunar shots. More...
  • R-7A Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-7A was an improved version of the R-7 first ICBM, and the one actually deployed to pads in Baikonur and Plesetsk. The missile saw service from 1960 to 1968. Four pads at Plesetsk, and one reserve pad at Baikonur, were operational at the peak of deployment in 1962. These were the Soviet Union's only strategic missile deterrent during the Cuban Missile Crisis. More...
  • Vostok 8K72 Russian orbital launch vehicle. 8K72 Luna launch vehicle, third stage modified with larger forward cylindrical section to accomodate Vostok-sized spacecraft. Used only for launch of first few prototype Vostoks. More...
  • Molniya 8K78 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Four stage derivative of the R-7 ICBM developed on a crash-program basis in 1960 for Soviet lunar and planetary deep space probe missions. The third stage found later use in the Voskhod and Soyuz launchers. By the 1970's mature versions of the launch vehicle were used almost entirely for launch of Molniya communications satellites and Oko missile early warning spacecraft into elliptical, 12-hour earth orbits. More...
  • R-16 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Soviet Union's first practical ICBM, a two stage vehicle using storable propellants. Development began in 1956 and the missile was in service from 1962 to 1974. Peak deployment consisted of 186 launchers, about a third of them in missile silos, the rest in fixed 'soft' installations. More...
  • Vostok 8K72K Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-7 ICBM with single-engine third stage, uprated from Luna launch vehicle and with forward fairing to accomodate Vostok/Zenit sized spacecraft. 8K72K, used for Vostok manned spacecraft launches and the first Zenit launch attempt. More...
  • Romashka Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Pad-launched version. More...
  • R-16U Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Standardised version of R-16, for either pad or silo launch. More...
  • Vostok 8A92 Russian orbital launch vehicle. The 8A92 was a modernized version of the Vostok booster used for launch of Zenit-2 reconnaisance satellites. More...
  • Desna Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Silo-launched version, silo hardened to 15-30 atmospheres overpressure. More...
  • R-36 8K67 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial ICBM version. More...
  • Sputnik 11A59 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage version of Vostok 11A57. Used for flight test of prototype Chelomei ASAT after cancellation of UR-200 booster and before availability of Tsiklon. More...
  • UR-200 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Universal rocket designed by Chelomei to cover the ICBM, FOBS, satellite launch vehicle, and spaceplane booster roles. Flight tested in 1963-1964 but cancelled in favour of Yangel's R-36. More...
  • Voskhod 11A57 Russian orbital launch vehicle. The 11A57 took the large third stage originally developed for the 8K78 interplanetary probe projects and applied it to increasing R-7 low earth orbit performance. It was primarily designed to launch the Zenit-4 reconnaisance satellite, but was also used for the Voskhod manned flights and later for a variety of other Zenit series versions. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload. More...
  • N1 1969 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed. More...
  • Kosmos 65S3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Prototype of light satellite launcher using as a first stage the Yangel R-14 (8K65) IRBM. The protoype system was launched eight times before production was handed over to the Krasnoryarsk Machine Factory. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Second generation space systems required injection of lighter but higher-altitude Meteor and other satellite payloads into sun-synchronous orbits. The 8A92M version was developed for this purpose. First use was the Meteor launch on 29 June 1977. More...
  • UR-100 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100 lightweight ICBM was the Soviet answer to the US Minuteman and was deployed in larger numbers than any other in history. It remained an enigma outside of intelligence circles in the West until after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It allowed the Soviet Union to match, and then surpass the United States in strategic deterrent capability. As such it was Vladimir Chelomei's crowning legacy to his country. More...
  • R-36-O Ukrainian orbital missile. The R-36-O was the only orbiting military nuclear weapon ever deployed, although in order to remain legal under international treaties it was a 'fractional orbital' weapon. Although American infrared early warning satellites invalidated the 'surprise attack' component of the concept, 18 missiles were operational from 1969 to 1983. More...
  • UR-500 Russian orbital launch vehicle. The original UR-500 two stage configuration was designed as a monster ICBM. It was flown four times from 1965, but never deployed as an operational missile. The design was succeeded by three and four stage versions for launching of large payloads into space. More...
  • Vostok 11A510 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of R-7 launch vehicle with Vostok second stage and unknown third stage used only twice to launch prototype RORSATs. These satellites were originally to have been launched on the cancelled UR-200 launcher, and operational satellites used Tsyklon-2 launchers. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Initial serial production version was the Kosmos-3, built at the Krasnoryarsk Machine Factory. Flew only four times, with two failures, before being succeeded by the modernized production version under the responsibility of NPO Polyot. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standardized launch vehicle designed to replace a proliferation of earlier models (8K72, 8A91, 8K74, 8K78, 11A57). Designed initially to support launch of the Soyuz complex (7K manned, 9K rocket stage, and 11k tanker) and Zenit-4 reconnaisance satellite. Later 'U' model extended to cover a range of follow-on satellites. Compared to 11A57, the telemetry system was reduced in mass to no more than 150 kg, and engines were cherry-picked for the vehicle core to ensure that specific impulse was no less than 252 seconds at sea level, 315 in vacuum. More...
  • Proton-K/D Russian orbital launch vehicle. This four stage version of the Proton was originally designed to send manned circumlunar spacecraft into translunar trajectory. Guidance to the Block D stage must be supplied by spacecraft. The design was proposed on 8 September 1965 by Korolev as an alternate to Chelomei's LK-1 circumlunar mission. It combined the Proton 8K82K booster for the LK-1 with the N1 lunar Block D stage to boost a stripped-down Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft around the moon. The Korolev design was selected, and first flight came on 10 March 1967. The crash lunar program led to a poor launch record. Following a protracted ten year test period, the booster finally reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles. More...
  • Tsiklon-2A Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Minimal modification of the R-36 ICBM used in replacement of Chelomei's cancelled UR-200 booster for initial launches of the IS ASAT and US naval radarsat. Development was authorized in late 1965 and first launch was made before the end of 1967. It flew only eight times before being replaced by the definitive Tsyklon-2 space launch vehicle. More...
  • R-36 8K67P Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36P was a version of the R-36 which could deploy three separate (but not independently-targeted) warheads instead of one. The concept was to ensure a wider zone of destruction and overpressure then a single warhead detonation would create. More...
  • Proton-K Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles. More...
  • UR-100K Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100K was a version of the 8K84M with further improvements in accuracy and capable of delivering three separate (but not independently targeted) re-entry vehicles. More...
  • Tsiklon-2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. A government decree of 24 August 1965 ordered development by Yangel of a version of his R-36 rocket to orbit Chelomei's IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT and US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) naval intelligence satellites. The Tyklon 2 definitive operational version replaced the 11K67 launch vehicle from 1969 and was an adaptation of the 8K69 (SS-9) two stage ICBM. The IS and US Raketoplan-derived payloads had their own engines for insertion into final orbit. More...
  • UR-100M Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The 8K84M was an improved version of the UR-100 with an improved empty mass fraction, a new guidance system, countermeasures capability, and post-boost manoeuvrability to defeat enemy anti-ballistic missile systems. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511L Russian orbital launch vehicle. 11A511 with reinforced second stage, large fairing for earth orbit test of LK lunar lander. More...
  • UR-100U Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100U was a development of the UR-100K with improved shock isolation in the silo. More...
  • R-36M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. More...
  • MR-UR-100 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Yangel MR-UR-100 was designed as a replacement for Chelomei's UR-100 at the end of its 10 year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Chelomei, the UR-100N, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other. More...
  • UR-100N Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100N was designed as a replacement for the UR-100 at the end of its ten year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Yangel, the MR-UR-100, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...
  • Proton-K/DM Russian orbital launch vehicle. The original four stage Proton / Block D configuration was used until 1976, at which time it was replaced by a modernised version equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in geosynchronous orbit and its own self-contained guidance unit. This was accepted into military service in 1978 with the first Raduga launch. The stage was first developed for launch of gesynchronous military communications and early warning satellites (Raduga, Ekran, Gorizont, Potok, SPRN). Its later versions continue in use for launch of MEO and geosynchronous comsats, and was Russia's most successful commercial launcher. More...
  • Proton-K/D-1 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This derivative of the original four stage Block D / 11S824 version of the Proton was used from 1978 to launch Lavochkin OKB planetary probes (Mars, Venera) and high earth orbit astronomical observatories (Astron, Granat). Guidance to the Block D-1 stage must be supplied by spacecraft. Equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in high orbits or planetary trajectories. More...
  • UR-100NU Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Development of an improved version of the UR-100N was authorised on 16 April 1976 (UR-100NU; U = UTTKh = 'Improved Technical-Tactical Characteristics). Viktor Bugaisk at TsKBM headed the engineering team. The UR-100NU was to have a new warhead dispenser bus and improved guidance system by Vladimir Sergeyev of NII-692. The new system allowed up to six pre-programmed targets to be entered, any one of which could be selected at launch. This allowed deployment of better countermeasures and a considerable improvement in accuracy. More...
  • MR-UR-100U 15A16 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the MR-UR-100U loaded into the super-hardened 15P715U universal silo, with a modernised guidance system with better reliability and accuracy. More...
  • R-36MU 15A18 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the R-36M with a new ten warhead MIRV bus, better guidance system, increased throw-weight, and increased range. More...
  • Perimetr 15A11 Ukrainian strategic communications missile. Perimetr was developed for launch of a highly secret communications payload. This would be be put in orbit or on a long high-altitude trajectory to provide back-up command and control of the strategic forces in the event of nuclear war. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This improved four stage version uses the Block DM-2 / 11S861 fourth stage, which has its own guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Replaced the original Block DM / 11S86 version from 1982 to 1995. Used for launch of Glonass navigation satellites into medium earth orbit; and launch of Luch, Ekran-M, Potok, Raduga, Gorizont, Raduga-1, Elektro, and Gals communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Commercial version with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for Western payloads was dubbed 'Block DM1'. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Soyuz 11A511U2 used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') in first stage for launch of premium reconnaisance satellite and manned payloads requiring just a bit more payload than the standard 11A511 could offer. Further use of the 11A511U2 abandoned in 1996 due to Sintin production stoppage. Later Soyuz spacecraft launched on standard Soyuz, with reduced payload and rendezvous with Mir in lower orbit accepted. More...
  • Zenit-2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version that continued to be used for launch of Russian military satellites tailored to it after the fall of the Soviet Union. More...
  • R-36M2 15A18M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M2 was the Soviet Union's answer to the American 'Star Wars' anti-ballistic missile system. It was unusually named 'Voevoda' (an old Russian word for the leader of an army) in recognition of its planned role. In the end, it was only deployed in very limited numbers before the end of the Cold War. More...
  • Energia The Energia-Buran Reusable Space System (MKS) began development in 1976 as a Soviet booster that would exceed the capabilities of the US shuttle system. Following extended development, Energia made two successful flights in 1987-1988. But the Soviet Union was crumbling, and the ambitious plans to build an orbiting defense shield, to renew the ozone layer, dispose of nuclear waste, illuminate polar cities, colonize the moon and Mars, were not to be. Funding dried up and the Energia-Buran program completely disappeared from the government's budget after 1993. More...
  • Proton-K/D-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This four stage version of the Proton was a modification of the original Block D / 11S824M for launch of late 1980's Lavochkin OKB probes on missions to Mars. Guidance to the Block D-2 stage must be supplied by spacecraft. More...
  • Energia/Buran Design version of Energia, with the reusable Buran manned spaceplane mounted to the side of the core. More...
  • Rokot Russian all-solid orbital launch vehicle, consisting of decommissioned UR-100N ICBMs with a Briz-KM upper stage. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2M This four stage version uses the Block DM-2M / 11S861-01 upper stage, which has its own self-contained guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Used for launches of Russian geosynchronous satellites from 1994 on. More...
  • Proton-K/17S40 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Proton using Block DM-5 / 17S40 fourth stage. This stage has a new payload adapter for use with heavier paylods launched into sub-synchronous orbits. Used for launch of Arkon reconnaisance satellite. More...
  • Zenit-2 11K77.05 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version with a dispenser for multiple Globalstar communications satellite launches. More...
  • Dnepr Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle based on decommissioned R-36M2 intercontinental ballistic missiles. More...
  • Proton/Briz K/M Earlier 8K82K model Proton, but Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaced the Block D cyrogenic stage. More...
  • Proton/Briz M Improved Proton orbital launch vehicle. Improvements in lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants (reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas). Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cyrogenic stage. More...
  • Soyuz FG Uprated Soyuz booster designed for high performance Russian government missions and delivery of Soyuz and Progress spacecraft to the International Space Station. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Unknown differences to Soyuz ST. More...
  • Soyuz-U Russian orbital launch vehicle. Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511U. More...
  • Strela Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Launch vehicle by NPO MASH based on UR-100N's decommissioned from Ukrainian missile fields. 106 tonne liftoff mass. More...
  • Soyuz ST Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern digital avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Can be used with either Ikar or Fregat upper stages. The 'FG' was the military version. More...
  • Zenit-2SLB Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version of the Zenit-3SL booster developed for the Sea Launch program, modified for launch from ground facilities at Baikonur. Uses the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with no upper stage. More...
  • Proton-M/DM-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Proton-M stages, mated to the older 11S861 upper stage for certain payloads. More...
  • Zenit-3SLB Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Zenit-3SL modified for launch from existing ground facilities at Baikonur, using the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with an upper stage Block DM-SLB designed by RSC Energia (Russia) and a new payload fairing designed by NPO Lavochkin (Russia). More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2M DM3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 11S861-01 with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for insertion of Hughes HS-601 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. More...
  • Soyuz ST / Fregat ST Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Uses Fregat upper stage. More...
  • N1 The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • RVSN Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Raketniye Voiska Stratigcheskovo Naznacheniya (Russian Strategic Rocket Forces), Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Almaz The only manned military space station to have ever flown, it served only to prove that manned stations provided no cost-effective substitute to unmanned military satellites. Derivatives of the design continue in service into the 21st Century as modules of the Salyut, Mir, and International Space Stations. More...
  • Anik Telecommunications satellite system, act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada. The antenna coverage of the satellite provides the capability of serving virtually all of Canada. Operating entity - Telesat Canada. More...
  • Asiasat AsiaSat is a wholly owned subsidiary of Asia Satellite Telecommunications Holdings Ltd., a company listed on both the Hong Kong (SEHK: 1135HK) and New York (NYSE: SAT) stock exchanges. AsiaSat's two major shareholders are China International Trust and Investment Corporation (CITIC) and Société Européene des Satellites (SES), the operator of EuropeÌs premier ASTRA satellite system. More...
  • ASTP Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Meetings began in 1969 between Russian and American representatives on a joint manned space mission. Ambitious plans for use of Skylab or Salyut space stations were not approved. Instead it was decided to develop a universal docking system for space rescue. A working group was set up in October 1970 and in May 1972 the USA/USSR Agreement was signed with launch to take place in 1975. D Bushuev and G Lanin were the technical directors of the Soviet-designed EPAS docking system program. 1600 experiments were conducted in developing the system. More...
  • Buran The Energia-Buran Reusable Space System (MKS) had its origins in NPO Energia studies of 1974 to 1975 for a 'Space Rocket Complex Program'. More...
  • DirecTV DirecTV Incorporated began broadcast of satellite-to-home direct television services in mid-1994. Originally a subsidiary of Hughes Communications, the company faced as competitors the similar Primestar and USSB services, as well as older C-band satellite services and cable TV companies. By 2007 it had become the most successful American direct-broadcast television service. More...
  • Elektron Simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and upper atmosphere by two spacecraft in different orbits. More...
  • EORSAT Naval forces monitoring. Determines position of enemy naval forces through detection and triangulation of their electromagnetic emissions (radio, radar, etc) More...
  • Eutelsat EUTELSAT regional geostationary telecommunication satellite for European countries. Operated by the EUTELSAT organization. More...
  • Fasat Test satellite built by Surrey Satellite for the Chilean Air Force. More...
  • Intelsat Intelsat operated the world's first commercial communications satellite. It has provided the scheduled transoceanic television and voice and data communications service ever since. More...
  • Intercosmos International cooperative satellites with a variety of missions, launched by Soviet boosters. More...
  • Iridium The Iridium system is a commercial communications network comprised of a constellation of 66 LEO spacecraft. The system uses L-Band to provide global communications services through portable handsets. More...
  • ISS Finally completed in 2010 after a torturous 25-year development and production process, the International Space Station was originally conceived as the staging post for manned exploration of the solar systrem. Instead, it was seemed to be the death knell of manned spaceflight. More...
  • Lunar L3 The Soviet program to land a man on the moon and return him safely to earth. More...
  • Luna Soviet lunar probe series. Lunas were the first manmade objects to attain of escape velocity; to impact on the moon; to photograph the far side of the moon; to soft land on the moon; to retrieve and return lunar surface samples to the earth; and to deploy a lunar rover on the moon's surface. More...
  • Lunar L1 The Soviet program to put a man on a circumlunar flight around the moon. More...
  • Mars Soviet Mars probes were intended to photograph Mars on flyby trajectories, followed by Mars orbit, landing, and Phobos reconnaisance missions. Essentially all of the series failed. More...
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...
  • Orlets Sixth-generation reconnaisance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft is deorbited. More...
  • Oscar Amateur radio satellite network. For over a third of a century a series of OSCAR satellites have been launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • Panamsat Pan American Satellite, in Greenwich, Connecticut, USA, was founded in 1984 as part of Alpha Lyracom. It orbited a series of communications satellites providing television broadcast to the US and Latin American markets. In 1996 it merged with Hughes Galaxy. More...
  • Proton Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic particles. More...
  • Resurs Zenit-derived satellites used for earth resources studies as part of the 'Resurs' and 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. More...
  • RORSAT Soviet military nuclear-reactor powered radar naval reconnaissance satellite network. More...
  • Salyut 6 Mishin was authorised in December 1973 to build an improved design DOS-5 version of the Salyut station using Almaz facilities. Mishin's bureau borrowed the two docking port configuration of Chelomei's Almaz OPS-2 This station's second docking port would allow rotation of crews and resupply/refueling using unmanned Progress spacecraft. More...
  • Salyut 7 Due to cancellation of the Almaz military station, and delays in the Mir project, the decision was taken in the late 1970's to fly the back-up to DOS-5 / Salyut 6. This was launched as Salyut 7 in 1982. The opportunity was still taken to fly 'guest cosmonauts' from friendly countries on short visits to the stations, although emphasis was placed on military experiments. Salyut 7 was able to conduct significant military experiments thanks to the greatly increased volume and payload of the TKS modules diverted from the Almaz programme that docked with the station. More...
  • Salyut The world's first space station, developed in one year by the Soviet Union on the basis of Chelomei's Almaz station, in an attempt to upstage the American Skylab after the loss of the moon landing race to the Americans. More...
  • Soyuz The Soyuz spacecraft was designed in 1962 for rendezvous and docking operations in near earth orbit, leading to piloted circumlunar flight. Versions remained in production into the 21st Century as a space station ferry, resupply craft, and lifeboat. After the retirement of the American space shuttle in 2011, it became the only means for regular human access to space. More...
  • Strela Military store-dump communications satellite network. The commercial version of GRU Strela-3 military store-dump satellite are designated Gonets-D1. They were to be deployed in a constellation of 12 satellites (2 planes of 6) between 1996 and 1998. Each satellite has a single simultaneous earth-space and space-earth channel. On-board storage is 12 Mbits of data, with a transmission rate of 2.4 kbit/sec. Two preproduction test spacecraft of slightly different configuration called 'Gonets-D' were flown. More...
  • Telstar Network of communications satellites, operated by AT&T Skynet, later Loral Skynet, Bedminster. More...
  • TMSAT Uosat Microbus-class payload built by Surrey Satellite for the Thai Microsatellite Company of Bangkok. Conducted a dual Earth observation and data communications mission. More...
  • Venera Russian series of spacecraft that explored the planet Venus. Venera spacecraft made the first soft landings on the surface of Venus and returned the first images from the surface. More...
  • Voskhod The Voskhods were adaptations of the single place Vostok spacecraft meant to conduct flights with up to three crew and for space walks in advance of US Gemini program. Work on the 3KV and 3KD versions of the basic Vostok spacecraft began with the decree issued on 13 April 1964. In order to accommodate more than one crew, the seats were mounted perpendicular to the Vostok ejection seat position, so the crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. The Elburs soft landing system replaced the ejection seat and allowed the crew to stay in the capsule. It consisted of probes that dangled from the parachute lines. Contact with the earth triggered a solid rocket engine in the parachute which resulted in a zero velocity landing. More...
  • Vostok World's first manned spacecraft, it was later developed into the Voskhod, and numerous versions of Zenit recoverable reconnaisance, materials, and biological research satellites which remained in service into the 21st Century. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..

Associated Launch Sites

Baikonur Chronology


1954 May 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Go-ahead for R-7 ICBM by designers council - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Chief designers approval to proceed with development of R-7..

1955 January 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Tyuratam selected for ICBM test range. - . Nation: USSR. Council of Ministers selects Tyuratam for ICBM test site. The first 30 construction workers arrive at Tyuratam. The town founded at the rail staion is called Zarya (Dawn). The name will be changed to Leninsk in January 1958, but Zarya will remain the call sign of Soviet ground control.

1955 April - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Housing/road constructions starts at Tyuratam - . Nation: USSR.

1955 June 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • First surveyors arrive at Tyuratam. - . Nation: USSR.

1955 August - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • LC 1 launch pad excavation starts - . Nation: USSR.

1956 April 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • First concrete poured at pad A at Tyuratam - . Nation: USSR.

1956 August - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • First ground equipment installed at Tyuratam - . Nation: USSR.

1957 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Checkout of first R-7 starts - . Nation: USSR.

1957 May 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • 1st R-7 rolled out to pad - . Nation: USSR.

1957 May 15 - . 16:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 5L. FAILURE: Failure of Block D strap on, which tore away from the core 98 seconds after liftoff. The booster crashed 400 km from the pad. A fuel leak in the pump outlet led to a fire in the engine compartment from the time of liftoff.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • M1-5 (I-1) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: R-7 test flight. (M1-5 (I-1)).

1957 June 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 8K71 M1-6.
  • R-7 launch attempt - . Nation: USSR. Summary: After third attempt in three days to launch R-7 8K71 M1-6, the rocket is pulled from the pad. It is found that a nitrogen scavenging valve was installed backwards..

1957 July 12 - . 12:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 7. FAILURE: Failure of the control system due to a short circuit of the battery. Rapid roll developed, resulting in all four strap-on boosters flying away from the core at 33 seconds in the flight.. Failed Stage: G.
  • M1-7 (I-2) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi). Summary: R-7 test flight. (M1-7 (I-2)).

1957 August 21 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 8.
  • M1-9 (I-3) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: First successful ICBM flight. Problems with the curing of the nose cone material, known before launch, led to the dummy warhead disintegrating over the Kamchatka Peninsula..

1957 August 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • R-7 ICBM announced publicly. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Soviet Union announces successful launch of a "super longdistance intercontinental multistage ballistic rocket ...a few days ago," according to Tass Soviet News Agency..

1957 September 7 - . 11:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 9.
  • M1-10 (I-4) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Second successful ICBM flight..

1957 October 4 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8K71PS. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8K71PS No. 1PS.
  • Sputnik 1 - . Payload: PS. Mass: 84 kg (185 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 1. Decay Date: 1958-01-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 2 . COSPAR: 1957-Alpha-2. Apogee: 945 km (587 mi). Perigee: 227 km (141 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 96.10 min. First artificial satellite; transmitted signals for 21 days. Launching of first ever artificial satellite of the Earth; physical study of the atmosphere; remained in orbit until January 4, 1958. This event began the space race by galvanizing interest and action on the part of the American public to support an active role in space research, technology, and exploration.

1957 November 3 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8K71PS. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8K71PS No. 2PS.
  • Sputnik 2 - . Payload: PS-2. Mass: 508 kg (1,119 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 2. Decay Date: 1958-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 3 . COSPAR: 1957-Beta-1. Apogee: 1,660 km (1,030 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 103.70 min. Carried dog Laika. Study of the physical processes and conditions of life in outer space. After the surprise public impact of Sputnik 1, the satellite and launch teams were called back from vacation and in one month assembled the satellite (using equipment already developed for dog sounding rocket flights). After the launch, Soviet space officials said that the spacecraft would not return and that the dog had enough food and oxygen to live for up to 10 days. Only 45 years later was it revealed that Laika overheated, panicked and died within 5 to 7 hours of launch. What turned out to be the first space crypt remained in orbit a total of 162 days, then burned up in the atmosphere on April 14, 1958.

