Encyclopedia Astronautica
Lox/Kerosene



lr87123.jpg
LR-87-3 Engine
Credit: Bob Fortune
Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene.

Liquid oxygen, as normally supplied, is of 99.5 percent purity and is covered in the United States by Military Specification MIL-P-25508. High purity liquid oxygen has a light blue colour and is transparent. It has no characteristic odour. Liquid oxygen does not burn, but will support combustion vigorously. The liquid is stable; however, mixtures of fuel and liquid oxygen are shock-sensitive. Gaseous oxygen can form mixtures with fuel vapours that can be exploded by static electricity, electric spark, or flame. Liquid oxygen is obtained from air by fractional distillation. The 1959 United. States production of high-purity oxygen was estimated at nearly 2 million tonnes. The cost of liquid oxygen, at that time, ex-works, was $ 0.04 per kg. By the 1980's NASA was paying $ 0.08 per kg.

Rocket propellant RP-1 is a straight-run kerosene fraction, which is subjected to further treatment, i.e., acid washing, sulphur dioxide extraction. Thus, unsaturated substances which polymerise in storage are removed, as are sulphur-containing hydrocarbons. Furthermore, in order to meet specification requirements of density, heat of combustion, and aromatic content, the kerosene must be obtained from crudes with a high naphthene content. RP-1 is an excellent solvent for many organic materials. The flash point is above 43 deg C. Above that temperature RP-1 will form explosive mixtures with air. The temperature range for explosive mixtures (rich limit) is 79 to 85 deg C. RP-1 is not so toxic as the JP series of fuels because of its lower aromatic content. In the United States, suitable kerosene fractions in 1960 were limited almost exclusively to the West Coast. The estimated 1956 United States production was 7700 tonnes, and the price was $0.05 per kg. By the 1980's it was typically $ 0.20 per kg. Russian formulations have typical densities of 0.82 to 0.85 g/cc, and even higher densities were achieved in the N1 and Soyuz 11A511U rockets by superchilling the fuel prior to loading.

Oxidizer: Lox. Oxidizer: LOX. Fuel: Kerosene. Fuel: Kerosene. Propellant Formulation: Lox/Sintin. Propellant Formulation: LOX/Kerosene. Optimum Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.56. Temperature of Combustion: 3,670 deg K. Ratio of Specific Heats: 1.24. Density: 1.02 g/cc. Characteristic velocity c: 1,805 m/s (5,921 ft/sec). Isp Shifting: 301 sec. Isp Frozen: 286 sec. Mol: 23.30 M (76.40 ft). Oxidizer Density: 1.140 g/cc. Oxidizer Density: 1.140 g/cc. Oxidizer Freezing Point: -219 deg C. Oxidizer Freezing Point: -219 deg C. Oxidizer Boiling Point: -183 deg C. Oxidizer Boiling Point: -183 deg C. Fuel Density: 0.806 g/cc. Fuel Density: 0.806 g/cc. Fuel Freezing Point: -73 deg C. Fuel Freezing Point: -73 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 147 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 147 deg C.

Location: 1805.
Specific impulse: 353 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 300 s.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • MPK Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1956. This first serious examination in the Soviet Union of manned flight to Mars was made by M Tikhonravov. More...
  • Ames Mach 10 Demonstrator American manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Ames proposed in 1957 to air-launch a high-wing designed hypersonic glider from a B-36 bomber. Early versions would use an XLR-99-powered booster stage and be capable of reaching Mach 6. More...
  • TMK-1 Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1959. In 1959 a group of enthusiasts in OKB-1 Section 3 under the management of G U Maksimov started engineering design of this first fantastic project for manned interplanetary travel. More...
  • Block L Molniya 8K78 Russian space tug. 27 launches, (1960) to (1970). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Molniya. More...
  • Mavr Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1963. A variation of the TMK-1 scenario by Maksimov's unit would still use a single N1 launch. However a flyby of Venus would be undertaken on the return voyage from Mars. More...
  • Block L Molniya 8K78M Russian space tug. 288 launches, (1964) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Molniya M. More...
  • Block D 11S824 Russian space tug. 40 launches, (1967) to (1975). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Proton. Block D, article number 11S824. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). More...
  • N1 Block D Russian space tug. 4 launches, 1969 to 1972. Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Block D adapted as lunar crasher stage More...
  • Block DM 11S86 Russian space tug. 66 launches, (1974) to (1990). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Proton. More...
  • Block D-1 11S824M Russian space tug. 11 launches, (1976) to (1989). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. Also known as Block D-1; article number 11S824M. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). More...
  • Block DM-2 11S861 Russian space tug. 100 launches, (1982) to (2001). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. Also known as Block DM-2 (different from commercial Block DM2 (no hyphen!)), article number 11S861. More...
  • Block D-2 11S824F Russian space tug. 3 launches, (1988) to (1996). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by . Also known as Block D-2; article number 11S824F. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). More...
  • Block DM-2M 11S861-01 Russian space tug. 35 launches, (1994) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. More...
  • Starchaser 5 British manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Starchaser Industries, Cheshire, England. The concept used a rocket powered vertical takeoff followed by a parachute descent to land. More...
  • Block DM-5 17S40 Russian space tug. 6 launches, (1997) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. Also known as Block DM-5. With guidance unit, modification of 11S861 stage for heavier payloads and with different payload adapter. More...
  • Michelle-B American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of TGV Rockets, Bethesda, Maryland. As of 2005, flight testing of the Michelle-B was expected to begin no earlier than 2007. More...
  • Pioneer XP American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Pioneer Rocketplane, Solvang, California. No backing forthcoming. More...
  • CEV Spacehab American manned spacecraft. Study 2005. The final Spacehab CEV concept was a three-module spacecraft using a slightly enlarged Apollo command module for return of the crew to earth. More...
  • CEV Spacehab SM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Support Module (SM) could provide 2.3 km/s delta-V, enough for lunar orbit insertion and trans-earth injection. It also was the primary source for electrical power during the mission. More...
  • Rocketplane XP American manned spaceplane. Study 2015. The Rocketplane XP Vehicle was a proposed suborbital manned spaceplane with accommodations for four crew. More...

Associated Engines
  • 11D51F Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1918 kN. N1F 1965 - A. Study 1965. As described in N1 improvement study, 1965. Block A engine thrust increased. Isp=331s. More...
  • 11D51M Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2843 kN. N1M 1965 - A. Study 1965. As described in N1 improvement study, 1965. Huge modification of Block A engines - sea level thrust increased from 175 tonnes thrust to 250 tonnes. Isp=346s. More...
  • 11D52F Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1961 kN. N1F 1965 - B. Study 1965. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Engine thrust increased from 150 t each to 200 t. Isp=347s. More...
  • 11D52M Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2745 kN. N1M 1965 - B. Study 1965. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Thrust increased to 280 tonnes per engine. Isp=330s. More...
  • 11D53F Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 612 kN. N1F 1965 - V. Study 1965. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Engine thrust increased and stretched propellant tanks resulting in 20% longer burn time. Isp=346s. More...
  • 11D53M Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 735 kN. N1M 1965 - V. Study 1965. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Further increase in thrust of Block V engines. Isp=347s. Used on N-IM 1965 launch vehicle. More...
  • 17D12 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 86.3 kN. Out of Production. Isp=362s. Version of RD-58 for Buran orbital propulsion system 17D11. Used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') for higher specific impulse. More...
  • 17D11 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 86.3 kN. Buran OMS and verniers. Out of Production. Buran orbital propulsion system, including 2 x 17D12, 38 x 17D15, 8 x RDMT-200K Isp=362s. More...
  • 5 mlbf RP-4 Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 24,459 kN. Study 1963. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. 10% plug nozzle. Isp=299s. Used on Nova-1 DAC launch vehicle. More...
  • 8D415K Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1471 kN. Designed for use in N-1. Development canceled in 1960 when Korolev turned to Kuznetsov for R-9 and N-1 engines after continuous rows with Glushko over performance and propellant types. First flight 1966. More...
  • 8D726 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 66.7 kN. GR-1 Stage 3, N-11GR - V. Development based on S1.5400. Isp=350s. More...
  • AABS Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 17.779 kN. Aerospike Annular Booster and Sustainer. Pressure-fed. Booster thrust 3000 to 4000 lb vac; sustainer 1500-2000 lb vac, 257 sec specific impulse. Isp=285s. More...
  • B-2C Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Atlas A. Launch thrust 1374 kN. Atlas Booster. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1958. More...
