Encyclopedia Astronautica
STS



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Shuttle cutaway
Shuttle cutaway showing deployment of LDEF
Credit: NASA
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Shuttle Orbiter
Shuttle Orbiter side view
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Shuttle Orbiter
Shuttle Orbiter 2 view
Credit: © Mark Wade
The Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle) was conceived originally as a completely reusable system that would provide cheap, routine access to space and replace all American and civilian military launch vehicles. Crippled by technological overreach, political compromise, and budget limitations, it instead ended up costing more than the expendable rockets it was to have replaced. STS sucked the money out of all other NASA projects for half a century. The military abandoned its use after the Challenger shuttle explosion in the 1980's.

The origins of the Space Transportation System (space shuttle) can be traced back to the mid-1960's. At that time the US Air Force conducted a series of classified studies on next-generation space transportation systems to support projected large military space stations, conduct manned military reconnaissance and strike missions, and reduce the cost of launching military payloads. These Air Force studies finally concluded that a partially reusable vehicle was the most attractive, along the lines of Lockheed's Starlifter, which had a large drop tank but returned the engines and avionics of the vehicle for reuse. The Air Force probably spent around $ 1 billion on 'black' technology development tests at this time, including work on linear aerospike engines and high fineness lifting body shapes that would re-emerge again 30 years later in Lockheed's X-33 space shuttle successor.

NASA also had ambitious plans - for large space stations, lunar bases, nuclear interplanetary rocket stages, and manned Mars expeditions. NASA went through a long iterative process in designing and selecting the space shuttle, leading ultimately to the same conclusion as the Air Force. Initial Phase A concepts were for two stages, both either winged or lifting bodies, both recovered at the launch site for reuse. NASA explored some alternative concepts, including Lockheed's LS200 single orbiter with drop tank, and Chrysler's SERV ballistic single stage to orbit vehicle, before proceeding to Phase B. The Phase B designs were more refined but still used the same two-stage approach. At this point the controversy were over large cross-range winged designs, medium cross-range lifting body designs, and minimal cross-range stub-wing designs. NASA's Faget strongly pushed for the stub-wing design.

Eventually the Nixon administration advised NASA that not only were there to be no flights to Mars, no nuclear interplanetary stages, no space station, no more Saturn V's, no orbital transfer vehicle - but there wouldn't be a space shuttle either if NASA couldn't get the development cost down and get the USAF to participate. A USAF requirement was a large cross-range to allow recovery of the orbiter at Vandenberg AFB from polar orbits in the case of abort-once-around scenarios. This, together with wind tunnel studies indicating that Faget's straight wing was unstable at re-entry speeds, drove NASA to the delta wing. The reduction in development cost led NASA to throw away the concept of reusing anything but the engines and guidance systems. Instead the shuttle would be boosted by cheap solid fuel boosters and, taking a concept from the Air Force, the propellants would be put in a big expendable drop tank.

Following the usual charade of competitive bidding, NASA picked the same contractors as for X-15 and Apollo, who would build precisely the vehicle it had in mind. North American Rockwell was selected to build the orbiter, with its Rocketdyne Division making the main engines, Thiokol for the solid rocket boosters, and Martin Marietta for the External Tank, to be built at the government Saturn IC factory at Michoud.

To finance the Shuttle in the austere 1970's, already-built Apollo hardware that would have supported a second Skylab mission was sent to museums and American manned space flight went into a long hiatus. Budget cuts and overruns reduced the number of shuttles built from five to four and delayed the first flight from 1978 to 1981 (thereby ruining the plan to save Skylab on an early shuttle mission). Although several elements were cancelled (a space tug), the project did not much overrun its original cost (development ended up costing $ 6.744 billion in 1971 dollars, versus $ 5.15 billion estimated - less than a quarter of the Apollo program cost).

The pretext for the shuttle was that it would be much cheaper than expendable launch vehicles and would replace them all. Production was accordingly terminated by the US government of Delta, Atlas, and Titan vehicles. NASA staff and contractors were under incredible pressure to justify this decision by increasing the shuttle launch rate, lowering the turn-around time, and thereby reducing the cost per launch. When the shuttle Challenger exploded and the entire US space lift program was shut down for almost a year, the fallacy of this situation was exposed. The US Air Force and commercial users returned to use of expendable launch vehicles. When the shuttle began flying again, it was only for NASA programs.

In the final analysis the shuttle came up short in two areas. First, the shuttle orbiter ended up almost 20% over its specified weight - resulting in it being unable to boost the US Air Force's payloads into polar orbits from Vandenberg. Lighter filament-would casing Solid Rocket Boosters were being developed for use in flights from Vandenberg, but even this did not seem enough. After the Challenger explosion the USAF was able to extricate itself from the Shuttle program. The Vandenberg launch complex, built at the cost of billions, was mothballed. The Air Force started a new costly development program to design the Titan 4 expendable rocket for its large military payloads.

The second was that it failed, by most definitions, to reduce the cost of putting payloads into orbit. The shuttle program inherited from Apollo huge fixed costs - the Manned Spaceflight Center in Houston, the cadres of government and contractor workers at the Kennedy Space Center, and so on. The result was that there is a fixed base cost of around $ 2.8 billion per year, just to keep all those people and facilities in place, even if you don't conduct any flights at all (as occurred after the shuttle disaster). The marginal cost of each flight added to this base is under $ 100 million per year. Seen this way the shuttle is almost competitive expendable boosters - but doesn't come anywhere near the reductions NASA promised when development started. But if you divide the usual number of flights per year by the total costs, you come up with a figure of $ 245 million per year, significantly more than a Titan 4 or Proton launch with the same payload.

If the shuttle failed as a space truck, it succeeded in keeping the US in the manned spaceflight business in a period of low public interest and political support. With the excuse of delivering payloads to orbit, NASA got to fly up to seven astronauts and run a host of supplementary experiments and payloads with each flight.