1958 January 29 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 11. FAILURE: The missile exploded a few seconds after liftoff.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • M1-12 (I-5) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Last test of the original R-7 8K71 test series. Suborbital launch test..

1958 March 29 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 10.
  • M1-6A (I-6) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 test flight. (M1-6A (I-6)).

1958 April 4 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 12.
  • B1-11 (I-7) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 test flight. (B1-11 (I-7)).

1958 April 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8A91. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8A91 B1-2. FAILURE: Launch vehicle disintegrated 88 seconds after liftoff.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Sputnik failure - . Payload: D-1 s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 3. Decay Date: 1958-04-01 . COSPAR: F580427A.

1958 May 15 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8A91. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8A91 B1-1.
  • Sputnik 3 - . Payload: D-1 s/n 2. Mass: 1,327 kg (2,925 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 3. Decay Date: 1960-04-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 8 . COSPAR: 1958-Delta-2. Apogee: 1,864 km (1,158 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 106.00 min. Summary: Variety of scientific data. Research in the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1958 May 24 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • B1-3 (II-1) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 test flight. (B1-3 (II-1)).

1958 July 10 - . 07:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7-71/III No. 6. FAILURE: Failure.
  • B1-14 (II-5)/Blok E test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1958 August 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Luna 8K72 B1-3.
  • Luna launch delayed. - . Nation: USSR. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Planned August launch rescheduled after failure of American lunar probe on August 17. Inability to complete final tests of the new engines and malfunctions during pre-launch preparations indicated a lot of work had to be done on the new launch vehicle before the first launch could be attempted.

1958 September 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 B1-3. FAILURE: Launcher disintegrated 93 seconds after launch due to longitudinal resonance of strap-ons.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Luna failure - booster disintegrated at T+92 seconds - . Payload: E-1 s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glushko; Korolev. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-1. COSPAR: F580923A. Summary: This was the start of an acrimonious debated between Glushko and Korolev design bureaux over the fault and fix for the problem..

1958 October 11 - . 08:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 B1-4. FAILURE: Launcher disintegrated 104 seconds after launch due to longitudinal resonance of strap-ons.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Luna failure - booster disintegrated at T+104 seconds - . Payload: E-1 s/n 2. Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-1. COSPAR: F581011A.

1958 December 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 B1-5. FAILURE: Core engines shut off at 245 seconds into the flight. Cause was a loss of lubrication to the hydrogen peroxide pump.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Luna failure - booster core shut down at T+245 seconds - . Payload: E-1 s/n 3. Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-1. COSPAR: F581204A.

1958 December 24 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 B3-16.
  • III-1 - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1958 December 24 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. FAILURE: Failure.
  • III-1 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1959 January 2 - . 16:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 B1-6. FAILURE: Failure of the launch vehicle control system.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Luna 1 - . Payload: E-1 s/n 4. Mass: 361 kg (795 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-1. USAF Sat Cat: 112 . COSPAR: 1959-Mu-1. Lunar probe; passed within 5,995 km of moon but did not hit it as planned due to a failure of the launch vehicle control system. Went into solar orbit. First manmade object to attain of escape velocity. Also known as Mechta ("Dream"), popularly called Lunik I. Because of its high velocity and its announced package of various metallic emblems with the Soviet coat of arms, it was concluded that Luna 1 was intended to impact the Moon. After reaching escape velocity, Luna 1 separated from its 1472 kg third stage. The third stage, 5.2 m long and 2.4 m in diameter, travelled along with Luna 1. On 3 January, at a distance of 113,000 km from Earth, a large (1 kg) cloud of sodium gas was released by the spacecraft. This glowing orange trail of gas, visible over the Indian Ocean with the brightness of a sixth-magnitude star, allowed astronomers to track the spacecraft. It also served as an experiment on the behavior of gas in outer space. Luna 1 passed within 5,995 km of the Moon's surface on 4 January after 34 hours of flight. It went into orbit around the Sun, between the orbits of Earth and Mars. The measurements obtained during this mission provided new data on the Earth's radiation belt and outer space, including the discovery that the Moon had no magnetic field and that a solar wind, a strong flow of ionized plasma emmanating from the Sun, streamed through interplanetary space.

1959 March 17 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 041081.
  • GCh No. 13 (III-2) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: First test flight serial production model..

1959 March 25 - . 05:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. IZ-18.
  • GCh No. 15 (III-3) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 development test flight. (GCh No. 15 (III-3)).

1959 March 30 - . 22:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. IZ-20. FAILURE: Failure.
  • GCh No. IZ-20 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1959 May 9 - . 18:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. IZ-21. FAILURE: Failure.
  • GCh No. 17 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: R-7 development test flight. (GCh No. 17 (III)).

1959 May 30 - . 21:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. IZ-22. FAILURE: Failure.
  • GCh No. IZ-22 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Landed far from aim point..

1959 June 9 - . 20:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. FAILURE: Failure.
  • GCh No. IZ-23 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Landed far from aim point..

1959 June 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 I1-7. FAILURE: Inertial system failed at 153 seconds after launch. Vehicle destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Luna failure - inertial system failed at T+153 seconds - . Payload: E-1A s/n 5. Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-1A. COSPAR: F590618A.

1959 July 18 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 24.
  • GCh No. IZ-24 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 development test flight. (GCh No. IZ-24 (III)).

1959 July 30 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 041082.
  • GCh (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: First successful flight of series production model..

1959 August 13 - . 23:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • GCh No. IZ-25 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1959 September 12 - . 06:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 I1-7B.
  • Luna 2 - . Payload: E-1A s/n 6. Mass: 387 kg (853 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-1A. Decay Date: 1959-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 114 . COSPAR: 1959-Xi-1. First probe to impact lunar surface. Delivered a pennant to the surface of the Moon and conducted research during flight to the Moon. Impacted Moon 13 Sep 1959 at 22:02:04 UT, Latitude 29.10 N, Longitude 0.00 - Palus Putredinis, east of Mare Serenitatis near the Aristides, Archimedes, and Autolycus craters. After launch and attainment of escape velocity, Luna 2 separated from its third stage, which travelled along with it towards the Moon. On 13 September the spacecraft released a bright orange cloud of sodium gas which aided in spacecraft tracking and acted as an experiment on the behavior of gas in space. On 14 September, after 33.5 hours of flight, radio signals from Luna 2 abruptly ceased, indicating it had impacted on the Moon. Some 30 minutes after Luna 2, the third stage of its rocket also impacted the Moon. The mission confirmed that the Moon had no appreciable magnetic field, and found no evidence of radiation belts at the Moon.

1959 September 18 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 I1-1T.
  • Phase 3 test flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 development test flight..

1959 October 4 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 I1-8.
  • Luna 3 - . Payload: E-2A s/n 1. Mass: 279 kg (615 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-3. Decay Date: 1960-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 21 . COSPAR: 1959-Theta-1. Apogee: 499,998 km (310,683 mi). Perigee: 500 km (310 mi). Inclination: 55.0000 deg. Period: 21,563.20 min. Luna 3 was the third spacecraft successfully launched to the Moon and the first to return images of the lunar far side. It was launched on a figure-eight trajectory which brought it over the Moon (closest approach to the Moon was 6200 km) and around the far side, which was sunlit at the time. It was stabilized while in optical view of the far side of the Moon. On October 7, 1959, the television system obtained a series of 29 photographs over 40 minutes, covering 70% of the surface, that were developed on-board the spacecraft. The photographs were scanned and 17 were radio transmitted to ground stations in facsimile form on October 18, 1959, as the spacecraft, in a barycentric orbit, returned near the Earth. The photographs were to be retransmitted at another point close to Earth but were not received. The spacecraft returned very indistinct pictures, but, through computer enhancement, a tentative atlas of the lunar farside was produced. These first views of the lunar far side showed mountainous terrain, very different from the near side, and two dark regions which were named Mare Moscovrae (Sea of Moscow) and Mare Desiderii (Sea of Dreams).

1959 October 22 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 267432.
  • Phase 3 test flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1959 October 25 - . 17:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 267434.
  • Phase 3 test flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1959 November 1 - . 21:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 267431.
  • Phase 3 test flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Flight over full missile design range..

1959 November 20 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 I2-1T.
  • Phase 3 test flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Flight over full missile design range..

1959 November 27 - . 01:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 267433.
  • GCh No. IZ-33 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Sixteenth and last launch of the third production batch..

1959 December 23 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A I1-1.
  • R-7A I-1 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1960 January 20 - . 16:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A I1-2.
  • R-7A I-2/Dummy L test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Suborbital aerodynamic test flight with R-7A 8K74 lower stages, dummy upper stages..

1960 January 24 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A I1-3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • R-7A I-3 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1960 January 31 - . 16:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A I1-4.
  • R-7A I-4/Dummy L test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Suborbital aerodynamic test flight with R-7A 8K74 lower stages, dummy upper stages..

1960 March 17 - . 23:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A L1-5.
  • R-7A I-4 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1960 March 24 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • R-7A I-5 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1960 April 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 L1-9. FAILURE: The third stage RO-5 engine either did not reach full thrust or shut down early.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Luna failure - third stage insufficient delta V - . Payload: E-3 s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-3. Decay Date: 1960-04-15 . COSPAR: F600415A. Summary: Reached an altitude of 200,000 km before plunging back to earth..

1960 April 16 - . 16:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 L1-9A. FAILURE: Strap-on B reached only 75 percent of thrust at ignition. Four tenths of a second after liftoff it broke away from the core.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Luna failure at lift-off - . Payload: E-3 s/n 2. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-3. Decay Date: 1960-04-16 . COSPAR: F600419A. Summary: This dramatic failure resulted in a loss of thrust, and the lateral strap-on units separated and flew over the tracking stations and living areas. The core continued on its trajectory..

1960 May 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72 L1-11.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 1 - . Payload: Vostok 1KP. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1,979.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 34 . COSPAR: 1960-Epsilon-1. Apogee: 514 km (319 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. The Soviet Union launched a Vostok 1KP prototype manned spacecraft (without heat shield; not recoverable) into near-earth orbit. Called Sputnik IV by the Western press. On May 19, at 15:52 Moscow time, the spacecraft was commanded to retrofire. However the guidance system had oriented the spacecraft incorrectly and the TDU engine instead put the spacecraft into a higher orbit. Soviet scientists said that conditions in the cabin, which had separated from the remainder of the spacecraft, were normal.
    Officially: Development and checking of the main systems of the space ship satellite, which ensure its safe flight and control in flight, return to Earth and conditions needed for a man in flight.

1960 June 4 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 L1-9.
  • UBP (Readiness) operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 readiness verification test..

1960 July 5 - . 15:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • R-7A I-6 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1960 July 7 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • R-7A I-7 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1960 July 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72 L1-10. FAILURE: At ignition one of the combustion chambers in strap on Block B or G burned through. The strap on separated from the core at 17 seconds into the flight and the launch vehicle exploded at 28.5 seconds.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Korabl-Sputnik - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Decay Date: 1960-07-23 . COSPAR: F600728A. Summary: First attempted flight of the Vostok 1K manned spacecraft prototype. Dogs Chaika and Lisichka perished in the explosion of the rocket..

1960 August 19 - . 08:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72 L1-12.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 2 - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 2. Mass: 1,440 kg (3,170 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1.09 days. Decay Date: 1960-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 55 . COSPAR: 1960-Lambda-1. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 281 km (174 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. The Soviet Union launched its second unmanned test of the Vostok spacecraft, the Korabl Sputnik II, or Sputnik V. The spacecraft carried two dogs, Strelka and Belka, in addition to a gray rabbit, rats, mice, flies, plants, fungi, microscopic water plants, and seeds. Electrodes attached to the dogs and linked with the spacecraft communications system, which included a television camera, enabled Soviet scientists to check the animals' hearts, blood pressure, breathing, and actions during the trip. After the spacecraft reentered and landed safely the next day, the animals and biological specimens were reported to be in good condition.
    Officially: Development of systems ensuring man's life functions and safety in flight and his return to Earth.

1960 October 10 - . 14:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 L1-4M. FAILURE: At T+300.9 sec, the launcher went out of control and the destruct command was given at T+324.2 sec - the engine of Stage 3 cut off after 13.32 s of burning.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Mars probe 1M s/n 1 failure. - . Payload: 1M s/n 1. Mass: 640 kg (1,410 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 1M. Decay Date: 1960-10-10 . COSPAR: F601010A. This was the Soviet Union's first attempt at a planetary probe. Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. The possible cause lay in resonance vibrations of upper stages during Stage 2 burning, which led to break of contact in the command potentiometer of the gyrohorizon. As a result a pitch control malfunctioned and the launcher began to veer off the desired ascent profile. On exceeding 7 degrees of veering in pitch, the control system failed. The upper stage with the payload reached an altitude of 120 km before burning up on re-entry into the atmosphere above East Siberia.

1960 October 14 - . 13:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 L1-5M. FAILURE: At T+290 sec Stage 3's engine 8D715K failed to ignite because a LOX leak froze kerosene in the fuel inlet to the pump on the launch pad due to a faulty LOX valve seal.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Mars probe 1M s/n 2 failure. - . Payload: 1M s/n 2. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 1M. Decay Date: 1960-10-14 . COSPAR: F601014A. Summary: Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. This was the Soviet Union's second attempt at a planetary probe. The upper stages and payload broke up on re-entry into the atmosphere..

1960 October 24 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 LKI. FAILURE: Exploded on pad, killing nearly 100 people..
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). First attempted launch of R-16 ICBM results in explosion on pad, killing over 100 military, engineers, and technicians, including Strategic Rocket Forces Marshal Nedelin. The first R-16 prototype was fuelled and on the pad, awaiting launch. An electrical problem developed, leading to a hold. Marshal Nedelin, commander of the Strategic Rocket Forces, ordered the engineers and technicians to fix the problem without the long delay of defuelling and refurbishing the missile. He personally had a deck chair brought out to the pad so he could watch the work first-hand. At 18:45 local time a spurious radio signal ordered the second stage of the rocket to fire while workers swarmed around the missile in its gantry. The missile exploded, killing a good part of the Soviet Union's rocket engineering and management talent. Among the dead were Nedelin, Konoptev, Grishin, Nosov, Kontsevsky, and Lev Berlin. 74 people were killed immediately, and 48 died in the ensuing weeks from burns or contact with the toxic and corrosive propellants. The total included 38 civilian engineers and 84 officers and enlisted rocket technicians. Yangel, the rocket's designer, was spared only because he had slipped into a bunker for a cigarette when the explosion occurred.

1960 December 1 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72 L1-13.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 3 - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 3. Mass: 4,563 kg (10,059 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.99 days. Decay Date: 1960-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 65 . COSPAR: 1960-Rho-1. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 123 km (76 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. The Soviet Union launched its third spaceship satellite, Korabl Sputnik III, or Sputnik VI. The spacecraft, similar to those launched on May 15 and August 19, carried the dogs Pcheka and Mushka in addition to other animals, insects, and plants. Deorbited December 2, 1960 7:15 GMT. Burned up on reentry due to steep entry angle (retrofire engine did not shut off on schedule and burned to fuel depletion).
    Officially: Medical and biological research under space flight conditions.
    Officially: Medical and biological research under space flight conditions.

1960 December 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K L1-13A. FAILURE: The third stage engine RO-7 failed just after ignition, 425 seconds in to flight.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Korabl-Sputnik - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 4. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Decay Date: 1960-12-20 . COSPAR: F601222A. Unable to reach orbital velocity, the Vostok prototype separated while the third stage was still firing. While the ejection seat failed to operate, the capsule did make a hard landing in severe winter conditons in Siberia. It was recovered after some time, and the dogs Kometa and Shutka were alive. As a result of this flight the ejection seat was developed with a heat shield designed to protect the pilot in the event of a launch vehicle failure up to shut down of the first stage. Additional Details: here....

1961 January 14 - . 01:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • R-7A II-1 operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Some sources say first launch from LC31 was not until 27 February..

1961 February 2 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 3L-5T. FAILURE: Failure..
  • First successful R-16 launch. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). The missile was supposed to be launched at 18:00, but is then delayed to 24:00 due to technical problems. It is a clear night, illuminated by the moon, and the missile takes off at midnight. The first three minutes of flight are successful, but then the second stage fails to ignite. The missiles impacts 520 km downrange from the launch pad.

1961 February 4 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 L1-7. FAILURE: At T+531 sec, the fourth vernier chamber of Stage 3's 8D715K engine exploded because the LOX cut-off valve had not closed as scheduled and LOX flowed into the hot chamber.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Sputnik 7 - . Payload: 2MV-2 s/n 1. Mass: 6,483 kg (14,292 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Glushko. Agency: RVSN. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 1VA. Decay Date: 1961-02-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 71 . COSPAR: 1961-Beta-1. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. The escape stage entered parking orbit but the main engine cut off just 0.8 s after ignition due to cavitation in the oxidiser pump and pump failure.. The payload attached together with escape stage remained in Earth orbit.

    The booster launched into a beautiful clear sky, and it could be followed by the naked eye for four minutes after launch. The third stage reached earth parking orbit, but the fourth stage didn't ignite. It was at first believed a radio antenna did not deploy from the interior of the stage, and it did not receive the ignition commands. Therefore the Soviet Union has successfully orbited a record eight-tonne 'Big Zero' into orbit. The State Commission meets two hours after the launch, and argues whether to make the launch public or not, and how to announce it. Glushko proposes the following language for a public announcement: 'with the objective of developing larger spacecraft, a payload was successfully orbited which provided on the first revolution the necessary telemetry'. Korolev and the others want to minimize any statement, to prevent speculation that it was a reconnaissance satellite or a failed manned launch. Kamanin's conclusion - the rocket didn't reach Venus, but it did demonstrated a new rocket that could deliver an 8 tonne thermonuclear warhead anywhere on the planet. The commission heads back to Moscow.


1961 February 12 - . 00:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 L1-6B.
  • Venera 1 - . Payload: 1VA s/n 2, Venera 1 (Sputnik 8, AMS). Mass: 644 kg (1,419 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Agency: RVSN. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 1VA. USAF Sat Cat: 80 . COSPAR: 1961-Gamma-1. Venera 1 was the first spacecraft to fly by Venus. The 6424 kg assembly was launched first into a 229 x 282 km parking orbit, then boosted toward Venus by the restartable Molniya upper stage. On 19 February, 7 days after launch, at a distance of about two million km from Earth, contact with the spacecraft was lost. On May 19 and 20, 1961, Venera 1 passed within 100,000 km of Venus and entered a heliocentric orbit. This failure resulted in only the following objectives being met: checking of methods of setting space objects on an interplanetary course; checking of extra-long-range communications with and control of the space station; more accurate calculation of the dimension of the solar system; a number of physical investigations in space. Additional Details: here....

1961 February 13 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A L1-3T.
  • R-7A II-2 operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Some sources say first launch from LC31 was not until 27 February..

1961 February 27 - . 00:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 L2-1.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1961 March 3 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 4L-6T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 March 9 - . 06:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-14.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 4 - . Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 1. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mozzhorin; Yazdovskiy. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0700 days. Decay Date: 1961-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 91 . COSPAR: 1961-Theta-1. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Carried dog Chernushka, mannequin Ivan Ivanovich, and other biological specimens. Ivanovich was ejected from the capsule and recovered by parachute, and Chernsuhka was successfully recovered with the capsule on March 9, 1961 8:10 GMT.
    Officially: Development of the design of the space ship satellite and of the systems on board, which ensure necessary conditions for man's flight. Additional Details: here....

1961 March 25 - . 05:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-15.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 5 - . Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 2. Mass: 4,695 kg (10,350 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Keldysh; Goreglyad; Karpov; Kamanin; Yazdovskiy; Gagarin; Nelyubov; Popovich; Titov; Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Korolev; Kirillov; Voskresenskiy. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1961-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 95 . COSPAR: 1961-Iota-1. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.00 min. Carried dog Zvezdochka and mannequin Ivan Ivanovich. Ivanovich was again ejected from the capsule and recovered by parachute, and Zvezdochka was successfully recovered with the capsule on March 25, 1961 7:40 GMT.
    Officially: Development of the design of the space ship satellite and of the systems on board, designed to ensure man's life functions during flight in outer space and return to Earth. Additional Details: here....

1961 April 2 - . 14:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 5L-7T.
  • First full range R-16 flight. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi). Summary: The R-16 carried a warhead to the impact zone in the Kamchatka Peninsula, only 400 m off target in range, and only 50 m to the right..

1961 April 9 - . 09:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E10308.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi). Summary: The R-9 launch went normally, from the launch pad adjacent to that from which Yuri Gagarin would be launched three days later, in view of the cosmonauts..

1961 April 12 - . 06:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-16.
  • Vostok 1 - . Call Sign: Kedr (Cedar ). Crew: Gagarin. Backup Crew: Titov; Nelyubov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 3. Mass: 4,725 kg (10,416 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Keldysh; Rudnev; Karpov; Moskalenko; Gagarin; Titov; Nelyubov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0750 days. Decay Date: 1961-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 103 . COSPAR: 1961-Mu-1. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. First manned spaceflight, one orbit of the earth. Three press releases were prepared, one for success, two for failures. It was only known ten minutes after burnout, 25 minutes after launch, if a stable orbit had been achieved.

    The payload included life-support equipment and radio and television to relay information on the condition of the pilot. The flight was automated; Gagarin's controls were locked to prevent him from taking control of the ship. The combination to unlock the controls was available in a sealed envelope in case it became necessary to take control in an emergency. After retrofire, the service module remained attached to the Sharik reentry sphere by a wire bundle. The joined craft went through wild gyrations at the beginning of re-entry, before the wires burned through. The Sharik, as it was designed to do, then naturally reached aerodynamic equilibrium with the heat shield positioned correctly.

    Gagarin ejected after re-entry and descended under his own parachute, as was planned. However for many years the Soviet Union denied this, because the flight would not have been recognized for various FAI world records unless the pilot had accompanied his craft to a landing. Recovered April 12, 1961 8:05 GMT. Landed Southwest of Engels Smelovka, Saratov. Additional Details: here....


1961 April 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. FAILURE: Failure..
  • R-7A II-3 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Summary: Failure occurred only two days after Yuri Gagarin's flight..

1961 April 15 - . 13:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 7L-12T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 April 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 6L-11T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 April 21 - . 02:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E10309.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 April 25 - . 02:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E15001-02T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 May 16 - . 19:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 8L-8T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 May 24 - . 03:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 9L-9T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 May 29 - . 01:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E10310. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 June 2 - . 05:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E15001-01T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 June 2 - . 17:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 10L-10T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 June 6 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 11L-13T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 June 15 - . 05:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A E15001-06.
  • R-7A II-4 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1961 June 16 - . 07:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 14L-16T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 July 4 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A L2-4.
  • R-7A II-5 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1961 July 4 - . 20:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A L2-2.
  • R-7A II-6 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Two launches from one launch complex in the same day..

1961 July 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 13L-15T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 July 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E10312.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 July 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E15001-25.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 August 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E10313. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 August 6 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-17.
  • Vostok 2 - . Call Sign: Oryel (Eagle ). Crew: Titov. Backup Crew: Nikolayev; Nelyubov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 4. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Nikolayev; Nelyubov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 2. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1.00 days. Decay Date: 1961-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 168 . COSPAR: 1961-Tau-1. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Second manned orbital flight. The Soviet Union successfully launched Vostok II into orbit with Gherman S. Titov as pilot. The spacecraft carried life-support equipment, radio and television for monitoring the condition of the cosmonaut, tape recorder, telemetry system, biological experiments, and automatic and manual control equipment. Flight objectives: Investigation of the effects on the human organism of a prolonged flight in orbit and subsequent return to the surface of the Earth; investigation of man's ability to work during a prolonged period of weightlessness. Titov took manual control of spacecraft but suffered from space sickness. He was equipped with a professional quality Konvas movie camera, with which ten minutes of film of the earth were taken through the porthole. Both television and film images were taken of the interior of the spacecraft. Like Gagarin, Titov experienced problems with separation of the service module after retrofire. Titov was never to fly again, after being assigned to the Spiral spaceplane, which turned out to be a dead-end project. A biography of him by Martin Caidin ('I Am Eagle') made him somewhat more accessible than Gagarin to the West.

1961 August 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 12L-14T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 August 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 21L. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 September 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • New ICBM tests announced. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: U.S.S.R. announced that it would launch a series of "more powerful and improved rockets. (Article in Red Star timed to coincide with first firing of new rocket series in the Pacific.).