  • D-2 Polyarniy Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1373 kN. R-3. Out of Production. Competing engine for 3000 km range IRBM design to study problems of long-range rockets. Developed from April 1947 until cancellation. Isp=288s. More...
  • E-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1885 kN. Study 1957. Developed by USAF in late 1950's. Cancelled and decision to go direct to 1,500,000 lbf F-1 as next step. Booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=290s. More...
  • F-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7740.5 kN. Isp=304s. Largest liquid rocket engine ever developed and flown. Severe combustion stability problems were solved during development and it never failed in flight. First flight 1967. More...
  • F-1A Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 9189.6 kN. Study 1968. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=310s. More...
  • Fastrac Huntsville Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 269 kN. Development ended 1996. Isp=310s. Used on X-34A launch vehicle. Intended to demonstrate lower cost in a reusable simple turbopump rocket engine. More...
  • FastTrack Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 44.1 kN. Design concept. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center prototype experimental engine that led to Fastrac low-cost engine for X-34. Isp=348s. More...
  • H-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 947.7 kN. Saturn l/lB. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=289s. First flight 1961. More...
  • H-1b Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1030.2 kN. Isp=296s. First flight 1966. More...
  • H-1c Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1130 kN. Study Saturn IB-A, Saturn IB-B, 1965. Isp=296s. More...
  • Kestrel SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 30.7 kN. Upper stages. Hardware. Isp=320s. Pintle architecture, designed to be a high efficiency, low pressure vacuum engine. Fed only by tank pressure, ablatively cooled First flight 2006. More...
  • KS-50 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Experimental. Development 1948. Subscale versions of a radical new engine design. This featured a flat-plate injector, cylindrical combustion chamber, and a 60 atmosphere chamber pressure. More...
  • KSR-3 Korean Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. In development. Launch thrust 122.5 kN. Pressure-fed indigenous design. First flight 2002. More...
  • L-1 Linear Aerospike Booster Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Launch thrust 889.36 kN. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. More...
  • L-2 Linear Aerospike Booster Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Launch thrust 444.63 kN. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. More...
  • L-6.55 Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 31,010 kN. Study 1963. Engines used in recoverable stage of ballistic shape; separation at 3,420 m/s at 93,900 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 parachutes 1340 km downrange. Isp=330s. More...
  • L-7.70 Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 37,007 kN. Study 1963. Engines used in recoverable stage; separation at 3,365 m/s at 89,300 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 8 46 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. Isp=335s. More...
  • Liberty Liberty Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Development 1994-2006. Pressure-fed engine. Price $ 12,000 in 1995. Used on Scorpius launch vehicle. More...
  • Liberty-1 Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 245.2 kN. Development ended 1988. Pressure-fed engine. Isp=270s. Used on Liberty launch vehicle. More...
  • LR105-3 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 375 kN. Out of Production. Early version of Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=308s. More...
  • LR105-5 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 386.4 kN. Atlas E, F. Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Separate turbopumps for each booster engine. Isp=316s. First flight 1960. More...
  • LR101-11 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 5.3 kN. In Production. Isp=246s. Verniers for RS-27 powerplant, used on Delta boosters 1974-1992. More...
  • LR105-7 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 386.4 kN. Atlas space launchers. Out of production. Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Evolved from MA-2 ICBM system. Isp=316s. First flight 1963. More...
  • LR79-7 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 758.7 kN. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=282s. First flight 1957. More...
  • LR83-NA-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 683 kN. Development ended 1958. Isp=282s. Planned production version of the engine for the booster of the Navaho G-38 intercontinental cruise missile. More...
  • LR87-3 Aerojet Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 733.9 kN. Study 1957. Titan 1 booster engine. Surplus Flight Engines were available for various uses in the 1960's. Isp=290s. First flight 1959. More...
  • LR89-5 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 822.5 kN. Atlas E, F. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Separate turbopumps for each booster engine. Isp=290s. First flight 1960. More...
  • LR89-7 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 948 kN. Atlas space launchers. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. Evolved from MA-2 ICBM system. Isp=294s. First flight 1963. More...
  • LR91-3 Aerojet Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 355.9 kN. Development begun 1957. Titan 1 Stage 2 major production version. Isp=308s. Proposed for second stage of Juno V-A, Super-Jupiter in 1959. Flown 1959-1965. More...
  • MA-5A Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2100 kN. Out of Production. Isp=296s. Atlas Engine System, an updated version of the MA-5, included replacments with selected RS-27 components for sea-level Isp increase of 4 secs. First flight 1991. More...
  • MB-3-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 760.6 kN. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=285s. Boosted Delta A, B, C, Thor Able-Star. First flight 1960. More...
  • MB-3-3 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 866.7 kN. Out of Production. License built in Japan for H-1. Isp=290s. First flight 1964. More...
  • MB-3 Press Mod Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 755.1 kN. Test 1962. Isp=285s. Used on Sea Horse launch vehicle. More...
  • MB-3-J Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Launch thrust 755.89 kN. N Booster . Gas generator, pump-fed. Joint MHI (Japan) / Rocketdyne project, evolved from MB-3. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1975. More...
  • Merlin 1A SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 378.040 kN. First stages. Hardware. Isp=300s. Completed development in early 2005. Pintle injector concept. Replaced by Merlin 1C. First flight 2006. More...
  • Merlin 1C SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 614.7 kN. First stages. Hardware. Isp=304s. Regeneratively cooled; turbo-pump also provided high pressure kerosene for the hydraulic actuators. Actuated turbine exhaust nozzle provided roll control. First flight 2008. More...
  • Merlin 1V SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 411.4 kN. Hardware. Isp=342s. Upper stage version of the Merlin developed for the Falcon 9 second stage. Based on the Merlin 1C and using a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber. First flight 2009. More...
  • Microcosm 22N Microcosm Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 22.250 kN. First stages. Hardware. Pressure-fed, ablatively cooled engine using liquid oxygen and jet fuel as propellants. Flown 1999/2001. More...
  • Microcosm 356N Microcosm Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 356 kN. First stages. Hardware. Funded under AFRL SBIR Phase 1 contract of 2006. Ablative chamber, LOX/Jet A propellant engines designed for very low-cost, robust design margins. More...
  • Microcosm 89N Microcosm Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 89 kN. First stages. Hardware. In 2005 tests were conducted of this low-cost ablative composite rocket engine for responsive launch vehicle applications. More...
  • NK-15V Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1648 kN. Development ended 1964. Isp=325s. Developed from the NK-9. 8 engines, featuring high-expansion nozzles, used on N1 Stage 2. First flight 1969. More...
  • NK-19 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1 stage 4. Development ended 1964. Based on NK-9 engine. Originally developed for the modernized second stage of the R-9 (abandoned). Also to have been used on GR-1 / 8K713 Stage 2. First flight 1969. More...
  • NK-15F Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2180 kN. Development 1966-1972. Isp=350s. Engine had only a very short nozzle, the 24 engines around the periphery were to expand along a common central plug on the first stage of a studied N1 variant. More...
  • NK-15 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1544 kN. N-1 stage 1 (block A). Development ended 1964. On the basis of NK-9 the NK-15 was developed for the N-1 launcher. 30 were used on the Block A (Stage 1) of the N-1. Isp=318s. First flight 1969. More...
  • NK-21 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1 stage 3 (block V). Out of production. Based on NK-9 engine. Propellants kerosene T-1 / LOX. 4 engines used in N-1 stage 3 (block V). Isp=318s. Used on N1 launch vehicle. First flight 1969. More...
  • NK-31 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 402 kN. Isp=353s. Upgraded version of engines for N-1 stage 4, with multiple ignition capability and increased operational lifetime. Mothballed in 1974. Proposed for Black Colt launch vehicle in 1993. More...
  • NK-33 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1638 kN. N-1F, Kistler stage 1, Taurus II stage 1. Isp=331s. Modified version of original engine with multiple ignition capability. Never flown and mothballed in 1975 after the cancellation of the N1. Resurrected for Kistler, then for Taurus. More...
  • NK-39 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 402 kN. N-1F stage 3. Development ended 1971. Isp=352s. Modified version of original engine with multiple ignition capability. Never flown and mothballed after the cancellation of the N1. More...
  • NK-43 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1755 kN. N-1F, Kistler stage 2. Design 1975. Isp=346s. Modified version of original engine with multiple ignition capability. Never flown and mothballed after the cancellation of the N1. Resurrected for Kistler. More...
  • NK-9 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 441.3 kN. R-9, GR-1 stage 1. Isp=327s. Reached phase of stand testing in 1965, but then RD-111 selected. Later planned for 1st Stage of GR-1, but that rocket also cancelled. More...
