Encyclopedia Astronautica
Solid



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Solid Propellant Isp
Credit: Aerojet
Solid propellants have the fuel and oxidiser embedded in a rubbery matrix. They were developed to a high degree of perfection in the United States in the 1950's and 1960's. In Russia, development was slower, due to a lack of technical leadership in the area and rail handling problems. Solid propellants have the fuel and oxidiser embedded in a rubbery matrix. They were developed to a high degree of perfection in the United States in the 1950's and 1960's. In Russia, development was slower, due to a lack of technical leadership in the area and rail handling problems.

The disadvantages of solid propellants include:

  • Slightly higher empty mass for the rocket stage

  • Slightly lower performance than storable liquid propellants

  • Transportability issues: Solid propellants are cast into the motor in the factory, unlike liquid fuel rockets which can be fueled at the launch pad. This means they have to either be: 1) limited in size to be transportable (as for the Delta and Ariane strap-on motors); 2) cast in segments, with the segments assembled at the launch base (as for Titan and the Space Shuttle); or 3) cast in a factory at the launch site (actually done for large test motors intended for Saturn V upgrades).

  • Once ignited, they cannot be easily shut down or throttled. Thereafter they have to be pre-cast or milled out for a specific mission.

  • Nearly always catastrophic results in the event of a failure

Advantages of solid rocket motors, many of which make them ideal for military applications:

  • High density and low volume

  • Nearly indefinite storage life

  • Instant ignition without fuelling operations

  • High reliability

The disadvantages of solid propellants include:

  • Slightly higher empty mass for the rocket stage

  • Slightly lower performance than storable liquid propellants

  • Transportability issues: Solid propellants are cast into the motor in the factory, unlike liquid fuel rockets which can be fueled at the launch pad. This means they have to either be: 1) limited in size to be transportable (as for the Delta and Ariane strap-on motors); 2) cast in segments, with the segments assembled at the launch base (as for Titan and the Space Shuttle); or 3) cast in a factory at the launch site (actually done for large test motors intended for Saturn V upgrades).

  • Once ignited, they cannot be easily shut down or throttled. Thereafter they have to be pre-cast or milled out for a specific mission.

  • Nearly always catastrophic results in the event of a failure

Advantages of solid rocket motors, many of which make them ideal for military applications:

  • High density and low volume

  • Nearly indefinite storage life

  • Instant ignition without fuelling operations

  • High reliability

The detailed chemistry and development of solid propellants is provided by Andre Bedard in the following separate articles:

  • Black Powder Solid Propellants
  • Double Base Solid Propellants
  • Composite Solid Propellants
  • Propellant Tables
The following summarises the development of solid rocket propellants very briefly.

Solid propellant rockets, using black powder as the propellant, were introduced by the Chinese in the early 13th century. The next significant event occurred in the late 17th and 18th centuries when the development of nitro-cellulose, nitro-glycerine, cordite, and dynamite resulted in their consideration as a rocket propellant. Immediately before World War I, the French used nitro-cellulose as a propellant for artillery rockets.

In 1936, Dr. Theodore von Karman, and his associates at Caltech began a program that resulted in the first composite propellants using an organic matrix (asphalt) and an inorganic oxidiser (potassium perchlorate). Their work also covered the beginnings of understanding the associated interior ballistics, combustion, ignition, and related structural-materials issues. This was the start of modern solid propellant rocketry. Composite propellants virtually replaced double base propellants (based on mixtures of nitro-cellulose and nitro-glycerine) in most applications.

Following World War II many companies and agencies began propellant development programs involving a wide variety of oxidisers, fuels (binders) and processing methods. In this era, improvements in performance (quantified as specific impulse) were largely achieved by increasing oxidiser loading. Most of the binders were supplied by the rapidly expanding plastics industry.

The ever increasing number of potential missile programs resulted in growing pressure to provide other propellants that had improvements in terms of: performance, structural properties (strength, stability, impact resistance) thermal characteristics (temperature range, cycling), processing, cost, safety, quality, and reliability. In the early 1950s, Atlantic Research invented the use of up to 15 percent powdered aluminium to replace a like amount of oxidiser - giving a performance gain of about 15 percent. Propellant researchers began to understand the complete chemistry of solid propellants, and the need for molecular chain extensions and cross linking of the binders became apparent. The invention of bonding agents (as part of the fuel) greatly improved not only the mechanical properties, but also the resistance to ageing, humidity, and temperature cycling.

Two mainstream composite propellant-binder families emerged (Polyurethane and Polybutadiene), but these were accompanied by a large number of variations and evolutionary products. In addition, there were numerous associated-alternative formulations and concepts tailored to specific missile program requirements. Included among them were: Nitro-polymers, Fluorine based propellants, Beryllium additives, etc. At the same time double base propellants (based on mixtures of nitro-cellulose and nitro-glycerine) continued to evolve and compete. When double base propellants were used to replace conventional binders this resulted in the highest values of specific impulse ever attained.

Aerojet initially concentrated on Polyurethane (PU), and Thiokol favoured Polybutadiene (PB). Thiokol's work included PBAA, a copolymer of Butadiene and Acrylic Acid. This was replaced by PBAN, a terpolymer including Acrylic Acid and Acrylonitrile. Aerojet also conducted considerable development effort in this area, and PBAN was used in Aerojet's 260" space booster.

Several other companies also worked in these and other related areas. For example Phillips Petroleum with Rocketdyne developed Carboxy Terminated Polybutadiene (CTPB) using both a Lithium initiated polymerisation, and a free radical type. These propellants were widely used, but were later overtaken by Hydroxyl Terminated Butadiene (HTBD). By the 1990's Aerojet favoured HTBD and formulations thereof including double base binders.

In addition to the binder evolution, there was a variety of oxidisers to choose from: ammonium and potassium nitrates, perchlorates, and picrates. Perchlorates were generally favoured, but later environmental concerns were expressed at the amount of chlorine compounds (mainly hydrochloric acid) emitted into the atmosphere. One possible solution was the use of a hybrid (liquid and solid) system with a PBAN or similar grain and liquid oxygen as the oxidiser. This also provided a substantial cost saving, and allowed thrust variation and control features that were otherwise not easily achieved.

Paralleling the propellant formulation was development in the design of the propellant grain shape. In most asphalt rockets, the propellant was simply cast into the cylindrical motor chambers (or in some cases into a thin metal jacket which was then inserted into the chamber). Burning occurred only on the exposed aft end of the propellant, resulting in a constant level of thrust. The Aeroplex and other free-standing, rigid cylindrical grains (burning on the inner diameter and outer diameter.) also produced a constant thrust-time curve, because the increase in internal burning surface area just matched the decreasing external surface area.

Case-bonded propellants called for a different configuration of the burning surface. The outside of the propellant was bonded to the chamber and protected it from the hot gases. A simple cylindrical perforation down the centre of the grain would produce a steadily increasing pressure and thrust from very low at start to very high at completion of burning. The solution was to use a central star shaped perforation, which could produce an essentially flat thrust-time curve. The perforation was accomplished by casting the propellant around a core of the desired shape, which was removed after the propellant was completely cured. The tapered rays of the star provided an initial large burning surface, which decreased as the points burned away. Variations in the core geometry allowed a wide range of thrust-time characteristics, to match overall missile requirements.

Additional variations could be achieved by longitudinal variations in the core size and shape, as well as by casting layers of propellant having different characteristics. This latter concept was used for many tactical missiles requiring a boost-sustain thrust curve. For years, grain design was performed by manual geometric manipulation, but computer aided design greatly simplified the task.

The earliest production process for asphalt propellant was actually to hand-stir the ground oxidiser into the heated asphalt. Quality control and consistency were highly questionable, and the safety aspects were in hindsight, terrifying. The immediate solution was to use commercial bread dough mixers in steadily increasing size and robustness. For the more viscous propellant families, much more sturdy mixers were adapted from the tire industry. In addition, the commercially available oxidisers required grinding to achieve the desired fine grain sizes and grain size distribution.

Following fatal accidents in both propellant mixing (asphalt) and oxidiser grinding (potassium perchlorate), production processes were improved to include remote operation, modern instrumentation and control, and a host of other subsystems which significantly improved safety, versatility, and consistency.

The disadvantages of solid propellants in space applications include:

  • Slightly higher empty mass for the rocket stage

  • Slightly lower performance than storable liquid propellants

  • Transportability issues: Solid propellants are cast into the motor in the factory, unlike liquid fuel rockets which can be fuelled at the launch pad. This means they have to either be: 1) limited in size to be transportable (as for the Delta and Ariane strap-on motors); 2) cast in segments, with the segments assembled at the launch base (as for Titan and the Space Shuttle); or 3) cast in a factory near the launch site (actually done for large test motors intended for Saturn V upgrades).

  • Once ignited, they cannot be easily shut down or throttled. Thereafter they have to be pre-cast or milled out for a specific mission.

  • Often catastrophic results in the event of a failure

Advantages of solid rocket motors, many of which make them ideal for military applications:

  • High density and low volume

  • Nearly indefinite storage life

  • Instant ignition without fuelling operations

  • High reliability

Progressive Development of Large Solid Rocket Motors

In the United States:

  • Early 1950's: Hermes- Sergeant (Army): 32 inch
  • March 1956: Polaris (Navy): 54 inch
  • Late 1950's: Minuteman (Air Force): 65 inch (Thiokol)
  • 1960-1963: USAF space development program - 86, 96, 100, 120 inch test motors
  • Early 1960's: Titan 3 (DoD-NASA) - 120 inch (UTC)
  • 1963-1965: Moon program (DoD-NASA) for Nova-Saturn vehicles
    • 44 inch (Aerojet), 65 (Thiokol), 120 inch (Aerojet) subscale motors
    • 156 inch (Lockheed and Thiokol), 260 inch (Thiokol and Aerojet) PBAN full scale motors.
  • Early 1970's: Shuttle - 146 inch PBAN
  • 1990's: Titan 4B USRM - 126 inch HTPB

Fuel: Solid. Fuel Density: 1.350 g-cc.