1961 September 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 23L.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 September 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 22L.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 September 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E10311. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 September 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 17L.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 September 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 15L.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 September 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E10314. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 September 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A E15003-03.
  • R-7A II-7 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7A readiness verification test..

1961 September 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 16L. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 September 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E10315.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 October 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E15001-21.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 October 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E15001-22. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 October 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. LV Configuration: R-16U 2LU.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 October 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. LV Configuration: R-16U 1LU. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 October 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E15001-23.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 October 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. LV Configuration: R-16U 4LU.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 October 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. LV Configuration: R-16U 3LU.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 October 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. LV Configuration: R-9 No. E15001-24. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 October 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. LV Configuration: R-16U 5LU.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 October 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41?/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • K (OT) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 November 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1961 November 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41?/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 December 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41?/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 December 11 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. FAILURE: RO-7 engine of block E upper stage cutoff prematurely. Spacecraft liquidated by self destruct system APO in 407th second of flight. Debris landed 100 km north of Vilyuisk.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 1 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 1. Mass: 4,610 kg (10,160 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1961-12-11 . COSPAR: F611211A. First attempted launch of Zenit photo-reconnaisance satellite. According to Kamanin, there was a problem with the third stage, and the capsule landed between Novosibirsk and Yakutsk, but could not be located. There was no information on the nature of the problem. Korolev stayed at Tyuratam, preparing for the next launch attempt.

1962 January 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 January 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 January 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 January 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 January 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 March 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 March 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1962 March 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 April 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1962 April 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 April 26 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Cosmos 4 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 2. Mass: 4,610 kg (10,160 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Popovich. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Flight: Vostok 3; Vostok 4. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 3.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 287 . COSPAR: 1962-Xi-1. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 285 km (177 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Failure of primary spacecraft orientation system. It was to spend four days in space, to be followed by another mission during 5-10 May. This meant that Vostok 3/4 could not be launched before 20-30 May. The cosmonaut prime crew returned from their in-suit parachute training at Fedosiya.

1962 June 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 June 1 - . 09:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 E15000-01. FAILURE: Shutdown of Block B strap-on engine stage 1.8 seconds after liftoff. The booster crashed 300 m from the pad. Pad damaged.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 3 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 3. Mass: 4,610 kg (10,160 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1962-06-01 . COSPAR: F620601A. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Third attempted launch of Zenit photo-reconnaissance satellite. It blew up 300 m from the pad, and did enough damage to put the launch complex out of operation for a month. Therefore the Vostok 3/4 launches could not take place until the end of July at the earliest.

1962 June 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 June 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 June 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 June 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 June 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 July 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1962 July 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1962 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 July 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 July 28 - . 09:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-07.
  • Cosmos 7 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 4. Mass: 4,610 kg (10,160 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 346 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Iota-1. Apogee: 356 km (221 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1962 July 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1962 July 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 August 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 August 11 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 3 - . Call Sign: Sokol (Falcon ). Crew: Nikolayev. Backup Crew: Bykovsky; Volynov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 5. Mass: 4,722 kg (10,410 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Bykovsky; Popovich; Gagarin; Smirnov; Barmin; Kirillov; Khrushchev; Kozlov, Frol; Ustinov; Volynov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 3. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 3.93 days. Decay Date: 1962-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 363 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Mu-1. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Joint flight with Vostok 4. The first such flight, where Vostok capsules were launched one day apart, coming within a few kilometers of each other at the orbital insertion of the second spacecraft. The flight was supposed to occur in March, but following various delays, one of the two Vostok pads was damaged in the explosion of the booster of the third Zenit-2 reconnsat in May. Repairs were not completed until August. Vostok 3 studied man's ability to function under conditions of weightlessness; conducted scientific observations; furthered improvement of space ship systems, communications, guidance and landing. Immediately at orbital insertion of Vostok 4, the spacecraft were less than 5 km apart. Popovich made radio contact with Cosmonaut Nikolayev. Nikolayev reported shortly thereafter that he had sighted Vostok 4. Since the Vostok had no maneuvering capability, they could not rendezvous or dock, and quickly drifted apart. The launches did allow Korolev to offer something new and different, and gave the launch and ground control crews practice in launching and handling more than one manned spacecraft at a time. The cosmonaut took colour motion pictures of the earth and the cabin interior. Additional Details: here....

1962 August 12 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 4 - . Call Sign: Berkut (Golden Eagle ). Crew: Popovich. Backup Crew: Komarov; Volynov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 6. Mass: 4,728 kg (10,423 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Popovich; Komarov; Volynov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 4. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 2.96 days. Decay Date: 1962-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 365 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Nu-1. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Joint flight with Vostok 3. Acquisition of experimental data on the possibility of establishing a direct link between two space ships; coordination of astronauts' operations; study of the effects of identical spaceflight conditions on the human organism. The launch of Popovich proceeds exactly on schedule, the spacecraft launching with 0.5 seconds of the planned time, entering orbit just a few kilometers away from Nikolayev in Vostok 3. Popovich had problems with his life support system, resulting in the cabin temperature dropping to 10 degrees Centigrade and the humidity to 35%. The cosmonaut still managed to conduct experiments, including taking colour motion pictures of the terminator between night and day and the cabin interior.

    Despite the conditions, Popovich felt able to go for the full four days scheduled. But before the mission, Popovich had been briefed to tell ground control that he was 'observing thunderstorms' if he felt the motion sickness that had plagued Titov and needed to return on the next opportunity. Unfortunately he actually did report seeing thunderstorms over the Gulf of Mexico, and ground control took this as a request for an early return. He was ordered down a day early, landing within a few mintutes of Nikolayev. Only on the ground was it discovered that he was willing to go the full duration, and that ground control had thought he had given the code.


1962 August 25 - . 02:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 T103-12. FAILURE: At T+60 min 50 sec one of the four solid motors of the escape stage's BOZ unit did not fire. The resulting asymmetric torque caused the stage to lose correct attitude and three seconds after ignition of the main engine S1.5400A1 it began to tumble.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Sputnik 19 - . Payload: 2MV-1 s/n 1. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kuznetsova; Ponomaryova; Solovyova; Tereshkova; Yerkina. Agency: RVSN. Program: Venera; Vostok. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-1. Decay Date: 1962-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 371 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Pi-1. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Attempt to launch a probe towards Mars. The launch went well, but the fourth stage motor burnt for only 45s of the planned 240s. The stage remained in Earth orbit. However Kamanin notes that it was good that the launch of the basic vehicle was a success - it gave the visiting female cosmonauts confidence in the rocket they will have to ride.

1962 September 1 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 T103-13. FAILURE: At T+ 61 min 30 sec the fuel valve did not open.; the ignition command was blocked from going to the main engine of Stage 4.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Sputnik 20 - . Payload: 2MV-1 s/n 2. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-1. Decay Date: 1962-09-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 381 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Tau-1. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

1962 September 12 - . 00:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 T103-14. FAILURE: At T+531 sec, the fourth vernier chamber of Stage 3's 8D715K engine exploded because the LOX cut-off valve had not closed as scheduled and LOX flowed into the hot chamber.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Sputnik 21 - . Payload: 2MV-2 s/n 1. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-2. Decay Date: 1962-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 389 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Phi-1. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Summary: The escape stage entered parking orbit but the main engine cut off just 0.8 s after ignition due to cavitation in the oxidiser pump and pump failure..

1962 September 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 September 27 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-06.
  • Cosmos 9 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 7. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 422 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Omega-1. Apogee: 981 km (609 mi). Perigee: 829 km (515 mi). Inclination: 67.6000 deg. Period: 103.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1962 October 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. Launch Pad: LC60/8?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. LV Configuration: R-16U 17 min salvo.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. Launch Pad: LC60/8?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 17 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-03.
  • Cosmos 10 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 5. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-10-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 437 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Zeta-1. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1962 October 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1962 October 24 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 T103-15. FAILURE: 16 seconds after ignition of Stage 4, Block L's S1.5400A1 engine exploded. A lubricant leak resulted in the jamming of a shaft in the turbopump gearbox and break up of the turbine.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Sputnik 22 - . Payload: 2MV-4 s/n 3. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-4. Decay Date: 1962-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 443 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Iota-1. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. The spacecraft broke into many pieces, some of which apparently remained in Earth orbit for a few days. This occurred during the Cuban missile crisis and was picked up by U.S. military radar installations, who originally feared it might by the start of a Soviet nuclear attack.

1962 October 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure..
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). In a test of nuclear fratricide and ABM effectiveness, an R-5M (some sources say an R-12) launched a live thermonuclear warhead toward Semipalitinsk/Sary Shagan which was detonated at an altitude of 150 km. Two R-9 ICBM's were launched minutes earlier, timed to pass through the zone of the explosion. Both missiles guided to the planned impact zone without apparent ill-effect. This high altitude test was designed to test electromagnetic pulse effects on electronics, especially ABM system radars and incoming 'friendly' ICBM's.

1962 October 28 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. Launch Vehicle: R-9. LV Configuration: R-9 Operation K-4.
1962 November 1 - . 16:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 T103-16.
  • Mars 1 - . Payload: 2MV-4 s/n 4 / Sputnik 23. Mass: 894 kg (1,970 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-4. USAF Sat Cat: 450 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Nu-3. Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Launched from Sputnik 23 in a 157 x 238 km, 65 degree parking orbit. Sixty-one radio transmissions were held in which a large amount of data was collected. On March 21, 1963, when the spacecraft was at a distance of 106 million km communications ceased, possibly due to a malfunction in the spacecraft orientation system. Mars 1 closest approach to Mars occurred on June 19, 1963 at a distance of approximately 193,000 km, after which the spacecraft entered a heliocentric orbit. Announced mission: Prolonged exploration of outer space during flight to the planet Mars; establishment of inter-planetary radio communications; photgraphing of the planet Mars and subsquent radio-transmission to Earth of the photographs of the surface of Mars thus obtained.

1962 November 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 November 4 - . 15:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 T103-17. FAILURE: After T+260 sec, a malfunction of the pressurization system of the central sustainer led to cavitation in the oxidizer pipeline and LOX pump, followed at T+292s by the fuel pump.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Sputnik 24 - . Payload: 2MV-3 s/n 1. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-3. Decay Date: 1962-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 451 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Xi-1. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 87.90 min. Mars probe intended to make a soft landing on Mars. Although the escape stage and payload reached orbit, the strong third stage vibrations shook a fuse loose from its mount in the main nozzle of the escape stage Block L's engine. The engine could not be ignited and remained in Earth orbit. It decayed about two months after insertion.

1962 November 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 November 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 November 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1962 December 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 December 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 December 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 December 22 - . 09:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-10.
  • Cosmos 12 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 6. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-12-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 517 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Omega-1. Apogee: 385 km (239 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1963 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 January 4 - . 08:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78/E6. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78/E6 T103-09. FAILURE: The escape stage's BOZ unit failed to operate due to failure of a DC transformer of the power system. The stage with payload remained in Earth orbit.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Sputnik 25 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1963-01-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 522 . COSPAR: 1963-001B. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 88.00 min.

1963 February 3 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78/E6. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78/E6 G103-10. FAILURE: Upper stage gyro platform failure.. Failed Stage: G.
  • E-6 s/n 2 failure. - . Payload: E-6 s/n 2. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1963-02-03 . COSPAR: F630203A. Summary: Apparent causes were instabilities in the torque sensor circuit and the pitch-free floating gyro device. The upper stages and payload broke up on re-entry into the atmosphere over the Pacific..

1963 February 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC70. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Desna.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 February 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 February 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 March 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 March 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 March 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Design work starts on N1 launch complex. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3.

1963 March 21 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-01.
  • Cosmos 13 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 9. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 554 . COSPAR: 1963-006A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1963 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 April 2 - . 08:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78/E6. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78/E6 G103-11.
  • Luna 4 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 3. Mass: 1,422 kg (3,134 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1963-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 563 . COSPAR: 1963-008A. Apogee: 182 km (113 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 87.98 min. Luna 4 was the second attempted Soviet unmanned lunar soft lander probe. The spacecraft, rather than being sent on a straight trajectory toward the Moon, was placed first in an earth parking orbit. The rocket stage then reignited and put the spaccecraft on a translunar trajectory. Failure of Luna 4 to make a required midcourse correction resulted in it missing the Moon by 8336.2 km on April 6, at 4:26 a.m. Moscow time. It thereafter entered a barycentric Earth orbit. The Soviet news agency, Tass, reported that data had been received from the spacecraft throughout its flight and that radio communication would continue for a few more days.

1963 April 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1963 April 22 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-08.
  • Cosmos 15 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 8. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 569 . COSPAR: 1963-011A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also carried weather, radiation experiments..

1963 April 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 April 28 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 E15000-02.
  • Cosmos 16 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 10. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 571 . COSPAR: 1963-012A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Program partially completed. Part of the information lost due to failure of engine block stabilization system. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1963 May 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 May 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1963 May 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 May 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 May 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 May 24 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 E15000-12.
  • Cosmos 18 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 11. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-06-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 586 . COSPAR: 1963-018A. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1963 May 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 June 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 June 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 June 14 - . 11:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 5 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Bykovsky. Backup Crew: Volynov; Leonov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 7. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Volynov; Leonov. Agency: Korolev. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 5. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 4.96 days. Decay Date: 1963-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 591 . COSPAR: 1963-020A. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi). Perigee: 130 km (80 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 87.10 min. Joint flight with Vostok 6. The Soviet Union launched Vostok 5, piloted by Lt. Col. Valery F. Bykovsky. Two days later Lt. Valentina V. Tereshkova, the first spacewoman, followed in Vostok 6. On its first orbit, Vostok 6 came within about five km of Vostok 5, the closest distance achieved during the flight, and established radio contact. Both cosmonauts landed safely on June 19. The space spectacular featured television coverage of Bykovsky that was viewed in the West as well as in Russia. Unlike earlier missions, only a black and white film camera was carried. Photometric measurements of the earth's horizon were made.

    Mission objectives were officially: further study of the effect of various space-flight factors in the human organism; extensive medico-biological experiments under conditions of prolonged flight; further elaboration and improvement of spaceship systems.

    Vostok 5 was originally planned to go for a record eight days. The launch was delayed repeatedly due to high solar activity and technical problems. Finally the spacecraft ended up in a lower than planned orbit. Combined with increased atmospheric activity due to solar levels, Vostok 5 quickly decayed temperatures in the service module reached very high levels.

    Bykovsky also experienced an unspecified problem with his waste management system (a spill?) which made conditions in the cabin 'very uncomfortable'. He was finally ordered to return after only five days in space.

    To top it all off, once again the Vostok service module failed to separate cleanly from the reentry sphere. Wild gyrations ensued until the heat of reentry burned through the non-separating retraining strap.


1963 June 16 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 6 - . Call Sign: Chayka (Seagull ). Crew: Tereshkova. Backup Crew: Solovyova; Ponomaryova. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 8. Mass: 4,713 kg (10,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Tereshkova; Solovyova; Ponomaryova. Agency: Korolev. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 6. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1963-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 595 . COSPAR: 1963-023A. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 87.80 min. Joint flight with Vostok 5. First woman in space, and the only Russian woman to go into space until Svetlana Savitskaya 19 years later. On its first orbit, Vostok 6 came within about five km of Vostok 5, the closest distance achieved during the flight, and established radio contact. Flight objectives included: Comparative analysis of the effect of various space-flight factors on the male and female organisms; medico-biological research; further elaboration and improvement of spaceship systems under conditions of joint flight. It was Korolev's idea just after Gagarin's flight to put a woman into space as yet another novelty. Khrushchev made the final crew selection. Korolev was unhappy with Tereshkova's performance in orbit and she was not permitted to take manual control of the spacecraft as had been planned.

1963 June 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • BD - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 June 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 June 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 July 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 July 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 July 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 E15000-04. FAILURE: Shutdown of Block B strap-on engine stage 1.9 seconds after liftoff. Pad damaged.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 12 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 12. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1963-07-10 . COSPAR: F630710A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1963 July 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 July 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 August 13 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 757 km (470 mi).

1963 August 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 August 30 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • T - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 754 km (468 mi).

1963 September 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Construction begins of N1 launch complex - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3.

1963 September 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • T - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 September 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 September 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 September 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 September 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 September 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. LV Configuration: R-36 8K67 G22500-02L. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials launch (1) - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 October 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 October 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1963 October 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 October 18 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-01.
  • Cosmos 20 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 13. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-10-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 673 . COSPAR: 1963-040A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1963 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 October 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC70. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9.
  • Silo explosion kills 7 at Baikonur - . Nation: USSR. On 24 October 1963 an R-9 was being prepared for launch in a silo at LC-70. Unknown to the 11 man launch crew, an oxygen leak in the fuelling system had raised the oxygen partial pressure in the silo from the 21% maximum allowed to 32%. Whie the crew was descending in a lift to the 8th level of the silo, a spark from an electrical panel created a fire in the explosive atmosphere, killing seven and destroying the silo. This happened on the same day as the Nedelin disaster three years earlier, and became the cosmodrome's 'Black Day'. Forever after no launches were attempted from Baikonur on October 24.

1963 November 1 - . 08:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 11A59. LV Configuration: Sputnik 11A59 E15003-02A.
  • Polet 1; Polyot 1 - . Payload: I-2B s/n 1. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei. Agency: Korolev. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: Polyot. Decay Date: 1982-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 683 . COSPAR: 1963-043A. Apogee: 1,420 km (880 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 58.9000 deg. Period: 102.40 min. ASAT interceptor control and propulsion test. Launched by Korolev R-7 because Chelomei's own UR-200 was not yet available. Purpose - elaboration of system providing for the extensive manoeuvring of space apparatuses. Flight was considered a great success. Micro-engine fired 350 times and main stabilizing engine fired 300 times. Orbit given is final orbit after manoeuvres.

1963 November 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: UR-200. Launch Vehicle: UR-200. LV Configuration: UR-200 No. 01. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Summary: First UR-200 test flight. (LKI).

1963 November 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 November 11 - . 06:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 G103-18. FAILURE: During unpowered coast in parking orbit the escape stage Block L lost stable attitude. Engine ignition occurred in an incorrect direction.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 21 - . Payload: 3MV-1A s/n 1. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Mars. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1A. Decay Date: 1963-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 687 . COSPAR: 1963-044A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: The stage with payload remained in Earth orbit as Cosmos-51 and burnt up on re-entry..

1963 November 16 - . 10:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 G15000-06.
  • Cosmos 22 - . Payload: Zenit-4 no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 689 . COSPAR: 1963-045A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1963 November 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 November 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 November 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-02. FAILURE: Failure of block E upper stage. Spacecraft liquidated by APO destruct system.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 14 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 14. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1963-11-28 . COSPAR: F631128A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1963 December 3 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. LV Configuration: R-36 8K67 G22500-04L.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 903 km (561 mi).

1963 December 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 December 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 December 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 December 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 December 19 - . 09:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-03.
  • Cosmos 24 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 15. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 712 . COSPAR: 1963-052A. Apogee: 391 km (242 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1963 December 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 December 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 16 - . 04:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 908 km (564 mi).

1964 January 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 January 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 January 30 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Elektron 1 - . Payload: 2D s/n 1. Mass: 329 kg (725 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Elektron. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Elektron-A. USAF Sat Cat: 746 . COSPAR: 1964-006A. Apogee: 6,439 km (4,001 mi). Perigee: 413 km (256 mi). Inclination: 60.9000 deg. Period: 161.00 min. Studied inner Van Allen belt. Electron I and II launched by a single carrier rocket. Electron I: simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and upper atmosphere. Electron II: simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and outer space.
  • Elektron 2 - . Payload: 2D s/n 2. Mass: 444 kg (978 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Elektron. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Elektron-B. Decay Date: 1997-04-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 748 . COSPAR: 1964-006B. Apogee: 62,811 km (39,028 mi). Perigee: 5,611 km (3,486 mi). Inclination: 60.2000 deg. Period: 1,356.40 min. Studied outer Van Allen belt. Electron I and II launched by a single carrier rocket. Electron I: simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and upper atmosphere. Electron II: simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and outer space.

1964 February 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. Launch Pad: LC60/8?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 February 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 February 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 February 19 - . 05:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-19. FAILURE: Second stage failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • 3MV-1A - . Payload: 3MV-1A s/n 2. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1A. Decay Date: 1964-02-19 . COSPAR: F640219A.

1964 February 19 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 906 km (562 mi).

1964 February 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 February 27 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 March 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M s/n T15000-22.
  • Venus launch delayed. - . Payload: 3MV-1. Nation: USSR. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. Decay Date: 1964-03-01 . Summary: The launch was delayed due to malfunctions during prelaunch service..

1964 March 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/4?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 March 21 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-20. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Luna failure - . Payload: E-6 s/n 4. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1964-03-21 . COSPAR: F640321A. Summary: The upper stages burnt on re-entry into the atmosphere..

1964 March 27 - . 03:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-22. FAILURE: During unpowered coast in parking orbit the escape stage Block L lost stable attitude due to a loss of the power circuit of the pneumatic valves of the attitude control and stabilization system.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 27 - . Payload: 3MV-1 s/n 3. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. Decay Date: 1964-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 772 . COSPAR: 1964-014A. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: The stage with payload remained in Earth orbit as Cosmos-27..

1964 April 2 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-23.
  • Zond 1 - . Payload: 3MV-1 s/n 4. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. USAF Sat Cat: 785 . COSPAR: 1964-016D. Summary: Failed Venus probe. Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Elaboration of a long range space system and conduct of scientific research..

1964 April 4 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-04.
  • Cosmos 28 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 16. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 779 . COSPAR: 1964-017A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 April 11 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: UR-200. Launch Vehicle: UR-200. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1964 April 12 - . 09:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 11A59. LV Configuration: Sputnik 11A59 T15001-01A.
  • Polet 2; Polyot 2 - . Payload: I-2B s/n 2. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: Polyot. Decay Date: 1966-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 783 . COSPAR: 1964-019A. Apogee: 479 km (297 mi). Perigee: 303 km (188 mi). Inclination: 58.1000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Summary: ASAT interceptor control and propulsion test. Elaboration of systems providing for the extensive manouevring of space apparatuses..

1964 April 20 - . 08:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-21. FAILURE: Power failure caused upper stage shutdown at T+340 seconds.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Luna failure - . Payload: E-6 s/n 5. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1964-04-20 . COSPAR: F640420A. Summary: The upper stages broke up on re-entry into the atmosphere...

1964 April 25 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15001-01.
  • Cosmos 29 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 19. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-05-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 791 . COSPAR: 1964-021A. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 April 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 May 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 May 15 - . 06:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: UR-200. Launch Vehicle: UR-200.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 689 km (428 mi).

1964 May 18 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 G15000-12.
  • Cosmos 30 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 797 . COSPAR: 1964-023A. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1964 May 23 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 870 km (540 mi).

1964 May 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 May 30 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 864 km (536 mi).

1964 May 30 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: UR-200. Launch Vehicle: UR-200.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 695 km (431 mi).

1964 June 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Test? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1964 June 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 R103-34. FAILURE: At T+104 sec the tank draining of core Block A failed due to jamming of the servo-motored throttle and break down of the motor's circuit The launcher was destroyed on impact downrange from the pad.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Molniya-1 s/n 2 Failure - . Payload: Molniya-1 s/n 2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. COSPAR: F640604A. Summary: Unsuccessful first attempt to launch Molniya communications satellite..

1964 June 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 June 10 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15001-02.
  • Cosmos 32 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 18. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-06-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 807 . COSPAR: 1964-029A. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 June 17 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: UR-200. Launch Vehicle: UR-200.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 694 km (431 mi).

1964 June 23 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-05.
  • Cosmos 33 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 20. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 816 . COSPAR: 1964-033A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 June 24 - . 04:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 874 km (543 mi).

1964 June 30 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 872 km (541 mi).

1964 July 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 July 1 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 T15000-04.
  • Cosmos 34 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 822 . COSPAR: 1964-034A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1964 July 10 - . 21:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Elektron 3 - . Payload: 2D s/n 3. Mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Elektron. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Elektron-A. USAF Sat Cat: 829 . COSPAR: 1964-038A. Apogee: 6,302 km (3,915 mi). Perigee: 408 km (253 mi). Inclination: 60.9000 deg. Period: 159.30 min. Summary: Studied inner Van Allen belt. Electron 3 and 4 launched by a single carrier rocket. Simultaneous study of the inner and outer radiation belts of the earth, cosmic rays and the upper atmosphere. .
  • Elektron 4 - . Payload: 2D s/n 4. Mass: 444 kg (978 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Elektron. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Elektron-B. Decay Date: 1983-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 830 . COSPAR: 1964-038B. Apogee: 66,269 km (41,177 mi). Perigee: 447 km (277 mi). Inclination: 60.8000 deg. Period: 1,313.80 min. Summary: Studied outer Van Allen belt. Electron 3 and 4 launched by a single carrier rocket. Simultaneous study of the inner and outer radiation belts of the earth, cosmic rays and the upper atmosphere. .