  • NK-9V Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 441.3 kN. N-1 stage 2 / N-1 stage 3 / R-9 Stage 2. Developed for 2nd stage of the R-9 ICBM (alternative to RD-111 engine by OKB-456). NK-9 with increased expansion ratio. Isp=340s. First flight 1965. More...
  • NK-9V-11D53 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 449 kN. N-1 stage 3 (block V). Out of Production. Modification of NK-9 engine for the N-1 lunar rocket. May be identical to NK-21 (stage 3). Isp=340s. More...
  • NK-9V-11D54 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 392 kN. N-1 stage 4 (block G). Out of Production. Modification of NK-9 engine for the N-1 lunar rocket. May be identical to NK-19 (stage 4). Isp=340s. More...
  • P4-1 Booster Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2.441 kN. AQM-37. Target System Booster. Pressure-fed. Isp=232s. First flight 1963. More...
  • P4-1 Sustainer Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 0.470 kN. AQM-37. Target System Sustainer. Pressure-fed. Isp=262s. First flight 1963. More...
  • PF RP-1 Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 20,306 kN. Study 1967. Isp=275s. Used on Saturn LCB-Lox/RP-1 launch vehicle. More...
  • Press Fed 25k TRW Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 245.2 kN. Design concept 1960's. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Isp=270s. More...
  • RD-0245-HC Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 214 kN. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of RD-0245 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=320s. More...
  • RD-0256-HC Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 820 kN. Design concept 1996-. Proposed variant of RD-0256 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=344s. More...
  • RD-0244-HC Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 690 kN. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of RD-0244 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=332s. More...
  • RD-0242-HC Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 125 kN. Developed 1998-. Proposed variant of RD-0242 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=312s. More...
  • RD-0234-HC Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 516 kN. Developed 1996-. Proposed variant of RD-0234 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=331s. More...
  • RD-0210-HC Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 592 kN. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of RD-0210 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=342s. More...
  • RD-0155 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept 2007. Launch thrust 902.5 kN. Engine proposed to replace RD-107 in Onega and Avrora versions of the Soyuz launch vehicle. More...
  • RD-0154 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 294.3 kN. Design concept 2007. Engine proposed to replace RD-110 in Avrora improved version of Soyuz launch vehicle. The single chamber engine had a deployable nozzle extension for improved vacuum specific impulse. More...
  • RD-0124M1 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 294.3 kN. Developed 1998-. Proposed single chamber variant of RD-0124. Obviously same turbopumps, but one single chamber with larger nozzle extension compared to RD-0124M. Isp=359s. More...
  • RD-0124M Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 294.3 kN. Developed 1998-. Proposed single chamber variant of RD-0124. Obviously same turbopumps, but one single chamber. Isp=348s. More...
  • RD-0102 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 39.2 kN. Yak-27V aircraft by Yakovlev. Out of Production. Based on RD-0101. Two ignitions possible. Chamber pressure 41,2 - 16,4 bar. Isp=260s. More...
  • RD-0124 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 294.3 kN. In development. Isp=359s. Engine to succeed RD-0110 in second stage of Soyuz. Used staged combustion; chamber pressure increased from 70 to 160 bar, specific impulse from 326 to 359 seconds First flight 2001. More...
  • RD-0110 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 297.9 kN. Soyuz 11A511, Molniya-M 8K78M. Precursor RD-0107 used in 11A57 Voskhod stage 2. Modified to increase reliability. Isp=326s. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-0109 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 54.520 kN. 8A92 Vostok stage 3, 8K72K stage 3 (block E-Vostok). Out of production. Developed in 15 months. Isp=323s. First flight 1960. More...
  • RD-0108 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 297.9 kN. Voskhod 11A57, Molniya 8K78 stage 3. Isp=326s. First flight 1960. More...
  • RD-0107 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 297.9 kN. R-9, Molniya 8K78, Voskhod 11A57 stage 3. Out of Production. Gas generator cycle. Isp=326s. More...
  • RD-0106 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 304 kN. R-9 stage 2. Gas generator cycle. Isp=330s. First flight 1961. More...
  • RD-0105 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 49.4 kN. Luna 8K72, Vostok 8K72 upper stage. Out of production. Isp=316s. Developed jointly with OKB-1 in nine months on the basis of OKB-1'ssteering chamber from the RD-107 engine. First flight 1958. More...
  • RD-0103 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 34.6 kN. T-3, P-1 aircraft by Sukhoy. Out of Production. Based on RD-0102. Chamber pressure 37.3 - 15.7 bar. Isp=277s. More...
  • RD-0124-14D23 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 298.640 kN. Propoed in 1993 for Angara stage 2 verniers, Kvant-1 stage 1 vernier. Designed 1986-1990. Isp=331s. Variant of RD-0124 with shortened nozzle for sea-level operation. More...
  • RD-120M Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 850.4 kN. PacAstro-2 stage 1. Out of Production. Sea-level variant of RD-120 engine, similar to RD-120K. Gimbaling +/- 6 degree in two planes. Isp=330s. More...
  • RD-120K Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 873 kN. Soyuz M stage 1, 2. Proposed for X-34. Isp=336s. Sea-level variant of RD-120. As of 1996 RD-120 prototype with 1.8 m diameter had been built, development time estimated for three years. More...
  • RD-120.03 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 882 kN. Design concept. Isp=353s. More...
  • RD-120.01 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 784 kN. Design concept. Isp=329s. More...
  • RD-120 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 833 kN. Zenit stage 2. In production. Isp=350s. High altitude engine used in the Zenit second stage. First production Russian engine to be test fired in the United States (3 test burns were made). First flight 1985. More...
  • RD-118 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 999.601 kN. In production. Isp=311s. Update of RD-107, used in Soyuz ST launcher. Little performance change from RD-107, changes may mainly relate to use of all-Russian components. First flight 2001. More...
  • RD-108-8D75K Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 941 kN. Molniya 8K78-1, R-7A 8K74-1, Voskhod 11A57-1, Vostok 8A92-1, Vostok 8A92M-1. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. First flight 1959. More...
  • RD-134 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 343 kN. upper stage. Design concept. Isp=357s. Proposed upper stage kerosene engine. Gimbaling +/- 3 degree in two planes. Four chamber s with one common turbopump. Nozzle expansion ratio is 170/0.05=3400. More...
  • RD-191M Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1976 kN. Angara stage I. Developed 1996-. Single chamber version of the RD-170 / RD-171. Isp=337s. More...
  • RD-171 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7903 kN. Zenit stage 1. In production. Isp=337s. RD-171 used two-plane gimablling versus one-plane gimablling on RD-170 developed in parallel for Energia. First flight 1985. More...
  • RD-117PF Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. manned Soyuz-launcher stage 1. Design concept. Update of RD-107. Probably version using Sintin instead of kerosene. More...
  • RD-134R Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 343 kN. Angara stage 2 vernier. Design concept 1993-on. Proposed in initial study for Angara by RKK Energia in1993. Steering engines for Angara upper stage. Kerosene RG-1. More...
  • RD-146 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 883 kN. Angara stage 2. Design concept 1993-on. Sea-level variant of RD-120 engine. Proposed in initial study for Angara by RKK Energia in1993. Kerosene RG-1. More...
  • RD-161-1 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 19.6 kN. Development ended 2000. Proposed for use on Soyuz M-3. Basic version. Engine Cycle: closed gas generator. Feed Method: turbopump. Isp=360s. More...
  • RD-191 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2079 kN. Isp=337s. Proposed for stage 1 of Angara. Single chamber from 4-chamber RD-170 would have been cheap and fast to develop. Only reached the draft project stage by 2003. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. More...
  • RD-170 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7903 kN. Energia strap-on. Developed 1973-1985. Isp=337s. First flight 1987. Used one-plane gimablling versus the two-plane gimablling required on the RD-171 of the Zenit launch vehicle. Designed for 10 reuses. More...
  • RD-172 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 8354 kN. Zenit-3 stage 1 (?). Developed -1994. Uprated version of RD-171. To have been qualified for flight 1994. Isp=337s. More...
  • RD-173 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 8181 kN. Zenit-3 stage 1 (?). Design concept 1990's. Uprated version of RD-171 with 4 chambers, 1 turbo-pump and 2 gas generators. Intended for uprated Zenit named Zenit 3 Isp=337s. More...
  • RD-174 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7905 kN. Angara stage I. Developed 1995-. More...
  • RD-180 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 4152 kN. Atlas III, Atlas V stage 1. In production. Isp=337s. First flight 2000. Two-thrust-chamber derivative of the four-chamber RD-170 used on Zenit. More...