Solid rocket propellants differ from liquid propellants in that the oxidiser and fuel are embedded or bound together in a solid compound that is cast into the rocket motor casing. They began with black powder rockets in medieval times, progressed through double base propellants in the early 1900's, and finally achieved high performance as composite propellants from the 1940's. Composite motors were developed to a high degree of perfection in the United States in the 1950's and 1960's. In Russia, due to a lack of technical leadership and rail handling problems, serious use of composite propellants did not begin until the 1960's, and then primarily for military rockets.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • LL Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1945. The LL was a transonic aerodynamic testbed authorized by LII in September 1945. Three were built: the LL-1 with a straight wing; LL-2 with a conventional swept wing; and LL-3 with a forward swept wing. More...
  • Mercury American manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). America's first man-in-space project. The capsule had to be as small as possible to match the orbital payload capability of America's first ICBM, the Atlas. More...
  • Mercury Retropack American manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). More...
  • Paracone American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. The Douglas Paracone was one of the most minimal schemes for bail-out from orbit. The objective was to hit a continental land mass; for such purposes totally manual re-entry operations were used. More...
  • Dynasoar AS American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1963. Abort Section, equipped with Thiokol XM-92 Minuteman Stage II motor. Contingency boost. More...
  • Gemini AM American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). More...
  • Voskhod KDU Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1965. Auxilliary Retrorocket. More...
  • MOL American manned space station. Cancelled 1969. MOL (Manned Orbiting Laboratory) was the US Air Force's manned space project after Dynasoar was cancelled, until it in turn was cancelled in 1969. The earth orbit station used a helium-oxygen atmosphere. More...
  • GE Life Raft American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. The GE Life raft was a rigid unpressurized aeroshell. Three crew in space suits with parachutes would strap themselves into the seats. More...
  • Lockheed EEOED American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. Lockheed's EEOED was a three-crew Discovery-type re-entry vehicle. More...
  • Winged Gemini American manned spaceplane. Study 1966. Winged Gemini was the most radical modification of the basic Gemini reentry module ever considered. More...
  • Gemini B AM American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1969. Adapter module for Gemini B, the engines serving as both abort motors during ascent to orbit and for retrofire on return to earth. Abort/deorbit propulsion. More...
  • MOL LM American manned space station module. Cancelled 1969. The Laboratory Module consisted of a forward unpressurized section 2.43 m long, followed by an aft pressurized section, a 3.37 m long cylinder with 2.79 m diameter hemispherical bulkheads at each end. Space station military. More...
  • ENCAP American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1970. The ENCAP encapsulated bailout-from-orbit concept consisted of a folded heat shield. The astronaut would exit his stranded spacecraft and strap into the seat. More...
  • Shuguang 1 Chinese manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1972. Shuguang-1 (Dawn-1) was China's first manned spacecraft design. The two-man capsule would have been similar to the American Gemini capsule and been launched by the CZ-2 booster. More...
  • EGRESS American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1972. The EGRESS space escape system was based on the proven Encapsulated Ejection Seat System developed for the B-58 bomber in the 1960's. More...
  • FSW Chinese military surveillance satellite. 24 launches, 1974.11.05 (FSW-0) to 2006.09.09 (SJ-8). More...
  • Apollo CM Escape Concept American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. Escape capsule using Apollo command module studied by Rockwell for NASA for use with the shuttle in the 1970's-80's. Mass per crew: 750 kg. More...
  • Northrop LBEC American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. Northrop, building on its work on the HL-10 and M2-F3 lifting bodies, proposed a lifting body three-crew lifeboat. The piloted spacecraft would use a parasail for recovery. More...
  • TKS SAS Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). Emergency escape system. More...
  • DFH-2 Chinese military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1984.01.29 (STTW-T1) to 1991.12.28 (Zhongxing-4). The DFH-2 was a spin-stabilized, drum-shaped military communications satellite with a despun antenna, a diameter of 2.1 m, and a height of 3.1 m. More...
  • Alpha Lifeboat Russian manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1995. 1995 joint Energia-Rockwell-Khrunichev design for space station Alpha lifeboat based on the Zarya reentry vehicle with a solid retrofire motor, cold gas thruster package. Five years on-orbit storage. More...
  • Orion LAS American manned spacecraft module. Orion launch abort system; consists of launch escape tower, adapter cone, and boost protective cover. Provides emergency crew escape during early boost phase of ascent to orbit. More...