1964 July 15 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15001-03.
  • Cosmos 35 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 21. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 833 . COSPAR: 1964-039A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 July 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Test? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1964 July 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 August 1 - . 05:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: UR-200. Launch Vehicle: UR-200.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 686 km (426 mi).

1964 August 5 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • POR state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,493 km (927 mi).

1964 August 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 August 11 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 August 14 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15001-04.
  • Cosmos 37 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 22. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 848 . COSPAR: 1964-044A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Break in the film fof the SA-10 camera..

1964 August 18 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65S3. LV Configuration: Kosmos 65S3 02L.
  • Cosmos 38 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1964-11-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 853 . COSPAR: 1964-046A. Apogee: 766 km (475 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 94.30 min.
  • Cosmos 40 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1964-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 855 . COSPAR: 1964-046C. Apogee: 737 km (457 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 94.10 min.
  • Cosmos 39 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1964-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 854 . COSPAR: 1964-046B. Apogee: 792 km (492 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 94.60 min.

1964 August 22 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 R103-36.
  • Cosmos 41 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 2004-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 869 . COSPAR: 1964-049D. Apogee: 39,169 km (24,338 mi). Perigee: 1,023 km (635 mi). Inclination: 68.4000 deg. Period: 714.50 min. Successful launch of first Soviet communications satellite. This is the second Molniya launch attempt. (the first was a launch failure). The failure of the antennae to deploy means the spacecraft can only be tested in a limited manner and cannot be used for the planned relay of television.

1964 August 28 - . 16:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M T15000-05.
  • Cosmos 44 - . Payload: Meteor no. 1. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. USAF Sat Cat: 876 . COSPAR: 1964-053A. Apogee: 778 km (483 mi). Perigee: 599 km (372 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1964 September 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Construction start of N1 launch complex 110 east - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3.

1964 September 9 - . 02:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • POR state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,495 km (928 mi).

1964 September 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 September 13 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-01.
  • Cosmos 45 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Agency: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 880 . COSPAR: 1964-055A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried weather experiments. The Zenit-4 launches a day ahead of schedule. The booster rocket performs perfectly as Korolev and Kamanin watch from the veranda of the IP-1 tracking station. This confirms readiness of the same launch vehicle for the Voskhod launch.

1964 September 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 September 24 - . 05:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: UR-200. Launch Vehicle: UR-200.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 686 km (426 mi). Summary: Demonstration launch witnessed by Khrushchev..

1964 September 24 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15001-05.
  • Cosmos 46 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 23. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 885 . COSPAR: 1964-059A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Demonstration launch witnessed by Khrushchev..

1964 September 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP Kedr operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi). Summary: Demonstration launch witnessed by Khrushchev..

1964 September 25 - . 04:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Demonstration launch witnessed by Khrushchev..

1964 September 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Climate Test operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 September 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 October 2 - . 03:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: UR-200. Launch Vehicle: UR-200.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 681 km (423 mi).

1964 October 6 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-02.
  • Cosmos 47 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 2. Mass: 5,320 kg (11,720 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudenko; Kirillov; Tyulin; Korolev. Agency: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.01 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 891 . COSPAR: 1964-062A. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Unmanned test of Voskhod spacecraft. At 07:00 the State Commission meets at Area 2. All Chief Designers, Commanders, and Section report that all is ready for flight. The commission gives the order to proceed with the launch. Weather at the pad is 7 balls, 8-10 m/s wind with gusts to 15 m/s, temperature 9 to 12 deg C. Weather in the recovery zones is reported as winds up to 15 m/s. Weather in the recovery zone is not clear, but that is not considered an impediment, and in fact Kamanin would like to see how the landing system functions in bad conditions. Kamanin visits the pad at T-30 seconds; at T-20 seconds, the veranda at IP-1 has over 50 viewers of the launch, including 15 cosmonaut candidates and the 7 Voskhod cosmonauts. Kamanin is relegated to the IP-1 veranda this time, with Rudenko, Kirillov, and Tyulin the bunker adjacent to the pad. Korolev stays with the booster until T-5 minutes, then enters the bunker. The booster ignites precisely at 10:00; the strap-ons burn out and are jettisoned at T+120 seconds; the core burns out and the final stage ignites at T+290 seconds; and at T+523 seconds spacecraft 3KV number 2 is placed in orbit as the final stage shuts down. The spacecraft separates and all systems look normal.

    Recovered October 7, 1964 7:28 GMT. Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1964 October 10 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 865 km (537 mi).

1964 October 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 October 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 October 12 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-04.
  • Voskhod 1 - . Call Sign: Rubin (Ruby ). Crew: Feoktistov; Komarov; Yegorov. Backup Crew: Katys; Lazarev; Volynov. Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 3. Mass: 5,320 kg (11,720 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Rudenko; Tyulin; Gagarin; Feoktistov; Komarov; Yegorov; Katys; Lazarev; Volynov. Agency: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.01 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 904 . COSPAR: 1964-065A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. The U.S.S.R. launched the world's first multi-manned spacecraft, Voskhod I, the first to carry a scientist and a physician into space. The crew were Col. Vladimir Komarov, pilot; Konstantin Feoktistov, scientist; and Boris Yegorov, physician. Potentially dangerous modification of Vostok to upstage American Gemini flights; no spacesuits, ejection seats, or escape tower. One concession was backup solid retrorocket package mounted on nose of spacecraft. Seats mounted perpendicular to Vostok ejection seat position, so crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. Tested the new multi-seat space ship; investigated the in-flight work potential and co-operation of a group of cosmonauts consisting of specialists in different branches of science and technology; conducted scientific physico-technical and medico-biological research. The mission featured television pictures of the crew from space.

    Coming before the two-man Gemini flights, Voskhod 1 had a significant worldwide impact. In the United States, the "space race" was again running under the green flag. NASA Administrator James E. Webb, commenting on the spectacular, called it a "significant space accomplishment." It was, he said, "a clear indication that the Russians are continuing a large space program for the achievement of national power and prestige." Additional Details: here....


1964 October 14 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15002-01.
  • Cosmos 48 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 24. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 908 . COSPAR: 1964-066A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Returned early due to failure of spacecraft thermoregulation system; internal temperature rose to 43 degrees C..

1964 October 20 - . 02:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: UR-200. Launch Vehicle: UR-200.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,129 km (701 mi).

1964 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65S3. LV Configuration: Kosmos 65S3 01L. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
1964 October 28 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15002-02.
  • Cosmos 50 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 25. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 919 . COSPAR: 1964-070A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.2000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Failure of the braking engine system. Spacecraft ordered to self destruct..

1964 October 29 - . 01:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 868 km (539 mi).

1964 November 30 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Zond 2 - . Payload: 3MV-4A s/n 2. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 3MV-4A. USAF Sat Cat: 945 . COSPAR: 1964-078C. Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Zond 2 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards Mars to test space-borne systems and to carry out scientific investigations. Zond 2 carried six electric rocket engines of plasma type that served as actuators of the attitude control system. The communications system failed during April 1965. The spacecraft flew by Mars on August 6, 1965, at a distance of 1500 km.

1964 December 15 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 870 km (540 mi).

1964 December 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • K OT? operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 December 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 January 11 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15002-03.
  • Cosmos 52 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 26. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 968 . COSPAR: 1965-001A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 January 13 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC80/17. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 January 30 - . 08:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • POR state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,493 km (927 mi).

1965 February 21 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65S3. LV Configuration: Kosmos 65S3 03L.
  • Cosmos 54 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1968-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1089 . COSPAR: 1965-011A. Apogee: 1,839 km (1,142 mi). Perigee: 269 km (167 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 106.30 min.
  • Cosmos 56 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1967-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1091 . COSPAR: 1965-011C. Apogee: 1,687 km (1,048 mi). Perigee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 104.60 min.
  • Cosmos 55 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1968-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1090 . COSPAR: 1965-011B. Apogee: 1,752 km (1,088 mi). Perigee: 261 km (162 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 105.30 min.

1965 February 22 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-03.
  • Cosmos 57 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KD s/n 1. Mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Agency: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 0.22 days. Decay Date: 1965-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 1093 . COSPAR: 1965-012A. Apogee: 708 km (439 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Unsuccessful mission. Voskhod 2 test. Immediately after orbital insertion airlock and spacesuit inflated normally. Then two ground control stations sent commands to the spacecraft simultaneously. The combined signals accidentally set off the retrofire sequence, which some time later triggered the self destruct mechanism (designed to prevent the spacecraft from falling into enemy hands).
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. Additional Details: here....

1965 February 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • PBG - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 February 26 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M R15000-09.
  • Cosmos 58 - . Payload: Meteor no. 2. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1990-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 1097 . COSPAR: 1965-014A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 333 km (206 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Summary: Probable weather satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1965 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 March 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. Launch Pad: LC67/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. FAILURE: Second stage propellant leak led to a fire in the silo.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • First attempted launch of Fractional Orbital Bombardment System booster. - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: OGCh. COSPAR: F19650305. Summary: A fire broke out during fuelling and the rocket exploded, seriously damaging the launch pad at Area 67..

1965 March 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 March 7 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-05.
  • Cosmos 59 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-03-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1191 . COSPAR: 1965-015A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule fitted with airlock mating ring planned for Voskhod-2 spacecraft..

1965 March 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 March 12 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78/E6. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78/E6 R103-25. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L's engine failed to ignite due to failure of a transformer in the power supply of the control system.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 60 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 9. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1246 . COSPAR: 1965-018A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: The stage with the payload remained in Earth orbit as Kosmos-60..

1965 March 15 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65S3. LV Configuration: Kosmos 65S3 04L.
  • Cosmos 61 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1968-01-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1267 . COSPAR: 1965-020A. Apogee: 1,737 km (1,079 mi). Perigee: 262 km (162 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 105.10 min.
  • Cosmos 62 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1968-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 1268 . COSPAR: 1965-020B. Apogee: 1,712 km (1,063 mi). Perigee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min.
  • Cosmos 63 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1967-11-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 1269 . COSPAR: 1965-020C. Apogee: 1,673 km (1,039 mi). Perigee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 104.40 min.

1965 March 18 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-05.
  • Voskhod 2 - . Call Sign: Almaz (Diamond ). Crew: Belyayev; Leonov. Backup Crew: Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin. Payload: Voskhod 3KD s/n 4. Mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin; Rudenko; Korolev; Gagarin; Belyayev; Leonov; Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin. Agency: MOM. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.08 days. Decay Date: 1965-03-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 1274 . COSPAR: 1965-022A. Apogee: 475 km (295 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 90.90 min. First spacewalk, with a two man crew of Colonel Pavel Belyayev and Lt. Colonel Aleksey Leonov. During Voskhod 2's second orbit, Leonov stepped from the vehicle and performed mankind's first "walk in space." After 10 min of extravehicular activity, he returned safely to the spacecraft through an inflatable airlock.

    This mission was originally named 'Vykhod ('Exit/Advance'). It almost ended in disaster when Leonov was unable to reenter the airlock due to stiffness of the inflated spacesuit. He had to bleed air from the suit in order to get into the airlock. After Leonov finally managed to get back into the spacecraft cabin, the primary hatch would not seal completely. The environmental control system compensated by flooding the cabin with oxygen, creating a serious fire hazard in a craft only qualified for sea level nitrogen-oxygen gas mixes (Cosmonaut Bondarenko had burned to death in a ground accident in such circumstances, preceding the Apollo 204 disaster by many years). Additional Details: here....


1965 March 25 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-06.
  • Cosmos 64 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 17. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1305 . COSPAR: 1965-025A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 April 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 R103-26. FAILURE: Stage 3's engine 8D715K failed due to depressurization of the nitrogen pipeline of the LOX tank pressurization system of Block I.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Luna failure - stage 3 engine failure. - . Payload: E-6 s/n 8. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-04-10 . COSPAR: F650410A. Summary: The upper stages fell apart on re-entry into the atmosphere...

1965 April 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 April 17 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 G15000-11.
  • Cosmos 65 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-04-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 1320 . COSPAR: 1965-029A. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried weather experiments..

1965 April 19 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC130. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. LV Configuration: UR-100 U106416-01.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 April 23 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-35.
  • Molniya 1-01 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1979-08-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 1324 . COSPAR: 1965-030A. Apogee: 39,300 km (24,400 mi). Perigee: 538 km (334 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 707.30 min. Summary: First announced launch of Soviet communications satellite. Television programme transmission and long range two way multi channel telephone and telegraph communications. Orbital characteristics after correction of 2 May 1965..

1965 April 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 April 27 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 870 km (540 mi).

1965 April 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 May 7 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15002-04.
  • Cosmos 66 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 27. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1362 . COSPAR: 1965-035A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 285 km (177 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Summary: Returned after 8 days. Unsuccessful mission. Parachute deployment failure. Spacecraft destroyed in crash..

1965 May 9 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M U103-30.
  • Luna 5 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 10. Mass: 1,474 kg (3,249 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 1366 . COSPAR: 1965-036A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.27 min. Summary: Soft lunar landing attempt. The retrorocket system failed, and the spacecraft impacted the lunar surface at the Sea of Clouds. Western observers, among them England's Sir Bernard Lovell, correctly speculated that the craft's mission was a soft landing..

1965 May 18 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 870 km (540 mi).

1965 May 20 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 May 22 - . 06:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch to Kamchatka - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 920 km (570 mi).

1965 May 25 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-04.
  • Cosmos 67 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-06-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1382 . COSPAR: 1965-040A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 May 28 - . 02:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch to Kamchatka - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 743 km (461 mi).

1965 June 8 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M U103-31.
  • Luna 6 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 7. Mass: 1,440 kg (3,170 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. USAF Sat Cat: 1393 . COSPAR: 1965-044A. Attempted unmanned lunar soft lander. Tass reported that all onboard equipment was functioning normally. Two days into the flight, however, the spacecraft's engine failed to shut down following a midcourse correction. This failure caused Luna 6 to miss its target by 159,612.8 Km.

1965 June 15 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-01.
  • Cosmos 68 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 29. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 1404 . COSPAR: 1965-046A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 June 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 June 25 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 G15000-10.
  • Cosmos 69 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 1421 . COSPAR: 1965-049A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 June 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 July 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 July 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 July 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15002-05. FAILURE: Second stage guidance failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 28 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 28. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1965-07-13 . COSPAR: F650713A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 July 16 - . 03:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65S3. LV Configuration: Kosmos 65S3 05L.
  • Cosmos 71 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1970-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 1441 . COSPAR: 1965-053A. Apogee: 542 km (336 mi). Perigee: 522 km (324 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 95.20 min.
  • Cosmos 72 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1979-08-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 1442 . COSPAR: 1965-053B. Apogee: 588 km (365 mi). Perigee: 538 km (334 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 95.90 min.
  • Cosmos 74 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1979-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 1444 . COSPAR: 1965-053D. Apogee: 616 km (382 mi). Perigee: 539 km (334 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 96.20 min.
  • Cosmos 73 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1974-03-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 1443 . COSPAR: 1965-053C. Apogee: 556 km (345 mi). Perigee: 538 km (334 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 95.50 min.
  • Cosmos 75 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. Decay Date: 1979-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 1445 . COSPAR: 1965-053E. Apogee: 644 km (400 mi). Perigee: 540 km (330 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 96.50 min.

1965 July 16 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: UR-500. LV Configuration: UR-500 107207-01 (207).
  • Proton 1 - . Payload: N-4 s/n 1. Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei. Agency: MOM. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-4 . Decay Date: 1965-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 1466 . COSPAR: 1965-054A. Apogee: 578 km (359 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. The first launch of the Proton launch vehicle was not without problems. A leak in the oxidiser pipeline resulted in nitrogen tetroxide spilling on electrical wires. The question was: proceed with the launch or abort? Chelomei decided to go ahead, and on 16 July 1965 the first UR-500 successfully launched the Proton 1 satellite. In the first hours after launch specialists from OKB-52 could only receive signals in the first hours that indicated the satellite was ‘alive’. However it later functioned normally and provided physics data on ultra-high-energy cosmic particles for 45 days.

    At the first launch the rocket was called ‘Gerkules’ (other sources say ‘Atlantis’), as indicated by the large symbol on the second stage skin. This name was however was not taken up.


1965 July 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC131. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. LV Configuration: UR-100 229420-01. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 July 18 - . 14:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Zond 3 - . Payload: 3MV-4A s/n 3. Mass: 959 kg (2,114 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 3MV-4A. USAF Sat Cat: 1454 . COSPAR: 1965-056A. Zond 3 was towards the moon and interplanetary space. The spacecraft was equipped with a TV system that provided automatic inflight film processing. On July 20, during lunar flyby, 25 pictures of very good quality were taken of the lunar farside from distances of 11,570 to 9960 km. The photos covered 19,000,000 km square of the lunar surface. Photo transmissions by facsimile were returned to earth from a distance of 2,200,000 km on July 29 and were retransmitted later from a distance of 31,500,000 km, thus proving the ability of the communications system. After the lunar flyby, Zond 3 continued space exploration in a heliocentric orbit. Those pictures showed clearly the heavily cratered nature of the surface. This mission dramatized the advances in space photography that the U.S.S.R. had made since its first far-side effort six years earlier.

1965 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 July 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC131. Launch Pad: LC131?. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 August 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 August 3 - . 11:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 U15001-01.
  • Cosmos 77 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 1469 . COSPAR: 1965-061A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 August 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 August 14 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-02.
  • Cosmos 78 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 30. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 1505 . COSPAR: 1965-066A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Inclination: 69.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 August 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 August 25 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-06.
  • Cosmos 79 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-09-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1523 . COSPAR: 1965-069A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 August 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. Launch Pad: LC60/8?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 September 3 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65S3. LV Configuration: Kosmos 65S3 07LS.
  • Cosmos 80 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. USAF Sat Cat: 1570 . COSPAR: 1965-070A. Apogee: 1,536 km (954 mi). Perigee: 1,370 km (850 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.
  • Cosmos 84 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. USAF Sat Cat: 1574 . COSPAR: 1965-070E. Apogee: 1,569 km (974 mi). Perigee: 1,470 km (910 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 116.40 min.
  • Cosmos 83 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. USAF Sat Cat: 1573 . COSPAR: 1965-070D. Apogee: 1,558 km (968 mi). Perigee: 1,447 km (899 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 116.00 min.
  • Cosmos 81 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. USAF Sat Cat: 1571 . COSPAR: 1965-070B. Apogee: 1,542 km (958 mi). Perigee: 1,398 km (868 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 115.30 min.
  • Cosmos 82 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. USAF Sat Cat: 1572 . COSPAR: 1965-070C. Apogee: 1,549 km (962 mi). Perigee: 1,421 km (882 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 115.70 min.

1965 September 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 s/n U103-27.
  • E-6 Launch Postponement - . Payload: E-6. Nation: USSR. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Summary: The launch was delayed due to malfunction of the RKS system of the Stages 1/2's control system during pre-launch service..

1965 September 9 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-02.
  • Cosmos 85 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-09-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1578 . COSPAR: 1965-071A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 September 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC131. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 September 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • PBG - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 September 18 - . 07:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65S3. LV Configuration: Kosmos 65S3 08LS.
  • Cosmos 86 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. USAF Sat Cat: 1584 . COSPAR: 1965-073A. Apogee: 1,623 km (1,008 mi). Perigee: 1,291 km (802 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.
  • Cosmos 88 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. USAF Sat Cat: 1586 . COSPAR: 1965-073C. Apogee: 1,645 km (1,022 mi). Perigee: 1,341 km (833 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 115.80 min.
  • Cosmos 87 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. USAF Sat Cat: 1585 . COSPAR: 1965-073B. Apogee: 1,633 km (1,014 mi). Perigee: 1,317 km (818 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 115.40 min.
  • Cosmos 89 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. USAF Sat Cat: 1587 . COSPAR: 1965-073D. Apogee: 1,652 km (1,026 mi). Perigee: 1,371 km (851 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 116.20 min.
  • Cosmos 90 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1. USAF Sat Cat: 1588 . COSPAR: 1965-073E. Apogee: 1,666 km (1,035 mi). Perigee: 1,394 km (866 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 116.70 min.

1965 September 23 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-03.
  • Cosmos 91 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 1603 . COSPAR: 1965-075A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 September 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 September 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 September 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/4?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • PBG - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 October 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 October 4 - . 07:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-27.
  • Luna 7 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 11. Mass: 1,504 kg (3,315 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 1610 . COSPAR: 1965-077A. Summary: Lunar soft landing attempt. The Luna 7 spacecraft was intended to achieve a soft landing on the Moon. However, due to premature retrofire and cutoff of the retrorockets, the spacecraft impacted the lunar surface in the Sea of Storms..

1965 October 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 October 14 - . 19:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-37.
  • Molniya 1-02 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1967-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1621 . COSPAR: 1965-080A. Apogee: 39,921 km (24,805 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 718.80 min. Summary: France - USSR communications link. Second communications satellite 'Molniya-1'. Television programme transmission and long-range, two-way multi-channel telephone, phototelegraph and telegraph communications..

1965 October 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 October 16 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 U15001-04.
  • Cosmos 92 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 1626 . COSPAR: 1965-083A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried weather and biological experiments..

1965 October 28 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 U15001-03.
  • Cosmos 94 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 1636 . COSPAR: 1965-085A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried biological experiments..

1965 October 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 November 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 November 2 - . 12:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: UR-500. LV Configuration: UR-500 209.
  • Proton 2 - . Payload: N-4 s/n 2. Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-4 . Decay Date: 1966-02-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 1701 . COSPAR: 1965-087A. Apogee: 608 km (377 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. Summary: High energy physics laboratory. Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic particles. .

1965 November 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 November 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 November 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 November 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 November 12 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 2 - . Payload: 3MV-4 s/n 4. Mass: 962 kg (2,120 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-4. USAF Sat Cat: 1730 . COSPAR: 1965-091A. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.71 min. Venera 2 was launched towards the planet Venus and carried a TV system and scientific instruments. On February 27, 1966, the spacecraft passed Venus at a distance of 24,000 km and entered a heliocentric orbit. The spacecraft system had ceased to operate before the planet was reached and returned no data.

1965 November 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 November 16 - . 04:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 3 - . Payload: 3MV-3 s/n 1. Mass: 958 kg (2,112 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-3. Decay Date: 1966-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 1733 . COSPAR: 1965-092A. Venera 3 was launched towards the planet Venus. The mission was to land on the Venusian surface. The entry vehicle contained a radio communication system, scientific instruments, electrical power sources, and medallions bearing the coat of arms of the U.S.S.R. The station impacted Venus on March 1, 1966. However, the communications systems had failed before planetary data could be returned.

1965 November 23 - . 03:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: At T+528 sec, during the final thrust phase of the Block I's 8D715K engine, one of the combustion chambers blew up due to a tear in the fuel pipeline. This resulted in an abnormal separation of the upper stages.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 96 - . Payload: 3MV-4 s/n 6. Mass: 960 kg (2,110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-4. Decay Date: 1965-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 1742 . COSPAR: 1965-094A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 51.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: The escape stage Block L entered parking orbit tumbling and was not able to operate properly..

1965 November 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venus launch delayed. - . Payload: 3MV-3. Nation: USSR. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-3. Decay Date: 1965-11-26 . Summary: The launch attempt was abandoned due to a launch vehicle malfunction during pre-launch preparations..

1965 November 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 November 27 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-05.
  • Cosmos 98 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 31. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 1780 . COSPAR: 1965-097A. Apogee: 547 km (339 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 November 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 December 3 - . 10:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-28.
  • Luna 8 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 12. Mass: 1,550 kg (3,410 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 1810 . COSPAR: 1965-099A. Lunar soft landing attempt failed. Luna 8's objectives were to test a soft lunar landing system and scientific research. Weighing 1,552 kg (3,422 lbs), the spacecraft was following a trajectory close to the calculated one and the equipment was functioning normally. However, the retrofire was late, and the spacecraft impacted the lunar surface in the Sea of Storms. Tass reported that "the systems were functioning normally at all stages of the landing except the final touchdown." The mission did complete the experimental development of the star-orientation system and ground control of radio equipment, flight trajectory, and other instrumentation.