  • RD-117 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1021.097 kN. Soyuz ST stage 1. In production. Update of RD-107. Little performance change from RD-107, changes may mainly relate to use of all-Russian components. Isp=310s. First flown 2001. More...
  • RD-161-2 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 19.9 kN. Design concept 1990's. Proposed for use on Soyuz M-3. Version with uncooled nozzle extension. Engine Cycle: closed gas generator. Feed Method: turbopump. Isp=365s. More...
  • RD-106 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 645.3 kN. R-7 ICBM stage 2 (core) initial project. Out of Production. Isp=310s. Single chamber engine intended for the R-7 sustainer. Version of RD-105 with larger nozzle. Subsequently replaced by the 4 chamber RD-108. More...
  • RD-108-8D77 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 804 kN. Sputnik 8A91-1. Out of Production. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. First flight 1958. More...
  • RD-105 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 627.6 kN. R-7 ICBM stage 1 (strap-on) initial project. Out of Production. Isp=302s. Single chamber engine intended for the R-7 strap-ons in mid-1950s. Subsequently replaced by the 4 chamber RD-107. More...
  • RD-107-11D511 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 992 kN. Soyuz 11A511-0, Soyuz 11A511U-0. Design 2000. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=314s. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-107-11D511P Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 996.4 kN. Soyuz 11A511U2-0. Out of production. OKB Glushko. Used on 11A511U2 Stage 0. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=314s. First flight 1982. More...
  • RD-107-8D728 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 996 kN. Molniya 0, Molniya 8K78M-0. OKB Glushko. Used on Molniya 8K78M and 11A57 Stage 0. Propellants kerosene (RG-1 or T-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=314s. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-107-8D74 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 971 kN. R-7 8K71, Vostok 8K72, Vostok 8K72K strap-ons. Isp=306s. First flight 1957. Used four combustion chambers fed by single turbopump to circumvent combustion instability problems with larger chambers 1950's. More...
  • RD-107-8D74-1958 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 996 kN. Luna 8K72-0. Out of production. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=312s. First flight 1958. More...
  • RD-107-8D74-1959 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 996 kN. Out of production. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=313s. Used on Vostok 8K72K launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • RD-107-8D74K Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 996 kN. Developed in 1957-1960. Used in strap-ons for Molniya 8K78, R-7A 8K74, Voskhod 11A57, Vostok 8A92, Vostok 8A92M. Isp=313s. Fuel T-1 or RG-1 kerosene. First flight 1959. More...
  • RD-107-8D74PS Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 971 kN. Sputnik 8K71PS-0. Out of Production. OKB Glushko. Used on 8K71PS Stage 0. Developed in 1956-1957. Flown 1957-1958. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=306s. More...
  • RD-108-11D512 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 997 kN. Soyuz 11A511-1, Soyuz 11A511U-1. Design 2000. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-108-11D512P Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1011 kN. Soyuz 11A511U2-1. Out of production. Isp=319s. A 1-2 second specific impulse increase was made possible by the use of synthetic fuel Sintin and a modified mixing head. First flight 1982. More...
  • RD-108-8D727 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 977 kN. Molniya 1, Molniya 8K78M-1. OKB Glushko. Used on Molniya 8K78L, 8K78M and 11A57 Stage 1. Propellants kerosene (RG-1 or T-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=316s. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-108-8D727K Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 976 kN. Molniya 8K78-3. Out of Production. Isp=316s. More...
  • RD-108-8D75 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 912 kN. R-7 8K71-1, Vostok 8K72-1, Vostok 8K72K-1. OKB Glushko. Used on 8K71 R-7 Stage 1. Developed in 1954-1955. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=308s. First flight 1957. More...
  • RD-108-8D75-1958 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 941 kN. Luna 8K72-1. Out of production. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. First flight 1958. More...
  • RD-108-8D75-1959 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 941 kN. Out of production. Further development of 8D74-1958, 1958-1959. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. Used on Vostok 8K72K launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • RD-111 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1628 kN. R-9 stage 1. Isp=317s. Developed for R-9 ICBM. It had special flexible pipelines and gimbals, allowing lox loading in 20 minutes. First flight 1961. More...
  • RD-108-8D75PS Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 912 kN. Sputnik 8K71PS-1. Out of Production. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=308s. First flight 1957. More...
  • RD-110 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1374 kN. Development ended 1949. Isp=285s. For R-3 IRBM, 19 ED-140 7 tonne chambers used as preburners to feed a main mixing chamber, a scale-up of the V-2 production motor. Tested, but technical problems too severe. More...
  • RD-107-8D76 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 971 kN. Sputnik 8A91-0. Out of Production. OKB Glushko. Used on 8A91 Stage 0. Developed in 1956-1957. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=310s. First flight 1958. More...
  • RD-58S Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 86.3 kN. Proton 8K82K / 11S861-01 stage 4 (block DM). Version 17D12 for Buran OMS. Version uses synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') for higher specific impulse. Isp=361s. First flight 1994. More...
  • RD-58Z Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 71 kN. Zenit stage 3. Developed 1981-1990. Isp=361s. More...
  • RD-58M Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 83.4 kN. Proton 8K824K / 11S824M; 11S824F; 11S86; 11S861; 17S40 stage 4 (block DM). In production. Isp=353s. First flight 1974. More...
  • RD-58 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 83.4 kN. Isp=349s. High-performance upper-stage engine developed for N1 lunar crasher stage, but saw general use as restartable Block D upper stage of Proton launch vehicle. First flight 1967. More...
  • RD-58MF Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 83.4 kN. In Production. Isp=353s. Multi-function variant of RD-58 for uprated upper stages applications (Zenit stage 3, Angara). Block-DM-SL for Sea-Launch may have used RD-58M. More...
  • RD-802 Yuzhnoye Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 19.6 kN. Upper stages. Design concept 2007. Isp=344s. Derivative of the RD-8 Zenit-2 second stage vernier thrust engine combustion chamber for use in launch vehicle upper stages. More...
  • RD-809 Yuzhnoye Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 88 kN. Upper stages. Isp=345s. 2007 design concept for a four-chamber restartable main engine for launch vehicle upper stages. More...
  • RD-8 Yuzhnoye Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 78.4 kN. Zenit stage 2 attitude control engine. In Production. Isp=342s. Four-chamber pump-fed single-run engine operated in a staged combustion scheme with afterburning of the generator gas. Development began in 1976. More...
  • RDKS-100 Dushkin Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 980 kN. Sanger. Developed 1946-51. Isp=285s. More...
  • RKDS-100 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 980 kN. Keldysh Bomber. Design 1946. Nominal design engine for 1946 Keldysh bomber design. The Soviet Union would not produce an engine with these propellants and thrust levels until nearly 20 years later. Isp=285s. More...
  • RLA-600 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 6370 kN. Design 1972. Two-chamber version of RLA-300. Proposed for the RLA series launch vehicles and the UR-700M Mars booster. More...
  • RLA-1200 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 12,700 kN. Design 1974. Proposed engines for the RLA series launch vehicles. This version would use four chambers. 'Down-sized' to 200 tonnes thrust for Energia. More...
  • RLA-300 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 3187 kN. Design 1974. Proposed for the RLA series launch vehicles and the UR-700M Mars booster. Following rejection of RLA, design 'down-sized' to 200 tonnes thrust for Energia and Zenit. More...
  • Rotary Rocket XCOR Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 22.250 kN. First stages. Developed in 1990's. Developed and tested by Rotary Rocket for their launcher before its cancellation. More...
  • RPD-04 Dushkin Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of Production. More...
  • RS-27 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1023 kN. Out of production. Isp=295s. Consisted of RS2701A/B main engine, and twin LR101-NA-11 verniers. Introduced in 1974 on the McDonnell Douglas' Delta 2000 series launcher; replaced the MB-3. First flight 1972. More...
  • RS-27A Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1054.2 kN. . Isp=302s. Replaced the RS-27 as the main system for the Delta and in the MA- 5A for the Atlas. RS2701B main engine, and twin LR101-NA-11 verniers. First flight 1989. More...
  • RS-27C Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine for Delta 7000. 1054.2 kN. Isp=302s. First flight 1990. More...
  • RS-34 Attitude Control Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 0.304 kN. Peacekeeper Postboost Attitude Control. Pressure-fed. 8 attitude thrusters in each postboost propulsion system. Isp=255s. First flight 1983. More...
  • RS-36 Sustainer Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 9.210 kN. HOE Homing Overlay Experiment Upper Stage Axial Propulsion System. Pressure-fed. Derivative of Lance propulsioon system. Isp=262s. First flight 1983. More...