Associated Engines
  • 15D151 NII-125 solid rocket engine. Combined missile (RT-20P) stage 1. Out of production. Launch thrust 588 kN. Designed for first stage of combined missile and SLBM; flight tested, no production. First flight 1967. More...
  • 15D23 KBMash solid rocket engine. 892 kN. RT-2 Stage 1. Out of Production. Three gimballed nozzles for steering. Ammonium perchlorate/aluminium propellant. Chamber pressure 40 kgf/cm2. More...
  • 15D23P TsKB-7 solid rocket engine. 980 kN. RT-2P Stage 1. Out of Production. Three gimballed nozzles for steering. Ammonium perchlorate/ammonium butyl propellant. Chamber pressure 56 kgf/cm2. More...
  • 15D24 TsKB-7 solid rocket engine. 431 kN. RT-2 Stage 2. Out of Production. Three gimballed nozzles for steering. Ammonium perchlorate/aluminium propellant. Chamber pressure 40 kgf/cm2. Average thrust 33 tonnes. More...
  • 15D24P TsKB-7 solid rocket engine. 437.3 kN. RT-2P Stage 2. Out of Production. Three gimballed nozzles for steering. Ammonium perchlorate/ammonium butyl propellant. Chamber pressure 48 kgf/cm2. More...
  • 15D25 KBMash solid rocket engine. 137 kN. RT-2 Stage 3. Out of Production. Three gimballed nozzles for steering. Ammonium perchlorate/aluminium propellant. More...
  • 15D206 Yuzhnoye solid rocket engine. RT-23 early models stage I. Out of Production. The case-bound T9-BK composite solid propellant charge had a star shape channel. The case was of organic fibre-wound plastic material. More...
  • 15D305 Yuzhnoye, Tsurilnikov solid rocket engine. RT-23 stage I. Out of Production. Case-bound OPAL composite solid propellant charge with a star shape channel. The case was of organic fibre-wound plastic material. More...
  • 15D339 Yuzhnoye. Tsurilnikov solid rocket engine. RT-23 stage II. Out of Production. The case-bound START composite solid propellant charge had a cylindrical-conical umbrella shape channel. The case was of organic fibre-wound plastic material. More...
  • 15D94 TsKB-7 solid rocket engine. 180.4 kN. RT-2P Stage 3. Out of Production. Three gimballed nozzles for steering. Ammonium perchlorate/ammonium butyl propellant. Chamber pressure 48 kgf/cm2. More...
  • 2.5KS18000 Multiple-source solid rocket engine. 80 kN. Typical ideal dV=259 m/s; gravity and drag losses = 25 m/s. More...
  • 200 inch solid segment x 4 Notional solid rocket engine. 11,120 kN. Study 1960. Isp=285s. 4 used as first stage of NASA all-solid Nova design. Extended high-expansion nozzles. More...
  • 23KS20000 Bristol Aerospace solid rocket engine. 89 kN. Two-finned version. More...
  • 26KS20000 Bristol Aerospace solid rocket engine. 75.7 kN. Four-finned version. More...
  • 280 inch solid Notional solid rocket engine. 46,208 kN. Study 1963. Operational date would have been February 1973 Isp=265s. Used on Nova MM 14B launch vehicle. More...
  • 293-P Kartukov solid rocket engine. P-70 Ametist. Out of Production. More...
  • 300 inch solid Notional solid rocket engine. 63,595 kN. Study 1963. Operational date would have been April 1973 Isp=263s. Used on Nova MM 14A launch vehicle. More...
  • 325 in solid Notional solid rocket engine in GD Nova studies. 69,047 kN. Study 1963. Isp=263s. Recoverable motors; separation at 1,972 m/s at 53,000 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 3 61 m diameter parachutes 610 km downrange. More...
  • A1P-1 Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 1. More...
  • A1P-2 Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 2. More...
  • A2P-1 Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 1. More...
  • A3P-1 Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 1. More...
  • Aerojet SRB Aerojet solid rocket engine. 1270 kN. In production. Isp=275s. First flight 2002. More...
  • AJ-260-1/3 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 10,105 kN. Design concept 1960's. Isp=275s. Used on Saturn INT-05B launch vehicle. More...
  • AJ-260-2 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 17,695.3 kN. Study 1965. Isp=263s. 260 inch solid rocket booster half length. The version tested and also proposed for use as a first stage with the Saturn IVB. More...
  • AJ-260X Aerojet solid rocket engine. 35,390.7 kN. Study 1967. Full length version of 260 inch motor tested in 1960's. Proposed for use in various Saturn and Nova configurations. Isp=263s. More...
  • AJ-260X 1/3 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 11,143 kN. Design concept 1960's. Isp=263s. More...
  • Alcor Aerojet solid rocket engine. Originally developed for the Air Force as a third Stage for the Athena sounding rocket; in some applications known as Zebra. One of its main attractions was a very high mass fraction First flight 1960. More...
  • Algol 1 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 470.9 kN. Isp=236s. This rocket started as a Polaris test motor with a 40 inch diameter, which at the time was the largest solid motor ever tested. First flight 1960. More...
  • Algol 2 CSD solid rocket engine. 564.2 kN. Isp=255s. Used on Scout A, Scout B, Scout X-3, Scout X-4; proposed as strap-on for Titan 3BAS2. First flight 1962. More...
  • Algol 3 CSD solid rocket engine. 471.9 kN. Isp=284s. Used on Advanced Scout, Scout D, Scout F, Scout G. First flight 1972. More...
  • Algol 3A CSD solid rocket engine. 464.7 kN. In Production. Isp=259s. More...
  • BB7 Bristol Aerospace solid rocket engine. 1 kN. More...
  • Black Arrow-3 British solid rocket engine. 29.4 kN. Out of production. Isp=278s. Used on Black Arrow launch vehicle. First flight 1969. More...
  • Castor 4BXL Thiokol solid rocket engine. 429 kN. In Production. Isp=267s. ORBEX version, combined the 4XL motor with 4B's TVC system (6 degree). More...
  • Castor 4B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 430.6 kN. Out of production. The Castor 4B, which incorporated thrust vector control in the series for the first time, was developed for ESA's Maxus (first flown in 1991). Isp=281s. First flight 1982. More...
  • Castor 4AXL Thiokol solid rocket engine. 599.8 kN. In production. Isp=269s. Strap-on booster version, first tested May 1992. Its 30% performance increase would improve performance of Atlas and other vehicles. First flight 2001. More...
  • Castor 4A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 478.3 kN. Out of production. Isp=266s. Castor 4A improved Delta performance by 11% by replacing the old fuel with HTPB propellant. Used in Delta 6900; Atlas IIAS; Castor 4A. First flight 1982. More...
  • Castor 120 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 1650 kN. Isp=280s. Motor similar in size to the Peacekeeper missile stage 1 motor; filled the gap between Castor 4A and the large segmented motors. First flight 1989. More...
  • Castor 4 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 407.2 kN. Series of motors used as Delta strap-on boosters and as first and upper stages for low-cost all-solid-propellant designs. Isp=261s. First flight 1975. More...
  • CZ-1D-3 Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. Out of production. Motor for proposed CZ-1D launch vehicle. Isp=291s. First flight 1995. More...
  • DFH-2 AKM Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. 43.460 kN. DFH series apogee kick motor. Out of Production. Isp=287s. First flight 1984. First use in China of glass fibre wound cases, carbon/carbon nozzle throat insert material, contoured divergent nozzle. More...
  • EPKM Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. 189.994 kN. Isp=292s. Chinese kick stage for use on CZ-2E for launch of Asiasat-2 and Echostar-1. Diameter increased to 1.7 m in comparison to basic 1.4 m diameter motor. Spin stabilised. First flight 1990. More...
  • FFAR Multiple-source American solid rocket engine. 3.6 kN. More...
  • FSW Retromotor Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. 40.660 kN. In Production. Isp=280s. Retrorocket designed for deorbit of FSW recoverable satellite. First flight 1975. More...
  • FW-4D Thiokol solid rocket engine. 25 kN. Isp=287s. Kick stage motor for Delta E, Delta L. First flight 1965. More...
  • FW-4S TEM640 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 27.4 kN. Isp=280s. Used on Advanced Scout, Scout B, Scout D, Scout F, Scout G. First flight 1965. More...
  • GCRC GCR solid rocket engine. 11.6 kN. Isp=230s. Used on Vanguard launch vehicle. First flight 1957. More...
  • GEM 60 Hercules solid rocket engine. 851.5 kN. In production. Isp=275s. Used as strap-on boosters for Delta 3 , Delta IV Medium. First flight 2002. More...
  • GEM 40 Hercules solid rocket engine. 499.2 kN. Air-ignited versions have nozzle ratio of 16:1, specific impulse of 283.4 sec. Isp=274s. Used on Delta 7925 launch vehicle. First flight 1990. More...
  • GEM 46 Hercules solid rocket engine. 608.1 kN. Air-ignited versions have nozzle ratio of 24.8:1, specific impulse of 284 sec. Isp=274s. First flight 1998. More...
  • GF-02 Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. 181 kN. CZ-1 launch vehicle. Out of production. Isp=254s. First upper stage, zero-G, vacuum-start solid rocket motor developed in China. Inserted China's first satellite into orbit on 24 April 1970. More...
  • Goldfinch Royal Ordnance solid rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Skylark launch vehicle. More...
  • H-1-3 Nissan solid rocket engine. 77 kN. Isp=291s. Used on H-1 launch vehicle. First flight 1986. More...
  • H-2-0 Nissan solid rocket engine. 1540 kN. Isp=273s. Used as strap-on booster on H-2, first stage on J-1. First flight 1994. More...
  • H-2/J-1-1 Nissan solid rocket engine. 1556.6 kN. In Production. Used in J-1-1. Isp=273s. More...
  • Hercules Hercules solid rocket engine. 15,565.8 kN. In development. Isp=286s. Planned replacement for shuttle solid rocket boosters after Challenger disaster. A billion dollars spent in development, but contract terminated. NASA decided to stay with Thiokol RSRM. More...
  • Iris BPD solid rocket engine. 29.4 kN. Out of production. Isp=291s. Used on CZ-1M launch vehicle. More...
  • Kartukov LL Kartukov solid rocket engine. 14.7 kN. LL-1, LL-2, LL-3. Developed 1946-48. More...
  • Kartukov Soyuz SAS Kartukov solid rocket engine. 785 kN. Soyuz 7K-OK, Soyuz 7KT-OK, Soyuz 7K-T. Out of Production. Thrust 76 tf at cutout - 80.1tf at ignition. More...
  • LK-1 IAI solid rocket engine. 774 kN. In production. Isp=272s. Lengthened version of Shavit rocket motor. Lower stage used 9:1 nozzle. 23.6:1 nozzle for upper stage use inceased Isp to 279 seconds, First flight 1995. More...
  • M-13 Nissan solid rocket engine. 1262.4 kN. Isp=263s. Used on Mu-3S launch vehicle. First flight 1969. More...
  • M-23-J Nissan solid rocket engine. 524.8 kN. In development. Isp=282s. Used on J-1 launch vehicle. First flight 1996. More...
  • M-23-Mu Nissan solid rocket engine. 524 kN. Isp=285s. Used on Mu-3S launch vehicle. First flight 1969. More...
  • M-3B-J Nissan solid rocket engine. 132.1 kN. In development. Isp=294s. Used on J-1 launch vehicle. First flight 1996. More...
  • M-3B-Mu Nissan solid rocket engine. 132.1 kN. Isp=294s. Used on Mu-3S launch vehicle. First flight 1969. More...
  • M-6 Hercules solid rocket engine. 365 kN. Taurus rocket motor originally developed for the Army Honest John tactical missile. In sounding rocket applications the interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Taurus. More...
  • M-V-4 Nissan solid rocket engine. 52 kN. Isp=298s. Used on M-V launch vehicle. First flight 1997. More...
  • M14 Nissan solid rocket engine. 3780.3 kN. Isp=276s. Used on M-V launch vehicle. First flight 1997. More...
  • M24 Nissan solid rocket engine. 1245.3 kN. Isp=288s. Used on M-V launch vehicle. First flight 1997. More...
  • M33-20-4 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 286 kN. Isp=247s. Used as apogee kick motor on Delta D, LT Thor Agena D, Scout X-1, Scout X-2, Scout X-3, Scout X-4, TA Thor Agena B, TA Thor Agena D. First flight 1960. More...
  • M34 Nissan solid rocket engine. 294.2 kN. Isp=301s. Used on M-V launch vehicle. First flight 1997. More...
  • M55/TX-55/Tu-122 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 792 kN. In production. Isp=262s. Proposed as strap-on booster for Saturn IB-C, Saturn INT-14, Saturn INT-15, Saturn INT-19 variants. First flight 2000. More...
  • M56A-1 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 228.5 kN. Out of Production. Used in Aries. Isp=297s. More...
  • M5E1 Hercules solid rocket engine. 195.6 kN. Nike booster motor. The interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Nike in sounding rocket applications and lip-fit into the second stage nozzle. More...
  • Mage 1 SEP solid rocket engine. 19.4 kN. Out of production. Orbital circularization motor. Isp=295s. First flight 1979. More...
  • Mage 2 SEP solid rocket engine. 45.5 kN. Orbital circularization motor for Advanced Scout, Ariane 2/3. Isp=293s. First flight 1984. More...
  • Martlet 4-1 Bull solid rocket engine. 67.7 kN. Development ended 1966. Isp=300s. Used on Martlet 4 launch vehicle. More...
  • Martlet 4-2 Bull solid rocket engine. 20.6 kN. Development ended 1966. Isp=300s. Used on Martlet 4 launch vehicle. More...
  • Martlet 4-3 Bull solid rocket engine. 5.390 kN. Development ended 1966. Isp=300s. Used on Martlet 4 launch vehicle. More...
  • Melanie SEPR solid rocket engine. 11.1 kN. Out of production. 22 kg propellant. Empty mass estimated. Isp=227s. Used on Berenice launch vehicle. First flight 1962. More...
  • MIHT-4 MIHT solid rocket engine. 9.8 kN. Start-4. In production. Used in Start-4. Estimated values. Isp=295s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MIHT-1 MIHT solid rocket engine. 980.6 kN. Start-1. In production. Used in Start-1. Estimated values. Isp=263s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MIHT-2 solid rocket engine. 490.3 kN. Start-2. In production. Used in Start-2. Estimated values. Isp=280s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MIHT-3 MIHT solid rocket engine. 245.2 kN. Start-3. In production. Used in Start-3. Estimated values. Isp=280s. First flight 1993. More...