1965 December 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 December 10 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-04.
  • Cosmos 99 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 32. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 1817 . COSPAR: 1965-103A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 December 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 U22502 No. 1L.
  • OGCh No. 01L - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: OGCh. COSPAR: U651216A. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: First suborbital test of the FOBS system. Impacted within specification CEP in target zone..

1965 December 17 - . 02:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M R15000-31.
  • Cosmos 100 - . Payload: Meteor no. 3. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 2002-02-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1843 . COSPAR: 1965-106A. Apogee: 547 km (339 mi). Perigee: 485 km (301 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 95.00 min. Summary: Probable weather satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1965 December 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/4?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 December 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 December 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 December 27 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 11A510. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A510 G15000-01.
  • Cosmos 102 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1966-01-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 1867 . COSPAR: 1965-111A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Prototype RORSAT hardware using chemical batteries in place of nuclear reactor..

1965 December 28 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65S3. LV Configuration: Kosmos 65S3 09LP.
  • Cosmos 103 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-2. Decay Date: 1990-01-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1868 . COSPAR: 1965-112A. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 88.00 min. Summary: Possible test flight..

1965 December 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 January 7 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 104 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 36. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-01-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1903 . COSPAR: 1966-001A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program not completely met. Spacecraft put into incorrect orbit by abnormal function of second and third stages of booster..

1966 January 22 - . 08:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 105 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 38. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 1945 . COSPAR: 1966-003A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 January 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 January 31 - . 11:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M U103-32.
  • Luna 9 - . Payload: E-6M s/n 13. Mass: 1,580 kg (3,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1966-02-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 1954 . COSPAR: 1966-006A. Soft landed on Moon; photographed surface for 3 days. Landed on Moon 3 February 1966 at 18:44:52 GMT, Latitude 7.08 N, Longitude 295.63 E - Oceanus Procellarum. The Luna 9 spacecraft was the first spacecraft to achieve a lunar soft landing and to transmit photographic data to Earth. Seven radio sessions, totaling 8 hours and 5 minutes, were transmitted as were three series of TV pictures. When assembled, the photographs provided a panoramic view of the nearby lunar surface. The pictures included views of nearby rocks and of the horizon 1.4 Km away from the spacecraft.

1966 February 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Construction starts on N1 launch pad 110 west. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3.

1966 February 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 U22502 No. 02L.
  • OGCh No. 02L - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: OGCh. COSPAR: U660205A. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: Second suborbital test of the FOBS system..

1966 February 10 - . 08:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 107 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 34. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-02-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 1998 . COSPAR: 1966-010A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 February 19 - . 08:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 109 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-02-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 2019 . COSPAR: 1966-014A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried biological experiments..

1966 February 22 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-06.
  • Cosmos 110 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 5. Mass: 5,700 kg (12,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volynov; Shonin; Beregovoi; Shatalov. Agency: MOM. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 20.69 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2070 . COSPAR: 1966-015A. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Successfully recovered March 15, 1966 13:00 GMT. Precursor mission for Voskhod 3 hardware. Two dogs carried into lower Van Allen radiation belts.
    Officially: Biological research.

    Voskhod s/n 5 launched at 23:10 Moscow time, with two dogs, Veterka and Ygolka, aboard. This will be a 25-day mission. Kamanin is disgusted, he had proposed this as a 25-day mission by a single cosmonaut, but Korolev had constantly held with the 'dog variant'. Preparations for Voskhod-3 are proceeding well. The prime and back-up crews have completed their training and will take their examinations on 28 February. Parallel trials of the oxygen regeneration system at IMBP and OKB-124 both went well (IMBP, 12 days so far, temperature 16-24 deg C, 70% humidity; OKB-124, 10 days so far, temperature 18-16 deg C, 65% humidity).


1966 March 1 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-41. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L lost roll control during unpowered coast in parking orbit because the axis of the course regulator of the control system jammed in the zero position. The stage's engine was not fired.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 111 - . Payload: Ye-6S s/n 204. Mass: 6,540 kg (14,410 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6S. Decay Date: 1966-03-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 2093 . COSPAR: 1966-017A. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.00 min.

1966 March 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 March 17 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 U22502 No. 03L.
  • OGCh No. 03L - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: OGCh. COSPAR: U660316A. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Last of three suborbital flight tests of the FOBS system. The second stage of the booster placed the third stage and dummy warhead on a depressed trajectory with a range of 8500 km but an altitude of only 220 km (versus 800 to 1200 km for an optimum ballistic trajectory). The third stage than executed a 180 degree turn and its engines were fired to further brake the warhead to an impact on the Kamchatka peninsula. The second stage meanwhile continued on to reentry over the Pacific Ocean.

1966 March 21 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 113 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 2114 . COSPAR: 1966-023A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 March 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 March 24 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: UR-500. LV Configuration: UR-500 211. FAILURE: Second stage malfunction.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • N-4 s/n 3 - . Payload: N-4. Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-4. Decay Date: 1966-03-24 . COSPAR: F660324A.

1966 March 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-38. FAILURE: The booster failed during ascent. The launcher and payload broke up on impact with the ground.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Molniya-1 s/n 5 Failure - . Payload: Molniya-1 s/n 5. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. COSPAR: F660327A.

1966 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • SLI K Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 March 31 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-42.
  • Luna 10 - . Payload: E-6S s/n 206 ISL. Mass: 1,597 kg (3,520 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6S. USAF Sat Cat: 2126 . COSPAR: 1966-027A. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). Development of system to permit the creation of an artificial lunar satellite for the investigation of circumlunar space; development of onboard systems for putting a station into a selenocentric (circumlunar) orbit. Orbit: Lunar Orbiter. The Luna 10 spacecraft was launched towards the Moon from an Earth orbiting platform. The spacecraft entered lunar orbit 3 50 x 1017 km, inclination 71.9 deg to plane of the lunar equator. on April 4, 1966. Scientific instruments included a gamma-ray spectrometer for energies between 0.3--3 MeV, a triaxial magnetometer, a meteorite detector, instruments for solar-plasma studies, and devices for measuring infrared emissions from the Moon and radiation conditions of the lunar environment. Gravitational studies were also conducted. The spacecraft played back to Earth the `Internationale' during the Twenty-third Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Luna 10 was battery powered and operated for 460 lunar orbits and 219 active data transmissions before radio signals were discontinued on May 30, 1966.

1966 April 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • SLI K Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 April 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 April 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 April 20 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 115 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 35. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 2147 . COSPAR: 1966-033A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: . Program partially completed. Abnormal operation of SA-10 camera..

1966 April 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 April 25 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-39.
  • Molniya 1-03 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1973-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2151 . COSPAR: 1966-035A. Apogee: 39,414 km (24,490 mi). Perigee: 546 km (339 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 709.80 min. Summary: Also transmitted cloud cover images. Television programme transmission and long-range two-way multi-channel telephone, phototelegraph and telegraph communicaitons. .

1966 April 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 April 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 May 6 - . 11:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 N15001-01.
  • Cosmos 117 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 39. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-05-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2163 . COSPAR: 1966-037A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 May 11 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 118 - . Payload: Meteor no. 4. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1988-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 2168 . COSPAR: 1966-038A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 316 km (196 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Summary: Probable weather satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1966 May 20 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 U22502 No. 04L.
  • OGCh No. 04L - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: OGCh. COSPAR: U660519A. Summary: Possible suborbital test of FOBS booster or failed FOBS test. Not mentioned as FOBS-related in contemporary CIA assessments..

1966 May 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • PBG - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 May 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials launch (41) - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 June 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 June 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 June 8 - . 11:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 120 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 41. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2196 . COSPAR: 1966-050A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 June 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • SLI K Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 June 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 June 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. Launch Pad: LC60/7?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Palma-1 Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 June 25 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M N15000-21.
  • Cosmos 122 - . Payload: Meteor no. 5. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2254 . COSPAR: 1966-057A. Apogee: 388 km (241 mi). Perigee: 371 km (230 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1966 June 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Palma-1 Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 June 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 July 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 July 6 - . 12:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: UR-500. LV Configuration: UR-500 212.
  • Proton 3 - . Payload: N-4 s/n 4. Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-4 . Decay Date: 1966-09-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2290 . COSPAR: 1966-060A. Apogee: 594 km (369 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Summary: Space station 'Proton 3'. Investigation of ultra high energy cosmic particles .

1966 July 14 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-14.
  • Cosmos 124 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 42. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-07-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 2325 . COSPAR: 1966-064A. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 July 20 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 11A510. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A510 G15000-02.
  • Cosmos 125 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1966-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 2351 . COSPAR: 1966-067A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Prototype RORSAT hardware using chemical batteries in place of nuclear reactor. Lost on the 52nd revolution as a result of a possible failure in the chemical power units placed on board instead of the nuclear BES-5..

1966 July 28 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-01.
  • Cosmos 126 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 2368 . COSPAR: 1966-068A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 August 8 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-13.
  • Cosmos 127 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-08-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2391 . COSPAR: 1966-071A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 August 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 August 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 August 24 - . 08:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-43.
  • Luna 11 - . Payload: E-6LF s/n 101. Mass: 1,638 kg (3,611 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LF. USAF Sat Cat: 2406 . COSPAR: 1966-078A. Automatic station Luna 11. Further development of artificial lunar satellite systems and conduct of scientific experiments in circumlunar space. Lunar orbit 160 km x 1200 km x 27 degrees. Luna 11 was launched towards the Moon from an earth-orbiting platform and entered lunar orbit on August 28, 1966. The objectives of the mission included the study of: (1) lunar gamma- and X-ray emissions in order to determine the Moon's chemical composition; (2) lunar gravitational anomalies; (3) the concentration of meteorite streams near the Moon; and, (4) the intensity of hard corpuscular radiation near the Moon. A total of 137 radio transmissions and 277 orbits of the Moon were completed before the batteries failed on October 1, 1966.

1966 August 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 August 27 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-03.
  • Cosmos 128 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 2409 . COSPAR: 1966-079A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 September 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. FAILURE: Launch vehicle destroyed. Failure of Block D core stage.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 40 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 40. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1966-09-16 . COSPAR: F660916A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 September 17 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 U22502 No. 05L.
  • OGCh - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1966-11-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2437 . COSPAR: 1966-088A. Apogee: 792 km (492 mi). Perigee: 138 km (85 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 93.90 min. First attempted orbital Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test. The second stage of the booster placed the third stage and dummy warhead into a 214 km x 523 km parking orbit. altitude. The third stage was evidently wrongly oriented, and instead of braking the warhead into an impact at Kapustin Yar, boosted it into a higher 280 km x 1,010 km orbit. The dummy warhead seperated but was commanded to self destruct, resulting in over 100 catalogued orbiting objects.

1966 September 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 September 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 September 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 October 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 October 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 October 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Palma-2 operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 October 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Palma-2 Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 October 20 - . 07:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-40.
  • Molniya 1-04 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1968-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2501 . COSPAR: 1966-092A. Apogee: 39,689 km (24,661 mi). Perigee: 500 km (310 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 714.40 min. Summary: Television programme transmission and long-range two-way multi-channel telephone, phototelegraph and telegraph communicaitons..

1966 October 20 - . 08:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-04.
  • Cosmos 130 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 2502 . COSPAR: 1966-093A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 October 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Palma-2 Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 October 22 - . 08:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-44.
  • Luna 12 - . Payload: E-6LF s/n 102. Mass: 1,620 kg (3,570 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LF. USAF Sat Cat: 2508 . COSPAR: 1966-094A. Lunar Orbiter, further development of artificial lunar satellite systems and conduct of scientific experiments in circumlunar space. Luna 12 was launched towards the Moon from an earth-orbiting platform and achieved a lunar orbit of of 100 km x 1740 km on October 25, 1966. The spacecraft was equipped with a television system that obtained and transmitted photographs of the lunar surface. The photographs contained 1100 scan lines with a maximum resolution of 14.9--19.8 m. Pictures of the lunar surface were returned on October 27, 1966. The number of photographs is not known. Radio transmissions from Luna 12 ceased on January 19, 1967, after 602 lunar orbits and 302 radio transmissions.

1966 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Palma-2 operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 October 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI Last operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 October 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 November 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 November 2 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 N22500 No. 06L.
  • OGCh - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1976-04-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 2931 . COSPAR: 1966-101AS. Apogee: 767 km (476 mi). Perigee: 504 km (313 mi). Inclination: 49.1000 deg. Period: 97.43 min. Summary: Second attempted orbital Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test. failure - self destruct charge was detonated, resulting in 50 catalogued orbiting objects. No impact of the dummy warhead in the Kapustin Yar impact zone..

1966 November 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 November 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • First N1 hardware arrives at Baikonur. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3.

1966 November 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
1966 November 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 November 19 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 N15001-08.
  • Cosmos 132 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 46. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 2599 . COSPAR: 1966-106A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 November 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • 8F764 warhead state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 November 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 November 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 November 28 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-02.
  • Cosmos 133 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 2. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.97 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2601 . COSPAR: 1966-107A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. First test flight of Soyuz 7K-OK earth orbit spacecraft. A planned 'all up' test, with a second Soyuz to be launched the following day and automatically dock with Kosmos 133. This was to be followed by a manned link-up in December 1966. However Kosmos 133's attitude control system malfunctioned, resulting in rapid consumption of orientation fuel, leaving it spinning at 2 rpm. After heroic efforts by ground control and five attempts at retrofire over two days, the craft was finally brought down for a landing on its 33rd revolution. However due to the inaccuracy of the reentry burn, it was determined that the capsule would land in China. The APO self destruct system detected the course deviation and the destruct charge of several dozen kilogrammes of explosive was thought to have destroyed the ship on November 30, 1966 at 10:21 GMT. But stories persisted over the years of the Chinese having a Soyuz capsule in their possession....

1966 December 3 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-06.
  • Cosmos 134 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2603 . COSPAR: 1966-108A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried scientific experiments..

1966 December 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 December 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 December 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • 8F764 warhead state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 December 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-01. FAILURE: Erroneous firing of launch escape tower ignited launch vehicle on the pad.. Failed Stage: P.
  • Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 2 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. COSPAR: F661214A. Second attempted flight of Soyuz 7K-OK (the spacecraft planned for the linkup with Ksomos 133). An analogue to Mercury Redstone's 'day we launched the tower' but with more disastorous consequences. The core stage ignited, but the strap-ons did not. A booster shutdown was commanded. The service towers were brought back around the booster, and ground crew began work to defuel the launch vehicle. At 27 minutes after the original launch attempt, the Soyuz launch escape system, having received the signal that liftoff had occurred, detected that the booster was not on course (either because a tower arm nudged the booster or because the earth's rotation as detected by the gyros had moved the spacecraft out of limits relative to its original inertial position). The launch escape system ignited, pulling the Soyuz away from the booster, igniting the third stage fuel tanks, leading to an explosion that severely damaged the pad and killed at least one person (the Soviet Rocket Forces major supervising the launch team) and injured many others.

1966 December 21 - . 10:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-45.
  • Luna 13 - . Payload: E-6M s/n 205. Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6M. Decay Date: 1966-12-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2626 . COSPAR: 1966-116A. Soft landed on Moon 24 December 1966 at 18:01:00 GMT, Latitude 18.87 N, 297.95 E - Oceanus Procellarum. The petal encasement of the spacecraft was opened, antennas were erected, and radio transmissions to Earth began four minutes after the landing. On December 25 and 26, 1966, the spacecraft television system transmitted panoramas of the nearby lunar landscape at different sun angles. Each panorama required approximately 100 minutes to transmit. The spacecraft was equipped with a mechanical soil-measuring penetrometer, a dynamograph, and a radiation densitometer for obtaining data on the mechanical and physical properties and the cosmic-ray reflectivity of the lunar surface. It is believed that transmissions from the spacecraft ceased before the end of December 1966.

1966 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 January 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 January 25 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 N22500 No. 07L.
  • Cosmos 139 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1967-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 2656 . COSPAR: 1967-005A. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). Perigee: 144 km (89 mi). Inclination: 49.7000 deg. Period: 88.00 min. Summary: Third orbital Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test. First apparently successful test. The warhead was braked to an impact in the Kapustin Yar range..

1967 February 7 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-03.
  • Cosmos 140 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 3. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.98 days. Decay Date: 1967-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 2667 . COSPAR: 1967-009A. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. After the self-destruction of the first Soyuz 7K-OK on re-entry, and the loss of the second one on the pad fire in December, the state commission ruled that the third 7K-OK model would be flown unpiloted on a solo mission. If this was successful then the fourth and fifth Soyuz would be flown on a manned docking mission. Once in orbit Cosmos 140 experienced attitude control problems due to a faulty star sensor resulting in excessive fuel consumption. The spacecraft couldn't keep the required orientation towards the sun to keep the solar panels illuminated, and the batteries discharged. Despite all of these problems the spacecraft remained controllable. An attempted manoeuvre on the 22nd revolution still showed problems with the control system. It malfunctioned yet again during retrofire, leading to a steeper than planned uncontrolled ballistic re-entry. The re-entry capsule itself had depressurised on separation from the service module due to a fault in the base of the capsule. A 300 mm hole burned through in the heat shield during re-entry. Although such events would have been lethal to any human occupants, the capsule's recovery systems operated and the capsule crashed through the ice of the frozen Aral Sea, 3 km from shore and 500 kilometres short of the intended landing zone. The spacecraft finally sank in 10 meters of water and had to be retrieved by divers. Still, the mission was deemed 'good enough' for the next mission to be a manned two-craft docking and crew transfer space spectacular. Mishin and Kamanin felt that a human crew could have sorted out the problems. They were also under intense pressure to achieve a manned circumlunar flight before the 50th Anniversary of the Soviet Revolution in October.

1967 February 27 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-03.
  • Cosmos 143 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 45. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-03-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 2693 . COSPAR: 1967-017A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Placed into orbit with 22.8 second period different from that planned. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also carried science package..

1967 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 March 10 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: UR-500K/Blok D N10722701.
  • Cosmos 146 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1P s/n 2P. Mass: 5,017 kg (11,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Duration: 7.90 days. Decay Date: 1967-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 2705 . COSPAR: 1967-021A. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Protoype Soyuz 7K-L1P launched by Proton into planned highly elliptical earth orbit. The first flight four-stage Proton rocket began assembly on 21 November 1966, with mechanical assembly completed by 29 November. Electrical connections and tests were completed by 4 December 1966. Due to New Year’s holidays work did not resume until 28 January 1967. By 28 February the fully assembled booster / spacecraft unit was completed in the MIK, including the 7K-L1P boilerplate spacecraft. The launch tower was added on 2 March 1967 and the system was declared ready for launch. A serious potential problem during preparations was the discovery that fuel gases could lead to pump cavitation at the turbine exits. Tests on the ground showed that the problem was not the fuel itself, but in the monitoring equipment. The launch vehicle and Block D stage functioned correctly and put the spacecraft into a translunar trajectory. The spacecraft was not aimed at the moon, did not have a heat shield for reentry, and no recovery was planned or attempted. A successful launch that created false confidence just before the string of failures that would follow.

1967 March 22 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 N22500 No. 08L. FAILURE: Failure.
1967 March 24 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65.
  • Cosmos 151 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-2. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 2720 . COSPAR: 1967-027A. Apogee: 399 km (247 mi). Perigee: 384 km (238 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Summary: Possible test flight..

1967 March 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 April 8 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 228-01. FAILURE: Block D ullage rocket failure; no restart.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Cosmos 154 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1P s/n 3P. Mass: 5,020 kg (11,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Mishin; Tsybin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Duration: 1.98 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 2745 . COSPAR: 1967-032A. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Protoype Soyuz 7K-L1 manned circumlunar spacecraft. There are high winds for the L1 launch, 15-17 m/s. The official limit is 20 m/s, but Chelomei wants to scrub the launch if winds go over 15 m/s. Nevertheless the launch proceeds in 17-18 m/s winds and the L1 reached earth orbit. However the Block D translunar injection stage failed to fire (ullage rockets, which had to fire to settle propellants in tanks before main engine fired, were jettisoned prematurely). The failure is blamed on Mishin and has Tsybin seething in anger. Mishin is disorganised and has made many mistakes. Spacecraft burned up two days later when orbit decayed. Later in the day comes the news the RTS has to be replaced on one of the Soyuz 1/2 spacecraft. This will have a 3 to 4 day schedule impact, and push the launch back to 15-20 April. The crews arrive the same day for the upcoming Soyuz launch.

1967 April 12 - . 10:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-08.
  • Cosmos 155 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 2750 . COSPAR: 1967-033A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 April 23 - . 00:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-04.
  • Soyuz 1 - . Call Sign: Rubin (Ruby ). Crew: Komarov. Backup Crew: Gagarin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 4. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Komarov; Gagarin. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.12 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2759 . COSPAR: 1967-037A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 50.8000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Space disaster that put back Soviet lunar program 18 months. Soyuz 1 as active spacecraft was launched first. Soyuz 2, with a 3 man crew would launch the following day, with 2 cosmonauts spacewalking to Soyuz 1. However immediately after orbital insertion Komarov's problems started. One of the solar panels failed to deploy, staying wrapped around the service module. Although only receiving half of the planned solar power, an attempt was made to manoeuvre the spacecraft. This failed because of interference of the reaction control system exhaust with the ion flow sensors that were one of the Soyuz' main methods of orientation. Additional Details: here....

1967 May 12 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 157 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 49. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-05-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 2781 . COSPAR: 1967-044A. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Perigee: 249 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Bad quality film loaded into SA-20 camera..

1967 May 16 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M Ya716-56.
  • Cosmos 159 - . Payload: E-6LS s/n 111. Mass: 4,490 kg (9,890 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LS. Decay Date: 1977-11-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2805 . COSPAR: 1967-046A. Apogee: 60,637 km (37,678 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 1,174.20 min. Summary: The E-6LS was a radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. The payload entered the desired orbit as Kosmos-159..

1967 May 17 - . 16:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Ya22500 No. 09L.
  • Cosmos 160 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1967-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 2806 . COSPAR: 1967-047A. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi). Perigee: 137 km (85 mi). Inclination: 49.7000 deg. Period: 87.60 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment system test..

1967 May 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 May 24 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-05 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1971-11-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 2822 . COSPAR: 1967-052A. Apogee: 35,690 km (22,170 mi). Perigee: 90 km (55 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 627.00 min. Summary: Further development and experimental operation of long-range two-way television and telephone-telegraph radio-communication..

1967 May 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • 8F765 warhead state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 June 1 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 Ya15001-11.
  • Cosmos 162 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-06-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 2827 . COSPAR: 1967-054A. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 June 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • 8F765 warhead state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 June 12 - . 02:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 4 - . Payload: 1V (V-67) s/n 310. Mass: 1,104 kg (2,433 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 1V (V-67). Decay Date: 1967-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 2840 . COSPAR: 1967-058A. Venera 4 was successfully launched towards the planet Venus with the announced mission of direct atmospheric studies. On October 18, 1967, the descent vehicle entered the Venusian atmosphere. Signals were returned by the spacecraft, which deployed a parachute after braking to subsonic velocity in the Venusian atmosphere, until it reached an altitude of 24.96 km.

1967 June 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • 8F765 warhead state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 June 17 - . 02:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Stage 4's engine 11D33 failed to ignite because the turbopump had not been cooled before ignition.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 167 - . Payload: 1V (V-67) s/n 311. Mass: 1,106 kg (2,438 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 1V (V-67). Decay Date: 1967-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 2852 . COSPAR: 1967-063A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Suggestions for the cause of the failure included incorrect soldering of wires in multiple pin plugs, wrong attachments of the plugs to the pyrotechnic connectors, or a mix-up of the pyrotechnic connectors during assembly.. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1967 June 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 July 4 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 Ya15001-05.
  • Cosmos 168 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 52. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 2869 . COSPAR: 1967-067A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 223 km (138 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 July 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 July 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 July 17 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Ya22500 No. 11L.
  • Cosmos 169 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1967-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 2878 . COSPAR: 1967-069A. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Perigee: 135 km (83 mi). Inclination: 49.7000 deg. Period: 87.80 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment system test..

1967 July 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. Launch Pad: PU32?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • SBP Special test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 July 21 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 Ya15001-14. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. COSPAR: F670721A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1967 July 31 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Ya22500 No. 12L.
  • Cosmos 170 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1967-07-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 2902 . COSPAR: 1967-074A. Apogee: 199 km (123 mi). Perigee: 141 km (87 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 87.90 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment system test..