  • RS-56-OBA Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1046.8 kN. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=299s. Booster engine for Atlas II, IIA, IIAS. First flight 1991. More...
  • RS-56-OSA Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 386.4 kN. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=316s. Sustainer engine for Atlas II, IIA, IIAS. First flight 1991. More...
  • RS-76 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Launch thrust 4002 kN. Space Shuttle Reusable First Stage. Ox-Rich staged combustion, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. More...
  • RS-84 Rocketdyne lox/kerosene rocket engine. 5159 kN. Booster stages. Development ended 2005. Isp=335s. Design for NASA's Space Launch Initiative; borrowed extensively from Russian technology developed in the forty years since the USA abandoned the F-1. More...
  • RS-X Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1890 kN. Design concept -1997. Employed existing Delta and Atlas MA and RS engine hardware with a new thrust chamber assembly to generate a thrust of 1890 kN for ELV applications. More...
  • RZ.2 Rolls Royce Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 836.3 kN. Isp=282s. Used on Europa launch vehicle. First flight 1964. More...
  • S-3 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 758.7 kN. Juno II, Saturn A-2 studies of 1959. Isp=282s. First flight 1958. More...
  • S-3D Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Launch thrust 600.1 kN. Jupiter Booster. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust later 150,000 lbs. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1957. More...
  • S-4 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 412.8 kN. Design ca. 1957. Version of Atlas sustainer tailored to Redstone Arsenal upper-stage requirements. Paper study only. Used on Super Jupiter launch vehicle. More...
  • S1.35800 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 30 kN. R-7 verniers. Out of Production. Thrust variable 2.5-3.1 tf More...
  • S1.5400A Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 67.3 kN. Molniya 8K78M-3. Isp=342s. First flight 1964. More...
  • S1.5400 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 66.7 kN for Molniya 8K78 Stage 3. Flew 1960-1965. Isp=340s. Designed by Korolev; passed to Isayev for production. Began a series of engines leading through the 8D726 for GR-1 to the Block D for the N1 and Proton. More...
  • S2.253 derivative Isayev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 93.2 kN. EKR (experimental winged missile). Study 1953. Derivative of S2.253 was proposed for use in EKR Stage 1 (project for an experimental winged missile). Isp=250s. More...
  • S5.80.1100-0 Isayev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2.940 kN. Soyuz-2 Blok LM. Developed 1990s. Thrust chamber from KTDU-80 / S5.80 converted to burn Lox/Kerosene. More...
  • Sanger-Bredt Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1428.8 kN. Study 1943. Used in Sanger-Bredt. Isp=306s. More...
  • Sea Dragon-1 Aerojet Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 356,9 kN. Design, 1962. Isp=290s. Truax pressure fed design. Thrust, chamber pressure varied during ascent. More...
  • TR-107 TRW lox/kerosene rocket engine. 4900 kN. Booster stages. TRW design for NASA's Space Launch Initiative. The engine used duct-cooling of the main combustion chamber and materials that would not interact with kerosene to minimise coking. More...
  • X-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 880.440 kN. Booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust from 165,000 to 198,000 lbs. More...
  • X-405 GE Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 134.8 kN. Vanguard 1st stage. Isp=270s. First flight 1957. More...
  • XLR105-5 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 363.2 kN. Atlas D. Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. Isp=309s. First flight 1958. More...
  • XLR83-NA-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 602 kN. Out of production. Isp=273s. Experimental version of the engine for the booster of the Navaho G-38 intercontinental cruise missile. Flown in the Navaho G-26 booster prototypes. First flight 1956. More...
  • XLR89-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 758.7 kN. Atlas A, B, C. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. Isp=282s. First flight 1957. More...
  • XLR89-5 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 758.7 kN. Atlas D. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. Isp=282s. First flight 1958. More...
  • XR4K14 XCOR Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 6.670 kN. First stages. Hardware. Built for the Rocket Racing League's first X-Racer. The rocket engine was sized for the best compromise between acceleration and endurance. More...
  • XR4K5 XCOR Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 8 kN. First stages. Hardware. Pump-fed, regeneratively cooled with fuel. Engine could be used to power the prototype Xerus suborbital manned vehicle for initial flight testing. More...
  • YF-120t CAALPT Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1340.2 kN. In development. Isp=336s. For CZ-5 Next Generation Launch Vehicle series. Engine can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Firing tests began in 2005. More...

Associated Stages
  • 8K513 Blok B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,000/2,100 kg. Thrust 441.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 tonnes. Developed into Molniya/Soyuz second stage. More...
  • Angara Stage 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500,000/40,000 kg. Thrust 8,181.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Unique configuration with oxidizer in core and fuel in two tanks strapped on in parallel - all of rail-transportable 3.9 m diameter. Product of Khrunichev. Masses estimated based on engine selected and vehicle performance. More...
  • Angara UM Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 140,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,094.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337.5 seconds. Can be throttled to 95%. Propellant ration 2.6:1, chamber pressure 257 bar. More...
  • Angara A-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 359 seconds. Two thrust levels. Propellant ration 2.6:1, chamber pressure 162 bar. More...
  • Atlas E/F Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,826/4,926 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Atlas MA-5A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,187/4,187 kg. Thrust 2,093.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 299 seconds. More...
  • Atlas MA-5 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,646/3,646 kg. Thrust 1,896.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 294 seconds. More...
  • Atlas IIIA Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 195,628/13,725 kg. Thrust 4,148.72 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. The American Atlas booster and sustainer engine arrangement was replaced by derivatives of Glushko engines developed for the Ukrainian Zenit launch vehicle. Not capable of single stage to single stage to orbit capability (an Internet spaceflight urban myth). More...
  • Atlas MA-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,050/3,050 kg. Thrust 1,517.42 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. More...
  • Atlas IIAS Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 161,950/6,050 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Atlas IIA Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 162,495/6,595 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Atlas II Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 161,995/6,095 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Atlas G/H/I Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 142,536/4,236 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Atlas MA-5AS Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,632/5,632 kg. Thrust 2,093.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 299 seconds. More...
  • Atlas A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 81,647/7,230 kg. Thrust 1,517.41 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. More...
  • Atlas Centaur SLV-3C/D Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 128,500/4,000 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Atlas Centaur LV-3C Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,350/3,700 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds. More...
  • Atlas CCB Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 306,914/22,461 kg. Thrust 4,152.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 338 seconds. Common Core Booster uses Glushko RD-180 engine and new isogrid tanks. Used in Atlas IV/USAF EELV, Atlas V. Includes 272 kg booster interstage adapter and 1297 kg Centaur interstage adapter. More...
  • Atlas B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 107,610/3,980 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds. More...
  • Atlas MA-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,174/3,174 kg. Thrust 1,644.96 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. More...
  • Atlas Agena SLV-3A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 142,000/3,700 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Atlas Agena SLV-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,026/2,326 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Atlas Agena LV-3A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,150/2,390 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds. More...
  • Atlas Able Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 114,495/4,200 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds. More...
  • Atlas D Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 113,050/2,347 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds. More...
  • Black Colt Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 40,482/8,283 kg. Thrust 402.05 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 353 seconds. Winged, first stage of a launch vehicle using aerial refueling and existing engines. Takes off from runway; rendezvous with tanker to load oxidizer; then flies to Mach 12/150 nm to release Star 48V second stage and 450 kg payload. 2 x F125 turbofans for flight to tanker, subsonic ferry, and go-around capability on return. More...
  • Blok SO-L Lox/Kerosene rocket stage. 66.70 kN (14,995 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,200 kg (13,669 lb). More...
  • CZ-NGLV-200 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 69,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 1,340.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336.3 seconds. From top to bottom the 2.25-m Chinese new generation launch vehicle consists of a 42.3 cubic meter liquid oxygen tank, an intertank section, a 22.0 cubic meter kerosene tank, and an engine section with one gimballed LOX /Kerosene engines of 1200 kN vacuum thrust. The oxygen tank is pressurised using oxygen bled from the engine and helium is used to pressurise the kerosene tank. The engines can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Burn time shown assumes full thrust during engine burn. More...
  • CZ-NGLV-300 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 147,000/12,000 kg. Thrust 2,680.35 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. From top to bottom the 3.35-m Chinese new generation launch vehicle consists of a 90.7 cubic meter liquid oxygen tank, an intertank section, a 47.7 cubic meter kerosene tank, and an engine section with two gimballed LOX /Kerosene engines of 1200 kN vacuum thrust each. The oxygen tank is pressurised using oxygen bled from the engine and helium is used to pressurise the kerosene tank. The engines can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Burn time shown assumes full thrust during engine burn. More...