With construction of the international space station beginning, NASA finally looked forward to using the shuttle for its intended purpose. Due to the lower than planned flight rate, NASA's contractors were confident they can keep the existing shuttles flying through 2030. The real test come when (as was inevitable) another shuttle was lost. NASA then decided to essentially to complete the station only enough to keep its international partners happy, then retire the shuttle by 2010. It was to be replaced by a modernized Apollo capsule, dubbed the Orion. The shuttle turned out to be a fifty-year detour to nowhere. By 2020 NASA hoped to have the sort of lunar base it would have had by 1980 if it had continued with Apollo rather than started the shuttle program.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Glenn Glenn, John Herschel Jr (1921-) American test pilot astronaut, later a politician and US Senator. First American in orbit on his first flight, Mercury MA-6, in 1962, and oldest person in space on his second flight, STS-95, in 1998. More...
  • Henize Henize, Dr Karl Gordon (1926-1993) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F. More...
  • Thornton, Bill Thornton, Dr William Edgar 'Bill' (1929-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-8, STS-51-B. More...
  • Lind Lind, Dr Don Leslie (1930-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-B. Longest wait for an American for a spaceflight after becoming an astronaut (19 years). More...
  • Young Young, John Watts (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 3, Gemini 10, Apollo 10, Apollo 16, STS-1, STS-9. Only astronaut to fly Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle. Ninth person to walk on the moon. Space speed record (11,107 m/s). More...
  • Garriott Garriott, Dr Owen Kay (1930-) American scientist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on Skylab 3, STS-9. More...
  • Brand Brand, Vance DeVoe (1931-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo (ASTP), STS-5, STS-41-B, STS-35. More...
  • van den Berg van den Berg, Dr Lodewijk (1932-) Dutch-American physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-B. More...
  • Weitz Weitz, Paul Joseph (1932-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Skylab 2, STS-6. Member of first successful space station mission. More...
  • Engle Engle, Joe Henry (1932-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on X-15 Flight 138, X-15 Flight 143, X-15 Flight 153, STS-2, STS-51-I. More...
  • Garn Garn, Edwin Jacob 'Jake' (1932-) American senator payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-D. More...
  • Peterson Peterson, Dr Donald Herod 'Don' (1933-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-6. More...
  • Hartsfield Hartsfield, Henry Warren Jr 'Hank' (1933-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-4, STS-41-D, STS-61-A. More...
  • Musgrave Musgrave, Dr Franklin Story (1935-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-6, STS-51-F, STS-33, STS-44, STS-61, STS-80. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Lousma Lousma, Jack Robert (1936-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Skylab 3, STS-3. More...
  • Acton Acton, Dr Loren Wilber (1936-) American solar physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F. More...
  • Mattingly Mattingly, Thomas Kenneth II 'Ken' (1936-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 16, STS-4, STS-51-C. More...
  • Overmyer Overmyer, Robert Franklin 'Bob' (1936-1996) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-5, STS-51-B. More...
  • Fullerton Fullerton, Charles Gordon (1936-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-3, STS-51-F. More...
  • Parker Parker, Dr Robert Alan Ridley 'Bob' (1936-) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-35. More...
  • McCandless McCandless, Bruce II (1937-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-B, STS-31. Made first untethered space walk. More...
  • Allen Allen, Joseph Percival IV 'Joe' (1937-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-5, STS-51-A. More...
  • Crippen Crippen, Robert Laurel 'Bob' (1937-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-1, STS-7, STS-41-C, STS-41-G. Member of first crew to fly a winged spacecraft to orbit and back. More...
  • Truly Truly, Richard Harrison 'Dick' (1937-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-2, STS-8. More...
  • Bobko Bobko, Karol Joseph 'Bo' (1937-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-6, STS-51-D, STS-51-J. More...
  • Fabian Fabian, John McCreary (1939-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-7, STS-51-G. More...
  • Lenoir Lenoir, Dr William Benjamin 'Bill' (1939-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-5. More...
  • Scobee Scobee, Francis Richard 'Dick' (1939-1986) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-C, STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Griggs Griggs, Stanley David (1939-1989) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-D. Died in the crash of a World-War-II-era training plane. More...
  • Wang Wang, Dr Taylor Gun-Jin (1940-) Chinese-American physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-B. More...
  • Crouch Crouch, Dr Roger Keith (1940-) American physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-83, STS-94. More...
  • Furrer Furrer, Dr Reinhard Alfred (1940-1995) Austrian physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-A. Died in an airplance crash. More...
  • Gregory Gregory, Frederick Drew 'Fred' (1941-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-B, STS-33, STS-44. Flew 550 combat missions in Vietnam. USAF helicopter pilot who would fly his T-38 trainer at alarmingly low altitude during cross-country trips. Paradoxically later appointed NASA Administrator for Safety. More...
  • Frimout Frimout, Dirk Dries David Damian (1941-) Belgian engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-45. First Belgian astronaut. More...
  • Hauck Hauck, Frederick Hamilton 'Rick' (1941-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-7, STS-51-A, STS-26. Flew 114 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Merbold Merbold, Dr Ulf Dietrich (1941-) German physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-42, Mir Euromir 94. More...
  • England England, Dr Anthony Wayne 'Tony' (1942-) American geophysicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F. More...
  • Springer Springer, Robert Clyde 'Bob' (1942-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-29, STS-38. US Marine Corps. Flew 550 combat missions in Southeast Asia. Grew up in Ashland, Ohio. More...
  • Blaha Blaha, John Elmer (1942-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-29, STS-33, STS-43, STS-58, Mir NASA-2. Flew 361 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Nelson, Bill Nelson, Clarens William Jr 'Bill' (1942-) American congressman payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-C. More...
  • Bluford Bluford, Dr Guion Steward Jr 'Guy' (1942-) African-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-8, STS-61-A, STS-39, STS-53. First African-American in space. Flew 144 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Lucid Lucid, Dr Shannon Matilda Wells (1943-) American biochemist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-G, STS-34, STS-43, STS-58, Mir NASA-1. Biochemist, first American woman to make a long-duration space station mission. More...
  • Brandenstein Brandenstein, Daniel Charles 'Dan' (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-8, STS-51-G, STS-32, STS-49. Flew 192 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Creighton Creighton, John Oliver (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-G, STS-36, STS-48. Grew up in Seattle, Washington. Flew 175 combat missions in Vietnam. Bachelor navy fighter pilot with a midnight blue corvette and a ski boat dubbed Sin Ship. More...
  • Thagard Thagard, Dr Norman Earl 'Norm' (1943-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-7, STS-51-B, STS-30, STS-42, Mir EO-18. First American to fly aboard a Russian spacecraft. Grew up in Jacksonville, Florida. More...
  • Casper Casper, John Howard (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-36, STS-54, STS-62, STS-77. Grew up in Gainesville, Georgia, son of an Air Force officer. Flew 229 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Bridges Bridges, Roy Dunbard Jr (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F. Grew up in Gainesville, Georgia. Flew 226 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • McCulley McCulley, Michael James (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-34. More...
  • McBride McBride, Jon Andrew (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G. Heavyset Navy pilot with a talent for playing to a crowd. Flew 64 combat missions in Vietnam. Later ran in, but lost, the Republican primary for governor of West Virginia. More...
  • Durrance Durrance, Dr Samuel Thornton 'Sam' (1943-) American geophysicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-35, STS-67. More...
  • Walker, Dave Walker, David Mathieson 'Dave' (1944-2001) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-A, STS-30, STS-53, STS-69. Navy nickname Red Flash, a cocky pilot, over-confident in some astronaut's eyes. More...
  • Scully-Power Scully-Power, Paul Desmond (1944-) Australian-American geophysicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G. More...
  • van Hoften van Hoften, Dr James Dougal Adrianus 'Ox' (1944-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-C, STS-51-I. Grew up in Burlingame, California. More...
  • Jarvis Jarvis, Gregory Bruce (1944-1986) American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Nicollier Nicollier, Claude (1944-) Swiss test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-46, STS-61, STS-75, STS-103. First Swiss astronaut. More...
  • Spring Spring, Sherwood Clark 'Woody' (1944-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B. More...
  • Veach Veach, Charles Lacy (1944-1995) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-52. Grew up in Honolulu, Hawaii. Died of cancer. More...
  • Shriver Shriver, Loren James (1944-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-C, STS-31, STS-46. Grew up in Paton, Iowa. More...
  • Hoffman Hoffman, Dr Jeffrey Alan 'Jeff' (1944-) Jewish-American astrophysicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-D, STS-35, STS-46, STS-61, STS-75. More...
  • Bartoe Bartoe, Dr John David Francis (1944-) American astrophysicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F. More...
  • Smith Smith, Michael John (1945-1986) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Messerschmid Messerschmid, Dr Ernst Willi (1945-) German physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-A. More...
  • Shaw Shaw, Brewster Hopkinson Jr (1945-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-61-B, STS-28. More...
  • Thuot Thuot, Pierre Joseph (1945-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-36, STS-49, STS-62. More...
  • Grabe Grabe, Ronald John 'Ron' (1945-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-J, STS-30, STS-42, STS-57. Flew 200 combat missions over Vietnam. More...
  • Buchli Buchli, James Frederick 'Jim' (1945-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-C, STS-61-A, STS-29, STS-48. Grew up in Fargo, North Dakota. More...
  • Mullane Mullane, Richard Michael 'Mike' (1945-) American test engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-27, STS-36. Author of the frankest astronaut biography ever published. Flew 150 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Tryggvason Tryggvason, Bjarni Valdimar (1945-) Icelandic-Canadian engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-85. CSA; Alternate Payload Specialist to MacLean for STS-52 Mission LAGEOS-2 and Test of the Canadian Space Vision System. More...
  • Bondar Bondar, Roberta Lynn (1945-) Canadian physician payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-42. Neurologist. First Canadian female astronaut. IML-1 payload specialist. More...
  • Hughes-Fulford Hughes-Fulford, Dr Millie Elizabeth (1945-) American biologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-40. Biochemist. US Army More...
  • Coats Coats, Michael Lloyd 'Mike' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-29, STS-39. Flew 315 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Adamson Adamson, James Craig 'Jim' (1946-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-28, STS-43. US Army More...
  • Baudry Baudry, Patrick Pierre Roger (1946-) French pilot cosmonaut, payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-G. Transferred to NASA Payload Specialist. Flight on STS-18, 1985. French Air Force Transferred to NASA as a Payload Specialist. More...
  • Ockels Ockels, Dr Wubbo Johannes (1946-) Dutch physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-A. First Dutch astronaut. More...
  • Fisher, William Fisher, Dr William Frederick (1946-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-I. Was married to astronaut Anna Fisher. More...
  • Gaffney Gaffney, Dr Francis Andrew 'Drew' (1946-) American physician payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-40. More...
  • Onizuka Onizuka, Ellison Shoji (1946-1986) American test engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-C, STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Lounge Lounge, John Michael 'Mike' (1946-) American geophysicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-I, STS-26, STS-35. Grew up in Burlington, Colorado. Flew 99 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Covey Covey, Richard Oswalt 'Dick' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-I, STS-26, STS-38, STS-61. Grew up in Fort Walton Beach, Florida, son of an Air Force officer. Flew 339 combat missions during two tours in Southeast Asia More...
  • Bolden Bolden, Charles Frank Jr 'Charlie' (1946-) African-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-61-C, STS-31, STS-45, STS-60. More...
  • Richards Richards, Richard Noel 'Dick' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-28, STS-41, STS-50, STS-64. More...
  • O Connor O Connor, Bryan Daniel 'OC' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B, STS-40. More...
  • Malerba Malerba, Franco Egidio (1946-) Italian biologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-46. First Italian astronaut. ESA; STS-46 Mission TSS-1. More...
  • Nagel Nagel, Steven Ray (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-G, STS-61-A, STS-37, STS-55. Was married to astronaut Linda Godwin. More...
  • Hart Hart, Terry Jonathan 'TJ' (1946-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-C. More...
  • Gibson Gibson, Robert Lee 'Hoot' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-B, STS-61-C, STS-27, STS-47, STS-71. Flew combat missions over Vietnam. Was married to astronaut Rhea Seddon. More...
  • Titov, Vladimir Titov, Vladimir Georgiyevich (1947-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz T-8, Soyuz T-10-1, Mir EO-3, STS-63, STS-86. Survived first pad abort during a manned launch. 387 cumulative days in space. SU Air Force. Call sign: Okean (Ocean). More...
  • Cleave Cleave, Dr Mary Louise (1947-) American ecologist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B, STS-30. Engineer. More...
  • Carter Carter, Dr Manley Lanier Jr 'Sonny' (1947-1991) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-33. Grew up in Warner Robins, Georgia. Died in the crash of a commercial airliner while on NASA business travel. More...
  • Seddon Seddon, Dr Margaret Rhea (1947-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-D, STS-40, STS-58. Physician. Was married to astronaut Robert Lee (Hoot) Gibson. More...
  • Gardner, Guy Gardner, Guy Spencer (1948-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-27, STS-35. Grew up in Alexandria, Virginia. Flew 177 combat missions over Vietnam. More...
  • Ross Ross, Jerry Lynn (1948-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B, STS-27, STS-37, STS-55, STS-74, STS-88, STS-110. Held world record of seven spaceflights. US record of nine spacewalks. More...
  • Mohri Mohri, Mamoru (1948-) Japanese chemist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-47, STS-99. NASDA; Spacelab-J specialist. More...
  • Lichtenberg Lichtenberg, Dr Byron Kurt (1948-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-45. Flew 138 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Payton Payton, Gary Eugene (1948-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut. Flew on STS-51-C. More...
  • Walker Walker, Charles David (1948-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-51-D, STS-61-B. More...
  • McAuliffe McAuliffe, Sharon Christa Corrigan (1948-1986) American teacher payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-L. Was to have been the first teacher in space. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Cenker Cenker, Robert Joseph Jr (1948-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-C. More...
  • Gardner Gardner, Dale Allan (1948-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-8, STS-51-A. More...
  • Cabana Cabana, Robert Donald 'Bob' (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41, STS-53, STS-65, STS-88. US Marine Corps More...
  • Garneau Garneau, Dr Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc (1949-) Canadian engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G, STS-77, STS-97. First Canadian astronaut. More...
  • Voss Voss, James Shelton 'Jim' (1949-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-44, STS-53, STS-69, STS-101, ISS EO-2. US Army More...
  • Dunbar Dunbar, Dr Bonnie Jeanne (1949-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-A, STS-32, STS-50, STS-71, STS-89. Engineer. Was married to astronaut Ronald Sega. More...
  • Resnik Resnik, Dr Judith Arlene 'JR' (1949-1986) Jewish-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-51-L. Engineer. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Favier Favier, Dr Jean-Jacques (1949-) French materials scientist cosmonaut, payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-78. More...
  • Apt Apt, Dr Jerome J III 'Jay' (1949-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-37, STS-47, STS-59, STS-79. More...
  • Sacco Sacco, Dr Albert Jr 'Al' (1949-) American chemical engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-73. More...
  • Leestma Leestma, David Cornell 'Dave' (1949-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G, STS-28, STS-45. More...
  • Culbertson Culbertson, Frank Lee Jr (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-38, STS-51, ISS EO-3. More...
  • Shepherd Shepherd, William McMichael 'Bill' (1949-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-27, STS-41, STS-52, ISS EO-1. Shepherd was an ex-Navy SEAL and an expert in underwater demolition. More...
  • Fisher Fisher, Dr Anna Lee Tingle (1949-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-A. First mother in space. Was married to astronaut William Fisher. Took extended leave 1989 to 1996 to raise family. More...
  • Tognini Tognini, Michel Ange-Charles (1949-) French test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on Mir Antares, STS-93. Trained for missions under both US and Russian programs. More...
  • Wilcutt Wilcutt, Terrence Wade 'Terry' (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-68, STS-79, STS-89, STS-106. US Marine Corps More...
  • Cameron Cameron, Kenneth Donald (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-37, STS-56, STS-74. US Marine Corps More...
  • Melnick Melnick, Bruce Edward 'Mel' (1949-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41, STS-49. More...
  • Tanner Tanner, Joseph Richard 'Joe' (1950-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-66, STS-82, STS-97, STS-115. More...
  • Hilmers Hilmers, David Carl 'Dave' (1950-) American USMC engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-J, STS-26, STS-36, STS-42. Known as a religiously conservative astronaut; summed up many astronaut's fears of the shuttle, saying before a flight "I have no plans past MECO". More...
  • Chang-Diaz Chang-Diaz, Dr Franklin Ramon (1950-) Costa Rican-American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-C, STS-34, STS-46, STS-60, STS-75, STS-91, STS-111. Held record of seven spaceflights. More...
  • Cockrell Cockrell, Kenneth Dale 'Taco' (1950-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-56, STS-69, STS-80, STS-98, STS-111. More...
  • DeLucas DeLucas, Dr Lawrence James 'Larry' (1950-) American physiologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-50. More...
  • Nelson Nelson, Dr George Driver 'Pinky' (1950-) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-C, STS-61-C, STS-26. More...
  • Scott, Winston Scott, Winston Elliott (1950-) African-American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-72, STS-87. More...
  • Trinh Trinh, Dr Eugene Huu-Chau 'Gene' (1950-) Vietnamese-American physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-50. More...
  • McNair McNair, Dr Ronald Erwin (1950-1986) African-American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-B, STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Meade Meade, Carl Joseph (1950-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-38, STS-50, STS-64. More...
  • Kadenyuk Kadenyuk, Leonid Konstantinovich (1951-) Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut, payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-87. Longest wait for a spaceflight after becoming an astronaut - 21 years. Soyuz cosmonaut 1976-1983; Spiral pilot 1983-1987; Buran pilot, 1987-1989, NASA PS, 1996. More...
  • Reightler Reightler, Kenneth Stanley Jr 'Ken' (1951-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-48, STS-60. More...
  • Ivins Ivins, Marsha Sue (1951-) Jewish-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-32, STS-46, STS-62, STS-81, STS-98. NASA flight engineer. More...
  • Akers Akers, Thomas Dale 'Tom' (1951-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41, STS-49, STS-61, STS-79. More...
  • Parise Parise, Dr Ronald Anthony 'Ron' (1951-2008) American astronomer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-35, STS-67. More...
  • Ride Ride, Dr Sally Kristen (1951-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-7, STS-41-G. Physicist, first American woman in space. Was married to astronaut Steven Alan Hawley. More...
  • Gutierrez Gutierrez, Sidney McNeill 'Sid' (1951-) Hispanic-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-40, STS-59. Some data removed at subject's request. More...
  • Oswald Oswald, Stephen Scott (1951-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-42, STS-56, STS-67. More...
  • McArthur McArthur, William Surles Jr 'Bill' (1951-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-58, STS-74, STS-92, ISS EO-12. US Army. Grew up in Wakulla, North Carolina. More...
  • Schlegel Schlegel, Hans Wilhelm (1951-) German physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-55, STS-122. More...
  • Brady Brady, Charles Eldon Jr (1951-2006) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-78. More...
  • Sullivan Sullivan, Dr Kathryn Dwyer 'Kathy' (1951-) American geologist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G, STS-31, STS-45. Geologist, first American woman to walk in space. As of 1999 Ms Sullivan was Director of the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, Ohio. More...
  • Brown, Mark Brown, Mark Neil (1951-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-28, STS-48. More...
  • Hawley Hawley, Dr Steven Alan (1951-) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-61-C, STS-31, STS-82, STS-93. Was married to astronaut Sally Ride. More...
  • Thomas, Andrew Thomas, Dr Andrew Sydney Withiel (1951-) Australian-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-77, Mir NASA-6, STS-102, STS-114. More...
  • Leslie Leslie, Dr Fred Weldon (1951-) American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-73. More...
  • Hammond Hammond, Lloyd Blaine Jr (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-64. More...
  • Readdy Readdy, William Francis 'Bill' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-42, STS-51, STS-79. More...
  • Runco Runco, Mario Jr 'Trooper' (1952-) American meteorologist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-44, STS-54, STS-77. More...
  • Neri, Vela Neri Vela, Rodolfo (1952-) Mexican engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B. First Mexican astronaut. More...
  • Bagian Bagian, Dr James Philip 'Jim' (1952-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-29, STS-40. More...
  • Mukai Mukai, Chiaki (1952-) Japanese physician payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-65, STS-95. Surgeon, first Japanese female astronaut. More...
  • McMonagle McMonagle, Donald Ray 'Don' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-54, STS-66. More...
  • Pailes Pailes, William Arthur (1952-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut. Flew on STS-51-J. More...
  • Godwin Godwin, Dr Linda Maxine (1952-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-37, STS-59, STS-76, STS-108. Physicist. Was married to astronaut Steven Nagel. More...
  • Henricks Henricks, Terence Thomas 'Tom' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-44, STS-55, STS-70, STS-78. More...
  • Lee Lee, Mark Charles (1952-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-30, STS-47, STS-64, STS-82. Was married to astronaut Jan Davis, part of first married couple to fly in space together. More...
  • Thornton Thornton, Dr Kathryn Ryan Cordell 'Kathy' (1952-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-33, STS-49, STS-61, STS-73. More...
  • Hennen Hennen, Thomas John 'Tom' (1952-) American photointerpreter payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-44. US Army. Grew up in Columbus, Ohio, son of an Air Force officer. More...
  • Clifford Clifford, Michael Richard Uram 'Rich' (1952-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-53, STS-59, STS-76. US Army More...
  • Wetherbee Wetherbee, James Donald 'Wexbee' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-32, STS-52, STS-63, STS-86, STS-102, STS-113. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Sega Sega, Dr Ronald Michael 'Ron' (1952-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-60, STS-76. Was married to astronaut Bonnie Dunbar. More...
  • Baker Baker, Ellen Louise Shulman (1953-) Jewish-American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-34, STS-50, STS-71. Physician. More...
  • Duffy Duffy, Brian J (1953-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-45, STS-57, STS-72, STS-92. More...
  • Thirsk Thirsk, Dr Robert Brent (1953-) Canadian physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-78,ISS EO-20. More...
  • Thiele Thiele, Gerhard Julius Paul (1953-) German physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-99. DARA. More...
  • Baker, Mike Baker, Michael Allen 'Mike' (1953-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-43, STS-52, STS-68, STS-81. More...
  • Davis Davis, Dr Nancy Jan (1953-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-47, STS-60, STS-85. Engineer, was married to astronaut Mark Lee, part of first married couple to fly in space together. More...
  • Barry Barry, Dr Daniel Thomas (1953-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-72, STS-96, STS-105. More...
  • Walter Walter, Dr Ulrich Hans (1954-) German physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-55. More...
  • Williams, Dave Williams, Dr Dafydd Rhys 'Dave' (1954-) Canadian physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-90, STS-118. More...
  • Ashby Ashby, Jeffrey Shears 'Bones' (1954-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-93, STS-100, STS-112. Grew up near Evergreen, Colorado. Flew 33 combat missions in Operation Desert Storm. More...
  • Ramon Ramon, Ilan (1954-2003) Jewish-Israeli pilot payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-107. First Israeli astronaut. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Guidoni Guidoni, Umberto (1954-) Italian physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-75, STS-100. More...
  • Doi Doi, Dr Takao (1954-) Japanese engineer mission specialist astronaut 1985-2009. Flew on STS-87, STS-123. More...
  • Chilton Chilton, Kevin Patrick 'Chili' (1954-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-49, STS-59, STS-76. More...
  • MacLean MacLean, Steven Glenwood (1954-) Canadian physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-52, STS-115. Selected Aug 1996; he had been PayloadSpecialist on STS-52 Mission LAGEOS-2 (responsible for the Space Visions System). More...
  • Stewart Stewart, Robert Lee (1954-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-B, STS-51-J. More...
  • Linenger Linenger, Dr Jerry Michael (1955-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-64, Mir NASA-3. More...
  • Jones Jones, Dr Thomas David 'Tom' (1955-) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-59, STS-68, STS-80, STS-98. More...
  • Thomas Thomas, Dr Donald Alan 'Don' (1955-) American materials scientist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-65, STS-70, STS-83, STS-94. More...
  • Precourt Precourt, Charles Joseph 'Charlie' (1955-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-55, STS-71, STS-84, STS-91. More...
  • Allen, Andy Allen, Andrew Michael 'Andy' (1955-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-46, STS-62, STS-75. US Marine Corps More...
  • Gemar Gemar, Charles Donald 'Sam' (1955-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-38, STS-48, STS-62. US Army More...
  • Walz Walz, Carl Erwin (1955-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51, STS-65, STS-79, ISS EO-4. More...
  • Hieb Hieb, Richard James 'Rick' (1955-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-49, STS-65. More...
  • Robinson Robinson, Dr Stephen Kern (1955-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-85, STS-95, STS-114, STS-130. More...
  • Low Low, George David (1956-2008) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-32, STS-43, STS-57. Son of former NASA administrator George M Low. More...
  • Brown Brown, Curtis Lee Jr 'Curt' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-47, STS-66, STS-77, STS-85, STS-95, STS-103. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Harbaugh Harbaugh, Gregory Jordan 'Greg' (1956-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-54, STS-71, STS-82. More...
  • Brown, David Brown, David McDowell (1956-2003) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Gernhardt Gernhardt, Dr Michael Landon (1956-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-69, STS-83, STS-94, STS-104. More...
  • Searfoss Searfoss, Richard Alan 'Rick' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-58, STS-76, STS-90. More...
  • Buckey Buckey, Jay Clark Jr (1956-) American physician payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-90. Active Paylaod Specialist Trainee for Shuttle STS-90 Neurolab Mission;he had been Alternate Payload Specialist for STS-58 Mission SLS-2. More...
  • Harris Harris, Dr Bernard Andrew Jr (1956-) African-American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-55, STS-63. First African-American to walk in space. More...
  • Al-Saud Al-Saud, Sultan Salman Abdel-aziz (1956-) Saudi prince, payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-G. First Arab in space. More...
  • Rominger Rominger, Kent Vernon (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-73, STS-80, STS-85, STS-96, STS-100. More...
  • Wolf Wolf, Dr David Alexander 'Bluto' (1956-) Jewish-American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-58, Mir NASA-5, STS-112, STS-127. More...
  • Kregel Kregel, Kevin Richard (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-70, STS-78, STS-87, STS-99. More...
  • Halsell Halsell, James Donald Jr (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-65, STS-74, STS-83, STS-94, STS-101. More...
  • Voss, Janice Voss, Dr Janice Elaine (1956-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-57, STS-63, STS-83, STS-94, STS-99. Engineer. More...
  • Newman Newman, Dr James Hansen 'Jim' (1956-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51, STS-69, STS-88, STS-109. More...
  • Jemison Jemison, Dr Mae Carol (1956-) African-American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-47. Physician. First African-American woman to fly in space. More...
  • Bowersox Bowersox, Kenneth Duane 'Ken' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-50, STS-61, STS-73, STS-82, ISS EO-6. More...
  • Collins, Eileen Collins, Eileen Marie 'Mom' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-63, STS-84, STS-93, STS-114. US Air Force test pilot, first female shuttle pilot and first female spacecraft commander. More...
  • Fettman Fettman, Dr Martin Joseph (1956-) Jewish-American veterinarian payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-58. More...
  • Foale Foale, Dr Colin Michael 'Mike' (1957-) British-American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-45, STS-56, STS-63, Mir NASA-4, STS-103, ISS EO-8; 373 days in space. Appointed Deputy Associate Administrator for Exploration Operations in 2004. More...
  • Horowitz Horowitz, Dr Scott Jay 'Doc' (1957-) Jewish-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-75, STS-82, STS-101, STS-105. Grew up in Thousand Oaks, California. Left NASA for a position with ATK Thiokol, promoting shuttle-derived vehicles for use as the CEV launch vehicle. More...
  • Carey Carey, Duane Gene 'Digger' (1957-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-109. More...
  • Gorie Gorie, Dominic Lee Pudwill (1957-) American test pilot astronaut 1995-2010. Flew on STS-91, STS-99, STS-108, STS-123. Flew 38 combat missions over Iraq. More...
  • Gregory, William Gregory, Dr William George 'Borneo' (1957-) African-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-67. More...
  • Husband Husband, Rick Douglas (1957-2003) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-96, STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Bursch Bursch, Daniel Wheeler 'Dan' (1957-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51, STS-68, STS-77, ISS EO-4. More...
  • Linnehan Linnehan, Dr Richard Michael (1957-) American veterinarian mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-78, STS-90, STS-109, STS-123. US Army More...
  • Linteris Linteris, Dr Gregory Thomas (1957-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-83, STS-94. More...
  • Helms Helms, Susan Jane (1958-) American test engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-54, STS-64, STS-78, STS-101, ISS EO-2. More...
  • Ochoa Ochoa, Dr Ellen Lauri (1958-) Hispanic-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-56, STS-66, STS-96, STS-110. Engineer. More...
  • Lopez-Alegria Lopez-Alegria, Michael Eladio 'LA' (1958-) Spanish-American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-73, STS-92, STS-113, ISS EO-14. More...
  • Wisoff Wisoff, Peter Jeffrey Kelsay 'Jeff' (1958-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-57, STS-68, STS-81, STS-92. Was married to astronaut Tammy Jernigan. More...
  • Krikalyov Krikalyov, Sergei Konstantinovich (1958-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, Energia NPO, 1985-2009. Flew on Mir EO-4, Mir LD-3, STS-60, STS-88, ISS EO-1, ISS EO-11. World record for total duration spent in space (803 days). First Russian to fly aboard an American spacecraft. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Jett Jett, Brent Ward Jr (1958-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-72, STS-81, STS-97, STS-115. More...
  • Grunsfeld Grunsfeld, Dr John Mace (1958-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1992-2010. Flew on STS-67, STS-81, STS-103, STS-109, STS-125. More...
  • Clervoy Clervoy, Jean-Francois Andre (1958-) French engineer cosmonaut, mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-66, STS-84, STS-103. More...
  • Currie Currie, Nancy Jane nee Sherlock (1958-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-57, STS-70, STS-88, STS-109. US Army engineer. More...
  • Smith, Steven Smith, Steven Lee (1958-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-68, STS-82, STS-103, STS-110. More...
  • Cheli Cheli, Maurizio (1959-) Italian test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-75. Was married to astronaut Marianne Merchez. More...
  • Jernigan Jernigan, Dr Tamara Elizabeth 'Tammy' (1959-) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-40, STS-52, STS-67, STS-80, STS-96. Astronomer. Was married to astronaut Jeff Wisoff. More...
  • Lawrence Lawrence, Wendy Barrien (1959-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-67, STS-86, STS-91, STS-114. US Navy ocean engineer. More...
  • Kavandi Kavandi, Dr Janet Lynn (1959-) American chemist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-91, STS-99, STS-104. Chemist. More...
  • Altman Altman, Scott Douglas 'Scooter' (1959-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-90, STS-106, STS-109, STS-125. More...
  • Hire Hire, Kathryn Patricia 'Kay' (1959-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-90, STS-130. US Navy aviator; first woman assigned to a combat aircrew. More...
  • Anderson Anderson, Michael Phillip (1959-2003) African-American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-89, STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Dunlap Dunlap, Dr Alexander William (1960-) American physician payload specialist astronaut, 1996-1998. Candidate specialist for STS-90 Neurolab. More...
  • Lindsey Lindsey, Steven Wayne (1960-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-87, STS-95, STS-104, STS-121, STS-133. Grew up in Temple City, California. More...
  • Chiao Chiao, Dr Leroy (1960-) American chemical engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-65, STS-72, STS-92, ISS EO-10. More...
  • Pawelczyk Pawelczyk, James Anthony 'Jim' (1960-) American physiologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-90. Candidate Payload Specialist for STS-90 Neurolab. More...
  • Coleman Coleman, Dr Catherine Grace 'Cady' (1960-) American materials scientist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-73, STS-93, ISS EO-26. US Air Force engineer. More...
  • Clark Clark, Laurel Blair Salton (1961-2003) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-107. Physician. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Chawla Chawla, Dr Kalpana (1961-2003) Indian-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-87, STS-107. She perished with the rest of the crew of the shuttle Columbia on 1 February 2003. More...
  • Parazynski Parazynski, Dr Scott Edward (1961-) American physician mission specialist astronaut, 1992-2009. Flew on STS-66, STS-86, STS-95, STS-100, STS-120. More...
  • McCool McCool, William Cameron 'Willie' (1961-2003) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Kilrain Still-Kilrain, Susan Leigh (1961-) Jewish-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-83, STS-94. US Navy test pilot. More...
  • Curbeam Curbeam, Robert Lee Jr 'Beamer' (1962-) African-American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-85, STS-98, STS-116. More...
  • Massimino Massimino, Michael James (1962-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-109, STS-125. More...
  • Weber Weber, Dr Mary Ellen (1962-) American chemical engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-70, STS-101. Chemist. More...
  • Duque Duque, Pedro Francisco (1963-) Spanish engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-95, ISS Cervantes. First Spanish astronaut. More...
  • Wakata Wakata, Koichi (1963-) Japanese engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-72, STS-92, STS-119. More...
  • Kelly, Scott Kelly, Scott Joseph (1964-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-103, STS-118, ISS EO-25. Twin brother of astronaut Mark Kelly. More...

Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Columbia American manned spaceplane. 28 launches, 1981.04.12 (STS-1) to 2003.01.16 (STS-107). Columbia, the first orbiter in the Shuttle fleet, was named after the sloop that accomplished the first American circumnavigation of the globe. More...
  • TDRS American military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1983.04.04 (TDRS 1) to 1995.07.13 (TDRS 7). Satellite communications network, for use by Shuttle and US military satellites. More...
  • Challenger American manned spaceplane. 10 launches, 1983.04.04 (STS-6) to 1986.01.28 (STS-51-L). More...
  • Discovery American manned spaceplane. 39 launches, 1984.08.30 to 2011.02.24. More...
  • Spartan American solar satellite. 8 launches, 1985.06.17 (Spartan 1) to 1998.10.29 (Spartan 201). More...
  • Atlantis American manned spaceplane. 33 launches, 1985.10.03 to 2011.07.08. The space shuttle Atlantis was the fourth orbiter to become operational at Kennedy Space Center, and the last of the original production run. More...
  • OEX Target American technology satellite. One launch, 1985.11.27. Shuttle autopilot software test target. More...
  • HS 601 American communications satellite bus. First launch 1990.01.09. 3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimbaled momentum bias wheels. More...
  • AFP-675 American military technology satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28. US Air Force space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • MPEC American military technology satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28, USA 70. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. More...
  • Endeavour American manned spaceplane. 25 launches, 1992.05.07 to 2011.05.16. Built as a replacement after the loss of the Challenger; named after the first ship commanded by James Cook. More...
  • CTA Canadian technology satellite. One launch, 1992.10.22. Canadian Target Assembly; deployed from STS-52 10/22/92. More...
  • Spacehab American manned space station module. 14 launches, 1993.06.21 (Spacehab SH-01) to 1999.05.27 (Spacehab-DM). Founded by Bob Citron in 1982, Spacehab Inc. was the only entrepreneurial company to successfully develop a commercial manned spaceflight module. More...
  • SEDSAT American technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.24. The SEDSAT micro-satellite was built by the Huntsville, Alabama chapter of SEDS (the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space). More...