  • Mk7 Multiple-source solid rocket engine. 9.8 kN. More...
  • Nihka Bristol Aerospace solid rocket engine. 50.5 kN. Upper stages. Out of production. Isp=284s. Used on Black Brant 10 launch vehicle. First flight 1981. More...
  • NOTS-1 NOTS solid rocket engine. 53.4 kN. Out of production. Isp=204s. Used on Caleb launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • NOTS-3 NOTS solid rocket engine. 2.260 kN. Out of production. Isp=250s. Used on Caleb launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • NOTS-4 NOTS solid rocket engine. 0.700 kN. Out of production. Isp=250s. Used on Caleb launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • NOTS 100A NOTS solid rocket engine. Used on Blue Scout Junior launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • Orion Aerojet solid rocket engine. 13 kN. Improved Orion motor was a bi-phase propellant system with thrust levels of 84.5 kN during the first four seconds of motor burn, trailing off to 13.3 kN at burnout at 25 seconds. More...
  • P230 SNPE solid rocket engine. 6472.3 kN. In production. Isp=286s. Used on Ariane 5 launch vehicle. First flight 1996. More...
  • P241 SEP solid rocket engine. 6470 kN. In development. Isp=275s. First flight 2002. More...
  • P4 SNPE solid rocket engine. 176.5 kN. Out of Production. Isp=273s. Used on Diamant B launch vehicle. First flight 1970. More...
  • P6 SNPE solid rocket engine for Diamant launcher. 29.4 kN. Out of production. Isp=211s. First flight 1965. More...
  • P80 Fiat-Avio solid rocket engine. 3040 kN. In production. Isp=279s. Vega's first stage, introduced advanced low-cost technologies that could be reused for future evolutions of Ariane-5 boosters. More...
  • P9.5 SNPE solid rocket engine. 690 kN. Isp=263s. Strap-on booster engine for Ariane 42P, Ariane 44LP, Ariane 44P. First flight 1988. More...
  • Peacekeeper 1 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 2204.5 kN. In Production. MX Stage 1. Used as first stage of Taurus launch vehicle for initial test. Isp=282s. More...
  • Pegasus-3 Hercules solid rocket engine. 34.6 kN. Isp=287s. Upper stage engine for Pegasus, Pegasus XL, Taurus. First flight 1989. More...
  • Pegasus-2 Hercules solid rocket engine. 118.2 kN. Isp=290s. Used on Pegasus, Taurus. First flight 1989. More...
  • Pegasus-1 Hercules solid rocket engine. 484.9 kN. Isp=285s. Used on Pegasus, Taurus. First flight 1989. More...
  • Pegasus XL-1 Hercules solid rocket engine. 589 kN. Isp=293s. Used on Pegasus XL launch vehicle. First flight 1994. More...
  • Pegasus XL-2 Hercules solid rocket engine. 153.5 kN. Isp=290s. Used on Pegasus XL launch vehicle. First flight 1994. More...
  • Perigee Orbit Transfer Motor Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. 222.840 kN. In Production. Isp=280s. Basic perigee kick motor for CZ-2E launch vehicle. Featured glass fibre-wound case, HTPB propellant, 3-D finocyl propellant grain, and carbon/carbon throat insert. First flight 1990. More...
  • PRD-22 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 3.920 kN. SM-30. Out of Production. More...
  • PRD-70 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 400/5V11 stage I. Out of Production. More...
  • PRD-61 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 036 Vikhr. Out of Production. More...
  • PRD-52 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 784 kN. DBR-1 Yastreb. Out of Production. Thrust 80 tf at ignition, 75 tf at cutout. More...
  • PRD-36 Kartukov solid rocket engine. V-600. Out of Production. More...
  • PRD-19M Kartukov solid rocket engine. KSShch Shchuka. Out of Production. More...
  • PRD-15 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 392 kN. Strela-1 missile. Out of Production. More...
  • PSLV-1 ISRO solid rocket engine. 4860 kN. Isp=264s. Used on GSLV, PSLV. First flight 1993. More...
  • PSLV-3 ISRO solid rocket engine. 328.7 kN. Isp=291s. Used on PSLV launch vehicle. First flight 1993. More...
  • RD-127 Yuzhnoye solid rocket engine. Maneuvering vehicle bang-bang propulsion, consisted of 25 small solid-propellant motors, probably for homing vehicles or multiple warhead dispensing applications. More...
  • Redesigned SRM Thiokol solid rocket engine. 11,520 kN. In Production. Isp=268s. Replacement shuttle solid rocket booster with redesigned field joints to prevent failure that caused the Challenger disaster. More...
  • Rook Royal Ordnance solid rocket engine. 300 kN. Out of production. Fast-burning version of Raven. Rook was fired 70 times altogether, in 65 flights and 16 different vehicle designs. More...
  • RSA-4-2 South African solid rocket engine. 676 kN. Development ended 1994. Isp=275s. Used on RSA-4 launch vehicle. More...
  • RSA-3-1 South Africansolid rocket engine. 500 kN. Out of production. Built in both Israel and South Africa for RSA-3 and Shavit. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. Isp=273s. First flight 1988. More...
  • RSA-3-2 South African solid rocket engine. 519 kN. In production. Built in both Israel and South Africa for RSA-3 and Shavit. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. Isp=284s. First flight 1988. More...
  • RSA-3-3 South Africansolid rocket engine. 51 kN. In production. Israeli AUS-51 rocket motor, built in both Israel and South Africa. Isp=292s. Upper stage engine for RSA-3, RSA-4, Shavit, Shavit 1. First flight 1988. More...
  • RSA-4-1 South Africansolid rocket engine. 1520 kN. Development ended 1994. Isp=263s. Used on RSA-4 launch vehicle. More...
  • RSRM Thiokol solid rocket engine. 11,520 kN. Study 1996. After the Challenger disaster the redesigned solid rocket motors had a slight reduction in performance due to reliability improvements. Isp=267s. More...
  • S-30 IAE solid rocket engine. 20.490 kN. Development ended 1997. Isp=275s. More...
  • S-40TM IAE solid rocket engine. 208.4 kN. Isp=272s. Used on VLS launch vehicle. First flight 1985. More...
  • S-43 IAE solid rocket engine. 303 kN. Isp=265s. Used on VLS launch vehicle. First flight 1985. More...
  • S-43TM IAE solid rocket engine. 321.7 kN. Isp=276s. Used on VLS launch vehicle. First flight 1985. More...
  • S-44 IAE solid rocket engine. 33.2 kN. Isp=282s. Used on VLS launch vehicle. First flight 1985. More...
  • SB-735 Nissan solid rocket engine. 327.8 kN. Isp=263s. Used on Mu-3S launch vehicle. First flight 1969. More...
  • SEPR 740 SEPR solid rocket engine. 91.7 kN. Out of production. Isp=230s. Used on Berenice, Titus. First flight 1962. More...
  • Sergeant Multiple-source solid rocket engine. 6.660 kN. Out of Production. Used in Jupiter C, Juno 2. Isp=235s. First flight 1956. More...
  • SLV-4 ISRO solid rocket engine. 26.8 kN. Isp=283s. Used on ASLV, SLV. First flight 1979. More...
  • SLV-3 ISRO solid rocket engine. 90.7 kN. Isp=277s. Used on ASLV, SLV. First flight 1979. More...
  • SLV-1 ISRO solid rocket engine. 502.6 kN. Isp=253s. Used on ASLV, PSLV, SLV. First flight 1979. More...
  • SLV-2 ISRO solid rocket engine. 267 kN. Isp=267s. Used on ASLV, SLV. First flight 1979. More...
  • SpaB-54 Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. In Production. Kick stage for orbital insertion of Iridium satellites Used on CZ-2C/SD launch vehicle. First flight 1997. More...
  • SPB 7.35 SNPE solid rocket engine. 690 kN. Isp=263s. Strap-on booster for Advanced Scout, Ariane 2/3. First flight 1984. More...
  • SPRD-15 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 402 kN. S-2 Strela-2 missile, Sopka. Out of Production. Thrust 27 tf at cutout - 41at ignition. More...
  • SPRD-30 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 294 kN. P-15 Termit. Out of Production. Thrust 28 tf at cutout - 30 tf at ignition. More...
  • SPRD-99 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 24.5 kN. MiG-21PFM. Out of Production. More...
  • SR-19 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 267.7 kN. Minuteman 2 2nd stage. In production. Second stage of Minuteman 2. Surplus motors used as second stage of Minotaur launch vehicle and various SDI targets in 1980's. Isp=287s. First flight 2000. More...
  • SRB Thiokol solid rocket engine. 11,520 kN. Isp=269s. Segmented solid rocket boosters for the compromised space shuttle design. Field joint design led to Challenger shuttle disaster. Production 1981-1985, after which superseded by RSRM's. More...
  • SRB-A Nissan solid rocket engine. 2250 kN. In production. Monolithic motor, shorter than that for H-2, using Thiokol filament wound composite structure. Isp=280s. First flight 2001. More...
  • SRM-1 CSD solid rocket engine. 181.5 kN. Used in TOS; IUS-1 on Shuttle, Titan 34D. Known by manufacturer as Orbus 21. Propellant: 86% solids made up of HTPB UTP-19360A. Shape: cylindrical. Isp=296s. First flight 1982. More...
  • SRM-2 CSD solid rocket engine. 78.4 kN. Used in Shuttle, Titan 34D; IUS-2. Known by manufacturer as Orbus 6. Isp=304s. First flight 1982. More...
  • SSUS-A Motor Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. A slightly modified stage 3 Minuteman 3 with TVC and roll control systems removed, provided propulsion for the Douglas Spinning Solid Upper Stage for use with Space Shuttle payloads. More...
  • Star 37N Thiokol solid rocket engine. 45 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 162,102 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.898. Isp=290s. More...
  • Star 48 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 67.2 kN. Used in Delta 3900; Conesotga; PAM-S; PAM-D. Total flown included in total for Star-48-8. Total impulse 575,682 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.946. Isp=286s. First flight 1982. More...
  • Star 40 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 200,882 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.925. Isp=207s. More...
  • Star 37Y Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 317,856 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.93. Isp=297s. More...
  • Star 37XFP Thiokol solid rocket engine. 31.5 kN. In Production. Isp=290s. Orbit insertion motor qualified for Global Positioning Satellite. Used as a replacement for the discontinued STAR 37F. Propellant: 884 kg of AP/HTPB/Al in 6Al-4V titanium case. More...
  • Star 37XF 8 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 238,809 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.924. Isp=291s. More...
  • Star 37XF Thiokol solid rocket engine. 45 kN. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-37XF-8. Total impulse 259,123 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.929. Isp=290s. More...
  • Star 37D Thiokol solid rocket engine. 45 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 189,489 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.91. Isp=266s. More...
  • Star 37S Thiokol solid rocket engine. 45 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 190,590 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.925. Isp=287s. More...
  • Star 5C Thiokol solid rocket engine. 2.039 kN. Out of Production. Titan Retro designed to separate the second stage from the upper stage of the Titan IV launch vehicle. More...
  • Star 37G Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 304,620 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.925. Isp=289s. More...
  • Star 37FM Thiokol solid rocket engine. 47.9 kN. In Production. Isp=289s. Apogee kick motor for the FLTSTACOM satellite. The motor case contained the same volume as the discontinued STAR 37E. More...
  • Star 37F Thiokol solid rocket engine. 55.5 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 249,177 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.928. Isp=286s. More...
  • Star 37E Thiokol solid rocket engine. 68 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 296,635 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.926. Isp=283s. More...
  • Star 37C Thiokol solid rocket engine. 45 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 275,959 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.921. Isp=285s. More...
  • Star 48 8 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 587,784 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.945. Isp=292s. More...
  • Star 37X Thiokol solid rocket engine. 51.1 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 310,668 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.928. Isp=295s. More...
  • Star 5C/CB Thiokol solid rocket engine. 1.951 kN. In Production. Isp=266s. Titan Retro designed to separate the second stage from the transtage on the Titan II missile and Titan launch vehicle. The motor was also adapted for other uses. More...
  • Star 75 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 242.8 kN. In Production. Isp=288s. A demonstration motor tested as a first step in the development of a perigee kick motor in the 4080-7940 kg propellant range. More...
  • Star 6B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 2.510 kN. In Production. Isp=273s. Delta-V reentry motor developed as a spin-up and propulsion motor for reentry vehicles. The design incorporated an aluminum case and a plastic nozzle assembly. More...
  • Star 6A Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 935 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.723. Isp=285s. More...
  • Star 63F Thiokol solid rocket engine. 104.627 kN. In Production. Isp=297s. Provided perigee kick for the McDonnell PAM-D2 system. Another version was the Star 63D (TU-936). More...
  • Star 63D Thiokol solid rocket engine. 84.739 kN. In Production. Isp=283s. Perigee motor with a range of propellant loads, yielding GTO payloads from 3,080 to 4,588 pounds at a constant velocity of 8,012 feet per second. More...
  • Star 63 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 107.2 kN. Used in Shuttle,Titan 34D. Isp=282s. Used on Delta 7925 launch vehicle. First flight 1990. More...
  • Star 62 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 725,491 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.94. Isp=294s. More...