1967 August 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 August 8 - . 16:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Ya22500 No. 10L.
  • Cosmos 171 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1967-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 2911 . COSPAR: 1967-077A. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi). Perigee: 138 km (85 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 87.60 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment system test..

1967 August 9 - . 05:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 172 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 2914 . COSPAR: 1967-078A. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 August 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 August 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110R. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1 launch pad 110 east completed - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3.

1967 August 31 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 174 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1968-12-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2925 . COSPAR: 1967-082A. Apogee: 39,796 km (24,728 mi). Perigee: 430 km (260 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 715.00 min. Summary: Probable commsat failure. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1967 September 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. Launch Pad: PU31?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 September 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. Launch Pad: PU32?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 September 16 - . 06:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 177 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 53. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2947 . COSPAR: 1967-088A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 September 19 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Ya22500 No. 14L.
  • Cosmos 178 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1967-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 2951 . COSPAR: 1967-089A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 138 km (85 mi). Inclination: 49.7000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment system test..

1967 September 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 September 22 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Ya22500 No. 15L.
  • Cosmos 179 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1967-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 2962 . COSPAR: 1967-091A. Apogee: 207 km (128 mi). Perigee: 139 km (86 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 87.90 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment system test..

1967 September 27 - . 22:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 229-01. FAILURE: First stage -1 RD-253 failed, resulting at T+67 sec in deviation from flight path.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 4L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 4L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Barmin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1967-09-28 . COSPAR: F670927B. First attempted circumlunar flight. The UR-500K failed, crashing 50 to 60 km from the launch pad. The L1 radio beacon was detected 65 km north of the Baikonur aerodrome by an Il-14 search aircraft. An Mi-6 helicopter recovered the capsule and had it back to the cosmodrome by 13:30. Mishin's record: of seven launches of the Soyuz and L1, only one has been successful. Film of the launch shows that one engine of the first stage failed. Mishin still wants to launch the next L1 by 28 October. The other chief designers oppose the move. Barmin says at least five months are needed to diagnose the cause of the failures and makes fixes to ensure they don't happen again. Nevertheless the leadership sides with Mishin, and Barmin is ordered to prepare the left Proton pad for a launch within 30 to 40 days.

1967 October 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 October 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 October 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 October 3 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-06 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1969-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 2973 . COSPAR: 1967-095A. Apogee: 39,709 km (24,673 mi). Perigee: 508 km (315 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 714.90 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1967 October 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 October 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65.
  • VKZ - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 4,400 km (2,700 mi).

1967 October 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 October 16 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 182 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2995 . COSPAR: 1967-098A. Apogee: 374 km (232 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 October 18 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Ya22500 No. 16L.
  • Cosmos 183 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1967-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3001 . COSPAR: 1967-099A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 140 km (80 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment system test..

1967 October 22 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-07 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1969-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 3008 . COSPAR: 1967-101A. Apogee: 39,709 km (24,673 mi). Perigee: 508 km (315 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 714.90 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1967 October 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 October 27 - . 02:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 185 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1969-01-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 3013 . COSPAR: 1967-104A. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 518 km (321 mi). Inclination: 64.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. Summary: First test of Istrebitel Sputnik. Only tested engine; no target launched. First launch of Tsykon launch vehicle..

1967 October 27 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 186 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 6. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.95 days. Decay Date: 1967-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 3014 . COSPAR: 1967-105A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Docked with Cosmos 188; first automated rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. The dockings were timed to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the October Revolution (in lieu of a succession of manned space feats that all had to be cancelled due to schedule delays). Achieved automatic rendezvous on second attempt. Capture achieved but hard docking and electric connections unsuccessful due to misallignment of spacecraft. Star tracker failed and had to make a high-G ballistic re-entry. Recovered October 31, 1967 08:20 GMT.

1967 October 28 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Ya22500 No. 13L.
  • Cosmos 187 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1967-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3016 . COSPAR: 1967-106A. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 143 km (88 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

1967 October 30 - . 08:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 188 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 5. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Mnatsakanian. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.04 days. Decay Date: 1967-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3020 . COSPAR: 1967-107A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Docking target craft for Cosmos 186, which achieved world's first automatic rendezvous on second attempt. Hard docking achieved but electric connections unsuccessful due to misallignment of spacecraft. Ion flow sensor failed and Cosmos 188 had to make a high-G uncontrolled re-entry. When it deviated too far off course, it was destroyed by the on-board self-destruct system,. However officially the Soviet Union reported that it landed succesfully on November 2, 1967 at 09:10 GMT, and that its mission was 'investigation of outer space, development of new systems and elements to be used in the construction of space devices'. Additional Details: here....

1967 November 22 - . 19:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 230-01. FAILURE: Second stage - 1 x RD-0210 failure, shutoff of stage 4 seconds after ignition. Launcher crashed downrange.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 5L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 5L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glushko; Chelomei; Mishin; Leonov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1967-11-21 . COSPAR: F671122A. The launch takes place at 00:07 local time (22:07 on 22 November Moscow time). Glushko, Chelomei, and Kamanin observe the launch from an observation point in -5 deg C weather. Three to four seconds after second stage ignition, the SAS pulls the spacecraft away from the booster. Telemetry shows that engine number 4 of stage 2 never ignited, and after 3.9 seconds the remaining three engines were shut dwon by the SBN (Booster Safety System) and the SAS abort tower fired. The capsule's radio beacon was detected and the spacecraft was found 80 km southwest of Dzhezkazgan, 285 km down range. The Proton problems are maddening. Over 100 rocket launches have used engines from this factory, with no previous failure. Of ten of the last launches under Mishin's direction (6 Soyuz and 4 L1) only two have went well - an 80% failure rate! Mishin is totally without luck. Kamanin and Leonov take an An-12 to see the L1 at its landing point. Leonov wants to see proof that the cosmonauts would be saved in any conditions. The capsule landed in -17 deg C and 12 m/s winds. The parachute pulled the capsule along the ground for 550 m, and the soft landing rockets fired somewhere above the 1.2 m design height. After safing of the APO self-destruct package, the capsule is lifted to an airfield by a Mi-4.

1967 November 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N-1 mockup 1M1 rolled out to launch pad - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. Summary: Stays on pad until 12 December for facilities checks. Photographed by US reconnsat on 11 December. 1M1 mockup scrapped in 1975..

1967 December 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 December 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 December 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 December 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 December 27 - . 11:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 198 - . Payload: US-A no. 1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1968-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 3082 . COSPAR: 1967-127B. Apogee: 927 km (576 mi). Perigee: 907 km (563 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 103.40 min. Summary: Prototype RORSAT hardware using chemical batteries in place of BES-5 nuclear reactor. First satellite to be boosted to 900 km storage orbit..

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 February 6 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 201 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-02-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 3118 . COSPAR: 1968-009A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 February 7 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M Ya716-57. FAILURE: At T+524.6 sec Stage 3's engine 11D55 cut off prematurely because it ran out of fuel due to an excessive fuel consumption rate through the gas-generator.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • E-6LS s/n 112 - . Payload: E-6LS s/n 112. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LS. Decay Date: 1968-02-07 . COSPAR: F680207A. Failed launch of an E-6LS radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. Suggestions for the abnormal consumption included the seizing up of a pintle valve for controlling fuel supply into the regulator or the seizing up of the fuel inlet control. The upper stages broke up in the atmosphere.

1968 February 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 March 2 - . 18:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 231-01.
  • Zond 4 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 6L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.22 days. Decay Date: 1968-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 3134 . COSPAR: 1968-013A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 15,561.71 min. What at first seemed to be a success, very much needed by the L1 program, ended in failure. The Proton booster lifted off in 18 m/s winds, -3 deg C temperatures, and into very low clouds - it disappeared from view at only 150 m altitude. Aircraft at 9, 10, and 11 km altitude reported the cloud deck topped 8300 m, with 1.5 to 2.0 km visibility. The spacecraft was successfully launched into a 330,000 km apogee orbit 180 degrees away from the moon. On reentry, the guidance system failed, and the planned double skip maneuver to bring the descent module to a landing in the Soviet Union was not possible. Ustinov had ordered the self-destruct package to be armed and the capsule blew up 12 km above the Gulf of Guinea. Kamanin disagreed strongly with this decision; the spacecraft could have still been recovered in the secondary area by Soviet naval vessels after a 20 G reentry. The decsion was made to recover the spacecraft in the future whenever possible.
    Officially: Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Study of remote regions of circumterrestrial space, development of new on-board systems and units of space stations.

1968 March 21 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 208 - . Payload: Zenit-2M. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3156 . COSPAR: 1968-022A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed high energy gamma ray experiment capsule. First flight of modernised Zenit-2 area survey reconnaissance satellite..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-04-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3167 . COSPAR: 1968-022C. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.08 min.

1968 March 22 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 209 - . Payload: US-A no. 2. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1968-04-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 3162 . COSPAR: 1968-023C. Apogee: 927 km (576 mi). Perigee: 876 km (544 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 103.00 min. Summary: RORSAT hardware, representative of production hardware, but using chemical batteries in place of BES-5 nuclear reactor..

1968 March 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65.
  • VKZ - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 4,000 km (2,400 mi).

1968 April 7 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M Ya716-58.
  • Luna 14 - . Payload: E-6LS s/n 113. Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LS. USAF Sat Cat: 3178 . COSPAR: 1968-027A. Lunar Orbiter; studied lunar gravitational field, Earth-Moon gravitational relationship, and conducted further scientific experiments in circumlunar space. Not revealed until years later was that the E-6LS was primarily intended to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. The Luna 14 spacecraft entered a 140 x 870 km x 42 degree lunar orbit on April 10, 1966. The spacecraft instrumentation was similar to that of Luna 10 and provided data for studies of the interaction of the earth and lunar masses, the lunar gravitational field, the propagation and stability of radio communications to the spacecraft at different orbital positions, solar charged particles and cosmic rays, and the motion of the Moon. This flight was the final flight of the second generation of the Luna series.

1968 April 14 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 212 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 8. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.92 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 3183 . COSPAR: 1968-029A. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Summary: Cosmos 212 docked with Cosmos 213 in the first completely successful test of the Soyuz 7K-OK attitude control, automatic rendezvous and docking systems. Cosmos 212 was successfully recovered on April 19, 1968 at 08:10 GMT.. Additional Details: here....

1968 April 15 - . 09:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 213 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 7. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 5.02 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 3193 . COSPAR: 1968-030A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Cosmos 213 was the target for Cosmos 212 in a successful test of Soyuz 7K-OK rendezvous and docking systems. The Cosmos 213 launch was the most accurate yet. The spacecraft was placed in orbit only 4 km from Cosmos 212, ready for a first-orbit docking. Both spacecraft were recovered, but Cosmos 213 was dragged by heavy wind across the steppes when the parachute lines didn't jettison at touchdown. This failure caused the upcoming Soyuz 2/3 manned docking mission to be scaled back.
    Officially: Investigation of outer space, development of new systems and elements to be used in the construction of space devices. Additional Details: here....

1968 April 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • 8F765 warhead state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 April 20 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 216 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 62. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3207 . COSPAR: 1968-034A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Spacecraft landed in River Volga 1 km from shore and sank after 42 minutes. 85% of the data was ruined..

1968 April 21 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-08 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1974-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 3209 . COSPAR: 1968-035A. Apogee: 40,099 km (24,916 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 720.80 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1968 April 22 - . 23:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 232-01. FAILURE: Second stage shut-off prematurely due to short-circuit in Zond control system.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 7L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 7L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1968-04-22 . COSPAR: F680422A. L1 launch attempt, lift-off at 02:00 local time. The spacecraft was to separate at 589 seconds into the flight. Instead at 260 seconds, a short circuit in the malfunction detection system incorrectly indicated a launch vehicle failure. This in turn triggered the SAS abort system. The SAS shut down the good stage and separated the spacecraft from the booster. The capsule landed safely 520 km downrange from the launch site. This was the third such abort, which if nothing else proved the reliability of the SAS - all of the spacecraft landed safely.

1968 April 24 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 217 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft: IS-P. Decay Date: 1968-04-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3216 . COSPAR: 1968-036A. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi). Perigee: 140 km (80 mi). Inclination: 62.3000 deg. Period: 87.70 min. Summary: Unsuccessful launch of ASAT target. Satellite did not separate from last rocket stage. Planned launch of interceptor cancelled..

1968 April 25 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Ya22500 No. 17L.
  • Cosmos 218 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1968-04-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 3217 . COSPAR: 1968-037A. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi). Perigee: 123 km (76 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 87.30 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

1968 April 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 May 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110R. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1 booster 4L erected at launch complex 110 east - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. A September 1968 flight test was planned. However the first stage LOX tank developed hairline cracks during ground tests. 4L was removed from the pad in June 1968. The first stage was cannibalized; the upper stages were incorporated into the 1M1 mockup for further training of the launch crews.

1968 May 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 May 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Ya22500 No. 18L.
  • OGCh - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. COSPAR: 1968-U01xx. Summary: Probable suborbital test of Fractional Orbital Bombardment System..

1968 May 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 May 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Ya22501m No. 19L.
  • OGCh - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. COSPAR: 1968-U02xx. Summary: Probable suborbital test of Fractional Orbital Bombardment System..

1968 June 4 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 224 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-06-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 3276 . COSPAR: 1968-046A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also measured atmospheric composition..

1968 June 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Special test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 June 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
1968 June 18 - . 06:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 227 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3294 . COSPAR: 1968-051A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 June 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 228 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 3298 . COSPAR: 1968-053A. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed cosmic ray experiment capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 3306 . COSPAR: 1968-053G. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.56 min.

1968 July 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 July 5 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-09 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1971-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 3310 . COSPAR: 1968-057A. Apogee: 39,806 km (24,734 mi). Perigee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 714.70 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1968 July 10 - . 19:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 231 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 64. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-07-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3316 . COSPAR: 1968-058A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 July 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. Launch Pad: LC81/pad?. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • L1 pad explosion. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. During launch preparations with the fuelled Proton / L1, there was an explosion, killing three technicians. Their death alone indicates the area around the pad was unsafe at the time. The Block D oxidiser tank of the L1 exploded - the first such failure in 30 uses. The rocket and spacecraft were relatively undamaged. The third stage of the Proton had some external damage due to exposure to the Block D's fuel, but it can be cleaned. The real question is how to remove the L1 spacecraft on the pad. A helicopter could hoist the spacecraft away, but the available Mi-6 or V-10 helos can lift only 8 to 10 tonnes, and the L1 weighs 14 tonnes. A V-10 crew is sent to investigate the possibilities anyway. Some engineers suggest just firing the BPO abort tower and lifting the capsule away from the stack! Emergency political and military meetings are held at the cosmodrome to discuss the impending invasion of Czechoslovakia.

1968 July 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1968 July 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Zond 7K-L1 s/n 8L - . Payload: Zond 7K-L1 s/n 8L. Mass: 5,140 kg (11,330 lb). Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1968-07-21 . Summary: Block D stage exploded on pad, killing three people. Booster and 7K-L1 spacecraft were still intact however..

1968 July 30 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 234 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3332 . COSPAR: 1968-062A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 August 9 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 235 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 61. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3339 . COSPAR: 1968-067A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Partially successful. Hard landing due to parachute sytem failure. 30% of the film damaged..

1968 August 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 August 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • RGCh state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 August 27 - . 11:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65.
  • Cosmos 236 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-2. Decay Date: 1990-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 3347 . COSPAR: 1968-070A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1968 August 28 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 238 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 9. Mass: 6,520 kg (14,370 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.96 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3351 . COSPAR: 1968-072A. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Recovered September 1, 1968 9:03 GMT. Final test of redesigned Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft for Soyuz 3 manned mission..

1968 September 5 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 239 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 3353 . COSPAR: 1968-073A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 September 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • RGCh state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 September 14 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 240 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 66. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 3388 . COSPAR: 1968-075A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 September 14 - . 21:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 234-01.
  • Zond 5 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 9L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.76 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 3394 . COSPAR: 1968-076A. Apogee: 385,000 km (239,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 14,722.06 min. First successful circumlunar flight with recovery. Test flight of manned spacecraft; launched from an earth parking orbit to make a lunar flyby and return to earth. On September 18, 1968, the spacecraft flew around the moon at an altitude of 1950 km. High quality photographs of the earth were taken at a distance of 90,000 km. A biological payload of turtles, wine flies, meal worms, plants, seeds, bacteria, and other living matter was included in the flight. Before re-entry the gyroscopic platform went off line due to ground operator failure. However this time the self destruct command was not given. After a ballistic 20G re-entry the capsule splashed down in the Indian Ocean at 32:63 S, 65:55 E on September 21, 1968 16:08 GMT. Soviet naval vessels were 100 km from the landing location and recovered the spacecraft the next day, shipping it via Bombay back to Soviet Union. Additional Details: here....

1968 September 23 - . 07:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 243 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 3418 . COSPAR: 1968-080A. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed passive microwave radio telescope capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 3452 . COSPAR: 1968-080C. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 89.23 min.

1968 October 2 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 V22501 No. 10T.
  • Cosmos 244 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1968-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3449 . COSPAR: 1968-082A. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi). Perigee: 140 km (80 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 87.40 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

1968 October 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • RGCh state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 October 5 - . 00:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-10 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1976-07-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 3469 . COSPAR: 1968-085A. Apogee: 39,596 km (24,603 mi). Perigee: 498 km (309 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 712.50 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1968 October 19 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 248 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft: IS-P. Decay Date: 1980-02-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3503 . COSPAR: 1968-090A. Apogee: 543 km (337 mi). Perigee: 475 km (295 mi). Inclination: 62.3000 deg. Period: 94.80 min. Summary: ASAT target. Intercepted repeatedly by Cosmos 249 on 20 October; destroyed by Cosmos 252 on 1 November..

1968 October 20 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 249 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1968-10-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 3504 . COSPAR: 1968-091A. Apogee: 2,075 km (1,289 mi). Perigee: 498 km (309 mi). Inclination: 62.3000 deg. Period: 111.30 min. ASAT interceptor. Intercepted Cosmos 248 target on second orbit. Repeatedly approached Cosmos 248, verifying primary and reserve homing and guidance systems. Destroyed itself in test of on-board destruct system. Counted as a failure by Western observers because that target was not destroyed; but this was not an objective of the test. Left 109 fragments in orbit, of which 54 were still in orbit in 1996.

1968 October 25 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 2 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 11. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3511 . COSPAR: 1968-093A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Unmanned docking target for Soyuz 3. Soyuz 2 launched on time at 12:00 local time, in 0 deg C temperatures and 5 m/s winds. Launch was on time 'as in Korolev's time', notes Kamanin. Docking with Soyuz 3 a failure. Recovered October 28, 1968 7:51 GMT, 5 km from its aim point. Maneuver Summary: 177km X 196km orbit to 184km X 230km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s.
    Officially: Complex testing of spaceship systems in conditions of space flight.

1968 October 26 - . 08:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 3 - . Call Sign: Argon (Argon ). Crew: Beregovoi. Backup Crew: Shatalov; Volynov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 10. Mass: 6,575 kg (14,495 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi; Shatalov; Volynov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.95 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 3516 . COSPAR: 1968-094A. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Second manned Soyuz flight. Rendezvoused with the unmanned Soyuz 2 but failed to dock. Complex testing of spaceship systems; development, in joint flight with space ship Soyuz 2 of processes of space ship manoeuvring and docking in artificial earth satellite orbit; development of elements of celestial navigation; conduct of research under space flight conditions. The failed docking was blamed on manual control of the Soyuz by Beregovoi, who repeatedly put the spacecraft in an orientation that nulled the automatic docking system. Beregovoi used nearly all of his orientation fuel in his first attempt to dock - of 80 kg allocated, only 8 to 10 kg was remaining. Additional Details: here....

1968 October 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1968 October 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 251 - . Payload: Zenit-4M no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 18.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3528 . COSPAR: 1968-096A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed radio astronony and gamma ray experiment capsule; maneuverable..

1968 November 1 - . 00:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 252 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1968-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3530 . COSPAR: 1968-097A. Apogee: 2,104 km (1,307 mi). Perigee: 535 km (332 mi). Inclination: 62.3000 deg. Period: 112.00 min. Summary: ASAT interceptor. Intercepted and destroyed Cosmos 248 target satellite within one day of launch. Left 139 fragments in orbit, the largest of any ASAT test..

1968 November 10 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 235-01.
  • Zond 6 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 12L. Mass: 5,375 kg (11,849 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bushuyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.79 days. Decay Date: 1968-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3535 . COSPAR: 1968-101A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Test flight of manned circumlunar spacecraft. Successfully launched towards the moon with a scientific payload including cosmic-ray and micrometeoroid detectors, photography equipment, and a biological specimens. A midcourse correction on 12 November resulted in a loop around the moon at an altitude of 2,420 km on 14 November. Zond 6 took spectacular photos of the moon’s limb with the earth in the background. Photographs were also taken of the lunar near and far side with panchromatic film from distances of approximately 11,000 km and 3300 km. Each photo was 12.70 by 17.78 cm. Some of the views allowed for stereo pictures. On the return leg a gasket failed, leading to cabin depressurisation, which would have been fatal to a human crew. The 7K-L1 then made the first successful double skip trajectory, dipping into the earth's atmosphere over Antarctica, slowing from 11 km/sec to suborbital velocity, then skipping back out into space before making a final re-entry onto Soviet territory. The landing point was only 16 km from the pad from which it had been launched toward the moon. After the re-entry the main parachute ejected prematurely, ripping the main canopy, leading to the capsule being destroyed on impact with the ground. One negative was recovered from the camera container and a small victory obtained over the Americans. But the criteria for a manned flight had obviously not been met and Mishin's only hope to beet the Americans was a failure or delay in the Apollo 8 flight set for December. The next Zond test was set for January. Additional Details: here....

1968 November 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110R. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1 1M1 mockup erected on pad with L1S payload - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Summary: The N1 mockup was again erected on the pad, in order to conduct tests of the L1S payload in advance of the availability of the 3L launch vehicle..

1968 November 16 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 236-01.
  • Proton 4 - . Payload: N-6 s/n 1. Mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-6 . Decay Date: 1969-07-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 3544 . COSPAR: 1968-103A. Apogee: 477 km (296 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Summary: First launch of the Proton three-stage variant. The satellite studied the nature of high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays and their interaction with atomic nuclei. Scientific payload 12,500 kg; operated for 100 days in orbit. .

1968 December 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 December 10 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 258 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 69. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3602 . COSPAR: 1968-111A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 December 16 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 260 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1973-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 3619 . COSPAR: 1968-115A. Apogee: 39,573 km (24,589 mi). Perigee: 506 km (314 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 712.20 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1968 December 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • RGCh state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 December 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110R. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1 launch vehicle 3L erected on launch pad - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. Summary: The 3L vehicle, without its payload (which was on the 1M1 mockup), is erected on the pad to test engine systems..

1968 December 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1 launch pad 110 west completed - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3.

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 January 5 - . 06:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 5 - . Payload: 2V (V-69) s/n 330. Mass: 1,128 kg (2,486 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Babakin. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 2V (V-69). Decay Date: 1969-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 3642 . COSPAR: 1969-001A. Venera 5 is launched at 9:26 Moscow time from LC-31 in -23 deg C temperatures. All proceeds according to plan. Afterwards Kamanin meets Babakin. Venera 6 is planned for launch in 10 January. He also plans two moon landings in 1969 and two in 1970 of soil sample return spacecraft. Kamanin does not believe America can achieve a manned moon landing in 1969, and therefore that Babakin has a very good chance of stealing their thunder.

    Meanwhile Venera 5 was launched from its parking orbit towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data. The spacecraft was very similar to Venera 4 although it was of a stronger design. When the atmosphere of Venus was approached, a capsule weighing 405 kg and containing scientific instruments was jettisoned from the main spacecraft. During satellite descent towards the surface of Venus, a parachute opened to slow the rate of descent. For 53 min on May 16, 1969, while the capsule was suspended from the parachute, data from the Venusian atmosphere were returned. The spacecraft also carried a medallion bearing the coat of arms of the U.S.S.R. and a bas-relief of V.I. Lenin to the night side of Venus.