See also
Associated Flights
  • STS-1 Crew: Crippen, Young. First rocketplane flight to orbit. First flight of space shuttle. The only time a new spacecraft was launched manned on its first flight. Many thought it would be a disaster. More...
  • STS-2 Crew: Engle, Truly. First reuse of a manned space vehicle. First use of a remote manipulator in space. Second shuttle test flight. Experienced erosion of the primary O-ring in the right SRM aft field joint, the worst until the loss of the space shuttle Challenger. More...
  • STS-3 Crew: Fullerton, Lousma. First and only landing by a shuttle at White Sands, New Mexico, after weather at Edwards did not permit landing there. More...
  • STS-4 Crew: Hartsfield, Mattingly. First Getaway Specials flown. Manned two crew. Fourth space shuttle test flight. More...
  • STS-5 Crew: Allen, Brand, Lenoir, Overmyer. First operational STS mission, first commercial communications satellites deployed, firstfour-person spacecraft crew. EVA cancelled because one astronaut was vomiting so severely due to space sickness. More...
  • STS-6 Crew: Bobko, Musgrave, Peterson, Weitz. First flight of space shuttle Challenger. First space walk of Shuttle program Manned four crew. Deployed Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. More...
  • STS-7 Crew: Crippen, Fabian, Hauck, Ride, Thagard. First US woman in space. Record 5 crew aboard a single spacecraft to date. Thagard flew as physician to study space sickness, which had severely impacted STS-5 operations. Deployed Anik C2, Palapa B1; deployed and retrieved SPAS platform. More...
  • STS-8 Crew: Bluford, Brandenstein, Gardner, Thornton Bill, Truly. First African-American in space. First shuttle night launch and night landing. First night launch and night landing. Deployed Insat 1B. More...
  • STS-10 Crew: Mattingly, Shriver, Onizuka, Buchli, Payton. Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays. Backup crew: Wright. More...
  • STS-9 Crew: Garriott, Lichtenberg, Merbold, Parker, Shaw, Young. First West German to fly in space. First Spacelab mission. Record six crew size in a single spacecraft. Suspect exhaust nozzle on right solid rocket booster. Landing delayed when two computers failed. Landed on fire when hydraulic pump leaked. More...
  • STS-41-B Crew: Brand, Gibson, McCandless, McNair, Stewart. First untethered space walk. First shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center. Manned five crew. Deployed Westar 6, Palapa B2; tested Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). O-ring erosion in both the right hand nozzle joint and the left SRB forward field joint. More...
  • STS-12 Crew: Hartsfield, Coats, Mullane, Hawley, Resnik. Planned TDRS/IUS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled after IUS failures. More...
  • STS-41-C Crew: Crippen, Hart, Nelson, Scobee, van Hoften. Manned five crew. First repair on orbit of a satellite, Solar Maximum Mission, snared by astronaut using MMU. Deployed LDEF. Experienced erosion of the primary O-ring in the right-hand nozzle joint. More...
  • STS-41-E Crew: Mattingly, Shriver, Onizuka, Buchli, Detroye. Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled due to IUS failure. Backup crew: Sundberg.Support crew: Watterson. More...
  • STS-41-F Crew: Bobko, Williams Donald, Seddon, Griggs, Hoffman. Canceled after the STS-10 launch abort required reshuffling of the shuttle schedule. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. The STS-41F payload was added to STS-41D.Officially "cancelled due to payload delays". More...
  • STS-41-D Crew: Coats, Hartsfield, Hawley, Mullane, Resnik, Walker. First flight of shuttle Discovery. Manned six crew. First flight of space shuttle Discovery; deployed SBS 4, Leasat 1, Telstar 3C. First launch aborted at T-3 seconds after SSMEs ignited, Toilet failed. First occurrence of blow-by in SRB field joints. More...
  • STS-41-H Crew: Hauck, Walker Dave, Allen, Fisher, Gardner, Casserino, Payton. Planned Department of Defense or TDRS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled due to IUS failure. Backup crew: Joseph. More...
  • STS-41-G Crew: Crippen, Garneau, Leestma, McBride, Ride, Scully-Power, Sullivan. First spaceflight to include two women. First American woman to walk in space. First Canadian astronaut. Record crew size aboard a single spacecraft. Manned seven crew. Deployed Earth Radiation Budget Satellite; performed high resolution Earth imagery. More...
  • STS-51-A Crew: Allen, Fisher, Gardner, Hauck, Walker Dave. Manned five crew. First retrieval of two satellites (Palapa B-2 and Westar Vl) for return to earth. Deployed Anik D2, Leasat 2. More...
  • STS-51-C Crew: Buchli, Mattingly, Onizuka, Payton, Shriver. First shuttle military mission. Manned five crew. Deployed USA 8 (Aquacade ELINT spacecraft). Experienced blow-by in both nozzle joints and erosion and blow-by in two case joints. More...
  • STS-51-E Crew: Bobko, Williams Donald, Seddon, Griggs, Hoffman, Baudry, Garn. Planned TDRS/IUS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled due to IUS failure. More...
  • STS-51-AA Crew: Creighton, Nagel, Fabian, Lucid, Jarvis, Walker. Planned shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays. Backup crew: Konrad. More...
  • STS-51-D Crew: Bobko, Garn, Griggs, Hoffman, Seddon, Walker, Williams Donald. First politician in space. Deployed Telesat-I (successful) and Syncom IV-3 (motor failed). Inboard right-side brake locked on landing, resulting in severe damage. Senator aboard resented, and had one of the worst cases of space sickness ever recorded. More...
  • STS-51-B Crew: Gregory, Lind, Overmyer, Thagard, Thornton Bill, van den Berg, Wang. Manned seven crew. Deployed Nusat; carried Spacelab 3, conducted materials processing, environmental, life science, astrophysics,and technology experiments. Suffered the worst O-ring erosion experienced prior to the loss of Challenger More...
  • STS-51-G Crew: Al-Saud, Baudry, Brandenstein, Creighton, Fabian, Lucid, Nagel. First Saudi astronaut. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 1; launched Morelos 1, Arabsat 1B, Telstar 3D. Experienced blow-by and erosion in both nozzle joints. More...
  • STS-51-DA Crew: Shaw, O Connor, Cleave, Spring. Planned TDRS/IUS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled due to IUS failure. More...
  • STS-51-F Crew: Acton, Bartoe, Bridges, England, Fullerton, Henize, Musgrave. Manned seven crew. Number one engine shut down prematurely during ascent; abort to orbit declared. Mission continued. Launched PDP; carried Spacelab 2. Primary O-ring was affected by heat. More...
  • STS-51-I Crew: Covey, Engle, Fisher William, Lounge, van Hoften. First retrieval, repair, and relaunch of a satellite in orbit (Leasat 3). Manned five crew. Launched Aussat 1, ASC 1, Leasat 4. Suffered primary O-ring erosion in two locations on the left-hand SRM nozzle joint. More...
  • STS-51-J Crew: Bobko, Grabe, Hilmers, Pailes, Stewart. First flight of shuttle Atlantis. Military mission, manned five crew. Deployed USA-11, USA-12. More...
  • STS-61-A Crew: Bluford, Buchli, Dunbar, Furrer, Hartsfield, Messerschmid, Nagel, Ockels. Record crew size aboard a single spacecraft. First Dutch astronaut. Manned eight crew. Launched GLOMR; carried Spacelab D1. Six of the eight crew members were divided into a blue and red team working 12-hour shifts. Experienced O-ring erosion. More...
  • STS-51-H Planned EOM-1/2 shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays. More...
  • STS-61-B Crew: Cleave, Neri Vela, O Connor, Ross, Shaw, Spring, Walker. Manned seven crew. Deployed Morelos 2, Aussat 2, Satcom K2, OEX. Experienced primary O-ring erosion in both nozzle joints More...
  • STS-61-C Crew: Bolden, Cenker, Chang-Diaz, Gibson, Hawley, Nelson, Nelson Bill. Manned seven crew. Launched Satcom K1. Second politician in space; he bumped Jarvis to later launch on which he was killed. Launch scrub saved crew from death due to undetected jammed SSME valve. Experienced nozzle joint O-ring erosion. More...
  • STS-51-L Crew: Jarvis, McAuliffe, McNair, Onizuka, Resnik, Scobee, Smith. First shuttle launch from pad LC-39B. An O-ring failure in a solid rocket booster led to leaking of hot gases against the external tank; exploded 73 seconds after launch, all seven crew, with no means of escape, were killed when crew cabin hit the ocean. More...
  • STS-61-E Crew: McBride, Richards, Leestma, Hoffman, Parker, Durrance, Parise. Planned Astro-1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Nordsieck. More...
  • STS-61-F Crew: Hauck, Bridges, Lounge, Hilmers. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of Ulysses spacecraft. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. More...
  • STS-61-G Crew: Walker Dave, Grabe, Thagard, van Hoften. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of Galileo spacecraft. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. More...
  • STS-61-H Crew: Coats, Blaha, Springer, Buchli, Fisher, Sudarmono Pratiwi, Wood Nigel. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Akbar, Farrimond. More...
  • STS-62-A Crew: Crippen, Gardner Guy, Mullane, Ross, Gardner, Aldridge, Watterson. Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Would have been first launch from the ill-fated SLC-6 launch site at Vandenberg, California. Backup crew: Odle. More...
  • STS-61-M Crew: Shriver, O Connor, Lee, Ride, Fisher William, Wood Robert. Planned TDRS/IUS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Walker. More...
  • STS-61-J Crew: Young, Bolden, McCandless, Hawley, Sullivan. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of Hubble space telescope. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. More...
  • STS-61-N Crew: Shaw, McCulley, Leestma, Adamson, Brown Mark, Casserino. Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Joseph. More...
  • STS-61-I Crew: Williams Donald, Smith, Dunbar, Carter, Bagian, Bhat. Planned shuttle LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility) recovery mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Nair. More...
  • STS-62-B Crew: Roberts. Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. More...
  • STS-61-K Crew: Brand, Griggs, Stewart, Nicollier, Garriott, Lichtenberg, Lampton, Stevenson. Planned EOM-1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. No crew named, later combined with STS-61K Backup crew: Frimout, Chappell. More...
  • STS-61-L Crew: Konrad. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Would have launched the first American journalist in space from Launch Complex 39B. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Cunningham Stephen. More...
  • STS-71-B Crew: Jones Charles. Planned shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. More...
  • STS-71-C Crew: Longhurst. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Holmes. More...
  • STS-71-D Crew: Wood Robert. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Walker. More...
  • STS-71-E Crew: Gaffney, Phillips. Planned SLS-1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Hughes-Fulford. More...
  • STS-71-F Crew: MacLean. Planned shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Tryggvason. More...
  • STS-81-M Crew: Hughes-Fulford. Planned SLS-2 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. More...
  • STS-26 Crew: Covey, Hauck, Hilmers, Lounge, Nelson. Manned five crew. First shuttle reflight after Challenger disaster. Deployed TDRS 3. More...
  • STS-27 Crew: Gardner Guy, Gibson, Mullane, Ross, Shepherd. Manned military mission, five crew. Robot arm used to deploy a classified satellite. At T+85 seconds a large piece of SRB nose cone struck the shuttle. The orbiter took 707 hits; one tile was knocked off. The crew was unsure if they would survive reentry. More...
  • STS-29 Crew: Bagian, Blaha, Buchli, Coats, Springer. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 4. More...
  • STS-30 Crew: Cleave, Grabe, Lee, Thagard, Walker Dave. Manned five crew. Deployed Magellan Venus probe. One of five General Purpose Computers failed and had to be replaced with a sixth onboard hardware spare. First time a GPC was switched on orbit. More...
  • STS-28 Crew: Adamson, Brown Mark, Leestma, Richards, Shaw. Manned five crew. Deployed two classified satellites. More...
  • STS-34 Crew: Baker, Chang-Diaz, Lucid, McCulley, Williams Donald. Manned five crew. Deployed Galileo Jupiter probe. More...
  • STS-33 Crew: Blaha, Carter, Gregory, Musgrave, Thornton. Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. More...
  • STS-32 Crew: Brandenstein, Dunbar, Ivins, Low, Wetherbee. Manned five crew. Deployed Leasat 5, retrieved LDEF. Night landing. Second bipod ramp foam loss. More...
  • STS-36 Crew: Casper, Creighton, Hilmers, Mullane, Thuot. Classified mission in 62 degree orbit, the highest inclination orbit ever flown by an American mission. Launch delayed due to illness of crew members. More...
  • STS-31 Crew: Bolden, Hawley, McCandless, Shriver, Sullivan. Deployed HST (Hubble Space Telescope). More...
  • STS-41 Crew: Akers, Cabana, Melnick, Richards, Shepherd. Manned five crew. Deployed Ulysses spacecraft. More...
  • STS-38 Crew: Covey, Culbertson, Gemar, Meade, Springer. Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Launch delayed from July 1990 for series of technical problems. First post-Challenger landing at KSC after mission extended one day due to unacceptable crosswinds at original planned landing site, Edwards. More...
  • STS-35 Crew: Brand, Durrance, Gardner Guy, Hoffman, Lounge, Parise, Parker. Manned seven crew. Carried ASTRO-1 observatory. Launch scrubbed several times due to hydrogen leaks. More...
  • STS-37 Crew: Apt, Cameron, Godwin, Nagel, Ross. Manned five crew. Unscheduled EVA to manually deploy the Gamma-Ray Observatory's high-gain antenna, which failed to deploy upon ground command. More...
  • STS-39 Crew: Bluford, Coats, Hammond, Harbaugh, Hieb, McMonagle, Veach. Manned seven crew. Deployed USA-70, CRO A, CRO B, CRO C; deployed and retrieved Infrared Background Signature Survey . More...
  • STS-40 Crew: Bagian, Gaffney, Gutierrez, Hughes-Fulford, Jernigan, O Connor, Seddon. Carried Spacelab life sciences module. More...
  • STS-43 Crew: Adamson, Baker Mike, Blaha, Low, Lucid. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 5 satellite. More...
  • STS-48 Crew: Brown Mark, Buchli, Creighton, Gemar, Reightler. Manned five crew. Deployed UARS; conducted materials and biological research. More...
  • STS-44 Crew: Gregory, Hennen, Henricks, Musgrave, Runco, Voss. Manned six crew. Deployed Defense Support Program satellite. More...
  • STS-42 Crew: Bondar, Grabe, Hilmers, Merbold, Oswald, Readdy, Thagard. Manned seven crew. Carried International Microgravity Laboratory-1. More...
  • STS-45 Crew: Bolden, Duffy, Foale, Frimout, Leestma, Lichtenberg, Sullivan. First Belgian astronaut. Manned seven crew. Carried ATLAS-1 experimental package. More...
  • STS-49 Crew: Akers, Brandenstein, Chilton, Hieb, Melnick, Thornton, Thuot. First flight of shuttle Endeavour. First three-person spacewalk. First active dual rendezvous of two orbiting spacecraft (Endeavour and Intelsat-6). Retrieved Intelsat 6 and attached new SRM. First deployment of a drag chute on the orbiter fleet. More...
  • STS-50 Crew: Baker, Bowersox, DeLucas, Dunbar, Meade, Richards, Trinh. First extended-duration shuttle mission. Carried United States Microgravity Laboratory. More...
  • STS-46 Crew: Allen Andy, Chang-Diaz, Hoffman, Ivins, Malerba, Nicollier, Shriver. First Italian astronaut. First Swiss astronaut. Manned seven crew. Deployed Eureca-1; failed to deploy Italian tether probe TSS-1. More...
  • STS-47 Crew: Apt, Brown, Davis, Gibson, Jemison, Lee, Mohri. First on-time Shuttle launch since November 1985. First Japanese astronaut aboard shuttle. First African-American woman to fly in space. First married couple to fly on the same space mission Carried Spacelab-J with microgravity and biology experiments. More...
  • STS-52 Crew: Baker Mike, Jernigan, MacLean, Shepherd, Veach, Wetherbee. Deployed Lageos 2, CTA. External tank lost a 10 x 20 cm corner of the left bipod ramp; orbiter took a higher-than-average 290 hits on upper and lower tiles. More...
  • STS-53 Crew: Bluford, Cabana, Clifford, Voss, Walker Dave. Manned five crew. Deployed classified military satellite USA-89. The ODERACS payload was unable to be deployed because of payload equipment malfunction. More...
  • STS-54 Crew: Casper, Harbaugh, Helms, McMonagle, Runco. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRSS 6. More...
  • STS-56 Crew: Cameron, Cockrell, Foale, Ochoa, Oswald. First radio contact between Shuttle and Mir space station. Manned five crew. Carried Atlas-2; deployed and retrieved Spartan 201. More...
  • STS-55 Crew: Harris, Henricks, Nagel, Precourt, Ross, Schlegel, Walter. Manned seven crew. Carried German Spacelab-D2. More...
  • STS-57 Crew: Currie, Duffy, Grabe, Low, Voss Janice, Wisoff. First flight of Spacehab module. Manned six crew. Retrieved Eureca-1 spacecraft. More...
  • STS-51 Crew: Bursch, Culbertson, Newman, Readdy, Walz. First shuttle night landing in Florida. Deployed and retrieved Orfeus-SPAS. During the EVA conducted tests in support of the Hubble Space Telescope first servicing mission and future EVAs, including Space Station assembly and maintenance. More...
  • STS-58 Crew: Blaha, Fettman, Lucid, McArthur, Searfoss, Seddon, Wolf. Biological, microgravity experiments aboard Spacelab 2. More...
  • STS-61 Crew: Akers, Bowersox, Covey, Hoffman, Musgrave, Nicollier, Thornton. Manned seven crew. Hubble repair mission. Conducted the most EVAs on a Space Shuttle Flight to that date. More...
  • STS-60 Crew: Bolden, Chang-Diaz, Davis, Krikalyov, Reightler, Sega. First flight of a Russian cosmonaut aboard an American spacecraft. Deployed ODERACS A-F, Bremsat, carried Wake Shield Facility. Backup crew: Titov Vladimir. More...
  • STS-62 Crew: Allen Andy, Casper, Gemar, Ivins, Thuot. Carried USMP-2, OAST-2, SAMPIE, TES, EISG experiments. The external tank lost a 2.4 x 7 cm piece of foamin the rear face of the left bipod ramp. More...
  • STS-59 Crew: Apt, Chilton, Clifford, Godwin, Gutierrez, Jones. Carried SRL-1 / SIR-C SAR radar. The Space Radar Laboratory obtained radar high-resolution images of approximately 25 percent of the planet's land surfaces. More...
  • STS-65 Crew: Cabana, Chiao, Halsell, Hieb, Mukai, Thomas, Walz. First Japanese woman to fly in space. Carried IML-2; microgravity, biology experiments. Backup crew: Favier. More...
  • STS-64 Crew: Hammond, Helms, Lee, Linenger, Meade, Richards. Flew Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201-II experiments. More...
  • STS-68 Crew: Baker Mike, Bursch, Jones, Smith Steven, Wilcutt, Wisoff. Carried SIR-C SAR. Continued high-resolution radar mapping of the earth begun on STS-59. More...
  • STS-66 Crew: Brown, Clervoy, McMonagle, Ochoa, Parazynski, Tanner. Carried Atlas-3 laboratory; deployed and retrieved CRISTA-SPAS. More...
  • STS-67 Crew: Durrance, Gregory William, Grunsfeld, Jernigan, Lawrence, Oswald, Parise. First shuttle mission connected to the Internet. Carried Astro 2 astronomy payload with 3 UV telescopes. More...
  • STS-70 Crew: Currie, Henricks, Kregel, Thomas, Weber. Deployed TDRS 7. More...
  • STS-69 Crew: Cockrell, Gernhardt, Newman, Voss, Walker Dave. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 201, Wake Shield Facility 2. More...
  • STS-73 Crew: Bowersox, Coleman, Leslie, Lopez-Alegria, Rominger, Sacco, Thornton. Carried USML-2 for microgravity experiments (attached to Columbia). More...
  • STS-72 Crew: Barry, Chiao, Duffy, Jett, Scott Winston, Wakata. Deployed and retrieved OAST Flyer; retrieved SFU Space Flyer Unit. Beside the two satellite retrievals, the mission included two spacewalks. More...
  • STS-75 Crew: Allen Andy, Chang-Diaz, Cheli, Guidoni, Hoffman, Horowitz, Nicollier. Carried TSS-1R tether satellite; satellite tether broke during deployment, making TSS-1R an unintentional free flyer. More...
  • STS-77 Crew: Brown, Bursch, Casper, Garneau, Runco, Thomas Andrew. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 2; deployed PAMS-STU; carried Spacehab module. More...
  • STS-78 Crew: Brady, Favier, Helms, Henricks, Kregel, Linnehan, Thirsk. Carried Life and Microgravity Spacelab; human biological and microgravity experiments. More...
  • STS-80 Crew: Cockrell, Jernigan, Jones, Musgrave, Rominger. Carried the Orfeus astronomy satellite, Wake Shield Facility. The shuttle's exit hatch would not open and NASA cancelled the planned spacewalks of the mission. More...
  • STS-82 Crew: Bowersox, Harbaugh, Hawley, Horowitz, Lee, Smith Steven, Tanner. Hubble repair mission; five spacewalks. More...
  • STS-83 Crew: Crouch, Gernhardt, Halsell, Kilrain, Linteris, Thomas, Voss Janice. First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission. Orbiter recalled to earth after three days of flight when one of three fuel cells failed. Mission reflown as STS-94. Backup crew: Coleman. More...
  • STS-94 Crew: Crouch, Gernhardt, Halsell, Kilrain, Linteris, Thomas, Voss Janice. First shuttle mission reflight (same vehicle, crew, and payload as curtailed STS-83 mission). MSL-1 Microgravity Science Laboratory. More...
  • STS-85 Crew: Brown, Curbeam, Davis, Robinson, Rominger, Tryggvason. Deployed and retrieved the CRISTA-SPAS-2 (the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2) designed to study Earth's middle atmosphere. More...
  • STS-87 Crew: Chawla, Doi, Kadenyuk, Kregel, Lindsey, Scott Winston. Microgravity science mission. Spartan 201 was released, but had to be recaptured by hand during EVA. Loss of external tank intertank foam results in over 100 hits on orbiter heat shield. More...
  • STS-90 Crew: Altman, Buckey, Hire, Linnehan, Pawelczyk, Searfoss, Williams Dave. Spacelab Long Module / Neurolab mission. Backup crew: Mukai, Dunlap. More...
  • STS-95 Crew: Brown, Duque, Glenn, Lindsey, Mukai, Parazynski, Robinson. First Spanish astronaut. Oldest man in space, longest gap between two flights for an astronaut. The flight of STS-95 provoked more publicity for NASA than any other flight in years. Spartan 201 satellite released and retrieved. More...
  • STS-93 Crew: Ashby, Coleman, Collins Eileen, Hawley, Tognini. Delivered Chandra spacecraft. Hydrogen fuel leaked out during ascent, resulting in shuttle running out of propellant and ending up in an orbit 11 km lower than planned. More...
  • STS-103 Crew: Brown, Clervoy, Foale, Grunsfeld, Kelly Scott, Nicollier, Smith Steven. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission SM-3A, More...
  • STS-99 Crew: Gorie, Kavandi, Kregel, Mohri, Thiele, Voss Janice. Deployed the 61 metre long STRM mast, a side-looking radar that digitally mapped the entire land surface of the Earth between latitudes 60 deg N and 54 deg S. More...
  • STS-109 Crew: Altman, Carey, Currie, Grunsfeld, Linnehan, Massimino, Newman. Hubble Servicing Mission 3B. More...
  • STS-107 Crew: Anderson, Brown David, Chawla, Clark, Husband, McCool, Ramon. First Israeli astronaut. Conducted experiments in Double Spacehab module. Crew perished when shuttle broke up during re-entry. Cause was damage to a leading-edge RCC from foam breaking off of external tank bipod strut. More...
  • STS-128A Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Flight 5. Flight delayed, then cancelled after the Columbia disaster. No crew had been named at the time of the loss of Columbia. Resurrected later after Congressional pressure. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Shuttle American winged orbital launch vehicle. The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. More...
  • Atlas IIA American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas IIA was a commercial derivative of the Atlas II developed for the US Air Force. Higher performance RL10A-4 (or RL10A-4-1) engines replaced Atlas II's RL10A-3-3A engines. More...
  • Delta 7326-9.5 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 3 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 37FM with 2.9 m (9.5 foot) diameter fairing) More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...
  • DARPA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (formerly ARPA), USA. More...
  • NASA Houston American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Houston, Houston, USA. More...
  • CSA Canadian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Canadian Space Agency, Canada. More...
  • Bremen German manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. OHB System GmbH, Germany. More...
  • North American American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. North American, Palmdale, El Segundo. Downey, CA, USA More...
  • Douglas American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Boeing Huntington Beach, Huntington Beach, CA, USA. More...
  • SEDS American manufacturer of spacecraft. Students for the Exploration and Development of Space, USA. More...
  • Boeing American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Boeing Aerospace, Seattle, USA. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...

STS Chronology


1969 April 21 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Space Shuttle Task Group formed - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: The Director of Apollo Test in the NASA Hq. Apollo Program Office, LeRoy E. Day, was detailed to head the MSF Space Shuttle Task Group. The group would provide NASA with material for a report on the Space Shuttle to the President's Space Task Group..

1972 July 26 - .
  • Contract awarded for shuttle OV-102. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1972 August 9 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle go-ahead. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Rockwell receives authority to proceed, space shuttle orbiter.

1974 June 4 - .
  • Structural assembly of crew module for OV-102 begun. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1974 June 4 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Enterprise construction begins. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Structural assembly of the crew module for shuttle Enterprise (OV-101) begins at Plant 42 in Palmdale..

1974 July 17 - .
  • Shuttle propulsion test article assembly starts. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Start long-lead fabrication (MPTA-098).

1974 August 26 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise fuselage assembly starts. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start structural assembly aft fuselage, Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 January 6 - .
  • Shuttle static test article assembly starts. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Start long-lead fabrication aft fuselage (STA-099).

1975 March 27 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1975 March 27 - .
  • Shuttle Columbia fuselage assembly starts. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Start long-lead fabrication aft fuselage, Columbia (OV-102).

1975 May 23 - .
  • Enterprise wings complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Wings on dock, Palmdale-less elevons, seals and main gear doors-Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 May 27 - .
  • Enterprise vertical stabilizer complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Vertical stabilizer on dock, Palmdale (main fin box only), Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 June 24 - .
  • Start structural assembly (MPTA-098) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1975 August 25 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise final assembly. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start final assembly and closeout system installation, Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 September 5 - .
  • Enterprise aft fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Aft fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 October 17 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle SSME first test. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Space shuttle main engine first main stage test at NSTL.

1975 October 31 - .
  • Enterprise lower fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 November 17 - .
  • Columbia crew module started. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Start long-lead fabrication of crew module, Columbia (OV-102).

1975 December 1 - .
  • Enterprise upper forward fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Upper forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 December 20 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • First SSME 60-second duration test, NSTL - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1975 December 31 - .
  • Shuttle 1/4-scale model ground vibration test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: 1/4-scale model ground vibration test facility construction starts..

1976 January 16 - .
  • Crew module on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 January 23 - .
  • MPTA-098 truss on dock, Downey - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 February 16 - .
  • Start fabrication forward fuselage (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 March 3 - .
  • Payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1976 March 12 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise final assembly complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete final assembly and closeout system installation..

1976 March 15 - .
  • Start functional checkout, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start functional checkout, Enterprise (OV-101)..

1976 March 17 - .
  • Complete premate MPTA test structure. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Complete premate MPTA test structure, Downey, and deliver to Palmdale.

1976 April 2 - .
  • Crew escape system test sled on dock, Downey - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 April 3 - .
  • Complete assembly and deliver MPTA structure - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Complete assembly and deliver MPTA structure on dock, Lockheed test site, Palmdale.

1976 April 22 - .
  • Body flap on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 May 3 - .
  • MPTA-098 proof load test setup - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: MPTA-098 proof load test setup, Lockheed test site, Palmdale.

1976 June 14 - .
  • Start aft fuselage assembly (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 June 24 - .
  • Complete MPTA-098 proof load test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Complete MPTA-098 proof load test, Lockheed test site and on dock, Palmdale.

1976 June 25 - .
  • Complete functional checkout, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 June 28 - .
  • Start horizontal ground vibration tests Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start horizontal ground vibration tests and proof load tests, Enterprise (OV-101).

1976 June 30 - .
  • SSME dummy set on dock, Palmdale. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: SSME dummy set on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1976 July 8 - .
  • MPTA-098 on dock, Downey, without truss assembly - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 July 12 - .
  • Start installation secondary structure (MPTA-098) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 August 1 - .
  • Start overland roadway construction from Palmdale - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Start overland roadway construction from Palmdale to Edwards Air Force Base..

1976 August 2 - .
  • Start carrier aircraft modification - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 August 20 - .
  • Complete horizontal ground vibration tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 August 23 - .
  • Start Delta F modification, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 August 27 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise - dummy OMS pods delivered. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Reaction control system/orbital maneuvering system pods (simulated), approach and landing tests, on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise.