  • Star 5 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 405 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.87. Isp=189s. More...
  • Star 5CB Thiokol solid rocket engine. 2 kN. In Production. Reduced Al HTPB propellant (2.1 kg) minimizes contamination when Used in a Titan 4 stage separation motor. Diameter: 121 mm. Length: 341 mm. Mass: 4.5 kg. Itotal: 5.5 kNs. Burn Time: 2.77 sec. More...
  • Star 48A l Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total impulse 709,062 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.941. Isp=289s. More...
  • Star 30B Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 148,816 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.941. Isp=293s. More...
  • Star 5A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 0.166 kN. In Production. Isp=249s. Space Gnat was designed to provide a minimum acceleration, extended burn delta-V impulse, for small payload replacement or spin-up applications. More...
  • Star 37B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 45 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 189,489 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.91. Isp=291s. More...
  • Star 48V Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Developed for Conestoga's upper stage, providing some 4 degrees capability at 30 degree/sec using the same loaded casing as the 48B. First Flight: 1994. More...
  • Star 48B s Thiokol solid rocket engine. 77.109 kN. In Production. Isp=286s. Short nozzle upper-stage motor qualified for the McDonnell Douglas Payload Assist Module (PAM) Space Transportation System (STS). More...
  • Star 48B l Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Isp=292s. Lengthened version of Star 48B to provide increased payload capability. The design incorporates a longer cylindrical section in the motor case. More...
  • Star 48B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 66 kN. In Production. Isp=286s. Long nozzle upper-stage motor qualified for the McDonnell Payload Assist Module (PAM) Delta. More...
  • Star 48A s Thiokol solid rocket engine. 77.109 kN. In Production. Isp=283s. Short nozzle upper-stage motor designed to fit within the dimensional envelope of the long nozzle. More...
  • Star 6 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-6A. Total impulse 1,395 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.795. Isp=287s. More...
  • Star 13D Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 7,799 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.81. Isp=223s. More...
  • Star 20B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 24.467 kN. In Production. Isp=289s. Modified version of the STAR 20 with increased case structural capability over the. A filament-wound, fiberglass-epoxy case contained the CTPB propellant grain. More...
  • Star 20A Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 83,839 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.91. Isp=291s. More...
  • Star 37 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 43.5 kN. Total impulse 161,512 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.899. Isp=260s. First flight 1963. More...
  • Star 20 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 27.135 kN. In Production. Isp=286s. Altair III was developed as the propulsion unit for the fourth stage of the Scout launch vehicle. A filament-wound, fiberglass-epoxy case contained the CTPB propellant grain. More...
  • Star 30C Thiokol solid rocket engine. 32.6 kN. AS 3000. In Production. Isp=286s. Apogee motor used for the RCA G-STAR and Martin Marietta series 3000 telecom satelllites. More...
  • Star 17 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 10.9 kN. Skynet 1, NATO 1, and IMP-H & J. Out of production. Isp=286s. Used on Atlas LV-3A / Agena D launch vehicle. First flight 1963. More...
  • Star 15 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 11,109 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.926. Isp=228s. More...
  • Star 24 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 20 kN. Skynet 2. In Production. Isp=282s. Apogee boost motor was qualified and flown for the Skynet II, later apogee boost motor for NRL and SAMSO. More...
  • Star 13E Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 6,438 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.822. Isp=211s. More...
  • Star 20 Spherical Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 30,198 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.934. Isp=234s. More...
  • Star 13C Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 8,252 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.795. Isp=218s. More...
  • Star 13B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 7.6 kN. Out of Production. Isp=285s. Orbit insertion motor incorporated the lightweight case developed for the STAR 13 with the propellant and nozzle design of the earlier TE-M-516 apogee motor. More...
  • Star 13A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 5.874 kN. In Production. Isp=286s. Orbit insertion motor incorporated the lightweight titanium case developed for the STAR 13 with the propellant and nozzle design of the earlier TE-M-444 apogee motor. More...
  • Star 13 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 3.8 kN. Out of Production. Isp=273s. A braking motor used by NASA for the Anchored Interplanetary Monitoring Platform program. More...
  • Star 12A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 7.247 kN. In Production. Isp=270s. Super SARV Retro was a longer, higher impulse version of the STAR 12, used as a retrograde rocket for an unmanned satellite vehicle. More...
  • Star 12 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 5.560 kN. In Production. Isp=252s. SARV Retro, MK IV and V was a 60-pound motor using 40 pounds of propellant. It was designed for use as a retrograde rocket for an unmanned satellite vehicle. More...
  • Star 10 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 3.353 kN. In Production. Isp=251s. SARV Retro MK I was a small, high-performance motor designed for use as a retrograde rocket for an unmanned satellite vehicle. More...
  • Star 13F Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 9,608 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.83. Isp=240s. More...
  • Star 30 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-30A. Total impulse 136,455 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.943. Isp=293s. More...
  • Star 31 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 80 kN. In Production. Isp=293s. Antares III, third-generation third stage for Scout launch vehicle. Propellant: AP/HTPB/Al propellant in a filament wound Kevlar case. More...
  • Star 30E Thiokol solid rocket engine. 35.4 kN. Koreasat. In Production. Isp=290s. Apogee motor used for the BAe Skynet 4 satellite, Koreasat and by the ORBEX small orbital launcher. More...
  • Star 17A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 16.014 kN. In Production. Isp=286s. Apogee kick motor, modified with 175 mm straight section added to the Star 17. The 17A was used to circularize orbits for the Skynet 1, NATO 1, and IMP-H & J satellites. More...
  • Star 30A Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 137,095 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.942. Isp=294s. More...
  • Star 24A Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-24C. Total impulse 50,965 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.903. Isp=282s. More...
  • Star 27E Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total impulse 88,301 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.921. Isp=287s. More...
  • Star 27D Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total flown included in total for Star-27E. Total impulse 88,668 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.921. Isp=287s. More...
  • Star 27C Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total flown included in total for Star-27E. Total impulse 88,555 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.918. Isp=287s. More...
  • Star 24B Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-24C. Total impulse 57,236 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.915. Isp=282s. More...
  • Star 27A Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total flown included in total for Star-27E. Total impulse 89,684 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.919. Isp=287s. More...
  • Star 27 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 27 kN. Apogee motor used on CTS, GMS, BS, GPS, GOES satellites. In Production. Isp=288s. More...
  • Star 26C Thiokol solid rocket engine. 35 kN. In Production. Isp=272s. Upper stage motor used the titanium alloy case and nozzle attachment ring of the STAR 26B design to provide high propellant mass fraction and was insulated for high-spin-rate applications. More...
  • Star 26B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 34.627 kN. In Production. Isp=271s. Upper stage motor flown on the Burner IIA spacecraft for Boeing and the U.S. Air Force. More...
  • Star 26 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 39.1 kN. In Production. Upper stage motor used in the Sandia Strypi IV vehicle. Total flown included in total for Star-26C. Total impulse 62,800 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.86. Isp=271s. First flight 1965. More...
  • Star 25 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 61,086 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.917. Isp=240s. More...
  • Star 24C Thiokol solid rocket engine. 21.466 kN. In Production. Isp=282s. Apogee motor designed and qualified for the NASA International Ultraviolet Experiment satellite. More...
  • Star 27B Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total flown included in total for Star-27E. Total impulse 92,296 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.921. Isp=288s. More...
  • Star 30BP Thiokol solid rocket engine. 27 kN. In Production. Isp=292s. Apogee motor used for the HS 376 satellite bus. Incorporated an 89-percent-solids HTPB propellant in a 6AI-4V titanium case insulated with silica-filled EPDM rubber. More...
  • Stonechat Mk 2 Royal Ordnance solid rocket engine. Out of production. There seem to have been even larger classified versions. Used on Falstaff launch vehicle. More...
  • Stonechat I RO solid rocket engine. 232 kN. Largest solid rocket motor ever produced in Britain. Motor developed for hypersonic research vehicle. Subsequently used in Falstaff test vehicle. More...
  • Stromboli SEPR solid rocket engine. 143 kN. Out of production. Isp=235s. Used on Berenice, Tacite, Titus. First flight 1962. More...
  • T-7A Booster Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. 46 kN. T-7 sounding rocket. Out of Production. Isp=209s. China's first flight solid rocket. First flight 1965. Polysulfide binder with aluminium binder fuel in case of high strength steel with a graphite throat insert. More...
  • Talos Mk 11 Mod 2 Hercules solid rocket engine. 516 kN. Talos motor fitted with a conical adapter for mating to the second stage. More...
  • Terrier Mk12 Mod 0 Naval Prop Plant solid rocket engine. 257.5 kN. The Terrier MK 12 Mod 1 rocket motor was typically equipped with four 0.22 square meter fin panels arranged in a cruciform configuration. More...
  • Thiokol 156 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 14,746.1 kN. Developed to 1966. Isp=263s. More...
  • Tramontane SEPR solid rocket engine. 50 kN. Out of production. Isp=220s. Used on Berenice launch vehicle. First flight 1962. More...
  • TX-354-3 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 258.9 kN. Used in Scout A; Delta E; H-1-0; Castor 2. License built in Japan for H-1. Isp=262s. First flight 1960. More...
  • UA-156 CSD solid rocket engine. 8924.3 kN. Tested 1968. Isp=263s. Proposed as strap-on booster for Saturn INT-27, Saturn V-25(S)B, Saturn V-25(S)U. More...
  • UA1205 CSD solid rocket engine. 5849.3 kN. Out of production. Isp=263s. Strap-on boosters for Titan 3C, 3D, 3E. Proposed for advanced Saturn IB versions. First flight 1965. More...
  • UA1206 CSD solid rocket engine. 6226.9 kN. Isp=265s. Used on Titan 34D launch vehicle. First flight 1982. More...
  • UA1207 CSD solid rocket engine. 7116.9 kN. Isp=272s. First flight 1989. More...
  • UM-129A Nissan solid rocket engine. 77.5 kN. In Production. Used in H-1-3. Isp=291s. More...
  • USRM Hercules solid rocket engine. 7560.5 kN. Isp=286s.Strap-on booster for Titan 4B. First flight 1997. More...
  • Viper-20 Multiple-source American solid rocket engine. 20 kN. Viper More...
  • X-248 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 12.4 kN. Isp=256s. Used on Atlas Able, Blue Scout 2, Caleb, Delta, Delta A, Delta B, Delta C. First flight 1959. More...
  • X-248A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 13.8 kN. Isp=255s. Used on Scout X-1, Scout X-2, Scout X-3. First flight 1960. More...
  • X-259A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 80.8 kN. Out of production. Isp=295s. Used on Scout G launch vehicle. First flight 1979. More...
  • X-259 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 93.1 kN. Isp=293s. Used on Scout A, Scout B, Scout D, Scout F, Scout X-2, Scout X-3, Scout X-4. First flight 1962. More...
  • X-258 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 22.2 kN. Isp=266s. Kick stage motor for Delta D, Scout A, Scout X-4. First flight 1963. More...
  • X-254 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 60.5 kN. Isp=256s. Used on Blue Scout 1, Blue Scout 2, Blue Scout Junior, Scout X-1. First flight 1960. More...
  • Zefiro 23 Fiat-Avio solid rocket engine. 1200 kN. In production. Isp=289s. Carbon epoxy filament wound case; low density EPDM insulation; HTPB 1912 composite propellant. Used on Vega launch vehicle. More...
  • Zefiro 9 Fiat-Avio solid rocket engine. 313 kN. In production. Isp=294s. Motor derived from the 16-metric-ton Zefiro 16. Carbon epoxy filament wound case; low density EPDM insulation; HTPB 1912 composite propellant. More...