  • CZ-NGLV-KO Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 60,000/7,000 kg. Thrust 588.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Upper stage for the 3.35 m diameter core vehicle. Only information available are the types of propellants, total thrust, and number of engines. Therefore all values shown here except thrust are estimated. This launcher has a low priority since its payload capability overlaps existing Chinese launch vehicles, and it would not be developed until after 2010. More...
  • Delta Thor XLT-C Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,900/5,900 kg. Thrust 1,054.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 302 seconds. More...
  • Delta 3 - 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 104,377/6,822 kg. Thrust 1,085.79 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 302 seconds. The first stage of the Delta III is powered by a Rocketdyne RS-27A main engine which has a 12:1 expansion ratio and employs a turbine/turbopump, a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and nozzle, and a hydraulically gimbaled thrust chamber and nozzle that provides pitch and yaw control. More...
  • Delta Thor ELT Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 84,067/4,059 kg. Thrust 1,030.21 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. More...
  • Delta Thor LT Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 70,354/3,715 kg. Thrust 866.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. More...
  • Delta Thor RS27 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 84,368/4,360 kg. Thrust 1,030.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. More...
  • Delta Thor TA Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 49,442/3,175 kg. Thrust 866.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. More...
  • Delta Thor XLT Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,700/5,690 kg. Thrust 1,032.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. More...
  • EKR Stage 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,390/1,564 kg. Thrust 107.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. First stage for Eksperimentalnaya krilataya raketa (experimental winged rocket), Mach 3 ramjet. Boosted second stage to ramjet ignition conditions. More...
  • Energia RCS Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,000/2,000 kg. Thrust 84.94 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Adaptation of Block D for Energia payload orbital insertion. More...
  • Energia Strapon Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 355,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 7,906.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Essentially identical to Zenit stage 1. More...
  • Europa-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 89,406/6,997 kg. Thrust 1,672.67 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. More...
  • Falcon 1-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 22,993/1,505 kg. Thrust 369.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds. More...
  • Falcon 1e-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,168/2,712 kg. Thrust 615.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • G-38 Navaho Booster Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 76,870/16,780 kg. Thrust 2,048.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. Burns out at altitude 21,600 m, Mach 3. Empty Mass estimated. More...
  • GR-1 Stage 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 80,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 1,676.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. Payload 4,000 kg (2.2 MT nuclear warhead). Range 13,000 km or orbital. Accuracy (90%) 5 km in range and 3 km in dispersion. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 tonnes. More...
  • GR-1 Stage 3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,500/1,000 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 350 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 tonnes. This stage was a close cousin of that developed for the Molniya launch vehicle. More...
  • H-1-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 85,800/4,400 kg. Thrust 866.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. License built MB-3 ELT Thor More...
  • Jarvis-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 950,000/60,000 kg. Thrust 15,481.26 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Jupiter Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 54,431/5,443 kg. Thrust 758.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. More...
  • Jupiter Cluster Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 226,716/27,205 kg. Thrust 3,034.29 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. Masses estimated (cluster of four Jupiter IRBM stages) More...
  • Keldysh Bomber Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,000/29,500 kg. Thrust 980.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Boosted to launch speed of 500 m/s by rocket sled. Boost phase assisted with two ramjets which increases effective specific impulse to over 500 seconds. More...
  • Keldysh Sled Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 50,000/25,000 kg. Thrust 5,880.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Boosts Keldysh bomber to launch speed of 500 m/s. Mass estimated based on fuel consumed in 11 second boost phase. More...
  • Kistler Stage 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 250,000/20,500 kg. Thrust 5,049.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Stage burns for 35 seconds to place itself on return-to-launch-site trajectory for recovery. Therefore to calculate performance 12,400 kg propellants for flight back to launch site should be added to empty mass. Empty mass also includes six parachutes, landing bags, and is calculated, based by apportioning total vehicle empty mass. More...
  • Kistler Stage 2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 131,000/13,100 kg. Thrust 1,769.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 348 seconds. Empty mass includes payload bay, heat shield, parachutes, and landing bag for recovery at base. Empty mass calculated based by apportioning total vehicle empty mass. More...
  • KSR-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,000/700 kg. Thrust 122.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All values except thrust estimated. More...
  • Kvant Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 210,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 3,216.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. 4 11D121 verniers. Empty mass estimated. More...
  • Kvant-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 74,000/7,000 kg. Thrust 1,102.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 335 seconds. 4 RD-0124-14D23 verniers. Empty mass estimated. More...
  • Liberty 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,000/2,240 kg. Thrust 245.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 270 seconds. More...
  • Luna 8K72-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 95,300/6,900 kg. Thrust 936.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Luna 8K72-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,100/1,120 kg. Thrust 49.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Luna 8K72-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,800 kg. Thrust 990.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 312 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,800 kg. Thrust 941.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,300/2,000 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,100/1,080 kg. Thrust 65.41 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Stage designed as fourth stage to take R-7 launched payloads into deep space. Adapted from the Luna / Vostok third stage, but with restart capability. The 700 kg BOZ ullage motors and stabilisation platform jettisoned prior to main stage burn. Original version. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,770 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,600/6,798 kg. Thrust 976.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,800/1,976 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,660/1,160 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Standardized improved version for Molniya-type communications satellite payloads. More...
  • Molniya M-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,500/1,050 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,800 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds. More...
  • N-11 Block A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 485,000/47,000 kg. Thrust 11,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Derived from N1 Block B, with large number of engines and expansion ratio adjusted for sea level operation. Includes 3500 kg Stage 2-Stage 3 interstage. More...
  • N-11GR - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,200/1,700 kg. Thrust 88.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Orbital MIRV stage. Six of these stages clustered around Block B; each stage would have had a 1500 kg nuclear warhead. More...
  • N-111-Ab Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 150,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,694.37 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. Alternate weight breakdown. More...
  • N-11 Block B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 192,000/18,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Derived from N1 Block V. More...
  • N-11 1963 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 70,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 784.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Conjectural stage derived from GR-1 stage 1 to match total mass given of launch vehicle. More...
  • N-111-A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 192,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 2,540.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Variant of N1 Block V for first stage use. Number of engines would have to be increased and reduced expansion ratio nozzles fitted for sea level use. Least attractive of N1 variants and seems not to have been pursued after draft project. More...
  • N1 1964 - B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 506,000/50,000 kg. Thrust 13,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Second stage of the N1 superbooster. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Specific impulse estimate down one second from 1962 draft project. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given. More...
  • N1 1964 - A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,942,000/192,000 kg. Thrust 49,420.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. First stage of the N1 superbooster. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Block A modified with six additional engines and propellant increased by 550 tonnes by using chilled propellants. More...
  • N1 1962 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/16,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. More...
  • N1 1962 - B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 506,000/50,000 kg. Thrust 13,778.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Includes 3500 kg Stage 2-Stage 3 interstage. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. More...
  • N1 1962 - A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,384,000/117,000 kg. Thrust 39,420.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Earlier design for the Block A. Includes 14,000 kg for Stage 1-2 interstage and payload fairing. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 15,000 kg propellant expended in thrust build-up and boil-off prior to liftoff. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. More...
  • N1 1964 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/16,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given. More...
  • N1 Block A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,880,000/130,000 kg. Thrust 50,300.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Includes 14,000 kg for Stage 1-2 interstage and payload fairing. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 15,000 kg propellant expended in thrust build-up and boil-off prior to liftoff. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. More...
  • N1 Block B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 560,700/55,700 kg. Thrust 14,039.98 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Includes 3500 kg Stage 2-Stage 3 interstage. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. More...
  • N1 Block D Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,200/3,500 kg. Thrust 83.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 349 seconds. Block D as originally designed as a lunar crasher stage More...
  • N1 Block G Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 61,800/6,000 kg. Thrust 446.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 353 seconds. Empty mass estimated. More...
  • N1 Block V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 188,700/13,700 kg. Thrust 1,608.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 353 seconds. As flown. More...
  • N1F Block A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,070,000/126,230 kg. Thrust 49,675.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Includes 14,000 kg for Stage 1-2 interstage. More...
  • N1F Block B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 620,000/55,700 kg. Thrust 14,040.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Includes 3,500 kg for Stage 2-3 interstage. More...
  • N1F 1965 - B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 590,000/60,000 kg. Thrust 15,600.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Engine thrust increased from 150 t each to 200 t and stretched propellant tanks. More...
  • N1F 1965 - A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,940,000/200,000 kg. Thrust 57,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Block A engine thrust increased but little additional propellant. More...