1976 September 10 - .
  • Complete Delta F modifications, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 September 13 - .
  • Start preparations for first rollout, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 September 17 - .
  • Complete on-stand construction, NSTL - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 September 20 - .
  • Start Delta F retest, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 October 1 - .
  • Start final assembly, wing (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 October 15 - .
  • Midfuselage on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 October 26 - .
  • Escape system test assembly sled ship from Downey - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Escape system test assembly sled ship from Downey to Holloman, N.M..

1976 October 29 - .
  • Complete Delta F retest, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 October 31 - .
  • Solid rocket booster 1/4-scale model - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Solid rocket booster 1/4-scale model (burnout configuration).

1976 November 4 - .
  • Complete 747 shuttle carrier aircraft modification - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 November 18 - .
  • Start escape system sled test, Holloman, N.M. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 November 26 - .
  • Complete integrated checkout, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 November 28 - .
  • Complete orbiter transporter strongback - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 December 7 - .
  • Tail cone fairing on dock, Palmdale - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 December 10 - .
  • Complete overland roadway construction to Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Complete overland roadway construction, Palmdale to Edwards Air Force Base.

1976 December 13 - .
  • Start assembly upper forward fuselage, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1976 December 17 - .
  • External tank 1/4-scale model on dock, Downey - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 January 3 - .
  • Start assembly vertical stabilizer, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 January 14 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Boeing 747 shuttle carrier aircraft delivered - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Boeing 747 shuttle carrier aircraft delivered to Edwards.

1977 January 25 - .
  • Complete aft fuselage assembly on dock, STA-099 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Complete aft fuselage assembly on dock, Palmdale (STA-099).

1977 January 28 - .
  • Simulated crew module on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 January 31 - .
  • Enterprise (OV-101) transported to Edwards AFB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1977 January 31 - .
  • Mass simulated SSMEs on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1977 January 31 - .
  • Mockup SSME's delivered for Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Mass simulated SSMEs on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 7 - .
  • Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mate - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mate start.

1977 February 10 - .
  • Midfuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 February 15 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mated - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mated.

1977 February 18 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • First inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Conduct first inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 5 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 22 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Second inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Conduct second inert captive flight, Edwards (3 hours, 13 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 25 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Third inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Conduct third inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 28 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 28 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Fourth inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Conduct fourth inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 11 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 March 2 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Fifth inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Conduct fifth inert captive flight, Edwards (1 hour, 39 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 March 16 - .
  • Wings on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 March 21 - .
  • Orbiter 1/4-scale model on dock, Downey - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 April 1 - .
  • Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 April 6 - .
  • Vertical stabilizer on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 May 20 - .
  • Nose landing gear doors on dock, Palmdale(STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 May 26 - .
  • Aft payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 May 27 - .
  • Complete systems installation MPTA-098 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Complete systems installation/final acceptance, MPTA-098, transport from Downey to Seal Beach.

1977 May 31 - .
  • Body flap on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 May 31 - .
  • SRB 1/4-scale model, burnout and maximum q config - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 May 31 - .
  • Body flap on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 June 3 - .
  • Ship MPTA-098 from Seal Beach, Calif., to NSTL - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 June 7 - .
  • Complete integrated checkout of Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete integrated checkout and hot-fire ground test, Edwards, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 June 18 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 1 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton; Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: First manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (55 minutes, 46 seconds).

1977 June 23 - .
  • Deliver first SSME to NSTL (MPTA-098) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 June 24 - .
  • Deliver MPTA-098 to NSTL - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 June 28 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 2 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle; Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Second manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (1 hour, 2 minutes).

1977 July 5 - .
  • Start fabrication aft fuselage, Discovery - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Start long-lead fabrication aft fuselage, Discovery (OV-103).

1977 July 8 - .
  • Deliver second main engine to NSTL (MPTA-098) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 July 14 - .
  • Deliver third main engine to NSTL (MPTA-098) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 July 18 - .
  • 2-minute firing of SRB at Brigham City, Utah - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Conduct 2-minute firing of SRB at Brigham City, Utah, Thiokol (2.4 million pounds of thrust).

1977 July 22 - .
  • Deliver forward payload bay doors, STA-099 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Deliver forward payload bay doors, on dock, Palmdale (STA-099).

1977 July 26 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 3 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton; Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Third manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (59 minutes, 50 seconds).

1977 August 12 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 4 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton; Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Conduct first free flight, ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 21 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 August 26 - .
  • Deliver wings on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 September 7 - .
  • Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 September 10 - .
  • Deliver external tank MPTA-098 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Deliver external tank MPTA-098 (Martin Marietta) to NSTL.

1977 September 13 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 5 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle; Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Second free flight, ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 28 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 September 23 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 6 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton; Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Third free flight , ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 34 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 15.

1977 September 30 - .
  • Complete mate vertical stabilizer, STA-099 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Complete mate vertical stabilizer, Palmdale (STA-099).

1977 October 12 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 7 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle; Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Fourth free flight, ALT, first tail cone off, Edwards (2 minutes, 34 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 October 26 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 8 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton; Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Fifth free flight, ALT, final tail cone off, Edwards (2 minutes, 1 second), Enterprise (OV-101), concrete Runway 04.

1977 October 28 - .
  • Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 November 4 - .
  • Deliver aft fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 November 7 - .
  • Forward RCS on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 November 7 - .
  • Start final assembly Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Start final assembly and closeout system installation, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102).

1977 November 15 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • First ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: First ferry flight test, Edwards (3 hours, 21 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 16 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Second ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Second ferry flight test, Edwards (4 hours, 17 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 17 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Third ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Third ferry flight test, Edwards (4 hours, 13 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 18 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Fourth ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Fourth ferry flight test, Edwards (3 hours, 37 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 December 9 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Complete approach and landing flight tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete approach and landing flight tests, including ferry flights, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 December 12 - .
  • Start modification of Enterprise for ground vibe tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start removal for mated vertical ground vibration test modification at Edwards, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 December 13 - .
  • Complete propellant load testing, NSTL (MPTA-098) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 December 31 - .
  • Deliver SSME envelope/electrical simulators - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Deliver SSME envelope/electrical simulators on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 January 10 - .
  • Vertical stabilizer on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 January 18 - .
  • Second SRB firing, Thiokol - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 February 10 - .
  • Complete final assembly, STA-099, Palmdale - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Challenger.

1978 February 14 - .
  • STA-099 on dock, Lockheed facility, Palmdale - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Challenger.

1978 February 17 - .
  • Crew module on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 February 24 - .
  • Body flap on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 March 3 - .
  • Complete modification for mated vibe tests. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete modification for mated vertical ground vibration test, Edwards, Enterprise (OV-101).

1978 March 6 - .
  • Upper forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 March 10 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • Ferry Enterprise from Edwards to Texas. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry Enterprise (OV-101) atop shuttle carrier aircraft from Edwards to Ellington Air Force Base, Texas (approximately 3 hours, 38 min).

1978 March 13 - .
  • Ferry Enterprise from Texas to Huntsville - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry Enterprise (OV-101) atop shuttle carrier aircraft from Ellington AFB to Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala..

1978 March 19 - .
  • Aft payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 March 31 - .
  • ET for vibe tests delivered. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: External tank for mated vertical ground vibration test delivered..

1978 March 31 - .
  • Operational readiness date, SRB refurbishment. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Operational readiness date, solid rocket booster refurbishment and subassembly, Kennedy Space Center. Fla..

1978 April 14 - .
  • Complete ground vibration test modification - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Complete ground vibration test modification at MSFC.

1978 April 21 - .
  • First static firing, MPTA-098 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: First static firing, MPTA-098, NSTL (2.5 seconds; stub nozzles).

1978 April 23 - .
  • Columbia ready for power-on. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Complete final assembly and closeout system installation, ready for power-on, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 April 24 - .
  • Start precombined systems test, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 April 28 - .
  • Forward payload bay doors on dock, Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Forward payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 May 19 - .
  • Start forward RCS thermal tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 May 26 - .
  • Upper forward fuselage mate, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 May 26 - .
  • Complete forward RCS structure, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 May 30 - .
  • Start Enterprise (OV-101)/ ET mated vibe test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start Enterprise (OV-101)/ ET mated vertical ground vibration test, MSFC.

1978 May 31 - .
  • Loaded SRBs (2) arrive for mated vibe test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Loaded SRBs (2) arrive at MSFC for mated vertical ground vibration test.

1978 June 15 - .
  • Third static firing, MPTA-098 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Third static firing, MPTA-098, NSTL (50 seconds, 90% thrust).

1978 July 3 - .
  • Deliver left-hand OMS/RCS pod to WSTF - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 July 7 - .
  • Fourth static firing, MPTA-098 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 July 7 - .
  • Complete mate payload bay doors, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Complete mate forward and aft payload bay doors, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 July 13 - .
  • Reconfigure from boost to launch, vibe test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Reconfigure from boost to launch, mated vertical ground vibration test, MSFC, Enterprise (OV-101).

1978 July 15 - .
  • Deliver SRBs empty for mated vertical vibe test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Deliver SRBs (2) empty to MSFC for mated vertical ground vibration test.

1978 July 21 - .
  • First firing development test, OMS - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 July 31 - .
  • Operational readiness date, OPF 1 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Operational readiness date, Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, shuttle landing facility, and Hypergolic Maintenance Facility, KSC.

1978 August 11 - .
  • Complete forward RCS, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 August 11 - .
  • Complete forward RCS thermal test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 August 11 - .
  • Complete test preparation, STA-099 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 August 14 - .
  • Start coefficient tests, STA-099 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Start coefficient tests, STA-099, Lockheed facility, Palmdale.

1978 August 31 - .
  • Operational readiness date, VAB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Operational readiness date, Vertical Assembly Building High Bays 3 and 4, KSC.

1978 September 8 - .
  • Start OMS left-hand development test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 September 20 - .
  • Start acoustic test, forward RCS - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 September 25 - .
  • Start precombined system test, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 September 29 - .
  • Complete coefficient tests, STA-099 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Complete coefficient tests, STA-099, Lockheed facility, Palmdale.

1978 September 30 - .
  • Operational readiness date, crawler. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Operational readiness date, mobile launcher platform, KSC.

1978 October 19 - .
  • Third SRB firing, Thiokol - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 November 11 - .
  • Complete forward RCS acoustic test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 November 15 - .
  • Complete aft RCS development test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 November 15 - .
  • Complete OMS development test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 November 30 - .
  • Operational readiness date, Pad A, KSC - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 December 9 - .
  • Start OMS Phase I qualification tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 December 15 - .
  • Complete precombined system test, Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 January 1 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg.
  • Demolition and construction work began at SLC-6 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Demolition and construction work began at Space Launch Complex 6 in preparation for the Space Shuttle program..

1979 January 2 - .
  • Start fabrication crew module, Challenger - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Start long-lead fabrication crew module, Challenger (OV-099).

1979 January 30 - .
  • Start orbiter/ET/SRB burnout mated vibe tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Start orbiter/ET/SRB burnout mated vertical ground vibration test, MSFC.

1979 January 31 - .
  • Start left-hand OMS Phase I qualification test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1979 January 31 - .
  • Start left-hand OMS Phase I qualification test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1979 January 31 - .
  • Mission Control Center ready for shuttle. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Mission Control Center-Houston/Goldstone ready for operational flight test early operations..

1979 February 3 - .
  • Complete combined systems test, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 February 16 - .
  • Airlock on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 February 17 - .
  • Fourth SRB firing, Thiokol - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1979 February 26 - .
  • Complete mated vertical ground vibe test program - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete mated vertical ground vibration test program at MSFC, Enterprise (OV-101).

1979 February 28 - .
  • Operational readiness date, shuttle landing site. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Operational readiness date, shuttle landing site, Edwards (Edwards AFB) Runway 23, for first manned orbital flight.

1979 March 5 - .
  • Complete postcheckout, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 March 8 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • Columbia (OV-102) transported overland to Edwards. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Columbia (OV-102) transported overland from Palmdale to Edwards (38 miles).

1979 March 9 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia test flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) test flight at NASA Edwards.

1979 March 17 - .
  • SSME 2005, flight engine delivered for acceptance - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Space shuttle main engine 2005, first flight engine delivered to NSTL for acceptance test firings.

1979 March 20 - .
  • Ferry flight, Edwards to El Paso - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Edwards to Biggs Army Air Base, El Paso, Texas (3 hours, 20 minutes).

1979 March 22 - .
  • Ferry flight El Paso to Kelly AFB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Biggs Army Air Base to Kelly AFB, San Antonio, Texas (1 hr, 39 min).

1979 March 23 - .
  • Ferry flight, Kelly AFB to Eglin AFB, Fla - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Kelly AFB to Eglin AFB, Fla. (2 hours, 12 minutes).

1979 March 24 - .
  • Ferry flight, Eglin AFB to KSC - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Eglin AFB to KSC (1 hour, 33 minutes).

1979 March 30 - .
  • SSME 2007, flight engine delivered for acceptance - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Space shuttle main engine 2007, flight engine delivered to NSTL for acceptance test firing.

1979 April 6 - .
  • Complete Phase I qualification tests, aft RCS - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1979 April 10 - .
  • Ferry flight, MSFC to KSC - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101) from MSFC to KSC (1 hour, 52 minutes).

1979 April 16 - .
  • SSME 2006, flight engine delivered for acceptance - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Space shuttle main engine 2006, flight engine delivered to NSTL, for acceptance test firing.

1979 April 18 - .
  • Complete left-hand OMS/RCS Phase I qualification - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete left-hand OMS/RCS Phase I qualification, WSTF May 1 Enterprise (OV-101)/ ET/SRBs mated on mobile launcher platform,.

1979 May 4 - .
  • Fifth static firing, MPTA-098, flight nozzles - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Fifth static firing, MPTA-098, NSTL, flight nozzles 1.5 seconds.

1979 May 10 - .
  • Deliver right-hand OMS/RCS for Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Deliver right-hand OMS/RCS from McDonnell Douglas, St. Louis, to KSC, Columbia (OV-102).

1979 May 15 - .
  • Deliver left-hand OMS/RCS for Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Deliver left-hand OMS/RCS from McDonnell Douglas to KSC, Columbia (OV-102).

1979 May 30 - .
  • ET used for ground vibration to be refurbished. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Deliver ET used in mated vertical ground vibration test from MSFC to Martin Marietta for refurbishment.

1979 June 12 - .
  • Fifth static firing, MPTA-098, flight nozzles - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Fifth static firing, MPTA-098, NSTL, flight nozzles (54 seconds, early cutoff, accelerometer filters).

1979 June 15 - .
  • First SRB qualification firing - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: First SRB qualification firing, Thiokol, Utah, 122 seconds; nozzle extension severed at end of run as in actual mission; full cycle gimbal.

1979 June 21 - .
  • Start assembly crew module, Challenger (OV-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Challenger.

1979 July 2 - .
  • Sixth static firing, MPTA-098, flight nozzles. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Sixth static firing, MPTA-098, NSTL, flight nozzles (19 seconds, early cutoff-main fuel valve rupture).

1979 July 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A.
  • First test STS stack move from VAB to LC39A - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Enterprise (OV-101), ET, SRBs transported on mobile launcher platform from Launch Complex 39-A to Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC.

1979 August 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Start long-lead fabrication crew module, Discovery - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Discovery.

1979 August 6 - .
  • Complete limit test (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Challenger. Summary: Complete limit test (STA-099), Lockheed facility, Palmdale.

1979 August 10 - .
  • Ferry flight, KSC to Atlanta - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), KSC to Atlanta (1 hour, 55 minutes).

1979 August 11 - .
  • Ferry flight, Atlanta to St. Louis - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Atlanta to St. Louis (1 hour, 50 minutes).

1979 August 12 - .
  • Ferry flight, St. Louis to Tulsa - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), St. Louis to Tulsa (1 hour, 35 minutes).

1979 August 13 - .
  • Ferry flight, Tulsa to Denver - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Tulsa to Denver (2 hours).

1979 August 14 - .
  • Ferry flight, Denver to Hill AFB, Ogden, Utah - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Denver to Hill AFB, Ogden, Utah (1 hour, 30 minutes).

1979 August 15 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg.
  • Ferry flight, Ogden to Vandenberg AFB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Ogden to Vandenberg AFB (2 hours, 20 minutes).

1979 August 16 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • Ferry flight, Vandenberg AFB to Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Vandenberg AFB to Edwards (1 hour, 10 minutes).

1979 August 23 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • Enterprise / shuttle carrier demate, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Enterprise (OV-101)/ shuttle carrier demate, Edwards.

1979 August 27 - .
  • Start long-lead fabrication crew module, Discovery - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Discovery.

1979 August 31 - .
  • Complete OMS Phase II qualification tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1979 Late - .
  • STS-2A (cancelled) - . Crew: Haise; Lousma. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Haise; Lousma. Program: STS. Flight: STS-2A. Spacecraft: Columbia. In late 1977 shuttle orbital missions were due to start in 1979. STS-2, the second shuttle flight, was to have rendezvoused with the Skylab space station and released a small Skylab Reboost Module. This would dock to Skylab and boost the station to a higher orbit for later use. But the shuttle program also was hit with delays and before the first shuttle flew, Skylab burned up in the atmosphere and crashed into the Australian outback on July 11, 1979.

1981 April 12 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-1.
  • STS-1 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Crippen; Young. Payload: Columbia F01 / DFI. Mass: 4,909 kg (10,822 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen; Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-1. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 2.26 days. Decay Date: 1981-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12399 . COSPAR: 1981-034A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 240 km (140 mi). Inclination: 40.3000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: First flight of Space Transportation System (aka Space Shuttle).. Payloads: Development Flight Instrumentation and Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package..
  • DFI - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1981-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12399 . COSPAR: 1981-034xx. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 260 km (160 mi). Inclination: 40.3000 deg. Period: 89.80 min.