Associated Stages
  • 100 inch solid Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 115,350/12,000 kg. Thrust 3,330.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 260 seconds. Three-segment solid motor proposed for the Solid Titan II in the SLV-4 competition. Aerojet test fired motors with up to five segments, producing an average thrust of 268,000 kgf for 120 seconds. More...
  • 12KS10000 Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb). More...
  • 15D151 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,150/2,450 kg. Thrust 647.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 260 seconds. Four nozzles. Length with interstage 9.8 m. Sea level thrust 60,000 kgf. Specific impulse estimated. More...
  • 15D23 Solid rocket stage. 893.00 kN (200,754 lbf) thrust. Mass 34,600 kg (76,280 lb). More...
  • 15D23P Solid rocket stage. 980.00 kN (220,313 lbf) thrust. Mass 34,550 kg (76,170 lb). More...
  • 15D24 Solid rocket stage. 432.00 kN (97,117 lbf) thrust. Mass 9,600 kg (21,164 lb). More...
  • 15D25 Solid rocket stage. 215.00 kN (48,334 lbf) thrust. Mass 3,500 kg (7,716 lb). More...
  • 15D27 Solid rocket stage. 432.00 kN (97,117 lbf) thrust. Mass 11,300 kg (24,912 lb). More...
  • 15D339 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 25,000 kg. Thrust 1,050.00 kN. More...
  • 15D94 Solid rocket stage. 180.40 kN (40,556 lbf) thrust. Mass 4,640 kg (10,229 lb). More...
  • 15KS25000 Solid rocket stage. 111.00 kN (24,954 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb). More...
  • 160 inch solid Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 907,000/91,000 kg. Thrust 13,788.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Notional 160 inch solid motor considered in cluster of 7 as alternative to Nova 8 F-1 stage. Led to 156 inch motors tested in late 1960's. More...
  • 17KS12000 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 399/70 kg. Thrust 50.50 kN. The Nihka rocket motor was developed specifically for the Black Brant X rocket system by Bristol Aerospace. More...
  • 23KS20000 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,000/150 kg. Thrust 89.00 kN. Two-finned version. More...
  • 240 inch solid Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,633,000/163,000 kg. Thrust 24,457.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Notional 240 inch solid motor considered in cluster of 4 as alternative to Nova 8 F-1 stage. Led to 260 inch motor tested in late 1960's. More...
  • 260 inch solid FL Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,648,355/156,126 kg. Thrust 35,391.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. 260 inch solid booster - full length. These would have been the flight configuration motors, replacing the Saturn V first stage or being used as booster motors in various Uprated Saturn and Nova configurations. More...
  • 260 inch solid HL Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 831,345/85,321 kg. Thrust 17,695.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. 260 inch solid rocket booster half length. More...
  • 260 inch solid TL Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 561,000/60,600 kg. Thrust 10,105.31 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Study NASA 1969 More...
  • 26KS20000 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,264/268 kg. Thrust 75.70 kN. Four-finned version. More...
  • 5 Segment RSRM Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 751,212/100,350 kg. Thrust 15,480.36 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Five-segment version of Shuttle RSRM studied in 1999-2003 to increase shuttle payload to ISS. Test fired in 2003 but not proceeded with. Another version proposed in 2005 for use as lateral boosters for the Constellation Cargo Vehicle. More...
  • 53T6-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 12,000 kg. More...
  • 9KS11000 Solid rocket stage. 49.00 kN (11,016 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb). More...
  • 9KS1660 Solid rocket stage. 7.40 kN (1,664 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • A1P-1 Solid rocket stage. Mass 8,300 kg (18,298 lb). More...
  • A2P-1 Solid rocket stage. Mass 10,100 kg (22,267 lb). More...
  • A3P-1 Solid rocket stage. Mass 11,100 kg (24,471 lb). More...
  • Aeolus-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 80.00 kN. More...
  • Aerobee 300A-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 272/153 kg. Thrust 80.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 167 seconds. Typical ideal dV=259 m/s; gravity and drag losses = 25 m/s. More...
  • Agni 2-1 Solid rocket stage. 700.00 kN (157,366 lbf) thrust. Mass 11,500 kg (25,353 lb). More...
  • Agni 3-2 Solid rocket stage. 314.00 kN (70,590 lbf) thrust. Mass 14,000 kg (30,865 lb). More...
  • Agni 3-1 Solid rocket stage. 1040.00 kN (233,801 lbf) thrust. Mass 33,000 kg (72,753 lb). More...
  • Alcor Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 520/50 kg. Thrust 35.59 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 230 seconds. Masses, specific impulse estimated. More...
  • Alcor IA Solid rocket stage. 49.00 kN (11,016 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb). More...
  • Alcor IB Solid rocket stage. 42.00 kN (9,442 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb). More...
  • Alcyone Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • Alfa-1 Solid rocket stage. 250.00 kN (56,202 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,500 kg (14,330 lb). More...
  • Algol 2C Solid rocket stage. 436.00 kN (98,017 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,800 kg (23,810 lb). More...
  • Algol 3A Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,732/2,030 kg. Thrust 464.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 259 seconds. More...
  • Algol 3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,320/1,600 kg. Thrust 471.91 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 284 seconds. More...
  • Algol 1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,705/1,900 kg. Thrust 470.93 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 236 seconds. This rocket started as a Polaris test motor with a 40 inch diameter, which at the time was the largest solid motor ever tested. It had a nominal performance rating of 45 seconds duration and 45,000 kgf thrust. Variations included Algol I, I-D, II, II-A, II-B and possibly others. Another popular rating was 40KS-115,000 (52,000 kgf for 40 seconds), also known as Senior. More...
  • Algol 1D Solid rocket stage. 440.00 kN (98,916 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,700 kg (23,589 lb). More...
  • Algol 2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,600/1,650 kg. Thrust 564.25 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds. More...
  • Algol 2B Solid rocket stage. 400.00 kN (89,924 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,700 kg (23,589 lb). More...
  • Altair 1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 238/30 kg. Thrust 12.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 256 seconds. More...
  • Altair 1A Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 390/181 kg. Thrust 13.79 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds. More...
  • Altair 2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 275/37 kg. Thrust 22.24 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 266 seconds. More...
  • Altair 3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 301/25 kg. Thrust 27.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. More...
  • Antares 1A Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,225/294 kg. Thrust 60.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 256 seconds. More...
  • Antares 2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,400/300 kg. Thrust 93.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. More...
  • Antares 3A Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,637/352 kg. Thrust 80.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. More...
  • Arcon-1 Solid rocket stage. 4.50 kN (1,012 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • Ariane 3-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,663/2,313 kg. Thrust 689.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. More...
  • Ariane 5 EAP Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 278,330/38,200 kg. Thrust 6,470.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Increased propellant loading (+2.43 tonnes), lighter welded case (-1.6 tonnes) compared to earlier versions. More...
  • Ariane 5-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 277,500/39,800 kg. Thrust 6,470.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Solid rocket booster for Ariane 5. Nozzle expansion ratio increased from 9.7 to 11.0 after 1997. Chamber pressure 61.3 bar. HTPB propellant. More...
  • ASAT-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg. More...
  • ASLV-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,710/650 kg. Thrust 90.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds. More...
  • ASLV-4 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 512/195 kg. Thrust 35.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 281 seconds. More...
  • ASLV-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,800/2,900 kg. Thrust 702.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 259 seconds. More...
  • ASLV-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,600/2,963 kg. Thrust 502.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 253 seconds. More...
  • ASLV-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,400/800 kg. Thrust 304.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 276 seconds. More...
  • Asp Solid rocket stage. 26.00 kN (5,845 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • Asp IV Solid rocket stage. 12.70 kN (2,855 lbf) thrust. Mass 94 kg (207 lb). More...
  • Astrid-1 Solid rocket stage. 0.40 kN (90 lbf) thrust. Mass 20 kg (44 lb). More...
  • Astrobee F-1 Solid rocket stage. 36.40 kN (8,183 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb). More...
  • Atlas V SRB Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 40,824/4,000 kg. Thrust 1,270.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. New SRB boosters in development for Atlas V. Empty mass, vacuum thrust, sea level Isp estimated. More...
  • Aurore-1 Solid rocket stage. 10.50 kN (2,360 lbf) thrust. Mass 50 kg (110 lb). More...
  • Berenice-1 Solid rocket stage. 170.00 kN (38,218 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,900 kg (4,189 lb). More...
  • Berenice-2 Solid rocket stage. 91.70 kN (20,615 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,050 kg (2,315 lb). More...
  • Berenice-3 Solid rocket stage. 50.00 kN (11,240 lbf) thrust. Mass 280 kg (617 lb). More...
  • Black Arrow-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 397/87 kg. Thrust 29.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds. More...
  • Burner 2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 774/116 kg. Thrust 43.55 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Burner II was a launch vehicle upper stage developed by Boeing for the Air Force Space Systems Division. It was the first solid-fuel upper stage with full control and guidance capability developed for general space applications. More...
  • Burner 2A Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 353/115 kg. Thrust 39.15 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Burner II was a launch vehicle upper stage developed by Boeing for the Air Force Space Systems Division. It was the first solid-fuel upper stage with full control and guidance capability developed for general space applications. More...
  • Burner 3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,243/168 kg. Thrust 51.15 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds. More...
  • Caleb-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 267/23 kg. Thrust 13.78 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 254 seconds. More...
  • Caleb-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 35/6 kg. Thrust 2.27 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. More...
  • Caleb-4 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5/1 kg. Thrust 0.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. More...
  • Castor 2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,424/695 kg. Thrust 258.92 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 262 seconds. More...
  • Castor 4XL Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,400/2,500 kg. Thrust 745.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 283 seconds. Provides supplemental thrust for H-2 or H-2A. More...
  • Castor 4B Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,400/1,400 kg. Thrust 430.61 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 281 seconds. Optimized for high altitude (Conestoga) More...
  • Castor 4 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,534/1,269 kg. Thrust 407.21 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 261 seconds. More...
  • Castor 1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,852/535 kg. Thrust 286.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 247 seconds. More...
  • Castor 4A Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,743/1,529 kg. Thrust 478.31 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 266 seconds. More...
  • Cetus Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 50/10 kg. Thrust 4.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 230 seconds. Masses, specific impulse estimated. More...
  • Cirrus I-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 5.00 kN. More...
  • Cockatoo-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg. Thrust 152.00 kN. More...
  • CZ-1M-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,830/256 kg. Thrust 29.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 291 seconds. More...
  • DF-11-1 Solid rocket stage. 93.20 kN (20,952 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,400 kg (11,905 lb). More...
  • DF-11M-1 Solid rocket stage. 93.20 kN (20,952 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,400 kg (11,905 lb). More...
  • Diamant B-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 800/120 kg. Thrust 50.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 211 seconds. More...
  • Diamant BP-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,500/1,000 kg. Thrust 176.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 273 seconds. More...
  • Diamant-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 703/68 kg. Thrust 29.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 211 seconds. More...
  • Dorado Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. More...
  • DP Boost Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 8,000 kg. Boost stage for Tu-123/DP nuclear propulsion upper stage. More...
  • Draco-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 3,500 kg. Thrust 213.00 kN. More...
  • Draco-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,000 kg. Thrust 44.50 kN. More...
  • Dragon-2 Solid rocket stage. 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb). More...
  • Emma-0 Solid rocket stage. 14.80 kN (3,327 lbf) thrust. Mass 20 kg (44 lb). More...
  • Emma-1 Solid rocket stage. 1.40 kN (315 lbf) thrust. Mass 50 kg (110 lb). More...
  • EPKM Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,985/541 kg. Thrust 117.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds. Perigee kick motor for putting CZ-2E payloads into geosynchronous transfer orbit. Thrust, burn time estimated. Specific impulse calculated based on motor payload/delta v performance and masses. More...
  • Epona-1 Solid rocket stage. 24.00 kN (5,395 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb). More...
  • ESBM Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,810/1,030 kg. Thrust 189.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. More...
  • Falstaff-1 Solid rocket stage. 242.00 kN (54,404 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,100 kg (11,244 lb). More...
  • Fulmar-2 Solid rocket stage. 16.00 kN (3,597 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb). More...
  • FW-4D Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 300/25 kg. Thrust 25.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 287 seconds. More...
  • GEM 40 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,064/1,361 kg. Thrust 492.93 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 274 seconds. More...
  • GEM 46 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,327/2,282 kg. Thrust 628.31 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds. Nine 1168-mm (46 in.) diameter Alliant graphite epoxy motors (GEM LDXLs) (strap-on solid rocket motors - SSRMs) augment the first-stage performance of the Delta III and were a direct evolution from the GEMs used on Delta II. More...
  • GEM 60 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 33,798/3,849 kg. Thrust 826.55 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. 90.5 bar chamber pressure, 11.0 nozzle expansion ratio. Figures for TVC version. Fixed nozzle version is 599 kg lighter. More...
  • GF-02 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,050/246 kg. Thrust 180.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 254 seconds. More...
  • GF-01A Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 875/150 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 291 seconds. More...
  • GSLV-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 157,300/28,300 kg. Thrust 4,860.07 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 266 seconds. More...
  • H-1-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,480/750 kg. Thrust 258.92 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Version for Japanese H-1 booster. More...
  • H-2-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 70,400/11,250 kg. Thrust 1,540.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 273 seconds. More...
  • H-2A SRB-A Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 76,400/10,400 kg. Thrust 2,250.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. More...
  • H-2A SSB Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,200/2,100 kg. Thrust 626.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 283 seconds. Provides supplemental thrust for H-2 or H-2A. More...
  • HAD-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 52 kg. More...