1969 January 10 - . 05:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 6 - . Payload: 2V (V-69) s/n 331. Mass: 1,128 kg (2,486 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 2V (V-69). Decay Date: 1969-05-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3648 . COSPAR: 1969-002A. Venera 6 was launched towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data. When the atmosphere of Venus was approached, a capsule weighing 405 kg was jettisoned from the main spacecraft. This capsule contained scientific instruments. During descent towards the surface of Venus, a parachute opened to slow the rate of descent. For 51 min on May 17, 1969, while the capsule was suspended from the parachute, data from the Venusian atmosphere were returned. The spacecraft also carried a medallion bearing the coat of arms of the U.S.S.R. and a bas-relief of V.I. Lenin to the night side of Venus.

1969 January 14 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 4 - . Call Sign: Amur (Amur - river). Crew: Shatalov. Backup Crew: Shonin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 12. Mass: 6,625 kg (14,605 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Shonin. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 4; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 2.97 days. Decay Date: 1969-01-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3654 . COSPAR: 1969-004A. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Soyuz 4 is launched with Vladimir Shatalov aboard without further problems at 10:30. This time the rockets gyroscopes, the capsule communications, and the television camera all functioned perfectly. Volynov and his crew for Soyuz 5 watched the launch from Area 17. Later Soyuz 4 would dock with Soyuz 5, and following a transfer of two cosmonauts, return with Shatalov, Yevgeni Khrunov and Alexsei Yeliseyev from Soyuz 5. Official purpose: scientific, technical and medico-biological research, checking and testing of onboard systems and design elements of space craft, docking of piloted space craft and construction of an experimental space station, transfer of cosmonauts from one craft to another in orbit. This mission finally successfully completed the simulated lunar orbit docking and crew transfer mission attempted by Soyuz 1 in April 1967. In making the transfer Khrunov and Yeliseyev avoided the most spectacular survivable incident of the space age - the nose-first reentry of Soyuz 5, still attached to its service module.

1969 January 15 - . 07:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 5 - . Call Sign: Baikal (Baikal - lake in Siberia). Crew: Khrunov; Volynov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Kubasov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 13. Mass: 6,585 kg (14,517 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrunov; Volynov; Yeliseyev; Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Kubasov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 5; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.04 days. Decay Date: 1969-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3656 . COSPAR: 1969-005A. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. At 3 am an An-12 arrives from Moscow with ten newspapers, and letters for Shatalov, to be delivered by the Soyuz 5 crew to him as the first 'space mail'. At 05:15 the State Commission convened and approved launch at 10:04:30. The countdown proceeds normally; meanwhile communications sessions are held with Shatalov on Soyuz 4. The commission is taken by automobile convoy from Area 2, to Area 17, where the Soyuz 5 crew declares itself ready for flight. At T-25 minutes, with the crew already aboard the spacecraft, a piece of electrical equipment fails and needs to be replaced. Engineer-Captain Viktor Vasilyevich Alyeshin goes to the fuelled booster and replaces it. While doing this he notices that the access hatch has been secured with only three bolts, instead of the four required. Nevertheless the launch proceeds successfully. After Soyuz 5 is in orbit, it and Soyuz 4 begin their mutual series of manoeuvres for rendezvous and docking. Officially the flight conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological research, checking and testing of onboard systems and design elements of space craft, docking of piloted space craft and construction of an experimental space station, transfer of cosmonauts from one craft to another in orbit.

1969 January 20 - . 04:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 237-01. FAILURE: Second stage - One RD-0210 engine fails at T+510 sec, resulting in flight path deviation, automatic shutoff of launch vehicle.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 13L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 13L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Smirnov; Ustinov; Mishin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1969-01-19 . COSPAR: F690120A. Launch failure - but the abort system again functioned perfectly, taking the capsule to a safe landing (in Mongolia!). At 501 seconds into the flight one of the four engines of the second stage shut down, and remained shut down for 25 seconds. The ever-reliable SAS abort system detected the failure, and separated the capsule from the failed booster. Yet again a successful capsule recovery after a booster failure. Additional Details: here....

1969 January 23 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 264 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3667 . COSPAR: 1969-008A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried radio astronony and gamma ray experiments; maneuverable..

1969 January 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A. FAILURE: Payload propulsion system failed; no orbit.. Failed Stage: P.
  • US-A Mass Model - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1969-01-24 . COSPAR: F690125A. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: RORSAT hardware, representative of production hardware, but using chemical batteries in place of BES-5 nuclear reactor..

1969 February 19 - . 06:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 239-01. FAILURE: First-stage engine failure caused the rocket to crash 15 km from the pad.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Ye-8 s/n 201 + Lunokhod s/n 201 - first stage malfunction - . Payload: Ye-8 s/n 201 / 8EL No. 201. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8. Decay Date: 1969-02-19 . COSPAR: F690219A. Attempted launch of a Ye-8 with a Lunokhod lunar rover. Evidently coordinate in some way with the N1 launch two days later. A first-stage booster engine failure causes the rocket to crash 15 km from the pad after a lift-off at 09:48 local time. Kamanin meanwhile has the Hong Kong flu.

1969 February 21 - . 09:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110R. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1. LV Configuration: N-1 11A52 3L. FAILURE: First stage failure.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 3L launch - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1S s/n 3. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kirillov; Dorofeyev; Afanasyev, Sergei; Mishin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1A. Decay Date: 1969-02-21 . COSPAR: F690221A. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi). N-1 serial number 3L was the first N-1 launched. The vehicle ran into trouble immediately at lift-off. A fire developed in the tail compartment. The engine monitoring system detected the fire, but then gave an incorrect signal, shutting down all engines at 68.7 seconds into the flight. British intelligence detected the launch attempt, but the CIA's technical means for some reason missed it and they denied for years that it had ever occurred. In retrospect the launch team at Baikonur pointed to a grave mistake - at the christening of the first N1, the champagne bottle broke against the crawler-transporter rather than the hull of the rocket. After the 3L failure everyone knew there was no chance at all of beating the Americans to the moon. Additional Details: here....

1969 February 26 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 267 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3765 . COSPAR: 1969-017A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 March 24 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 274 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3833 . COSPAR: 1969-028A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried science package..

1969 March 27 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 240-01. FAILURE: T+51s payload shroud failed. Second stage continued but third stage failed to ignite.. Failed Stage: S.
  • M-69 s/n 521 - . Payload: M-69 s/n 521. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-69. Decay Date: 1969-03-27 . COSPAR: F690327A. Summary: Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars, together with a landing probe..

1969 March 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 April 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • OT? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 April 2 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 233-01. FAILURE: First stage - 1 x RD-253 fire beginning at T+ 0.02 sec, rocket crashed near pad.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • M-69 s/n 522 - . Payload: M-69 s/n 522. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-69. Decay Date: 1969-04-02 . COSPAR: F690402A. Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars, together with a landing probe. Further Mars launches during the 1969 launch window were cancelled when this attempt resulted in a major accident, which almost wiped out all of the leaders of the space industry. The Proton rocket lifted off, but one engine failed. The vehicle flew at an altitude of 50 m horizontally, finally exploding only a short distance from the launch pad, spraying the whole complex with poisonous propellants that were quickly spread by the wind. Everyone took off in their autos to escape, but which direction to go? Finally it was decided that the launch point was the safest, but this proved to be even more dangerous - the second stage was still intact and liable to explode. The contamination was so bad that there was no way to clean up - the only possibility was just to wait for rain to wash it away. This didn't happen until the Mars launch window was closed, so the first such probe was not put into space until 1971. This accident also severely damaged plans to divert attention from America's Apollo programme during the rest of 1969. 10-12 UR-500K launches had been intended to land on the moon lunar soil return and rover robots to supplement the N1 launches.

1969 April 11 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-11 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1974-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3885 . COSPAR: 1969-035A. Apogee: 39,595 km (24,603 mi). Perigee: 483 km (300 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 712.10 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1969 April 15 - . 08:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 279 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-04-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 3893 . COSPAR: 1969-038A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 April 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 April 23 - . 09:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 280 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3906 . COSPAR: 1969-040A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried weather experiments; maneuverable..

1969 April 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 May 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 May 29 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 284 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-06-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3971 . COSPAR: 1969-048A. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 June 14 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 238-01. FAILURE: Block D upper stage did not fire and payload did not attain earth orbit,. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Ye-8-5 s/n 402 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 402. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1; Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1969-06-04 . COSPAR: F690614A. Another attempt to launch a Ye-8-5 to return lunar soil to the earth, 'scooping', the Americans' impending Apollo 11 mission. Yet another UR-500K launch failure. This time the UR-500K booster functioned perfectly, but the Block D upper stage did not fire, and the payload did not even attain earth orbit. Every UR-500K launch is costing the Soviet state 100 million roubles. This failure pretty much ended the chances for the Russians to trump the American moon landing. Tass yesterday began running stories to prepare the masses for the upcoming Apollo 11 triumph. The party line is that the Soviet Union is not about to risks the lives of its cosmonauts on flights to the moon, when automated probes can safely retrieve soil from the moon for study on earth. Additional Details: here....

1969 June 24 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 287 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 76. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3991 . COSPAR: 1969-054A. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 June 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 June 27 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 288 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3994 . COSPAR: 1969-055A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 July 3 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110R. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1. LV Configuration: N-1 11A52 5L. FAILURE: First stage failure.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 5L launch - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1S s/n 5 / Dummy LK. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 11. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1A. Decay Date: 1969-07-03 . COSPAR: F690703A. N-1 serial number 5L began to fail at 0.25 second after liftoff when the oxidizer pump of engine number 8 ingested a slag fragment and exploded. A fire ensued as the vehicle climbed past the top of the tower. Engines were shutdown until the acceleration dropped below 1 G; then the vehicle began to fall back to the pad at a 45 degree angle. The escape tower fired at the top of the brief trajectory, taking the L1S dummy descent module away from the pad. Upon impact of the base of the N1 with the pad, the vehicle exploded, destroying launch pad 110 east, which would take over 18 months to repair. This was the end of a slight Soviet hope of upstaging the US Apollo 11. Additional Details: here....

1969 July 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 July 13 - . 02:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 242-01.
  • Luna 15 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 401. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1969-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4036 . COSPAR: 1969-058A. Apogee: 870 km (540 mi). Perigee: 240 km (140 mi). Inclination: 126.0000 deg. Period: 160.00 min. Unmanned soil return mission launched coincident with Apollo 11 mission in last ditch attempt to return lunar soil to earth before United States. After completing 86 communications sessions and 52 orbits of the Moon at various inclinations and altitudes, crashed on the moon on 20 July in an attempted landing. Altitude data used in programming inaccurate or guidance system unable to cope with effect of lunar mascons.
    Officially: Testing of on-board systems of the automatic station and further scientific investigation of the moon and circumlunar space. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1969 July 22 - . 12:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-12 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1971-06-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4043 . COSPAR: 1969-061A. Apogee: 39,526 km (24,560 mi). Perigee: 496 km (308 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 711.00 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1969 July 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Phase 1 state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 August 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 August 6 - . 05:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 291 - . Payload: IS-P Mass Model. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft: IS-P. Decay Date: 1969-09-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4058 . COSPAR: 1969-066A. Apogee: 548 km (340 mi). Perigee: 144 km (89 mi). Inclination: 62.2000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Summary: Test of Tsyklon 2 booster; ASAT target mass model. Did not enter typical target orbit due to lack of on-board engine. Simulated launch of ASAT interceptor planned for the next day was cancelled..

1969 August 7 - . 23:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 243-01.
  • Zond 7 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 11. Mass: 5,379 kg (11,858 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-08-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4062 . COSPAR: 1969-067A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Circumlunar flight; successfully recovered in USSR August 13, 1969. Only completely successful L1 flight that could have returned cosmonauts alive or uninjured to earth. Official mission was further studies of the moon and circumlunar space, to obtain colour photography of the earth and the moon from varying distances, and to flight test the spacecraft systems. Earth photos were obtained on August 9, 1969. On August 11, 1969, the spacecraft flew past the moon at a distance of 1984.6 km and conducted two picture taking sessions. Successfully accomplished double-dip re-entry and landed 50 km from aim point near Kustani in the USSR.

1969 August 16 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 293 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4072 . COSPAR: 1969-071A. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried science package..

1969 August 29 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 296 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-09-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4080 . COSPAR: 1969-075A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 September 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 September 15 - . 16:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Yu45201 No. 50T.
  • Cosmos 298 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1969-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4092 . COSPAR: 1969-077A. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi). Perigee: 127 km (78 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 87.30 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

1969 September 18 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 299 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4097 . COSPAR: 1969-078A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 September 23 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 244-01. FAILURE: Block D lost LOX due to valve defect.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Cosmos 300 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 403. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1969-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 4104 . COSPAR: 1969-080A. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Summary: Robotic lunar soil return mission. Failed to leave low earth orbit due to Block D stage failure..

1969 September 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1 on launch pad 110 west. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. Summary: This was the first new launch vehicle erection activity detected by US reconnsats after the destruction of pad 110 east in the July launch failure. The all-white launch vehicle, with no payload, is believed to be either N1 mockup 1M1 or flight vehicle 6L..

1969 September 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 October 11 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 6 - . Call Sign: Antey (Antaeus - mythological giant). Crew: Kubasov; Shonin. Backup Crew: Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 14. Mass: 6,577 kg (14,499 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kubasov; Shonin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.95 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4122 . COSPAR: 1969-085A. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Carried Vulkan welding furnace for vacuum welding experiments in depressurized orbital module. Was to have taken spectacular motion pictures of Soyuz 7 - Soyuz 8 docking but failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to new helium pressurization integrity test prior to mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Additional Details: here....

1969 October 12 - . 10:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 7 - . Call Sign: Buran (Snowstorm ). Crew: Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Volkov. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 15. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shonin; Kubasov; Mishin; Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Volkov; Kolodin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.94 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4124 . COSPAR: 1969-086A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Was to have docked with Soyuz 8 and transferred crew while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to a new helium pressurization integrity test prior to the mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Additional Details: here....

1969 October 13 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 8 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 16. Mass: 6,646 kg (14,651 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.95 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4126 . COSPAR: 1969-087A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Was to have docked with Soyuz 7 and transferred crew while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to a new helium pressurization integrity test prior to the mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Recovered October 18, 1969 10:19 GMT. Additional Details: here....

1969 October 22 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 241-01. FAILURE: Block D control system failure.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Cosmos 305 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 404. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1969-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4150 . COSPAR: 1969-092A. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.4000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Summary: Robotic lunar soil return mission. Failed to leave low earth orbit due to Block D stage failure..

1969 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P. LV Configuration: R-36 8K67P Palma-3.
  • RVSN Command operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 October 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P. LV Configuration: R-36 8K67P Palma-3.
  • RVSN Command operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 October 24 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 306 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 4182 . COSPAR: 1969-093A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1969 October 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 November 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. Launch Pad: LC90/20?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1969 November 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • OS-67 No. 1L test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 November 15 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 310 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4232 . COSPAR: 1969-100A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 November 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 245-01. FAILURE: First stage malfunction.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 1 - first stage malfunction - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 1. Mass: 10,380 kg (22,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1E. Decay Date: 1969-11-16 . COSPAR: F691128A. Attempted test flight of Block D upper stage in N1 lunar crasher configuration. Payload was a modified Soyuz 7K-L1 circumlunar spacecraft, which provided guidance to the Block D and was equipped with television cameras that viewed the behavior of the Block D stage propellants under zero-G conditions. Mission flown successfully over a year later as Cosmos 382.

1969 December 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 December 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 December 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1969 December 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 December 23 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 316 - . Payload: IS-A Mass Model. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1970-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4282 . COSPAR: 1969-108A. Apogee: 1,638 km (1,017 mi). Perigee: 152 km (94 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 102.80 min. Test of Tsyklon 2 booster; mass model of ASAT. When the satellite decayed over US Midwest on 28 August 1970, teams of the USAF 1127th Special Group were able to recover six pieces from five locations in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. These showed that the necessary operational systems - translation engines, sensors, weapons systems - were dummied by steel weights. However factory markings on the recovered material proved to the Air Force analysts that they were dealing with an ASAT weapon.

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 January 9 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 318 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4292 . COSPAR: 1970-001A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 January 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 January 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 January 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 January 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 February 6 - . 04:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. Launch Pad: LC81/23?. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 247-01. FAILURE: Failure of vehicle on launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Ye-8-5 s/n 405 - failure of vehicle on launch - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 405. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1970-02-06 . COSPAR: F700206A. Summary: Robotic lunar soil return mission..

1970 February 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 February 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 February 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 February 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 March 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 March 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 8 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 331 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4364 . COSPAR: 1970-026A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 April 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 May 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1 erected on launch pad 110 west. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. Summary: US reconnsat detects N1 being installed on the pad. It remained there, without payload, at least through 4 June..

1970 May 20 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 345 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4403 . COSPAR: 1970-039A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 June 1 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 9 - . Call Sign: Sokol (Falcon ). Crew: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Grechko. Support Crew: Lazarev; Yazdovsky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 17. Mass: 6,590 kg (14,520 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov; Filipchenko; Grechko; Lazarev; Yazdovsky. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 17.71 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 4407 . COSPAR: 1970-041A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Manned flight endurance test. Medico-biological, scientific and technical studies and experiments in prolonged orbital flight. Inconclusive results due to slow sun-oriented rotation of spacecraft to conserve fuel producing motion sickness in cosmonauts.. Additional Details: here....

1970 June 10 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 346 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4409 . COSPAR: 1970-042A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 June 26 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 350 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-07-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4425 . COSPAR: 1970-050A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 June 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 July 7 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 352 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-07-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4446 . COSPAR: 1970-052A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 July 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 July 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 July 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 July 28 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Yu45201 No. 49T.
  • Cosmos 354 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1970-07-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4481 . COSPAR: 1970-056A. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi). Perigee: 137 km (85 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 87.50 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

1970 August 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 August 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 August 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 August 17 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 7 - . Payload: 3V (V-70) s/n 630. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-70). Decay Date: 1970-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4489 . COSPAR: 1970-060A. Venera 7 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards Venus to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. Venera 7 entered the atmosphere of Venus on December 15, 1970, and a landing capsule was jettisoned. After aerodynamic braking, a parachute system was deployed. The capsule antenna was extended, and signals were returned for 35 min. Another 23 min of very weak signals were received after the spacecraft landed on Venus. The capsule was the first man-made object to return data after landing on another planet.

1970 August 18 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 246-01.
  • 82-EV test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: Heavily instrumented suborbital flight to provide data to root out causes of continuing launch vehicle failures. Heavy mass model of an unspecified spacecraft used to simulate payload...

1970 August 22 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L's engine 11D33 was late igniting and cut off early at 25 seconds after firing due to abnormal operation of the sequencer and a DC transformer failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 359 - . Payload: 3V (V-70) s/n 631. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-70). Decay Date: 1970-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4501 . COSPAR: 1970-065A. Apogee: 908 km (564 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.2000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Summary: Probable Venus probe failure..

1970 August 29 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 360 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-09-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4508 . COSPAR: 1970-068A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; deployed capsule..

1970 September 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • OS state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 12 - . 13:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 248-01.
  • Luna 16 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 406. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1970-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4527 . COSPAR: 1970-072A. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi). Perigee: 110 km (60 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 119.00 min. Lunar Sample Return. Landed on Moon 20 September 1970 at 05:18:00 GMT, Latitude 0.68 S, Longitude 56.30 E - Mare Fecunditatis. Luna 16 was launched toward the Moon from a preliminary earth orbit and entered a lunar orbit on September 17, 1970. On September 20, the spacecraft soft landed on the lunar surface as planned. The spacecraft was equipped with an extendable arm with a drilling rig for the collection of a lunar soil sample. After 26 hours and 25 minutes on the lunar surface, the ascent stage, with a hermetically sealed soil sample container, left the lunar surface carrying 100 grams of collected material. It landed in the Soviet Union on September 24, 1970. The lower stage of Luna 16 remained on the lunar surface and continued transmission of lunar temperature and radiation data. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1970 September 17 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 363 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 4538 . COSPAR: 1970-074A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 September 25 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69M. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69M 4502741260.
  • Cosmos 365 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1970-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4556 . COSPAR: 1970-076A. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi). Perigee: 145 km (90 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 87.70 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

October 1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1.
  • LC-1 at Baikonur refurbished - . Nation: USSR. In 1969 - 1970 LC-1 was refurbished. The refurbished complex could accommodate new versions of the Soyuz launch vehicle designed for Zenit reconnaisance satellites. The work was completed in October 1970. During the refurbishment a fire at the -32 m level in the flame pit killed four soldiers. The accident was apparently due to smoking of cigarettes in a corridor with an oxygen-rich atmosphere during liquid oxygen handling.

1970 October 1 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 366 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 4561 . COSPAR: 1970-078A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 October 3 - . 10:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 367 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1970-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 4566 . COSPAR: 1970-079C. Apogee: 1,022 km (635 mi). Perigee: 915 km (568 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 104.50 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance; probably used chemical batteries..

1970 October 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Palma-4 Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 October 8 - . 12:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 368 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4571 . COSPAR: 1970-080A. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Bion precursor mission. Conducted biological investigations and study of the physical characteristics of outer space..

1970 October 9 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 370 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4576 . COSPAR: 1970-082A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 October 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Palma-4 Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1970 October 20 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 373 - . Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft: IS-P. Decay Date: 1980-03-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4590 . COSPAR: 1970-087A. Apogee: 1,103 km (685 mi). Perigee: 510 km (310 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 101.00 min. Summary: ASAT target. Maneuvered twice to provide target for Cosmos 374 and 375 interceptors..

1970 October 20 - . 19:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 250-01.
  • Zond 8 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 14. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.17 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 4591 . COSPAR: 1970-088A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Final circumlunar flight; successfully recovered October 26, 1970. The announced objectives were investigations of the moon and circumlunar space and testing of onboard systems. The spacecraft obtained photographs of the earth on October 21 from a distance of 64,480 km. The spacecraft transmitted flight images of the earth for three days. Zond 8 flew past the moon on October 24, 1970, at a distance of 1,110.4 km and obtained both black and white and colour photographs of the lunar surface. Scientific measurements were also obtained during the flight. The spacecraft used a new variant of the double-dip re-entry, coming in over the north pole, bouncing off the atmosphere, being tracked by Soviet radar stations as it soared south over the Soviet Union, then making a final precision re-entry followed by splashdown at the recovery point in the Indian Ocean.

1970 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 October 23 - . 04:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 374 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1970-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4594 . COSPAR: 1970-089A. Apogee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Perigee: 531 km (329 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 105.10 min. Summary: ASAT interceptor. Intercepted Cosmos 374 on second orbit. Blown up on instructions from ground..

1970 October 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 October 30 - . 02:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 375 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1970-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 4598 . COSPAR: 1970-091A. Apogee: 1,986 km (1,234 mi). Perigee: 579 km (359 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 111.20 min. ASAT interceptor. Intercept on second orbit. Blown up on instructions from ground. Dual launch of interceptors was intended to help ground staff perfect computational methods for quick-response launches when orbital methods of target were not precisely known.

1970 November 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 November 10 - . 14:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 251-01.
  • Luna 17 - . Payload: Ye-8 s/n 203. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8. Decay Date: 1970-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4691 . COSPAR: 1970-095A. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi). Perigee: 85 km (52 mi). Inclination: 141.0000 deg. Period: 116.00 min. Luna 17 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards the Moon and entered lunar orbit on November 15, 1970. Luna 17 landed on Moon 17 November 1970 at 03:47:00 GMT, Latitude 38.28 N, Longitude 325.00 E - Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains). The payload, the Lunokhod 1 unmanned rover, rolled down a ramp from the landing stage and began exploring the surface. Lunokhod was intended to operate through three lunar days but actually operated for eleven lunar days (earth months). The operations of Lunokhod officially ceased on October 4, 1971, the anniversary of Sputnik 1. By then it had traveled 10,540 m and had transmitted more than 20,000 TV pictures and more than 200 TV panoramas. It had also conducted more than 500 lunar soil tests. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1970 November 11 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 377 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4695 . COSPAR: 1970-096A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 November 24 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 379 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 1. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 4,683.78 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4760 . COSPAR: 1970-099A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. LK moon lander test using the T2K version. First use of the Soyuz 11A511L booster modified especially for this purpose. The spacecraft made a series of engine burns, simulating the lunar landing profile. After 3.5 days in orbit, the first burn was made in imitation of a descent to the lunar surface after separation of the Block D lunar crasher stage. The orbit changed from 192 km X 233 km to 196 km X 1206 km orbit; delta V: 263 m/s. After 4 days in orbit, a large manoeuvre was made simulating the ascent from the lunar surface. The orbit was changed from 188 km X 1198 km to 177 km X 14,041 km; delta V: 1518 m/s. These main manoeuvres were followed by a series of small adjustments simulating rendezvous and docking with the LOK. The LK tested out without major problems and decayed from orbit on September 21, 1983.