1981 April 14 - .
1981 November 12 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-2.
  • STS-2 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Engle; Truly. Payload: Columbia F02 / DFI. Mass: 8,517 kg (18,776 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-2. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 2.26 days. Decay Date: 1981-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12953 . COSPAR: 1981-111A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Second shuttle test flight. Payloads: Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-1 experiments, Orbiter Experiments (OEX)..
  • OSTA-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1981-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12953 . COSPAR: 1981-111xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.
  • DFI - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1981-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12953 . COSPAR: 1981-111xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.

1981 November 14 - .
  • Landing of STS-2 - . Return Crew: Engle; Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Program: STS. Flight: STS-2. Summary: STS-2 landed at 21:23 GMT. .

1982 March 22 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-3.
  • STS-3 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Fullerton; Lousma. Payload: Columbia F03 / OSS-1. Mass: 10,301 kg (22,709 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Lousma. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-3. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 13106 . COSPAR: 1982-022A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 241 km (149 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Payloads: Office of Space Science (OSS) experiments, Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Electro-phoresis Verification Test (EEVT), Plant Lignification Experiment..
  • DFI - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1982-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 13106 . COSPAR: 1982-022xx. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.
  • OSS-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1982-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 13106 . COSPAR: 1982-022xx. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.

1982 March 30 - .
  • Landing of STS-3 - . Return Crew: Fullerton; Lousma. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Lousma. Program: STS. Flight: STS-3. Summary: First and only landing by a shuttle at White Sands, New Mexico, after weather at Edwards did not permit landing there. STS-3 landed at 16:04 GMT..

1982 June 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-4.
  • STS-4 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Hartsfield; Mattingly. Payload: Columbia F04 / DoD 82-1. Mass: 11,109 kg (24,491 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hartsfield; Mattingly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-4. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 7.05 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 13300 . COSPAR: 1982-065A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 295 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Manned two crew. Fourth space shuttle test flight. Payloads: Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), Development Flight Instrumentation (DFl), Orbiter Experiments (OEX), first NASA getaway special (GAS), Night/Day Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment, Vapor Phase Compression (VPC) freezer heat exchanger dynamics for freezing samples, Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package (AClP) experiment.
  • DoD 82-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1982-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 13300 . COSPAR: 1982-065xx. Apogee: 319 km (198 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.
  • DFI - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1982-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 13300 . COSPAR: 1982-065xx. Apogee: 319 km (198 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.

1982 July 4 - .
1982 November 11 - . 12:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-5.
  • STS-5 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Allen; Brand; Lenoir; Overmyer. Payload: Columbia F05 / SBS 3 [PAM-D] / Anik C3 [PAM-D]. Mass: 14,551 kg (32,079 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen; Brand; Lenoir; Overmyer. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-5. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 5.09 days. Decay Date: 1982-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13650 . COSPAR: 1982-110A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 294 km (182 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Manned four crew. First mission to deploy commercial communications satellites (SBS 3, Anik C3). Payloads: : Satellite Business Systems (SBS)-C with Payload Assist ; (PAM)-D; Telesat-E (Canadian communications satellite) with PAM-D. Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), three getaway specials (GAS), Student experiments, GLOW experiment, Vestibular experiment, Oxygen Interaction With Materials experiment.
  • DFI - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1982-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13650 . COSPAR: 1982-110xx. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.

1982 November 16 - .
1983 April 4 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-6.
  • STS-6 - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Bobko; Musgrave; Peterson; Weitz. Payload: Challenger F01 / TDRS 1 [IUS]. Mass: 21,305 kg (46,969 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bobko; Musgrave; Peterson; Weitz. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-6. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 5.02 days. Decay Date: 1983-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 13968 . COSPAR: 1983-026A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 288 km (178 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Manned four crew. First flight of space shuttle Challenger; deployed TDRSS. Payloads: Deployment of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-A with Inertial Upper Stage (lUS)-2, Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Night/Day Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment, three getaway specials (GAS).
  • TDRS 1 - . Payload: TDRS A. Mass: 2,268 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 13969 . COSPAR: 1983-026B. Apogee: 35,976 km (22,354 mi). Perigee: 35,835 km (22,266 mi). Inclination: 7.4000 deg. Period: 1,442.20 min. Element of satellite communications network, deployed from STS-6 5 April 1983. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 67 deg W in 1983; 41 deg W in 1983-1989; 79 deg W in 1989-1990; 170 deg W in 1990-1993; 85 deg E in 1994-1995; 49 deg W in 1996-on. As of 5 September 2001 located at 49.36 deg W drifting at 0.010 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 48.98W drifting at 0.029W degrees per day.

1983 April 8 - . 21:05 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-6-1 - . Crew: Musgrave; Peterson. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.17 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Musgrave; Peterson. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-6. Spacecraft: Challenger. Summary: Tested EMU Manoeuvring Unit. Tested EVA emergency procedures..

1983 April 9 - .
1983 June 18 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-7.
  • STS-7 - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Crippen; Fabian; Hauck; Ride; Thagard. Payload: Challenger F02 / OSTA-2. Mass: 16,839 kg (37,123 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen; Fabian; Hauck; Ride; Thagard. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-7. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 6.10 days. Decay Date: 1983-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 14132 . COSPAR: 1983-059A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 299 km (185 mi). Inclination: 28.3000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned five crew. Deployed Anik C2, Palapa B1; deployed and retrieved SPAS platform. Payloads: Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-2 experiments, deployment of PALAPA-B1 communications satellite for Indonesia with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D and Telesat-F communications satellite for Canada with PAM-D, German Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS)-01, seven getaway specials (GAS), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES).
  • OSTA-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1983-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 14132 . COSPAR: 1983-059xx. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

1983 June 24 - .
1983 August 30 - . 06:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-8.
  • STS-8 - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Bluford; Brandenstein; Gardner; Thornton, Bill; Truly. Payload: Challenger F03 / PFTA. Mass: 13,642 kg (30,075 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford; Brandenstein; Gardner; Thornton, Bill; Truly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-8. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 6.05 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 14312 . COSPAR: 1983-089A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. First night launch and night landing. Deployed Insat 1B. Payloads: Deployment of INSAT (lndia communica-tion satellite) with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D, Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA)/ Payload Deployment Retrieval System (PDRS), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis (CFES), biomedical experiments. 250,000 express mail envelopes with special cachet for U.S. Postal Service were carried for a first-day cover.
  • PFTA - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1983-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 14312 . COSPAR: 1983-089xx. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.
  • DFI/USPS - . Payload: DFI PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1983-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 14312 . COSPAR: 1983-089xx. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

1983 September 5 - .
1983 November - .
1983 November 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg.
  • Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery at Vandenberg AFB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery at Vandenberg AFB for a series of fit checks at the orbiter lifting frame..

1983 November 28 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-9.
  • STS-9 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Garriott; Lichtenberg; Merbold; Parker; Shaw; Young. Payload: Columbia F06 / Spacelab 1 Pallet. Mass: 15,088 kg (33,263 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Garriott; Lichtenberg; Merbold; Parker; Shaw; Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-9. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 10.32 days. Decay Date: 1983-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 14523 . COSPAR: 1983-116A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 241 km (149 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Carried ESA Spacelab. Payloads: Payload: Spacelab-1 experiments, habitable Spacelab and pallet, carried 71 experiments. The six-man crew was divided into two 12-hour-day red and blue teams to operate experiments. First high-inclination orbit of 57 degrees.

1984-1986 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Columbia overhauled at Palmdale. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: Columbia. The ejection seats and flight instrumentation used for the first manned shuttle flights were removed. Head-up display and GPS avionics were installed. Orbiter 5.4 structural modifications were made; the disconnect valves, thermal protection system, and brakes were brought up to date. Provisions were made for use of the Manned Maneuvering Unit and 231 Master Change Requests were implemented.

1984 February 3 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-11/41-B.
  • STS-41-B - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Brand; Gibson; McCandless; McNair; Stewart. Payload: Challenger F04 / SPAS 1A. Mass: 15,362 kg (33,867 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brand; Gibson; McCandless; McNair; Stewart. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-B. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 7.97 days. Decay Date: 1984-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 14681 . COSPAR: 1984-011A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 307 km (190 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min. Manned five crew. Deployed Westar 6, Palapa B2; tested Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). Payloads: PALAPA-B2 (Indonesian communications satellite) with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D and WESTAR (Western Union communications satellite)-Vl with PAM-D. Both satellites were deployed but the PAM-D in each satellite failed to ignite, leaving both satellites in earth orbit. Both satellites were retrieved and returned to earth for renovation on the STS-51-A mission. The manned maneuvering unit (MMU) was tested with extravehicular astronauts as free flyers without tethers as far as 98 m from the orbiter. Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS)-01 experiments, Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Isoelectric Focusing Experiment (lEF), Acoustic Containerless Experiment System (ACES), Cinema 360 cameras, five getaway specials (GAS), Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification (ACIP)/High Resolution Accelerom-eter Package (HIRAP).
  • MMU 3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. COSPAR: 1984-011xx.
  • MMU 2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. COSPAR: 1984-011xx.

1984 February 7 - .
1984 February 9 - .
1984 February 11 - .
1984 March - .
1984 April 6 - . 13:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-13/41-C.
  • STS-41-C - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Crippen; Hart; Nelson; Scobee; van Hoften. Payload: Challenger F05 / LDEF 1 / MMU 3. Mass: 17,357 kg (38,265 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen; Hart; Nelson; Scobee; van Hoften. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-C. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 6.99 days. Decay Date: 1984-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 14897 . COSPAR: 1984-034A. Apogee: 468 km (290 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Manned five crew. First repair on orbit of a satellite, Solar Maximum Mission, by James van Hoften and George Nelson. Deployed LDEF. Payloads:Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) repair, manned maneuvering unit (MMU) satellite support, deployment of Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in earth orbit free drift. LDEF contained 57 experiments and weighed about 10,000 kg. Cinema 360 and IMAX 70-mm cameras.
  • MMU 3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1984-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 14897 . COSPAR: 1984-034xx. Apogee: 496 km (308 mi). Perigee: 494 km (306 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.50 min.
  • SMRM-FSS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1984-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 14897 . COSPAR: 1984-034xx. Apogee: 496 km (308 mi). Perigee: 494 km (306 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.50 min.
  • MMU 2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1984-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 14897 . COSPAR: 1984-034xx. Apogee: 496 km (308 mi). Perigee: 494 km (306 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.50 min.

1984 April 8 - . 14:18 GMT - .
1984 April 11 - . 08:58 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-41-C-2 - . Crew: Nelson; van Hoften. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.30 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Nelson; van Hoften. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-C. Spacecraft: Challenger. Summary: Successfully captured and repaired Solar Max satellite..

1984 April 13 - .
1984 June 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Discovery Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-41-D. Spacecraft: Discovery. Summary: The countdown for the second launch attempt for Discovery's maiden flight ended at T- 4 seconds when the orbiter's computers detected a sluggish valve in main engine #3. The main engine was replaced and Discovery was finally launched on August 30, 1984..

1984 July - .
1984 August - .
1984 August 30 - . 12:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-14/41-D.
  • STS-41-D - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Coats; Hartsfield; Hawley; Mullane; Resnik; Walker. Payload: Discovery F01 / SBS 4[PAM-D] / Telstar 302[PAM-D]. Mass: 21,552 kg (47,514 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Coats; Hartsfield; Hawley; Mullane; Resnik; Walker. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-D. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 6.04 days. Decay Date: 1984-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 15234 . COSPAR: 1984-093A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned six crew. First flight of space shuttle Discovery; deployed SBS 4, Leasat 1, Telstar 3C. Payloads: Satellite Business System (SBS)-D commu-nications satellite with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D deployment, Syncom IV-2 communica-tions satellite with its unique stage deployment, Telstar (American Telephone and Telegraph) 3-C with PAM-D deployment, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)-1 experiments. Deployment and restowing of large solar array. Continuous Flow Electrophoresis (CFES). IMAX camera.
  • OAST 1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1984-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 15234 . COSPAR: 1984-093xx. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 294 km (182 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

1984 September - .
1984 September 5 - .
1984 October 5 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-17/41-G.
  • STS-41-G - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Crippen; Garneau; Leestma; McBride; Ride; Scully-Power; Sullivan. Payload: Challenger F06 / ERBS / LFC / ORS. Mass: 10,643 kg (23,463 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen; Garneau; Leestma; McBride; Ride; Scully-Power; Sullivan. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-G. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 8.22 days. Decay Date: 1984-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 15353 . COSPAR: 1984-108A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Manned seven crew. Deployed ERBS; performed high resolution Earth imagery. Payloads: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) deployment, Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-3 experiments, Large Format Camera (LFC). First use of Orbital Refueling System (ORS) with extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, IMAX camera.
  • OSTA-3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1984-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 15353 . COSPAR: 1984-108xx. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.
  • LFC/ORS - . Payload: MPESS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1984-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 15353 . COSPAR: 1984-108xx. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

1984 October 11 - .
1984 October 13 - .
1984 November 8 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-19/51-A.
  • STS-51-A - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Allen; Fisher; Gardner; Hauck; Walker, Dave. Payload: Discovery F02 / PLT. Mass: 20,550 kg (45,300 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen; Fisher; Gardner; Hauck; Walker, Dave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-A. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.99 days. Decay Date: 1984-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 15382 . COSPAR: 1984-113A. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Manned five crew. First retrieval of two satellites (PALAPA B-2 and WESTAR Vl) for return to earth. Deployed Anik D2, Leasat 2; recovered Westar 6, Palapa B2. Payloads: Telesat (Canada communications satellite)-H with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D deploy-ment, Syncom IV-1 communications satellite deployment with its unique stage, retrieval of PALAPA B-2 and WESTAR VI communications satellites with PAM-D which failed to ignite on the STS-41-B mission. Manned maneuvering unit (MMU) used for retrieval. Diffusive Mixing of Organic Solutions (DMOS) experiment.

1984 November 12 - . 13:25 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-51-A-1 - . Crew: Allen; Gardner. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.26 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen; Gardner. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-A. Spacecraft: Discovery. Summary: Retrieved Palapa satellite..

1984 November 14 - .
  • EVA STS-51-A-2 - . Crew: Allen; Gardner. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen; Gardner. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-A. Spacecraft: Discovery. Summary: Retrieved Westar satellite..

1984 November 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg.
  • The Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise arrives - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: The Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise arrived at Vandenberg AFB for a series of facility verification tests..

1984 November 16 - .
1985 January 24 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-20/51-C.
  • STS-51-C - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Buchli; Mattingly; Onizuka; Payton; Shriver. Payload: Discovery F03 / Magnum 1 [IUS]. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Buchli; Mattingly; Onizuka; Payton; Shriver. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-C. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 3.06 days. Decay Date: 1985-01-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 15496 . COSPAR: 1985-010A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Manned five crew. Deployed USA 8 (Aquacade ELINT spacecraft). Orbits of Earth: 48. Landed at: Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Landing Speed: 342 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 839.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,240.00 m. Payloads: Department of Defence classified payloads.

1985 January 27 - .
1985 March - .
1985 April - .
1985 April 12 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-23/51-D.
  • STS-51-D - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bobko; Garn; Griggs; Hoffman; Seddon; Walker; Williams, Donald. Payload: Discovery F04 / Anik C1[PAM-D] / Syncom-4 3 /Orbus. Mass: 16,249 kg (35,822 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bobko; Garn; Griggs; Hoffman; Seddon; Walker; Williams, Donald. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-D. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1985-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 15641 . COSPAR: 1985-028A. Apogee: 535 km (332 mi). Perigee: 445 km (276 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Manned seven crew. Payloads: Telesat (Canada communications satellite)-I with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D deployment, Syncom IV-3 communications satellite deploy-ment with its unique stage (unique stage failed to ignite), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis (CFES), Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE), student experiments, two getaway specials (GAS) Informal science studies (Toys in Space).

1985 April 16 - .
  • EVA STS-51-D-1 - . Crew: Hoffman; Griggs. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.13 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoffman; Griggs. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-D. Spacecraft: Discovery. Summary: RMS 'Ryswatters' installed..

1985 April 19 - .
1985 April 29 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-21/51-B.
  • STS-51-B - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Gregory; Lind; Overmyer; Thagard; Thornton, Bill; van den Berg; Wang. Payload: Challenger F07 / SL 3 MPESS. Mass: 14,245 kg (31,404 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gregory; Lind; Overmyer; Thagard; Thornton, Bill; van den Berg; Wang. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-B. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 7.01 days. Decay Date: 1985-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15665 . COSPAR: 1985-034A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 346 km (214 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Manned seven crew. Deployed Nusat; carried Spacelab 3. Payloads: Spacelab-3 experiments, habitable Spacelab and mission peculiar experiment support structure. The experiments represented a total of five different disciplines: materials processing in space, environmental observa-tions, life science, astrophysics, and technology experiments. Two getaway specials (GAS). The flight crew was split into gold and silver shifts working 12-hour days during the flight.
  • SL 3 MPESS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1985-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15665 . COSPAR: 1985-034xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 346 km (214 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
  • GLOMR - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1985-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15665 . COSPAR: 1985-034xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 346 km (214 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.

1985 June 17 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-25/51-G.
  • STS-51-G - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Al-Saud; Baudry; Brandenstein; Creighton; Fabian; Lucid; Nagel. Payload: Discovery F05 / Morelos 1[PAM-D] / Telstar 303. Mass: 20,174 kg (44,476 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Al-Saud; Baudry; Brandenstein; Creighton; Fabian; Lucid; Nagel. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-G. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.07 days. Decay Date: 1985-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 15823 . COSPAR: 1985-048A. Apogee: 369 km (229 mi). Perigee: 358 km (222 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 1; launched Morelos 1, Arabsat 1B, Telstar 3D.Payloads: Shuttle Pointed Autono-mous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN)-1; Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF); High Precision Tracking Experiment (HPTE); Orbiter Experiments (OEX); French Echocardiograph Experiment (FEE) and French Pocket Experiment (FPE).