  • HARP-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. More...
  • HAT-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. More...
  • Hera-2 Solid rocket stage. 76.00 kN (17,085 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,900 kg (4,189 lb). More...
  • HJ Nike Nike-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 599/256 kg. Thrust 195.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 195 seconds. The average sea level thrust of the Nike rocket motor was 190.3 kN. The interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Nike and consisted of a conical shaped adapter which slip-fit into the second stage nozzle, thus providing for drag separation at Nike burnout. Each Nike fin was 0.45 square meters in area. Normally, the fins were canted to provide a two revolutions per second spin rate at Nike burnout. More...
  • HJ Nike-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,900/954 kg. Thrust 365.00 kN. Rocket motor originally developed for the Army Honest John tactical missile. In sounding rocket applications the interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Taurus and consisted of a conical shaped adapter which slip-fit into the second stage nozzle, thus providing for drag separation at Taurus burnout. Each Taurus fin was 0.46 square meters in area. Normally, the fins were canted to provide a two revolutions per second spin rate at Taurus burnout. The weight of the booster system is 3005 pounds. More...
  • Hopi III Solid rocket stage. 28.00 kN (6,295 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb). More...
  • HVAR-1 Solid rocket stage. 25.00 kN (5,620 lbf) thrust. Mass 40 kg (88 lb). More...
  • Hyperion-1 Solid rocket stage. 6.00 kN (1,349 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • Icarus-1 Solid rocket stage. 16.00 kN (3,597 lbf) thrust. Mass 40 kg (88 lb). More...
  • Icarus-2 Solid rocket stage. 4.10 kN (922 lbf) thrust. Mass 10 kg (22 lb). More...
  • Improved Orion-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 400 kg. Thrust 13.00 kN. The Improved Orion motor was a bi-phase propellant system that results in thrust levels of approximately 84.5 kN during the first four seconds of motor burn then trailing off to approximately 13.3 kN until burnout around 25 seconds. The fins were generally configured to provide a burn out spin rate of four cycles per second. More...
  • INTA-255-1 Solid rocket stage. 22.00 kN (4,946 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb). More...
  • INTA-300-1 Solid rocket stage. 137.00 kN (30,799 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb). More...
  • Iris-0 Solid rocket stage. 84.00 kN (18,884 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • IUS-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,919/1,170 kg. Thrust 78.41 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • IUS-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,841/1,134 kg. Thrust 181.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. More...
  • J-1-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 71,100/11,900 kg. Thrust 1,556.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 273 seconds. Shorter monolithic motor using filament-wound case technology from Thiokol. Version for J-1 has 1,000 kg less propellant and 1,200 kg less empty mass than later H-2 SRB. More...
  • J-1-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,800/2,400 kg. Thrust 524.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. Version for J-1 F2 has 300 kg heavier empty mass. More...
  • Jabiru-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 140.00 kN. More...
  • Jaguar 1-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg. Thrust 140.00 kN. More...
  • Jaguar-3 Solid rocket stage. 8.60 kN (1,933 lbf) thrust. Mass 25 kg (55 lb). More...
  • JCR-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 700 kg. More...
  • JL-1-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. More...
  • Juno II-3 Solid rocket stage. 22.00 kN (4,946 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • Jupiter C-2 Solid rocket stage. 80.00 kN (17,985 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb). More...
  • K245-1 Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • Kappa 5-1 Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb). More...
  • Kappa 9L-1 Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,200 kg (2,646 lb). More...
  • Kappa 8-2 Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb). More...
  • Kappa 6H-2 Solid rocket stage. 19.00 kN (4,271 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • Kappa 10S-1 Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,200 kg (2,646 lb). More...
  • Kappa 9M-2 Solid rocket stage. 43.00 kN (9,667 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb). More...
  • Kiva/Hopi-1 Solid rocket stage. 27.00 kN (6,070 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • KM-H Solid rocket stage. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • KSR-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,000/100 kg. Thrust 86.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. All values except thrust estimated. More...
  • KT-1-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 3,000 kg. More...
  • Lambda 2-2 Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,400 kg (3,086 lb). More...
  • Lambda 3-1 Solid rocket stage. 410.00 kN (92,172 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,000 kg (11,023 lb). More...
  • Lambda 3-2 Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,800 kg (3,968 lb). More...
  • Lambda 3-3 Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb). More...
  • Lambda 4T-4 Solid rocket stage. 7.80 kN (1,754 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • Lark-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 500 kg. Thrust 2.80 kN. More...
  • Lex-1 Solid rocket stage. 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • LK-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,990/1,240 kg. Thrust 774.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 268 seconds. Lengthened version of Shavit/RSA-3 rocket motor. For lower stage use with 17.1:1 nozzle. Fitted with 23.6:1 nozzle for upper stage use specific impulse increases to 279 seconds, length to 8.4 m, and empty and gross mass are increased by 135 kg. More...
  • Long Tom-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 600 kg. Thrust 190.00 kN. More...
  • Long Tom-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 62.00 kN. More...
  • LRALT-2 Solid rocket stage. 267.70 kN (60,181 lbf) thrust. Mass 7,032 kg (15,503 lb). More...
  • LS-A-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 400 kg. Thrust 60.00 kN. More...
  • LS-A-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 10.00 kN. More...
  • LS-C-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. More...
  • LS-C-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. More...
  • M-13TVC Solid rocket stage. 1020.00 kN (229,305 lbf) thrust. Mass 34,200 kg (75,398 lb). More...
  • M-20 Solid rocket stage. 285.00 kN (64,071 lbf) thrust. Mass 9,900 kg (21,826 lb). More...
  • M-22 Solid rocket stage. 285.00 kN (64,071 lbf) thrust. Mass 9,800 kg (21,605 lb). More...
  • M-3A Solid rocket stage. 61.00 kN (13,713 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,100 kg (2,425 lb). More...
  • M-3B Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,590/310 kg. Thrust 132.12 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 294 seconds. More...
  • M-V-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds. More...
  • M-V-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 34,470/3,410 kg. Thrust 1,245.29 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 288 seconds. More...
  • M-V-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 83,560/12,070 kg. Thrust 3,780.35 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 276 seconds. More...
  • M-V-4 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,430/118 kg. Thrust 51.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds. More...
  • M56 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,170/466 kg. Thrust 228.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds. Second stage of Minuteman I. Used as first stage of Aries sounding rocket and various SDI targets in 1980's. More...
  • Mage 1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 369/34 kg. Thrust 19.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. More...
  • Mage 2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 530/40 kg. Thrust 45.48 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. More...
  • Martlet 4A Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 890/155 kg. Thrust 67.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds. More...
  • Martlet 4i-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 53/10 kg. Thrust 5.39 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds. More...
  • Martlet 4i-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 183/35 kg. Thrust 20.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds. More...
  • Martlet 4i-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 655/114 kg. Thrust 67.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds. More...
  • Martlet 4B Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 230/45 kg. Thrust 20.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds. More...
  • Martlet 4C Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 90/20 kg. Thrust 5.39 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds. More...
  • Melanie Solid rocket stage. 38.00 kN (8,543 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • Meteor-2H-1 Solid rocket stage. 24.00 kN (5,395 lbf) thrust. Mass 400 kg (882 lb). More...
  • Meteor-3-2 Solid rocket stage. 14.00 kN (3,147 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb). More...
  • MIHT-4 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,000/300 kg. Thrust 9.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. All estimated More...
  • MIHT-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 245.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All estimated More...
  • Minuteman 2-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,032/795 kg. Thrust 267.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 287.5 seconds. Second stage of Minuteman 2. Used as second stage of Minotaur launch vehicle and various SDI targets in 1980's. More...
  • Minuteman-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,077/2,292 kg. Thrust 791.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 262 seconds. First stage of Minuteman I. Proposed as zero stage for various Saturn variants in 1960's. Surplus motors used in ABM SDI tests in 1980's and 1990's. More...
  • MLLV-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,920,200/192,000 kg. Thrust 44,238.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Boeing study, 1969. More...
  • MSBS M51-2 Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,000 kg (22,046 lb). More...
  • MSBS M4-1 Solid rocket stage. 900.00 kN (202,328 lbf) thrust. Mass 22,500 kg (49,604 lb). More...
  • MSBS M51-3 Solid rocket stage. 100.00 kN (22,481 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,000 kg (11,023 lb). More...
  • MSBS M2-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. Thrust 450.00 kN. More...
  • MSBS M4-3 Solid rocket stage. 100.00 kN (22,481 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,500 kg (3,307 lb). More...
  • MSBS M112-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. Thrust 440.00 kN. More...
  • MSBS M51-1 Solid rocket stage. 900.00 kN (202,328 lbf) thrust. Mass 30,000 kg (66,139 lb). More...
  • MSBS M2-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 6,000 kg. Thrust 320.00 kN. More...
  • MSBS M4-2 Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 8,800 kg (19,401 lb). More...
  • Mu-3S-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 34,800/7,640 kg. Thrust 1,262.42 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. More...
  • Mu-3S-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,100/2,800 kg. Thrust 524.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. More...
  • Mu-3D-3 Solid rocket stage. 128.00 kN (28,776 lbf) thrust. Mass 2,800 kg (6,173 lb). More...
  • Mu-3C-0 Solid rocket stage. 95.00 kN (21,357 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb). More...
  • Mu-3S-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,100/1,080 kg. Thrust 327.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. More...
  • Mu-4S-1 Solid rocket stage. 737.00 kN (165,684 lbf) thrust. Mass 26,600 kg (58,643 lb). More...
  • Mu-4S-4 Solid rocket stage. 26.50 kN (5,957 lbf) thrust. Mass 400 kg (882 lb). More...
  • NAL-735-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 4,700 kg. Thrust 250.00 kN. More...
  • NAL-16-1 Solid rocket stage. 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • Nike Zeus-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 5,000 kg. Thrust 2,000.00 kN. More...
  • Nike Ajax-2 Solid rocket stage. 11.60 kN (2,608 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb). More...
  • NOTS-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,033/194 kg. Thrust 53.36 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 204 seconds. More...
  • Nova GD-S Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,628,000/454,000 kg. Thrust 69,048.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable stage; separation at 1,972 m/s at 53,000 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 3 61 m diameter parachutes 610 km downrange. More...
  • Nova MM 14A-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,847,000/170,000 kg. Thrust 63,596.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Operational date would have been April 1973 More...
  • Nova MM 14B-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,271,000/141,000 kg. Thrust 46,208.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Operational date would have been February 1973 More...
  • Nova Solid 4 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 816,000/102,000 kg. Thrust 11,120.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Conceptual motor to be used as first stage of a solid Nova design. 4 used as first stage of solid Nova design. Extended high-expansion nozzles. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes. More...
  • Nova Solid 6 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,224,000/153,000 kg. Thrust 28,017.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. 5 used as first stage of solid Nova design. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes. More...
  • OIS Solid rocket stage. 27.00 kN (6,070 lbf) thrust. Mass 361 kg (796 lb). More...
  • Orion 50S Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,020/1,868 kg. Thrust 484.91 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 294 seconds. More...
  • Orion 50SXL Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,934/2,886 kg. Thrust 589.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. More...
  • Orion 50 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,370/345 kg. Thrust 118.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 292 seconds. More...
  • P80 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 95,000/7,000 kg. Thrust 3,040.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 279.5 seconds. Vega's first stage, the P80 solid rocket motor, introduced advanced low-cost technologies that could be reused for future evolutions of Ariane-5 boosters. More...
  • P9.5 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,560/3,060 kg. Thrust 689.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. More...
  • PAM-D Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,141/232 kg. Thrust 67.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 292 seconds. More...
  • PAM-D2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,697/431 kg. Thrust 107.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. More...
  • PAM-S Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,182/220 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 288 seconds. More...
  • Peacekeeper-1 Solid rocket stage. 1711.00 kN (384,648 lbf) thrust. Mass 53,400 kg (117,727 lb). More...
  • Peacekeeper-2 Solid rocket stage. 1365.00 kN (306,864 lbf) thrust. Mass 27,800 kg (61,289 lb). More...
  • Peacekeeper-3 Solid rocket stage. 329.00 kN (73,962 lbf) thrust. Mass 8,200 kg (18,078 lb). More...
  • Pegasus XL-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,331/416 kg. Thrust 153.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. More...
  • Pegasus-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 985/203 kg. Thrust 34.57 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. More...
  • Pershing 2-1 Solid rocket stage. 172.00 kN (38,667 lbf) thrust. Mass 4,100 kg (9,039 lb). More...
  • Pershing 2-2 Solid rocket stage. 134.00 kN (30,124 lbf) thrust. Mass 2,600 kg (5,732 lb). More...
  • Petrel 2-1 Solid rocket stage. 4.50 kN (1,012 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • Petrel-1 Solid rocket stage. 4.50 kN (1,012 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • Polaris TV-1 Solid rocket stage. 285.00 kN (64,071 lbf) thrust. Mass 8,300 kg (18,298 lb). More...
  • PRD-52 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,400/3,300 kg. Thrust 784.00 kN. Zero-length launch stage for Tu-121. Thrust varied from 75 to 80 tonnes and duration from 3.75 to 5.0 seconds. More...
  • PSLV-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 168,200/30,200 kg. Thrust 4,860.07 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 269 seconds. More...
  • PSLV-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,930/2,010 kg. Thrust 502.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 262 seconds. More...
  • PSLV-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,400/1,100 kg. Thrust 328.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 294 seconds. More...
  • R-31 RV Bus Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,300 kg. Thrust 3.92 kN. Bus powered by four solid propellant motors mounted 90 degrees to each other, each 60 kg mass, 0.77 m long, 0.28 m diameter. More...
  • R-39-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 53,700 kg. Thrust 2,060.00 kN. More...
  • RH-200-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 16.90 kN. More...
  • RH-200-2 Solid rocket stage. 8.40 kN (1,888 lbf) thrust. Mass 20 kg (44 lb). More...