  • N1F Block V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 210,000/13,700 kg. Thrust 1,608.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 353 seconds. More...
  • N1F 1965 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 300,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 2,450.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Engine thrust increased and stretched propellant tanks with almost 50% increase. More...
  • N1M 1965 - A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,800,000/375,000 kg. Thrust 85,300.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Huge modification of Block A, almost double propellant capacity, engines increased from 175 tonnes thrust to 250 tonnes. More...
  • N1M 1965 - B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 620,000/75,000 kg. Thrust 21,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Further stretch of Block B and thrust increased again to 280 tonnes per engine. More...
  • N1M 1965 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 355,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 2,940.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Further stretch of Block V. More...
  • N1U 1965 - B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 506,000/50,000 kg. Thrust 13,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model. More...
  • N1U 1965 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model. More...
  • N1U 1965 - A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,934,000/195,000 kg. Thrust 49,420.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model. More...
  • Nova A-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,342,000/73,000 kg. Thrust 30,616.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Nova MM 1C-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,943,000/590,000 kg. Thrust 161,710.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Operational date would have been February 1973 More...
  • Nova MM 1B-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,430,000/454,000 kg. Thrust 125,770.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Operational date would have been December 1972 More...
  • Nova GD-J-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,617,000/680,000 kg. Thrust 124,044.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable stage of ballistic shape; separation at 3,420 m/s at 93,900 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 parachutes 1340 km downrange. More...
  • Nova GD-F-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,977,000/680,000 kg. Thrust 148,031.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 335 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable stage; separation at 3,365 m/s at 89,300 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 8 46 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. More...
  • Nova GD-B-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,070,000/635,000 kg. Thrust 142,451.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable engine package; separation at 3,398 m/s at 76,200 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 30 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. More...
  • Nova NASA-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 499,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 7,640.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Nova NASA-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,268,000/113,000 kg. Thrust 45,914.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. More...
  • Nova 9L-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,814,000/125,000 kg. Thrust 30,243.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes. More...
  • Nova 9L-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,721,000/181,000 kg. Thrust 68,048.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes. More...
  • Nova 60-8-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,628,000/227,000 kg. Thrust 61,928.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Mass estimated based on total LV weight. More...
  • Nova 59-4-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 590,000/45,000 kg. Thrust 7,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Empty Mass Estimated More...
  • Nova 59-4-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,177,000/136,000 kg. Thrust 38,697.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. Empty Mass Estimated More...
  • Nova 2 F-1 Module Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,134,000/77,000 kg. Thrust 15,121.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Short Nova building block. Four used in stage 1, one in stage 2. More...
  • Nova DAC-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,213,000/194,000 kg. Thrust 97,840.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 299 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. 10% plug nozzle. More...
  • Nova B-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,995,000/100,000 kg. Thrust 45,914.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Pathfinder Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,000/30,000 kg. Thrust 833.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 350 seconds. Masses estimated based on performance, propellant load. More...
  • Project 921-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 306,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 5,406.14 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Engine chamber pressure 13 to 15 Mpa. More...
  • Proton 17S40 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,600/3,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM-5. Commercial version is Block DM2, with Iridium dispenser, designed for insertion of multiple LM 700 (Iridium) spacecraft into medium earth orbit. With guidance unit, modification of 11S861 stage for heavier payloads and with different payload adapter. More...
  • Proton 11S861-01 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,650/2,650 kg. Thrust 83.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 361 seconds. Also known as Block DM-2M, article number 11S861-01. Commercial versions are Block DM3, with Saab payload dispenser, for insertion of Hughes HS 601 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit; and Block DM4, for insertion of FS-1300 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit.. With guidance unit, originally designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous orbit. Capable of boosting heavier payloads than 11S861 through use of higher-performance 'sintin' synthetic kerosene fuel. More...
  • Proton 11S861 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,300/2,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM-2 (different from commercial Block DM2 (no hyphen!)), article number 11S861. Commercial version designated Block DM1 and is equipped with Saab payload adapter for insertion of AS 4000 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. With improved guidance system as compared to 11S86, originally designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous orbit. Used from 1982 to present. More...
  • Proton 11S86 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,550/2,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM; article number 11S86. With guidance unit, designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous/ medium earth orbit. Used from 1974 to 1990. Succeeded by 11S861. More...
  • Proton 11S824M Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,000/1,830 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block D-1; article number 11S824M. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). Successor to 11S824. Used to launch large Lavochkin bureau unmanned lunar/planetary/high earth orbit spacecraft from 1976 to 1989. More...
  • Proton 11S824 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,360/1,800 kg. Thrust 83.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Originally designed as N1-L3 lunar expedition launch vehicle lunar orbit insertion/lunar crasher stage. Before it could fly on the N1, it was adapted for use with Proton UR-500K as a fourth stage for manned circumlunar flight. It was then further used to launch large Lavochkin bureau unmanned lunar/planetary spacecraft. In the 1970's it was adopted by the Soviet military and standardized for launch of geostationary satellites. More...
  • Proton 11S824F Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,900/1,800 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block D-2; article number 11S824F. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). Successor to 11S824M. Used for launch of Lavochkin Mars-bound spacecraft in 1988 and 1996. More...
  • R-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 69,000/5,480 kg. Thrust 1,370.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. 3000 km range IRBM design to study problems of long-range rockets. Developed April 1947 to 1949 before cancellation. More...
  • R-7 8K71-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 95,300/7,500 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds. More...
  • R-7 8K71-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,100/3,500 kg. Thrust 970.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 306 seconds. More...
  • R-7A 8K74-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,800/3,200 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds. More...
  • R-7A 8K74-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,700/7,300 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • R-9A Stage 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 61,600/4,000 kg. Thrust 1,595.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311.4 seconds. Payload 3,500 kg. Range 13,000 km. Accuracy (90%) 8 km in range and 5 km in dispersion with radio guidance; 20 km / 10 km with inertial guidance. Empty mass estimated. More...
  • R-9A Stage 2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,900/2,500 kg. Thrust 304.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Empty mass estimated. Developed into Molniya/Soyuz second stage. More...
  • RLA-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 800,000/45,000 kg. Thrust 11,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Empty mass, specific impulses, length estimated by comparison to smaller Zenit successor design. More...
  • RLA-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 150,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,940.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 349 seconds. Empty mass, specific impulses, length estimated by comparison to smaller Zenit successor design. More...
  • Sanger-Bredt Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 99,773/19,955 kg. Thrust 1,428.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 306 seconds. More...
  • Saturn S-ID Booster Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 67,100/67,100 kg. Thrust 30,962.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Boeing studies, 1967:'Stage and a half' S-1C with four outboard F-1's jettisoned and inboard F-1 functioning as sustainer as in Atlas. Booster half stage recoverable. Mass estimated based on double mass of four F-1's (based on Atlas example). More...
  • Saturn MS-IC-3B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,718,800/178,700 kg. Thrust 45,925.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. S-IC with 20 foot stretch, 1.8 million lb thrust F-1's, 5.6 million pounds propellant capacity (fuel offloaded to 4.99 million for LEO or 4.80 million lbs for LOR mission). More...
  • Saturn MS-IC-25(S) Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,223,800/211,900 kg. Thrust 45,925.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. S-IC with 41.5 foot stretch, 6,640,0000 lbs propellant, uprated F-1 engines. More...
  • Saturn MS-LRB-23(L) Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 874,100/18,100 kg. Thrust 15,486.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Liquid rocket booster strap-ons using 2 F-1's. More...
  • Saturn S-1B-4 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 444,700/37,600 kg. Thrust 4,120.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-1B with 4 H-1's for use with Titan UA1205 strap-ons More...
  • Saturn S-IB-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 725,491/68,014 kg. Thrust 13,339.96 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Saturn S-IB-4 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,813,729/108,823 kg. Thrust 30,962.53 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Saturn S-IB-A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 448,600/41,600 kg. Thrust 9,045.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. Douglas Studies, 1965: S-1B with 225 k lbf H-1's More...
  • Saturn S-IC-TLB Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 952,500/68,000 kg. Thrust 15,532.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): S-IC Technology Liquid Booster: 260 inch liquid booster with 2 x F-1 engines, recoverable/reusable More...
  • Saturn S-ID Sustainer Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,219,100/68,100 kg. Thrust 7,740.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Boeing studies, 1967:'Stage and a half' S-1C with four outboard F-1's jettisoned and inboard F-1 functioning as sustainer as in Atlas. Booster half stage burns 124 seconds in this configuration. More...