1985 June 24 - .
1985 July - .
1985 July 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Challenger Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-51-F. Spacecraft: Challenger. Summary: The countdown for Challenger's launch was halted at T-3 seconds when on-board computers detected a problem with a coolant valve on main engine #2. The valve was replaced and Challenger was launched on July 29, 1985..

1985 July 29 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-26/51-F.
  • STS-51-F - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Acton; Bartoe; Bridges; England; Fullerton; Henize; Musgrave. Payload: Challenger F08 / PDP / Spacelab 2 PLT. Mass: 15,603 kg (34,398 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Acton; Bartoe; Bridges; England; Fullerton; Henize; Musgrave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-F. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 7.95 days. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15925 . COSPAR: 1985-063A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Manned seven crew. At 5 minutes, 45 seconds into ascent the number one engine shut down prematurely due to a a sensor problem and an abort to orbit was declared. Despite the anomaly the mission continued. Launched PDP; carried Spacelab 2. Payloads: Spacelab-2 with 13 experiments, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX), Protein Crystal Growth (PCG). The flight crew was divided into a red and blue team. Each team worked 12-hour shifts for 24-hour-a-day operation.
  • CRNE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15925 . COSPAR: 1985-063xx. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.

1985 August 27 - . 10:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-27/51-I.
  • STS-51-I - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Covey; Engle; Fisher, William; Lounge; van Hoften. Payload: Discovery F06 / Syncom-4 4 [Orbus-7S] / Aussat A1. Mass: 19,952 kg (43,986 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Covey; Engle; Fisher, William; Lounge; van Hoften. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-I. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.10 days. Decay Date: 1985-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 15992 . COSPAR: 1985-076A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 351 km (218 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Manned five crew. Launched Aussat 1, ASC 1, Leasat 4; repaired Leasat 3. Payloads: Deploy ASC (American Satellite Company)-1 with Payload Assist Modue (PAM)-D. Deploy AUSSAT (Australian communications satellite)-1 with PAM-D. Deploy Syncom IV-4 communications satellite with its unique stage. Retrieve Leasat-3 communications satellite, repair and deploy by extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts. Physical Vapor Transport Organic Solids (PVTOS) experiment.

1985 August 31 - .
1985 September 1 - .
1985 September 3 - .
1985 October 3 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-28/51-J.
  • STS-51-J - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Bobko; Grabe; Hilmers; Pailes; Stewart. Payload: Atlantis F01 / DSCS-3 2 / DSCS-3 3 [IUS]. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bobko; Grabe; Hilmers; Pailes; Stewart. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-J. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.07 days. Decay Date: 1985-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 16115 . COSPAR: 1985-092A. Apogee: 486 km (301 mi). Perigee: 476 km (295 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.20 min. Manned five crew. Atlantis (first flight); deployed USA 11, USA 12. Reusable space transportation system.

    Orbits of Earth: 63. Landed at: Runway 23 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Touchdown miss distance: 754.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,455.00 m. Payloads: Classified DoD Mission - Record altitude (as of 5/93).


1985 October 7 - .
1985 October 15 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg.
  • SLC-6 declared operational for shuttle flights - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Space Launch Complex 6, site of future Space Shuttle operations, declared operational. However, much additional work and testing required..

1985 October 30 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-29/61-A.
  • STS-61-A - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Bluford; Buchli; Dunbar; Furrer; Hartsfield; Messerschmid; Nagel; Ockels. Payload: Challenger F09 / GLOMR 1. Mass: 14,451 kg (31,859 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford; Buchli; Dunbar; Furrer; Hartsfield; Messerschmid; Nagel; Ockels. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-A. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 7.03 days. Decay Date: 1985-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 16230 . COSPAR: 1985-104A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 319 km (198 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Manned eight crew. Launched GLOMR; carried Spacelab D1. Payloads: Spacelab D-1 with habitable module and 76 experiments. Six of the eight crew members were divided into a blue and red team working 12-hour shifts for 24-hour-a-day operation. The remaining two crew members were 'switch hitters.'.
  • USS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1985-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 16230 . COSPAR: 1985-104xx. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 322 km (200 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.10 min.

1985 November 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: STS-51-H.
  • STS-51-H (cancelled) - . Payload: EOM-1. Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-51-H. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Planned EOM-1/2 shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays..

1985 November 27 - . 00:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-30/61-B.
  • STS-61-B - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Cleave; Neri, Vela; O Connor; Ross; Shaw; Spring; Walker. Payload: Atlantis F02 / EASE / ACCESS. Mass: 21,791 kg (48,040 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cleave; Neri, Vela; O Connor; Ross; Shaw; Spring; Walker. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-B. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 6.88 days. Decay Date: 1985-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 16273 . COSPAR: 1985-109A. Apogee: 370 km (220 mi). Perigee: 361 km (224 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Manned seven crew. Deployed Morelos 2, Aussat 2, Satcom K2, OEX. Payloads: Deploy SATCOM (RCA-Satellite Communi-cations) Ku-2 with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D II. Deploy Morelos (Mexico communications satellite)-B with PAM-D. Deploy AUSSAT (Australian communications satellite)-2 with PAM-D. EASE/ACCESS (Assembly of Structures— Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures) by extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, Continuous Flow Electrophore-sis System (CFES), Diffusive Mixing of Organic Solutions (DMOS), IMAX camera, one getaway special (GAS), Linhof camera and Hasseblad camera.
  • OEX Target - . Payload: Atlantis F2 / Aussat A2 [PAM-D] / Morelos 2 [PAM-D. Mass: 16 kg (35 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: OEX Target. Decay Date: 1987-03-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 16277 . COSPAR: 1985-109E. Apogee: 386 km (239 mi). Perigee: 373 km (231 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Released from STS 61B 11/30/85; shuttle autopilot software test target. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .
  • EASE/ACCESS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1985-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 16273 . COSPAR: 1985-109xx. Apogee: 385 km (239 mi). Perigee: 323 km (200 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.

1985 November 29 - .
  • EVA STS-61-B-1 - . Crew: Ross; Spring. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.23 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross; Spring. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-B. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Summary: Began EASE/ACCESS (Assembly of Structures / Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures) structural assembly experiments..

1985 December 1 - .
  • EVA STS-61-B-2 - . Crew: Ross; Spring. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross; Spring. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-B. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Summary: Completed EASE/ACCESS (Assembly of Structures / Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures) structural assembly experiments..

1985 December 3 - .
1986 January 12 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-32/61-C.
  • STS-61-C - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Bolden; Cenker; Chang-Diaz; Gibson; Hawley; Nelson; Nelson, Bill. Payload: Columbia F07 Satcom-K 1 [PAM-D2]. Mass: 14,724 kg (32,460 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden; Cenker; Chang-Diaz; Gibson; Hawley; Nelson; Nelson, Bill. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-C. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 6.09 days. Decay Date: 1986-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 16481 . COSPAR: 1986-003A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Manned seven crew. Launched Satcom K1. Payloads: Deploy SATCOM (RCA-Satellite Communi-cations) Ku-1 with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D II. Materials Science Laboratory, Comet Halley Active Monitoring Experiment (CHAMP), Hitchhiker (HH) Goddard (G)-1, thirteen getaway specials (GAS), student experiment, Initial Blood Storage Equipment (lBSE), Characterization of Space Motion Sickness (SMS).
  • MSL-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1986-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 16481 . COSPAR: 1986-003xx. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 322 km (200 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.20 min.
  • GBA-1 - . Payload: GAS Bridge. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1986-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 16481 . COSPAR: 1986-003xx. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 322 km (200 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.20 min.

1986 January 18 - .
1986 January 28 - . 16:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-33/51-L. FAILURE: Seal on SRB failed, allowed hot gas to burn through External Tank.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Spartan-Halley - . Payload: Spartan-Halley. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. COSPAR: F860128B. Apogee: 15 km (9 mi).
  • TDRS B - . Payload: TDRS B. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. COSPAR: F860128C. Apogee: 15 km (9 mi).

1986 March - .
1986 May - .
1986 May - .
1986 June - .
1986 July - .
1986 July - .
1986 August - .
1986 September - .
1986 September - .
1986 September - .
  • STS-62-B (cancelled) - . Crew: Roberts. Payload: DoD Mission. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Roberts. Program: STS. Flight: STS-62-B. Spacecraft: Discovery. Summary: Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. .

1986 October - .
1986 November - .
  • STS-61-L (cancelled) - . Crew: Konrad. Backup Crew: Cunningham, Stephen. Payload: Communications satellites. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Konrad; Cunningham, Stephen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-61-L. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Summary: Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Would have launched the first American journalist in space from Launch Complex 39B. Cancelled after Challenger disaster..

1986 December - .
1987 January - .
  • STS-71-C (cancelled) - . Crew: Longhurst. Backup Crew: Holmes. Payload: Communications satellites. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Longhurst; Holmes. Program: STS. Flight: STS-71-C. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Summary: Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. .

1987 January - .
  • STS-71-A (cancelled) - . Crew: Nordsieck. Payload: Astro-2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Nordsieck. Program: STS. Flight: STS-71-A. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Planned Astro-2 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. .

1987 February - .
  • STS-71-D (cancelled) - . Crew: Wood, Robert. Backup Crew: Walker. Payload: Communications satellites. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Wood, Robert; Walker. Program: STS. Flight: STS-71-D. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. .

1987 March - .
1987 March - .
1987 August - .
  • STS-71-M (cancelled) - . Crew: Nordsieck. Payload: Astro-3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Nordsieck. Program: STS. Flight: STS-71-M. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Planned Astro-3 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. .

1988 February - .
  • STS-81-G (cancelled) - . Crew: Mohri; Mukai. Backup Crew: Doi. Payload: Spacelab-J. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mohri; Mukai; Doi. Program: STS. Flight: STS-81-G. Spacecraft: Challenger. Summary: Planned Spacelab-J shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. .

1988 May 13 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg.
  • SLC-6 ordered to be mothballed - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Air Force Secretary Edward C. Aldridge, Jr., directed the Air Force to begin mothballing the Space Shuttle program at Vandenberg AFB..

1988 July - .
1988 September 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: STS-51-K.
  • STS-51-K (cancelled) - . Payload: Spacelab-D1 . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-51-K. Spacecraft: Challenger. Summary: Planned Spacelab-D1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. No crew selected; renamed STS-61A.

1988 September 29 - . 15:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-26R.
  • STS-26 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Covey; Hauck; Hilmers; Lounge; Nelson. Payload: Discovery F07 / PDP. Mass: 21,082 kg (46,477 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Covey; Hauck; Hilmers; Lounge; Nelson. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-26. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 4.04 days. Decay Date: 1988-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 19547 . COSPAR: 1988-091A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned five crew. First shuttle reflight after Challenger disaster. Deployed TDRS 3. Payloads: Deploy IUS (lnertial Upper Stage) with Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-C. 3M's Physical Vapor Transport Organics Solids 2 experiment (PVTOS), Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF), Infrared Communi-cations Flight Experiment (lRCFE), Protein Crystal Growth Il (PCG), Isoelectric Focusing (ISF)-2, Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE), Aggrega-tion of Red Blood Cells (ARC)-2, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE)-1, Earth Limb Radiance (ELRAD), Orbiter Experiments (OEX), Autonomous Supporting Instrumentation System (OASlS)-I, two Shuttle Student Involvement Project (SSIP) experiments.
  • TDRS 3 - . Payload: TDRS C. Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 19548 . COSPAR: 1988-091B. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. NASA communications; 171 deg W; deployed from STS-26 . Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 151 deg W in 1988; 171 deg W in 1989-1990; 174 deg W in 1990-1991; 62 deg W in 1991-1994;171 deg W in 1994-1995; 85 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 26 August 2001 located at 85.17 deg E drifting at 0.007 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 84.98E drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.

1988 October 3 - .
1988 December 2 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-27R.
  • STS-27 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Gardner, Guy; Gibson; Mullane; Ross; Shepherd. Payload: Atlantis F03 / Lacrosse 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gardner, Guy; Gibson; Mullane; Ross; Shepherd. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-27. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.38 days. Decay Date: 1988-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 19670 . COSPAR: 1988-106A. Apogee: 447 km (277 mi). Perigee: 437 km (271 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 93.40 min. Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Orbits of Earth: 68. Landed at: Runway 17 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Landing Speed: 359 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 447.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,171.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission.

1988 December 6 - .
1989 March 13 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-29R.
  • STS-29 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bagian; Blaha; Buchli; Coats; Springer. Payload: Discovery F08 / SHARE. Mass: 17,280 kg (38,090 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bagian; Blaha; Buchli; Coats; Springer. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-29. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 4.99 days. Decay Date: 1989-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 19882 . COSPAR: 1989-021A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 297 km (184 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 4. Payloads: Deploy IUS (Inertial Upper Stage) with Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-D. Protein Crystal Growth (PCG); Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space; IMAX 70mm camera; Shuttle Student Involvement Project (SSIP) experiments: SSIP 82-8, Effects of Weightlessness in Space Flight on the Healing of Bone Fractures, and SSIP 83-9, Chicken Embryo Development in Space; Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) experiment.
  • TDRS 4 - . Payload: TDRS D. Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 19883 . COSPAR: 1989-021B. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 4.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Deployed from STS 29 13 March 1989; NASA communications; 41 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 41 deg W in 1989-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 41.04 deg W drifting at 0.010 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.81W drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.

1989 March 18 - .
1989 May 4 - . 18:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-30R.
  • STS-30 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Cleave; Grabe; Lee; Thagard; Walker, Dave. Payload: Atlantis F04 / Magellan [IUS]. Mass: 20,833 kg (45,928 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cleave; Grabe; Lee; Thagard; Walker, Dave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-30. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.04 days. Decay Date: 1989-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 19968 . COSPAR: 1989-033A. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi). Perigee: 361 km (224 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Summary: Manned five crew. Deployed Magellan Venus probe. Payloads: Deploy IUS with Magellan spacecraft. Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA). Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) experiment..

1989 May 8 - .
1989 August 8 - . 12:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-28R.
  • STS-28 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Adamson; Brown, Mark; Leestma; Richards; Shaw. Payload: Columbia F08 / DoD. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Adamson; Brown, Mark; Leestma; Richards; Shaw. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-28. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 5.04 days. Decay Date: 1989-08-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 20164 . COSPAR: 1989-061A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Manned five crew. Deployed 2 classified satellites. Landed at: Runway 17 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Landing Speed: 287 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 1,618.00 m. Landing Rollout: 1,833.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission.

1989 August 13 - .
1989 September 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg.
  • Space Launch Complex 6 placed on mothball status. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1989 October 18 - . 16:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-34R.
  • STS-34 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Baker; Chang-Diaz; Lucid; McCulley; Williams, Donald. Payload: Atlantis F05 / Galileo [IUS]. Mass: 22,064 kg (48,642 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Baker; Chang-Diaz; Lucid; McCulley; Williams, Donald. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-34. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.99 days. Decay Date: 1989-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20297 . COSPAR: 1989-084A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 34.3000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned five crew. Deployed Galileo .Payloads: Deploy IUS with Galileo spacecraft. Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV), Polymer Morphology (PM) experiments, IMAX camera project, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) experiment, Growth Hormone Concentration and Distribution (GHCD) in Plants experiment, Sensor Technology Experiment (STEX), SSIP Student Experiment (SE) 82-15, Ice Crystals Experiment. First flight at this inclination.
  • Galileo Probe - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1989-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20297 . COSPAR: 1989-084xx. Apogee: 333 km (206 mi). Perigee: 297 km (184 mi). Inclination: 34.3000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.
  • SSBUV-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1989-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20297 . COSPAR: 1989-084xx. Apogee: 333 km (206 mi). Perigee: 297 km (184 mi). Inclination: 34.3000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.
  • SSBUV-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1989-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20297 . COSPAR: 1989-084xx. Apogee: 333 km (206 mi). Perigee: 297 km (184 mi). Inclination: 34.3000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.

1989 October 23 - .
1989 November 23 - . 00:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-33R.
  • STS-33 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Blaha; Carter; Gregory; Musgrave; Thornton. Payload: Discovery F09 / Magnum 2 [IUS]. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Blaha; Carter; Gregory; Musgrave; Thornton. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-33. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-11-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 20329 . COSPAR: 1989-090A. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Orbits of Earth: 78. Distance traveled: 3,218,687 km. Landed at: Concrete runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base, Cali. Landing Speed: 368 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 570.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,366.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission - third space shuttle night launch.

1989 November 28 - .
1990 January 9 - . 12:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-32R.
  • STS-32 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Brandenstein; Dunbar; Ivins; Low; Wetherbee. Payload: Columbia F09 / Syncom-4 5 [Orbus-7S]. Mass: 12,014 kg (26,486 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brandenstein; Dunbar; Ivins; Low; Wetherbee. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-32. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 10.88 days. Decay Date: 1990-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 20409 . COSPAR: 1990-002A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 296 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Manned five crew. Deployed Leasat 5, retrieved LDEF. Night landing. Payloads: Deployment of Syncom IV-5, retrieval of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA)-3, Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) III-2, Latitude/Longitude Locator (L3), American Flight Echocardiograph (AFE), Characterization of Neurospora Circadian Rhythms in Space (CNCR)-01, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS)-4, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE), IMAX, Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (lOCM).