1970 December 2 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 252-01.
  • Cosmos 382 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 2K. Mass: 10,380 kg (22,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1E. Duration: 8,549.30 days. USAF Sat Cat: 4786 . COSPAR: 1970-103A. Apogee: 5,269 km (3,273 mi). Perigee: 2,384 km (1,481 mi). Inclination: 55.9000 deg. Period: 171.00 min. Test of Block D upper stage in its N1 lunar crasher configuration in earth orbit. The three maneuvers simulated the lunar orbit insertion burn; the lunar orbit circularization burn; and the descent burn to bring the LK lunar lander just over the surface. Payload was a modified Soyuz 7K-L1 circumlunar spacecraft, which provided guidance to the Block D and was equipped with television cameras that viewed the behavior of the Block D stage propellants under zero-G conditions.
    Maneuver Summary:
    190km X 300km orbit to 303km X 5038km orbit. Delta V: 982 m/s
    318km X 5040km orbit to 1616km X 5071km orbit. Delta V: 285 m/s
    1616km X 5071km orbit to 2577km X 5082km orbit. Delta V: 1311 m/s
    Total Delta V: 2578 m/s.

1970 December 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • RVSN Command operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 December 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • RVSN Command operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 December 15 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 386 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4804 . COSPAR: 1970-110A. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 December 25 - . 03:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-17 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1975-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4829 . COSPAR: 1970-114A. Apogee: 39,881 km (24,780 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 December 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 January 12 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 390 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4845 . COSPAR: 1971-001A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 January 21 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 392 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 4872 . COSPAR: 1971-004A. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 February 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • First State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 February 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 February 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 February 25 - . 11:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 397 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. USAF Sat Cat: 4964 . COSPAR: 1971-015A. Apogee: 2,164 km (1,344 mi). Perigee: 572 km (355 mi). Inclination: 65.7000 deg. Period: 113.10 min. Summary: ASAT interceptor. Intercept and destruction of target successful on second orbit..

1971 February 26 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 398 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 2. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 8,463.78 days. Decay Date: 1995-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4966 . COSPAR: 1971-016A. Apogee: 1,958 km (1,216 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 106.70 min. Second space test of the LK moon lander test using the T2K version. Followed the same programme as Cosmos 379.
    Maneuver Summary:
    189km X 252km orbit to 186km X 1189km orbit. Delta V: 251 m/s
    186km X 1189km orbit to 200km X 10905km orbit. Delta V: 1320 m/s
    Total Delta V: 2832 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1971 March 3 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 399 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 5003 . COSPAR: 1971-017A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 March 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Last State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 April 1 - . 11:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 402 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1971-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 5107 . COSPAR: 1971-025B. Apogee: 1,011 km (628 mi). Perigee: 965 km (599 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance; probably used chemical batteries..

1971 April 4 - . 14:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 404 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1971-04-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 5113 . COSPAR: 1971-027A. Apogee: 1,010 km (620 mi). Perigee: 802 km (498 mi). Inclination: 65.7000 deg. Period: 103.10 min. ASAT interceptor. Conducted an extended test flight to shake out homing system and engine function. Tested new redundant ranging systems. Tested effectiveness of new approach trajectory to target, whereby target was approached from above rather than below. Following completion of tests and verification of system functions via telemetry, spacecraft was commanded to a destructive reentry over the Pacific Ocean.

1971 April 19 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 254-01.
  • Salyut 1 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 121. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Duration: 179.93 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5160 . COSPAR: 1971-032A. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.4000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. First manned space station. Salyut 1 included a number of military experiments, including the OD-4 optical visual ranger, the Orion ultraviolet instrument for characterising rocket plumes, and the highly classified Svinets radiometer. Primary objectives included photography of the earth, spectrographs of the earth's horizon, experiments with intense gamma rays, and studying manual methods for station orientation.

    At 05:20 the State Commission and their guests arrive at the Area 95 observation point to view the launch. The booster takes off on schedule at 06:40 in light rain and 60 km/hr wind. The tracking station reports good orbital insertion, separation from the third stage, and antennae and solar panel deployment. But the cover of the scientific equipment bay does not separate. This will mean that many experiments cannot be accomplished. It is decided to launch the crew to the station anyway, since the station is otherwise functioning normally. The cosmonauts go to the baths in the evening. Additional Details: here....


1971 April 22 - . 23:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 25.
  • Soyuz 10 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Support Crew: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 31. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov; Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 1.99 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 5172 . COSPAR: 1971-034A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Intended first space station mission; soft docked with Salyut 1. Launch nearly scrubbed due to poor weather. Soyuz 10 approached to 180 m from Salyut 1 automatically. It was hand docked after faillure of the automatic system, but hard docking could not be achieved because of the angle of approach. Post-flight analysis indicated that the cosmonauts had no instrument to proivde the angle and range rate data necessary for a successful manual docking. Soyuz 10 was connected to the station for 5 hours and 30 minutes. Despite the lack of hard dock, it is said that the crew were unable to enter the station due to a faulty hatch on their own spacecraft. When Shatalov tried to undock from the Salyut, the jammed hatch impeded the docking mechanism, preventing undocking. After several attempts he was unable to undock and land.

1971 May 6 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 410 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 5207 . COSPAR: 1971-040A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-05-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 5228 . COSPAR: 1971-040C. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.02 min.

1971 May 10 - . 16:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 253-01. FAILURE: No Block D ignition due wrong timer setting.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Cosmos 419 - . Payload: M-71 s/n 170. Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-71. Decay Date: 1971-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 5221 . COSPAR: 1971-042A. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 87.70 min. Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars. Rocket block failed to reignite in Earth Orbit. It is widely believed this spacecraft was launched with the primary purpose of overtaking Mariner 8, which had been launched (unsuccessfully, as it turned out) two days earlier, and becoming the first Mars orbiter. The Proton booster successfully put the spacecraft into low (174 km x 159 km) Earth parking orbit with an inclination of 51.4 degrees, but the Block D stage 4 failed to function due to a bad ignition timer setting (the timer, which was supposed to start ignition 1.5 hours after orbit was erroneously set for 1.5 years.) The orbit decayed and the spacecraft re-entered Earth's atmosphere 2 days later on 12 May 1971. The mission was designated Cosmos 419.

1971 May 18 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 420 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5230 . COSPAR: 1971-043A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 May 19 - . 16:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 255-01.
  • Mars 2 - . Payload: M-71 s/n 171. Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-71. USAF Sat Cat: 5234 . COSPAR: 1971-045A. Apogee: 25,000 km (15,000 mi). Perigee: 1,380 km (850 mi). Inclination: 48.9000 deg. Period: 1,080.00 min. Mars probe intended to conduct of a series of scientific investigations of the planet Mars and the space around it. Parameters are for Mars orbit. Mid-course corrections were made on 17 June and 20 November. Mars 2 released the descent module (1971-045D) 4.5 hours before reaching Mars on 27 November 1971. The descent system malfunctioned and the lander crashed at 45 deg S, 302 deg W, delivering the Soviet Union coat of arms to the surface. Meanwhile, the orbiter engine performed a burn to put the spacecraft into a 1380 x 24,940 km, 18 hour orbit about Mars with an inclination of 48.9 degrees. Scientific instruments were generally turned on for about 30 minutes near periapsis. Data was sent back for many months. It was announced that Mars 2 and 3 had completed their missions by 22 August 1972. On-orbit dry mass: 2265 kg. Had the lander survived, data would have been relayed to the earth via the orbiter.

1971 May 28 - . 15:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 249-01.
  • Mars 3 - . Payload: M-71 s/n 172. Mass: 4,643 kg (10,236 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-71. USAF Sat Cat: 5252 . COSPAR: 1971-049A. Apogee: 214,500 km (133,200 mi). Perigee: 1,528 km (949 mi). Inclination: 60.0000 deg. Period: 18,243.00 min. Mars probe intended to conduct of a series of scientific investigations of the planet Mars and the space around it. Parameters are for Mars orbit. The Mars 3 orbiter also carried a French-built experiment which was not carried on Mars 2. Called Spectrum 1, the instrument measured solar radiation at metric wavelengths in conjunction with Earth-based receivers to study the cause of solar outbursts. The Spectrum 1 antenna was mounted on one of the solar panels. A mid-course correction was made on 8 June. The descent module (COSPAR 1971-049F) was released at 09:14 GMT on 2 December 1971 about 4.5 hours before reaching Mars. Through aerodynamic braking, parachutes, and retro-rockets, the lander achieved a soft landing at 45 S, 158 W and began operations. However, after 20 sec the instruments stopped working for unknown reasons. Meanwhile, the orbiter engine performed a burn to put the spacecraft into a long 11-day period orbit about Mars with an inclination thought to be similar to that of Mars 2 (48.9 degrees). Data was sent back for many months. It was announced that Mars 2 and 3 had completed their missions by 22 August 1972.

1971 June 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1971 June 6 - . 04:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 11 - . Call Sign: Yantar (Amber ). Crew: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 32. Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 23.77 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5283 . COSPAR: 1971-053A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 163 km (101 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. First space station flight, two years before the American Skylab. The Soyuz 11 launch proceeds without any difficulties. The first orbital correction in the set of rendezvous manoeuvres to head for Salyut 1 is made on the fourth revolution. At 15:00 Kamanin and other critical staff board a plane for the mission control centre at Yevpatoriya. The aircraft takes 4 hours 30 minutes to get there.

    Equipment aboard Salyut 1 included a telescope, spectrometer, electrophotometer, and television. The crew checked improved on-board spacecraft systems in different conditions of flight and conducted medico-biological research. The main instrument, a large solar telescope, was inoperative because its cover failed to jettison. A small fire and difficult working conditions will lead to a decision to return crew before planned full duration of 30 days.


1971 June 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • Phase 1 state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 June 24 - . 07:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 428 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 5305 . COSPAR: 1971-057A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed electron and gamma ray science capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-07-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 5315 . COSPAR: 1971-057G. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.88 min.

1971 June 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 June 26 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1. LV Configuration: N-1 11A52 6L. FAILURE: First stage failed.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 6L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-LOK / LK Mockups. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Decay Date: 1971-07-21 . COSPAR: F710626A. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Superbooster failure of N1 serial number 6L. This was a substantially improved vehicle, incorporating filters in the propellant lines to prevent any foreign objects from getting into the pumps. The shape of the tail of the booster was modified, and ventilation and refrigeration systems were added to keep the engine compartment cool. It was painted white overall to reduce temperatures while sitting on the pad. After liftoff and ascent, an axial rotation was introduced by gas dynamics interactions of the thirty engines with the air slipstream. The launch vehicle developed a roll beyond the capability of the control system to compensate. and began to break up as it went through Max Q. Control was lost at 50.2 seconds into the flight and it was destroyed by range safety a second later. The engines functioned well and did not shut down up to the point of vehicle destruction. No functional payload was carried. It has been stated that this launch did not have a working launch escape system. Additional Details: here....

1971 July 20 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 429 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5331 . COSPAR: 1971-061A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 July 30 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 431 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5364 . COSPAR: 1971-065A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 August 5 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 432 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 5379 . COSPAR: 1971-066A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 August 8 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69M.
  • Cosmos 433 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1971-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5402 . COSPAR: 1971-068A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 112 km (69 mi). Inclination: 49.4000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

1971 August 12 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 434 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 3. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 8,296.77 days. Decay Date: 1981-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 5407 . COSPAR: 1971-069A. Apogee: 1,253 km (778 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Final LK moon lander test using the T2K version.
    Maneuver Summary:
    188km X 267km orbit to 190km X 1261km orbit. Delta V: 266 m/s
    188km X 1262km orbit to 180km X 11384km orbit. Delta V: 1333 m/s
    Total Delta V: 1599 m/s. Ten years later the spacecraft was due to re-enter over Australia soon after the Skylab scare. The Soviet Union told the people of Australia not to worry, it was only an experimental lunar cabin - the first inadvertent admission that their manned lunar project even existed!

1971 August 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4M - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. COSPAR: F710819A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1971 September 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 September 2 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 256-01.
  • Luna 18 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 407. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1971-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5448 . COSPAR: 1971-073A. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Perigee: 100 km (60 mi). Inclination: 35.0000 deg. Period: 119.00 min. Attempted lunar soil return mission; crashed while attempting to soft land at Latitude 3.57 N, Longitude 50.50 E - Mare Fecunditatis. Luna 18 used a new method of navigation in lunar orbit and for landing. The spacecraft's designer, Babakhin, had died at age 56 only the month before. Luna 18 successfully reached earth parking orbit before being put on a translunar trajectory. On September 7, 1971, it entered lunar orbit. The spacecraft completed 85 communications sessions and 54 lunar orbits before it was sent towards the lunar surface by use of braking rockets. It impacted the Moon on September 11, 1971, in a rugged mountainous terrain. Signals ceased at the moment of impact. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1971 September 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 September 28 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 441 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5486 . COSPAR: 1971-081A. Apogee: 266 km (165 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 September 28 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 257-01.
  • Luna 19 - . Payload: Ye-8-LS s/n 202. Mass: 5,810 kg (12,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-LS. USAF Sat Cat: 5488 . COSPAR: 1971-082A. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi). Perigee: 140 km (80 mi). Inclination: 40.6000 deg. Period: 121.75 min. Heavy lunar Orbiter; conducted lunar surface mapping. Luna 19 entered an intermediate earth parking orbit and was then put on a translunar trajectory by the Proton Block D stage. It entered lunar orbit on October 3, 1971. Luna 19 extended the systematic study of lunar gravitational fields and location of mascons (mass concentrations). It also studied the lunar radiation environment, the gamma-active lunar surface, and the solar wind. Photographic coverage via a television system was also obtained. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1971 October 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 October 14 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 452 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5558 . COSPAR: 1971-088A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 October 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-2 Silo tests test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1971 November 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-2 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1971 December 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • OS state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 December 3 - . 13:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 462 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1975-04-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 5646 . COSPAR: 1971-106A. Apogee: 1,800 km (1,100 mi). Perigee: 229 km (142 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 105.40 min. ASAT interceptor. Successfully intercepted and destroyed Cosmos 459 target. This completed state trials test series and in 1972 the Istrebitel Sputnik was adopted as armament for the Soviet Army. Cosmos 462 produced the lowest number of fragments (27) of any of the ASAT's tested.

1971 December 6 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 463 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5661 . COSPAR: 1971-107A. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 December 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-2 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1971 December 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • BI-2 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1971 December 16 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 466 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5687 . COSPAR: 1971-112A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 December 25 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 469 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1972-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5737 . COSPAR: 1971-117B. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 948 km (589 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 104.60 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered. First RORSAT flight confirmed by Russian source to have had BES-5 nuclear reactor..

1971 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100N. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Mod 1 state trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 January 12 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 471 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 5764 . COSPAR: 1972-001A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 February 3 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 473 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-02-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 5821 . COSPAR: 1972-006A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 February 14 - . 03:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 258-01.
  • Luna 20 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 408. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1972-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 5835 . COSPAR: 1972-007A. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Perigee: 100 km (60 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 118.00 min. Soft landed on Moon; returned soil samples to Earth. Landed on Moon 21 February 1972 at 19:19:00 GMT, Latitude 3.57 N, Longitude 56.50 E - Mare Fecunditatis. Luna 20 was placed in an intermediate earth parking orbit and from this orbit was sent towards the Moon. It entered lunar orbit on February 18, 1972. On 21 February 1972, Luna 20 soft landed on the Moon in a mountainous area known as the Apollonius highlands, 120 km from where Luna 18 had crashed. While on the lunar surface, the panoramic television system was operated. Lunar samples were obtained by means of an extendable drilling apparatus. The ascent stage of Luna 20 was launched from the lunar surface on 22 February 1972 carrying 30 grams of collected lunar samples in a sealed capsule. It landed in the Soviet Union on 25 February 1972. The lunar samples were recovered the following day.

1972 February 16 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 474 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-02-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5839 . COSPAR: 1972-008A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 February 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • BI-2 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1972 March 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 March 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • BI-2 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1972 March 27 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 8 - . Payload: 3V (V-72) s/n 670. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-72). Decay Date: 1972-07-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 5912 . COSPAR: 1972-021A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Venus atmospheric probe. The spacecraft took 117 days to reach Venus, entering the atmosphere on 22 July 1972. Descent speed was reduced from 41,696 km/hr to about 900 km/hr by aerobraking. The 2.5 meter diameter parachute opened at an altitude of 60 km, and a refrigeration system was used to cool the interior components. Venera 8 transmitted data during the descent and continued to send back data for 50 minutes after landing. The probe confirmed the earlier data on the high Venus surface temperature and pressure returned by Venera 7, and also measured the light level as being suitable for surface photography, finding it to be similar to the amount of light on Earth on an overcast day.

1972 March 31 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L's engine cut off 125 seconds after ignition due to timer failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 482 - . Payload: 3V (V-72) s/n 671. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-72). Decay Date: 1981-05-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 5919 . COSPAR: 1972-023A. Apogee: 9,806 km (6,093 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 201.40 min.

1972 April 7 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Intercosmos 6 - . Payload: Energia s/n 1. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Energia. Completed Operations Date: 1972-04-11 . Decay Date: 1972-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5936 . COSPAR: 1972-027A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space. .

1972 April 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 April 14 - . 00:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 1 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 501. Mass: 845 kg (1,862 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1981-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 5941 . COSPAR: 1972-029A. Apogee: 199,667 km (124,067 mi). Perigee: 1,005 km (624 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 5,782.10 min. Summary: Study of the processes of solar activity and of their influence on interplanetary space and the Earth's magnetosphere. .

1972 April 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 May 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 May 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 May 25 - . 06:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 491 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 6035 . COSPAR: 1972-038A. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 May 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 June 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 June 9 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 492 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-06-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6049 . COSPAR: 1972-040A. Apogee: 323 km (200 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 June 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 June 21 - . 06:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 493 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 6053 . COSPAR: 1972-042A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 June 26 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 496 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 33L. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 9.95 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 6066 . COSPAR: 1972-045A. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Recovered July 6, 1972 13:54 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T redesign test..

1972 June 29 - . 03:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 2 - . Payload: SO-M no. 2. Mass: 845 kg (1,862 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1982-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 6068 . COSPAR: 1972-046A. Apogee: 201,804 km (125,394 mi). Perigee: 517 km (321 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 5,849.20 min. Summary: Study of the processes of solar activity and of their influence on interplanetary space and the Earth's magnetosphere. .

1972 July 6 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 499 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 6090 . COSPAR: 1972-051A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 July 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 July 29 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 260-01. FAILURE: Second stage malfunction at T+ 162 sec.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Zarya s/n 122 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 122. Mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Decay Date: 1972-07-29 . COSPAR: F720729A. Summary: Second Salyut space station (DOS 2), failed to reach orbit..

1972 August 2 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 513 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 6135 . COSPAR: 1972-060A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 August 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 August 21 - . 10:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 516 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1972-10-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 6199 . COSPAR: 1972-066C. Apogee: 1,038 km (644 mi). Perigee: 906 km (562 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 104.50 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered..

1972 August 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 August 30 - . 08:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 517 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6168 . COSPAR: 1972-067A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 September 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100N. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Mod 1 state trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1972 September 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • BI-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 September 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 September 16 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 519 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 6188 . COSPAR: 1972-071A. Apogee: 360 km (220 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 October 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • BI-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1972 November 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • BI-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 November 23 - . 06:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1. LV Configuration: N-1 11A52 7L. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 7L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-LOK / LK Mockups. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Decay Date: 1972-11-23 . COSPAR: F721123A. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi). Unmanned test of manned lunar mission launch vehicle serial number 7L. This article incorporated significant changes to the previous model, including roll 'steering' engines to prevent the loss of control that destroyed 6L. The rocket ascended into the sky, and the engines ran 106.93 seconds, only seven seconds before completion of first stage burnout. Programmed shutdown of some engines to prevent overstressing of the structure led to propellant line hammering, rupture of propellant lines, and an explosion of engine number 4. The vehicle disintegrated. Additional Details: here....

1972 November 25 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 537 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 6287 . COSPAR: 1972-093A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 December 2 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-22 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1976-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6294 . COSPAR: 1972-095A. Apogee: 39,608 km (24,611 mi). Perigee: 462 km (287 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 712.00 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1972 December 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • BI-2 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1972 December 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • BI-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • BI-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1973 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 January 8 - . 06:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 259-01.
  • Luna 21 - . Payload: Ye-8 s/n 204. Mass: 5,567 kg (12,273 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8. Decay Date: 1973-01-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 6333 . COSPAR: 1973-001A. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi). Perigee: 90 km (55 mi). Inclination: 60.0000 deg. Period: 118.00 min. The Proton / Block D launcher put the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit followed by translunar injection. On 12 January 1973, Luna 21 braked into a 90 x 100 km orbit about the Moon. On 13 and 14 January, the perilune was lowered to 16 km altitude. On 15 January after 40 orbits, the braking rocket was fired at 16 km altitude, and the craft went into free fall. At an altitude of 750 meters the main thrusters began firing, slowing the fall until a height of 22 meters was reached. At this point the main thrusters shut down and the secondary thrusters ignited, slowing the fall until the lander was 1.5 meters above the surface, where the engine was cut off. Landing occurred at 23:35 GMT in LeMonnier crater at 25.85 degrees N, 30.45 degrees E. The lander carried a bas relief of Lenin and the Soviet coat-of-arms. After landing, Lunokhod 2 took TV images of the surrounding area, then rolled down a ramp to the surface at 01:14 GMT on 16 January and took pictures of the Luna 21 lander and landing site. It stopped and charged batteries until 18 January, took more images of the lander and landing site, and then set out over the Moon. The rover would run during the lunar day, stopping occasionally to recharge its batteries via the solar panels. At night the rover would hibernate until the next sunrise, heated by the radioactive source. Lunokhod 2 operated for about 4 months, covered 37 km of terrain including hilly upland areas and rilles, and sent back 86 panoramic images and over 80,000 TV pictures. Many mechanical tests of the surface, laser ranging measurements, and other experiments were completed during this time. On June 4 it was announced that the program was completed, leading to speculation that the vehicle probably failed in mid-May or could not be revived after the lunar night of May-June. The Lunokhod was not left in a position such that the laser retroreflector could be used, indicating that the failure may have happened suddenly.

1973 January 11 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 543 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-01-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 6339 . COSPAR: 1973-002A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 January 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 February 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 February 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 February 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 February 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 February 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 February 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 February 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 February 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 February 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 February 1 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 547 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-02-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 6353 . COSPAR: 1973-006A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1973 February 3 - . 05:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-23 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1977-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 6356 . COSPAR: 1973-007A. Apogee: 39,602 km (24,607 mi). Perigee: 476 km (295 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 712.20 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1973 February 15 - . 01:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 3 - . Payload: SO-M no. 3. Mass: 845 kg (1,862 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1976-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 6364 . COSPAR: 1973-009A. Apogee: 199,442 km (123,927 mi). Perigee: 896 km (556 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 5,768.60 min. Summary: Solar flare monitor. Study of the processes of solar activity and of their influence on interplanetary space and the Earth's magnetosphere. .

1973 February 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Phase 1 state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 March 6 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 551 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-03-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 6378 . COSPAR: 1973-012A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 March 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 March 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 April 3 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 283-01.
  • Salyut 2 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 101-01. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 54.62 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 6398 . COSPAR: 1973-017A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. The first flight of the Almaz manned military space station. In January 1973 the first Almaz OPS was delivered to Baikonur. Launch and initial orbital checkout went according to plan. But before a crew could be launched the station depressurized. It was concluded that a short in electrical equipment started a fire in pressure vessel, leading to rupture of hull and depressurization. An alternate theory was that debris from an explosion of the third stage of Proton penetrated the hull. Control was lost on April 25, 1973, and the OPS cased operations on 29 April. Decayed May 28, 1973. Initial crew was to have been Popovich and Artyukhin.
    Officially: Testing of improved design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments. Additional Details: here....

1973 April 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 April 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 April 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67PM. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1973 April 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100N.
  • Mod 2 state trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 April 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2. FAILURE: Payload propulsion system failed; no orbit.. Failed Stage: P.
  • RORSAT failure - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military nav