  • RH-300-1 Solid rocket stage. 33.30 kN (7,486 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb). More...
  • RH-560B-2 Solid rocket stage. 76.00 kN (17,085 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb). More...
  • Rook Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,057 kg (2,330 lb). More...
  • Rook IIIB Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,057 kg (2,330 lb). More...
  • Rook II Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,057 kg (2,330 lb). More...
  • Rook IIIA Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,057 kg (2,330 lb). More...
  • RSA-3-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,215/1,100 kg. Thrust 456.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. More...
  • RSA-3-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,971/1,771 kg. Thrust 476.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. Empty mass includes 583 kg for payload shroud, guidance, orientation and spin-up platform that positions stage 3 and payload for final orbital insertion burn. More...
  • RSA-3-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,048/170 kg. Thrust 58.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds. Data accurate. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. ARC/Rafael AUS 51 is identical. More...
  • RSA-4-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 66,000/8,000 kg. Thrust 1,520.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 270 seconds. Vacuum specific impulse / thrust estimated. Sea leval 139,000 kNs delivered over 73 seconds. Includes 3400 kg mass of fins, interstage and upper-stage constant-diameter fairing ('sleeve') which is jettisoned after first stage burnout. More...
  • RSA-4-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,000/2,000 kg. Thrust 470.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds. Essentially identical to RSA-3 second stage. Includes 1000 kg upper stage avionic section / spin table, which is jettisoned prior to stage three ignition. More...
  • RSA-4-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,000/100 kg. Thrust 59.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 292 seconds. Essentially identical to RSA-3 third stage. Oriented and spun up by 1000 kg avionic section/spin platform, which separates prior to ignition. More...
  • RT-1-2 Solid rocket stage. 500.00 kN (112,404 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,000 kg (22,046 lb). More...
  • RT-1-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 3,000 kg. Thrust 240.00 kN. More...
  • Rubis Solid rocket stage. 190.00 kN (42,714 lbf) thrust. Mass 2,000 kg (4,409 lb). More...
  • S-10-2 Solid rocket stage. 4.20 kN (944 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb). More...
  • S-10-1 Solid rocket stage. 27.00 kN (6,070 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb). More...
  • S-20 Solid rocket stage. 36.00 kN (8,093 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb). More...
  • S-23 Solid rocket stage. 18.00 kN (4,047 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb). More...
  • S-30 Solid rocket stage. 102.00 kN (22,931 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,200 kg (2,646 lb). More...
  • S-31 Solid rocket stage. 240.00 kN (53,954 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb). More...
  • S-40TM Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,664/1,212 kg. Thrust 208.39 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. More...
  • S-43 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,550/1,328 kg. Thrust 303.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 260 seconds. More...
  • S-43TM Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,720/1,536 kg. Thrust 320.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds. More...
  • S-44 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,025/190 kg. Thrust 33.24 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. More...
  • S-A-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. More...
  • S-B-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. More...
  • S-C-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. More...
  • Saturn 3S-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 561,100/57,600 kg. Thrust 11,143.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. 260 inch solid booster - full length. More...
  • Saturn LCB-SR Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,678,300/136,100 kg. Thrust 27,034.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Solid Propellant More...
  • Scout II TV-1 Solid rocket stage. 590.00 kN (132,637 lbf) thrust. Mass 17,300 kg (38,140 lb). More...
  • SE4400-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,500 kg. Thrust 200.00 kN. More...
  • Sergeant Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42/21 kg. Thrust 6.66 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 235 seconds. More...
  • Shuttle ASRM Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 625,000/75,000 kg. Thrust 15,566.12 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 286 seconds. More...
  • Shuttle RSRM Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 590,000/88,000 kg. Thrust 11,520.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 267 seconds. After the Challenger disaster the redesigned solid rocket motors had a slight reduction in performance due to reliability improvements. More...
  • Shuttle SRB Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 589,670/86,183 kg. Thrust 11,520.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 269 seconds. Original configuration. More...
  • SICBM-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 11,600 kg. Thrust 979.00 kN. More...
  • SICBM-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 5,000 kg. Thrust 267.00 kN. More...
  • SICBM-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,000 kg. Thrust 88.00 kN. More...
  • Skylark 4-1 Solid rocket stage. 175.00 kN (39,342 lbf) thrust. Mass 400 kg (882 lb). More...
  • Skylark 7C-2 Solid rocket stage. 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb). More...
  • Skylark 4-2 Solid rocket stage. 50.10 kN (11,263 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,100 kg (2,425 lb). More...
  • Skylark 5-1 Solid rocket stage. 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb). More...
  • Skylark 2-1 Solid rocket stage. 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb). More...
  • Skylark 12-2 Solid rocket stage. 105.00 kN (23,605 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb). More...
  • Skylark 1-1 Solid rocket stage. 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb). More...
  • Skylark 3-2 Solid rocket stage. 52.50 kN (11,802 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,200 kg (2,646 lb). More...
  • SLS SRB 388 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 88,000/13,000 kg. Thrust 2,083.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 260 seconds. Booster for SLS A series launch vehicles. More...
  • SLS SRB 2720 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 366,716/56,000 kg. Thrust 8,130.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 260 seconds. Four such 180 inch segmented solid rocket motors provided first stage thrust for Project Lunex. A liquid propellant first stage was considered as an alternative, but the solid stage was the baseline. Empty mass, specific impulse estimated. More...
  • SLV-4 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 360/98 kg. Thrust 26.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 283 seconds. More...
  • SLV-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,500/440 kg. Thrust 90.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds. More...
  • SLV-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,800/2,140 kg. Thrust 502.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 253 seconds. More...
  • SLV-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,900/1,750 kg. Thrust 267.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 267 seconds. More...
  • SM-1ER-1 Solid rocket stage. 257.50 kN (57,888 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb). More...
  • SM-3-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 7.00 kN. More...
  • SPARTA-3 Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). More...
  • SR118 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 53,020/4,211 kg. Thrust 1,606.59 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 286 seconds. Modification of Peackeeper ICBM first stage. More...
  • SR73 Solid rocket stage. 152.00 kN (34,171 lbf) thrust. Mass 3,600 kg (7,937 lb). More...
  • SRAM-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg. More...
  • SS-520-1 Solid rocket stage. 143.10 kN (32,170 lbf) thrust. Mass 2,300 kg (5,071 lb). More...
  • SSBS S01-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. Thrust 440.00 kN. More...
  • SSBS S3-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 16,000 kg. Thrust 540.00 kN. More...
  • Star 37S Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 711 kg (1,567 lb). More...
  • Star 37XE Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb). More...
  • Star 37XF Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 953 kg (2,101 lb). More...
  • Star 48V Solid rocket stage. 68.70 kN (15,444 lbf) thrust. Mass 2,200 kg (4,850 lb). More...
  • Start-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 26,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 980.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. All estimated More...
  • Star 37N Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 623 kg (1,373 lb). More...
  • Star 37XFP Solid rocket stage. 31.50 kN (7,081 lbf) thrust. Mass 955 kg (2,105 lb). More...
  • Start-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,000/1,500 kg. Thrust 490.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All estimated except stage gross mass More...
  • Star 26C Solid rocket stage. 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf) thrust. Mass 264 kg (582 lb). More...
  • Star 37FM Solid rocket stage. 47.90 kN (10,768 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,147 kg (2,529 lb). More...
  • Star 17 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 124/14 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. More...
  • Starbird-4 Solid rocket stage. 88.00 kN (19,783 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb). More...
  • Star 26B Solid rocket stage. 34.63 kN (7,784 lbf) thrust. Mass 261 kg (575 lb). More...
  • Star 27 Solid rocket stage. 27.00 kN (6,070 lbf) thrust. Mass 361 kg (796 lb). More...
  • Star 37B Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 718 kg (1,583 lb). More...
  • Star 37C Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,048 kg (2,310 lb). More...
  • Star 37D Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 718 kg (1,583 lb). More...
  • Star 37E Solid rocket stage. 68.00 kN (15,287 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,123 kg (2,476 lb). More...
  • Star 37F Solid rocket stage. 55.50 kN (12,477 lbf) thrust. Mass 934 kg (2,059 lb). More...
  • Star 20 Solid rocket stage. 27.14 kN (6,100 lbf) thrust. Mass 301 kg (664 lb). More...
  • Stonechat I-1 Solid rocket stage. 232.00 kN (52,156 lbf) thrust. Mass 4,800 kg (10,582 lb). More...
  • Stromboli Solid rocket stage. 75.00 kN (16,861 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb). More...
  • Super Loki Solid rocket stage. 18.00 kN (4,047 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb). More...
  • Taepodong 1-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 252/50 kg. Thrust 18.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. More...
  • Talos-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,500 kg. Thrust 516.00 kN. The Talos motor was fitted with a conical adapter for mating to the second stage. Differential drag forces caused separation. Four fins were arranged at the aft end in a cruciform configuration and drove the vehicle to approximately one revolution per second burnout roll rate. More...
  • Taurus-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 48,960/4,300 kg. Thrust 2,204.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. ICBM MX Peacekeeper ICBM 1st stage. Used for only first Taurus launch More...
  • Taurus-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,242/1,088 kg. Thrust 484.91 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Pegasus stage 1 without the wings and stabilisers. More...
  • Temp-2S-3 Solid rocket stage. 245.00 kN (55,078 lbf) thrust. Mass 8,700 kg (19,180 lb). More...
  • Terrier Mk 70 Oriole-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,038/290 kg. Thrust kN. The basic Terrier mk70 motor was 3.94 m long with a principal diameter of 46 cm. There was a 7.6-cm interstage adapter which allowed for drag separation at Terrier burnout. Typically, the Terrier booster would utilize two spin motors to reduce dispersion and also serve as drag plates. Each Terrier fin was 0.43 square meters in area. Normally, the fins were canted to provide two revolutions per second spin rate at Terrier burnout. More...
  • Terrier 12-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 800/322 kg. Thrust 257.50 kN. The Terrier MK 12 Mod 1 rocket motor was typically equipped with four 0.22 square meter fin panels arranged in a cruciform configuration. More...
  • Thiokol 156 inch Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 385,554/68,038 kg. Thrust 14,746.42 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. More...
  • Tibere-2 Solid rocket stage. 170.00 kN (38,218 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,700 kg (3,748 lb). More...
  • Titan UA1205 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 226,233/33,798 kg. Thrust 5,849.41 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. More...
  • Titan UA1206 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 251,427/40,827 kg. Thrust 6,227.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. More...
  • Titan UA1207 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 319,330/51,230 kg. Thrust 7,117.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 272 seconds. More...
  • Titan USRM Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 357,239/52,040 kg. Thrust 7,560.68 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 286 seconds. More...
  • Titus-2 Solid rocket stage. 170.00 kN (38,218 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,100 kg (2,425 lb). More...
  • Topol'-M-1 Solid rocket stage. 980.00 kN (220,313 lbf) thrust. Mass 26,000 kg (57,320 lb). More...
  • Topol'-M-2 Solid rocket stage. 490.00 kN (110,156 lbf) thrust. Mass 13,000 kg (28,660 lb). More...
  • Topol'-M-3 Solid rocket stage. 245.00 kN (55,078 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,000 kg (13,228 lb). More...
  • TOS Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,960/1,130 kg. Thrust 185.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. IUS-2 stage with simplified electronics. More...
  • TR-1-1 Solid rocket stage. 608.00 kN (136,684 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,800 kg (23,810 lb). More...
  • TR-1A-1 Solid rocket stage. 608.00 kN (136,684 lbf) thrust. Mass 7,500 kg (16,535 lb). More...
  • TT-500-2 Solid rocket stage. 61.00 kN (13,713 lbf) thrust. Mass 700 kg (1,543 lb). More...
  • TT-500-1 Solid rocket stage. 116.00 kN (26,078 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb). More...
  • UA 156 inch Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 544,311/37,195 kg. Thrust 8,924.48 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. More...
  • UA 156 inch 4 Segment Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 725,500/49,250 kg. Thrust 18,181.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. 4 Segment version of basic 3-segment UA 156 motor. More...
  • UM-129A Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,200/360 kg. Thrust 77.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 291 seconds. More...
  • V-1000-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 3,000 kg. Thrust 1,962.00 kN. More...
  • Vanguard 3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 210/31 kg. Thrust 11.56 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 230 seconds. More...
  • Viper 3A-1 Solid rocket stage. 25.00 kN (5,620 lbf) thrust. Mass 35 kg (77 lb). More...
  • VLM-4 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 377/57 kg. Thrust 20.49 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. More...
  • WAC A-0 Solid rocket stage. 220.00 kN (49,458 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb). More...
  • X-17 HTV-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 700 kg. Thrust 209.00 kN. More...
  • Zefiro 23 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 26,900/3,000 kg. Thrust 1,200.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds. The Zefiro 23 was derived from a 16-tonne solid rocket motor development (Zefiro 16) initiated by Fiat-Avio, now Avio S.p.A., with company funding and contracted by the Italian space agency ASI. More...
  • Zefiro 9 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,100/1,000 kg. Thrust 313.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 294 seconds. The Zefiro 9 was derived from a 16-tonne solid rocket motor development (Zefiro 16) initiated by Fiat-Avio, now Avio S.p.A., with company funding and contracted by the Italian space agency ASI. More...
  • Zenit C-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg. Thrust 80.00 kN. More...
  • Zenit C-1 Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 600 kg (1,323 lb). More...
  • ZIF-IR-194 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,700/2,500 kg. Vacuum specific impulse 220 seconds. Used monolithic single motor with Nylon-S propellant. More...
  • ZIF-IR-191 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,600/1,400 kg. Vacuum specific impulse 200 seconds. Used cluster of four motors with Nylon-B propellant. More...
  • ZIF-IR-190 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,200/2,200 kg. Vacuum specific impulse 200 seconds. Used cluster of four motors with Nylon-B propellant. More...
  • ZIF-IR-189 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,850/1,150 kg. Vacuum specific impulse 220 seconds. Used monolithic single motor with Nylon-S propellant. Combustion chamber pressure 30-40 kg/cm2. More...

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