  • Saturn S-ID Sustainer-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,627,600/84,400 kg. Thrust 7,740.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Boeing studies, 1967:'Stage and a half' S-1C with four outboard F-1's jettisoned and inboard F-1 functioning as sustainer as in Atlas; 20 foot stretch of sustainer stage. Booster stage burn 154 seconds in this configuration. More...
  • Saturn MS-IC-23(L) Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,694,000/169,000 kg. Thrust 38,703.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Basic Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with standard F-1 engines. More...
  • Saturn S-IC-8 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,627,500/181,400 kg. Thrust 61,925.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Saturn IB-15 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 478,103/45,873 kg. Thrust 8,241.76 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. 10 foot stretch of Saturn IB. Not found useful in any configuration except with Minuteman first-stage strap-ons to augment thrust. More...
  • Saturn MS-IC-1A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,694,700/160,600 kg. Thrust 46,443.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Basic Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 6 F-1 engines. More...
  • Saturn I Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 432,681/45,267 kg. Thrust 7,582.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds. Configuration as flown, Saturn I. More...
  • Saturn MS-IC-4(S)B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,875,500/154,000 kg. Thrust 38,717.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. S-IC with 336 inch stretch, 6,000,0000 lbs propellant, structural strength increased from 56% to 65% depending on station, resulting in 13.9% increase in empty weight. More...
  • Saturn IB-11 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 505,953/48,545 kg. Thrust 8,241.76 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. 20 foot stretch of Saturn IB for use with UA1207 7 segment solid rocket strap-on units. More...
  • Saturn IC Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,286,217/135,218 kg. Thrust 38,703.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Configuration as flown. More...
  • Saturn IC C-3B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,160,787/72,549 kg. Thrust 22,954.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Final first stage design of Saturn C-3 (November 1961). More...
  • Saturn IC C-4B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,450,984/90,686 kg. Thrust 30,606.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Final first stage design of Saturn C-3 (November 1961). Unique S-IC design in that fuel and propellant tank shared common bulkhead; stage was actually shorter than C-3B S-IC. More...
  • Saturn IC-Flat Bulkhead Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,278,800/127,000 kg. Thrust 38,717.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Standard S-IC but with reduced length and structural weight through use of 'flat' bulkheads consisting of multiple conical sections. More...
  • Saturn LCB-Lox/RP-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,360,800/108,900 kg. Thrust 20,306.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed Lox/RFP-1 engine More...
  • Saturn MS-IC-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,694,703/169,719 kg. Thrust 45,948.75 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Basic Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with F-1A engines uprated 20% in thrust and 6 second improvement in specific impulse. More...
  • Saturn MLV 5-23L-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,180,000/80,000 kg. Thrust 15,484.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Liquid strap-on booster studied for improved Saturn V. More...
  • Saturn MS-IC/260 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,721,600/181,400 kg. Thrust 38,717.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Standard length S-IC but with feed of propellant from fuel and propellant tanks housed above strap-on solid rocket motors More...
  • Saturn IB Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 448,648/41,594 kg. Thrust 8,241.76 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. Configuration as flown, Saturn IB. More...
  • Saturn IC C-5A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,217,285/131,495 kg. Thrust 38,257.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Final first stage design of Saturn C-5 (November 1961) before selection as Apollo launch vehicle and development in Saturn V. More...
  • Sea Dragon-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,600,000/1,300,000 kg. Thrust 356,900.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. Sea level thrust shown. Thrust, chamber pressure varies during ascent. Vacuum thrust at cut-off 40 million kgf. Total mass, specific impulse estimated from booster performance figures. More...
  • Sea Horse-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 40,000/5,000 kg. Thrust 755.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz ST-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 359 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz ST-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 44,400/3,810 kg. Thrust 1,021.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Gross mass includes 1190 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 280 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. More...
  • Soyuz M-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 20.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 360 seconds. Empty mass estimated. Multiple restart engine. More...
  • Soyuz M-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,000 kg. Thrust 872.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. Proposed improved version. Not developed. More...
  • Soyuz M-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,200/3,000 kg. Thrust 872.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,400/2,400 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz ST-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,400/6,875 kg. Thrust 999.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,400/6,875 kg. Thrust 997.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. Current version. Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 44,500/3,784 kg. Thrust 994.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Gross mass includes 1190 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 280 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,400/2,700 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,500 kg. Thrust 977.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,000/3,550 kg. Thrust 994.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,160/6,500 kg. Thrust 1,011.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 319 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,810/3,550 kg. Thrust 996.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds. More...
  • Sputnik 8A91-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 95,000/7,100 kg. Thrust 804.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Sputnik 8K71PS-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 94,000/7,495 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds. More...
  • Super-Jupiter-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 96,700/7,200 kg. Thrust 1,884.59 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. More...
  • Super-Jupiter-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 29,400/1,900 kg. Thrust 412.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds. Length estimated. More...
  • Super-Jupiter Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 317,600/19,600 kg. Thrust 7,538.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. Earliest member of what would become the Saturn family. Masses estimated. More...
  • Superraket Block A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,150,000/100,000 kg. Thrust 33,656.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Ancestor of N1 Block A; conical liquid oxygen/kerosene stage using massive cluster of Kuznetsov engines. Gross mass estimated based on 2,000 tonne total vehicle weight; empty mass estimated. More...
  • Thor DM-19 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 49,340/3,125 kg. Thrust 758.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. More...
  • Thor DM-21 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 48,354/2,948 kg. Thrust 760.64 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. More...
  • Titan 1-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 76,203/4,000 kg. Thrust 1,467.91 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. More...
  • Titan 1-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 28,939/1,725 kg. Thrust 355.86 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds. More...
  • Titan Cluster Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 150,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,940.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 130 seconds. Masses estimated (cluster of four Titan I first stages) More...
  • UR-500MK-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 137,000/9,300 kg. Thrust 1,637.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Empty mass estimated based on overall vehicle mass fraction. Length estimated based on total mass. More...
  • UR-500MK-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 161,000/11,000 kg. Thrust 1,860.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Empty mass estimated based on overall vehicle mass fraction. Length estimated based on total mass. More...
  • UR-700M-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,250,000/500,000 kg. Thrust 102,013.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Total mass, length, estimated based on empty mass, total vehicle mass. Engine specific impulse estimated based on follow-on RD-170 engines. More...
  • UR-700M-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,000,000/750,000 kg. Thrust 204,027.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Total mass, length, estimated based on empty mass, total vehicle mass. Engine specific impulse estimated based on follow-on RD-170 engines. More...
  • Vanguard Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,661/811 kg. Thrust 134.79 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 270 seconds. More...
  • VKS-R Sled Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100,000 kg. Sled studied in tradeoff studies leading to MAKS. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 290,000 kg, Mach 0.5, zero altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 100 m/s. More...
  • Voskhod 11A57-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,800 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds. More...
  • Voskhod 11A57-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,800 kg. Thrust 941.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Voskhod 11A57-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,300/2,000 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,100/1,100 kg. Thrust 54.52 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72K-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,775/1,440 kg. Thrust 54.52 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72K-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,400/6,800 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72K-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,710 kg. Thrust 970.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,775/1,440 kg. Thrust 49.42 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,710 kg. Thrust 970.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 312 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,000/6,500 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,775/1,440 kg. Thrust 54.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,400/6,800 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,400/6,800 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Vulkan 0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 355,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 7,891.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. Original design of Energia strap-ons, for use with Vulkan booster for manned lunar expedition. Ultimately derived from R-56 of 1961. More...
  • X-34 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 21,800/8,200 kg. Thrust 268.93 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Low cost reusable vehicle technology demonstrator. More...
  • X-34A-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 29,500/6,700 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. Original design for two-stage reusable space launcher. Abandoned in favour of more modest X-34A technology demonstrator after industry refused to make significant investments in the concept. More...
  • X-34A-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,500/300 kg. Thrust 44.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 348 seconds. More...
  • YaKhR-2 Strap-on Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 110,000/8,250 kg. Thrust 2,393.72 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. R-7 strap-ons increased in size dimensionally 50%, equipped with 6 engines from R-9. Boost nuclear thermal core stage to altitude before ignition of nuclear engine. Masses calculated based on vehicle total weight and performance. More...
  • Zenit-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 354,300/28,600 kg. Thrust 8,181.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Modification of same stage used as strap-on for Energia launch vehicle. More...
  • Zenit-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,300/2,720 kg. Thrust 84.92 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Adaptation of Block D for Zenit. More...
  • Zenit-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 90,600/9,000 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 349 seconds. More...

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