1990 January 20 - .
1990 February 28 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-36R.
  • STS-36 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Casper; Creighton; Hilmers; Mullane; Thuot. Payload: Atlantis F06 / KH-12 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Casper; Creighton; Hilmers; Mullane; Thuot. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-36. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.43 days. Decay Date: 1990-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 20512 . COSPAR: 1990-019A. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 62.0000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Landed at: Runway 23 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Landing Speed: 368 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 494.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,407.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission - Record altitude (through 5/93).

1990 March 4 - .
1990 April 24 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-31R.
  • STS-31 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bolden; Hawley; McCandless; Shriver; Sullivan. Payload: Discovery F10 / Hubble Space Telescope. Mass: 13,005 kg (28,671 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden; Hawley; McCandless; Shriver; Sullivan. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-31. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 5.05 days. Decay Date: 1990-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 20579 . COSPAR: 1990-037A. Apogee: 615 km (382 mi). Perigee: 585 km (363 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min. Deployed HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Payloads: Deployment of Hubble Space Telescope, IMAX camera in payload bay and in crew compartment, Protein Crystal Growth III-03, Investigation Into Polymer Membrane Process-ing- 01, Air Force Maui Optical Site-05, Radiation Monitoring Equipment III-01, Student Experiment 82-16, and Ascent Particle Monitor 01.

1990 October 6 - . 11:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-41.
  • STS-41 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Akers; Cabana; Melnick; Richards; Shepherd. Payload: Discovery F11 / Ulysses [IUS + PAM-S]. Mass: 22,140 kg (48,810 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Akers; Cabana; Melnick; Richards; Shepherd. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 4.09 days. Decay Date: 1990-10-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 20841 . COSPAR: 1990-090A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned five crew. Deployed Ulysses spacecraft. Payloads: Deploy Ulysses, Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, Intelsat Solar Array Coupon, Solid-Surface Combustion Experiment, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing, Chromo-some and Plant Cell Division in Space, Physiological Systems Experiment, Voice Command System, Radiation Monitoring Equipment III, Air Force Maui Optical Site.

1990 October 10 - .
1990 November 15 - . 23:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-38.
  • STS-38 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Covey; Culbertson; Gemar; Meade; Springer. Payload: Atlantis F07 / DoD. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Covey; Culbertson; Gemar; Meade; Springer. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-38. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.91 days. Decay Date: 1990-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 20935 . COSPAR: 1990-097A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 78 km (48 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 87.50 min. Summary: Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Orbits of Earth: 79. Payloads: DoD Mission..

1990 November 20 - .
1990 December 2 - . 06:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-35R.
  • STS-35 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Brand; Durrance; Gardner, Guy; Hoffman; Lounge; Parise; Parker. Payload: Columbia F10 / BBXRT. Mass: 11,943 kg (26,329 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brand; Durrance; Gardner, Guy; Hoffman; Lounge; Parise; Parker. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-35. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 8.96 days. Decay Date: 1990-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 20980 . COSPAR: 1990-106A. Apogee: 362 km (224 mi). Perigee: 352 km (218 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Summary: Manned seven crew. Carried ASTRO-1 observatory. Payloads: Ultraviolet Astronomy TeIescope (Astro), Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS)..
  • BBXRT - . Payload: BBXRT/TAPS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1990-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 20980 . COSPAR: 1990-106xx. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 339 km (210 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.
  • Astro 1 Aft - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1990-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 20980 . COSPAR: 1990-106xx. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 339 km (210 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.
  • Astro 1 Fwd - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1990-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 20980 . COSPAR: 1990-106xx. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 339 km (210 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.

1991 April 5 - . 14:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-37R.
  • STS-37 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Apt; Cameron; Godwin; Nagel; Ross. Payload: Atlantis F08 / Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Mass: 16,611 kg (36,620 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt; Cameron; Godwin; Nagel; Ross. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-37. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 5.98 days. Decay Date: 1991-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 21224 . COSPAR: 1991-027A. Apogee: 462 km (287 mi). Perigee: 450 km (270 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.70 min. Manned five crew. Unscheduled EVA to manually deploy the Gamma-Ray Observatory's high-gain antenna, which failed to deploy upon ground command. Payloads: Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO), Crew/ Equipment Translation Aids (part of Extravehicular Activity Development Flight Experiment), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BlMDA), Protein Crystal Growth (PCG)-Block Il, Space Station Heatpipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE)-ll, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-ll, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lIl, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

1991 April 7 - .
  • EVA STS-37-1 - . Crew: Ross; Apt. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.19 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross; Apt. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-37. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Summary: Manually deployed Gamma-Ray Observatory's high-gain antenna..

1991 April 8 - .
  • EVA STS-37-2 - . Crew: Ross; Apt. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross; Apt. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-37. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Summary: Tested CETA (Crew / Equipment Translation Aids - rail with cart for moving astronauts around exterior of International Space Station)..

1991 April 11 - .
1991 April 28 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-39.
  • STS-39 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bluford; Coats; Hammond; Harbaugh; Hieb; McMonagle; Veach. Payload: Discovery F12. Mass: 9,712 kg (21,411 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford; Coats; Hammond; Harbaugh; Hieb; McMonagle; Veach. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-39. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.31 days. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Manned seven crew. Deployed USA 70, CRO A, CRO B, CRO C; deployed and retrieved IBSS. Payloads: Infrared Background Signature Survey (lBSS), Air Force Program (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-I, Multi-Purpose Experiment Canister (MPEC), Cloud Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS)-1A, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll.
  • STP-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.
  • USA 70 - . Payload: MPEC. Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Program: STS. Class: Technology. Type: Military technology satellite. Spacecraft: MPEC. USAF Sat Cat: 21262 . COSPAR: 1991-031C. Summary: Classified subsatellite released from shuttle..
  • AFP-675 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: AFP-675. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.

1991 May 6 - .
1991 June 5 - . 13:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-40.
  • STS-40 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Bagian; Gaffney; Gutierrez; Hughes-Fulford; Jernigan; O Connor; Seddon. Payload: Columbia F11 / GBA-2. Mass: 11,767 kg (25,941 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bagian; Gaffney; Gutierrez; Hughes-Fulford; Jernigan; O Connor; Seddon. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-40. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 9.09 days. Decay Date: 1991-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 21399 . COSPAR: 1991-040A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 287 km (178 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Carried Spacelab life sciences module. Payloads: Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS)-1 with long module, getaway special bridge assembly with 12 getaway specials, Physiological Monitoring System (PMS), Urine Monitoring System (UMS), Animal Enclosure Modules (AEM), Middeck Zero-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), 7 Orbiter Experiments Program experiments.
  • GBA-2 - . Payload: GAS Bridge. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1991-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 21399 . COSPAR: 1991-040xx. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 276 km (171 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.

1991 August 2 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-43.
  • STS-43 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Adamson; Baker, Mike; Blaha; Low; Lucid. Payload: Atlantis F09 / TDRS 5 [IUS]. Mass: 21,265 kg (46,881 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Adamson; Baker, Mike; Blaha; Low; Lucid. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-43. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 8.89 days. Decay Date: 1991-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 21638 . COSPAR: 1991-054A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 5 satellite. Payloads: Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-E/lnertial Upper Stage (lUS), Space Station Heatpipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE)-ll, Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) instrument 03, Optical Communications Through the Shuttle Window (OCTW), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test, Auroral Photography Experiment (APE)-B, Bioserve-lnstrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BlMDA)-02, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP)-03, Protein Crystal Growth Ill Block Il, Space Acceleration Measure-ment System (SAMS), Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE)-02, Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE).
  • TDRS 5 - . Payload: TDRS E. Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 21639 . COSPAR: 1991-054B. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. NASA communications; 174 deg W; deployed from STS-43 8/2/91. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 174 deg W in 1991-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 174.28 deg W drifting at 0.011 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 171.61W drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.

1991 August 10 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Columbia overhauled at Palmdale - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: Columbia. The orbiter returned to service on 9 February 1992. 62 modifications were made, including replacement of the nose cap; removal of the SEADS and SUMS experiment packages; new Auxiliary Power Units installed; carbon brakes and a drag chute installed; Orbiter 6.0 structural modifications made; AP-101S General Purpose Computers replaced the older AP-101P's; and the Thermal Protection System was reworked.

1991 August 11 - .
1991 September 12 - . 23:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-48.
  • STS-48 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Brown, Mark; Buchli; Creighton; Gemar; Reightler. Payload: Discovery F13 / UARS. Mass: 7,854 kg (17,315 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown, Mark; Buchli; Creighton; Gemar; Reightler. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-48. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 5.35 days. Decay Date: 1991-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 21700 . COSPAR: 1991-063A. Apogee: 580 km (360 mi). Perigee: 575 km (357 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 96.20 min. Manned five crew. Deployed UARS; conducted materials and biological research. Payloads: Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM)-03, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE)-01, Protein Crystal Growth (PCG)-ll-2, Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics, Experiment (MODE)-01, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP)-04, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM-02), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll-06, Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM)-03, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

1991 September 18 - .
1991 November 24 - . 23:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-44.
  • STS-44 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Gregory; Hennen; Henricks; Musgrave; Runco; Voss. Payload: Atlantis F10 / DSP 16 [IUS]. Mass: 20,242 kg (44,625 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gregory; Hennen; Henricks; Musgrave; Runco; Voss. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-44. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 6.95 days. Decay Date: 1991-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21795 . COSPAR: 1991-080A. Apogee: 371 km (230 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Manned six crew. Deployed Defense Support Program satellite. Payloads: Defense Support Program satellite/ Inertial Upper Stage, Interim Operational Contamination Monitor, Terra Scout, Military Man in Space, Shuttle Activation Monitor, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor, Radiation Monitoring Equipment Ill, Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument, Visual Function Tester 1.

1991 December 2 - .
1992 January 22 - . 14:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-42.
  • STS-42 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bondar; Grabe; Hilmers; Merbold; Oswald; Readdy; Thagard. Payload: Discovery F14 / GBA-3. Mass: 13,001 kg (28,662 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bondar; Grabe; Hilmers; Merbold; Oswald; Readdy; Thagard. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-42. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.05 days. Decay Date: 1992-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21846 . COSPAR: 1992-002A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Manned seven crew. Carried International Microgravity Laboratory-1. Payloads: International Microgravity Laboratory (lML)-1, getaway special (GAS) bridge with 10 getaway specials, IMAX camera, Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR)-1, Investigations Into Polymer Mem-brane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll, Student Experiment 81-09: Convection in Zero Gravity, Student Experiment 83-02: Capillary Rise of Liquid Through Granular Porous Media.
  • GBA-3 - . Payload: GAS Bridge. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21846 . COSPAR: 1992-002xx. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 286 km (177 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

1992 February 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Discovery OMDP-1 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: Discovery. Shuttle Discovery undergoes its OMDP-1 Orbiter Maintenance Down Period at the Kennedy Space Center. These are undertaken every 10 to 12 shuttle missions. 70 modifications are made, including addition of a brake chute, structural inspection, and thermal protection system refit.

1992 March 24 - . 13:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-45.
  • STS-45 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Bolden; Duffy; Foale; Frimout; Leestma; Lichtenberg; Sullivan. Payload: Atlantis F11 / Atlas 1 Fwd. Mass: 8,020 kg (17,680 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden; Duffy; Foale; Frimout; Leestma; Lichtenberg; Sullivan. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-45. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 8.92 days. Decay Date: 1992-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 21915 . COSPAR: 1992-015A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 282 km (175 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Manned seven crew. Carried ATLAS-1 experimental package. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS)-1, Shuttle Solar Backscat-ter Ultraviolet (SSBUV)-4, Getaway Special Experiment G-229, Space Tissue Loss (STL)-1, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lIl, Visual Function Tester (VFT)-lI, Cloud Logic To Opti-mize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS)-1A, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Process-ing (IPMP), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-Il, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl).
  • Atlas 1 Aft - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 21915 . COSPAR: 1992-015xx. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 283 km (175 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min.
  • Atlas 1 Fwd - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 21915 . COSPAR: 1992-015xx. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 283 km (175 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min.

1992 May 7 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-49.
  • STS-49 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Akers; Brandenstein; Chilton; Hieb; Melnick; Thornton; Thuot. Payload: Endeavour F01 / Intelsat 6 SRM. Mass: 14,786 kg (32,597 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Akers; Brandenstein; Chilton; Hieb; Melnick; Thornton; Thuot. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-49. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 8.89 days. Decay Date: 1992-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 21963 . COSPAR: 1992-026A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 268 km (166 mi). Inclination: 28.3000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Retrieved Intelsat 6 and attached new SRM. First active dual rendezvous of two orbiting spacecraft (Endeavour and Intelsat-Vl). First deployment of a drag chute on the orbiter fleet. Payloads: Intelsat-Vl reboost mission hardware, Assembly of Station by EVA Methods (ASEM), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl).
  • MPESS-ASEM - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 21963 . COSPAR: 1992-026xx. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 344 km (213 mi). Inclination: 28.3000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
  • Orbus 21S - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. COSPAR: 1992-026xx.
  • Intelsat Cradle - . Nation: International. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 21963 . COSPAR: 1992-026xx. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 344 km (213 mi). Inclination: 28.3000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.

1992 May 11 - . 20:40 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-49-1 - . Crew: Thuot; Hieb. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.16 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thuot; Hieb. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-49. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Summary: Attempted capture of Intelsat V1..

1992 May 12 - . 21:05 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-49-2 - . Crew: Thuot; Hieb. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.23 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thuot; Hieb. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-49. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Summary: Second attempted capture of Intelsat V1..

1992 May 14 - . 21:17 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-49-3 - . Crew: Thuot; Hieb; Akers. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.35 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thuot; Hieb; Akers. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-49. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Summary: Intelsat V1 finally captured in first three-person spacewalk..

1992 May 15 - .
  • EVA STS-49-4 - . Crew: Thornton; Akers. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.32 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thornton; Akers. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-49. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Summary: Tested tools and techniques for assembly of the International Space Station..

1992 May 16 - .
1992 June 25 - . 16:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-50.
  • STS-50 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Baker; Bowersox; DeLucas; Dunbar; Meade; Richards; Trinh. Payload: Columbia F12 / USML-1 / OAST. Mass: 11,153 kg (24,588 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Baker; Bowersox; DeLucas; Dunbar; Meade; Richards; Trinh. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-50. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 13.81 days. Decay Date: 1992-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22000 . COSPAR: 1992-034A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 302 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Carried United States Microgravity Laboratory. First extended-duration mission. Payloads: United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-1; Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE); Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-ll; Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl) .
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22000 . COSPAR: 1992-034xx. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 245 km (152 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.

1992 July 31 - . 13:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-46.
  • STS-46 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Allen, Andy; Chang-Diaz; Hoffman; Ivins; Malerba; Nicollier; Shriver. Payload: Atlantis F12 / Eureca 1 / TSS 1. Mass: 12,965 kg (28,582 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen, Andy; Chang-Diaz; Hoffman; Ivins; Malerba; Nicollier; Shriver. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-46. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 7.97 days. Decay Date: 1992-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22064 . COSPAR: 1992-049A. Apogee: 437 km (271 mi). Perigee: 425 km (264 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Manned seven crew. Deployed Eureca-1; failed to deploy Italian tether probe TSS-1. Payloads: Tethered Satellite System (TSS)-1; European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA)-1L; Evaluation of Oxygen Integration with Materials (EOlM)-lll/ Thermal Energy Management Processes (TEMP)-2A; Consortium for Materials Development In Space Complex Autonomous Payloads (CONCAP)-ll and Ill; IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC); Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE); Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF); Ultravio-let Plume Instrument (UVPl).
  • TSS-1 PLT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22064 . COSPAR: 1992-049xx. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.10 min.
  • TSS-1 MPESS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22064 . COSPAR: 1992-049xx. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.10 min.
  • TSS-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. COSPAR: 1992-049xx.
  • EOIM-3/TEMP2A-3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22064 . COSPAR: 1992-049xx. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.10 min.

1992 August 8 - .
1992 September 12 - . 14:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-47.
  • STS-47 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Apt; Brown; Davis; Gibson; Jemison; Lee; Mohri. Payload: Endeavour F02 / Spacelab-J. Mass: 12,772 kg (28,157 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt; Brown; Davis; Gibson; Jemison; Lee; Mohri. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-47. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 7.94 days. Decay Date: 1992-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 22120 . COSPAR: 1992-061A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 297 km (184 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned seven crew. Carried Spacelab-J with microgravity and biology experiments. Payloads: Spacelab-J, nine getaway special canister experiments, Israel Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Solid Surface Combus-tion Experiment (SSCE).
  • GAS Bridge - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 22120 . COSPAR: 1992-061xx. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 297 km (184 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

1992 October 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Atlantis OMDP-1 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Shuttle Atlantis undergoes its OMDP-1 Orbiter Maintenance Down Period at the Palmdale, returning to service in May 1994. These are undertaken every 10 to 12 shuttle missions. Modifications made include: nose wheel steering changes, EDO cargo pallet provisions, and Mir ODS docking system fitting. Provisions for the Long Duration Orbiter 28-day pallet are installed, and 331 Master Change Requests are implemented.

1992 October 22 - . 17:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-52.
  • STS-52 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Baker, Mike; Jernigan; MacLean; Shepherd; Veach; Wetherbee. Payload: Columbia F13 / Lageos 2 [Iris] / CTA. Mass: 9,106 kg (20,075 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Baker, Mike; Jernigan; MacLean; Shepherd; Veach; Wetherbee. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-52. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 9.87 days. Decay Date: 1992-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22194 . COSPAR: 1992-070A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 304 km (188 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Deployed Lageos 2, CTA. Payloads: Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS) II/ Italian Research Interim Stage (IRIS), Canadian Experiments (CANEX) 2, United States Micro-gravity Payload (USMP) 1, Attitude Sensor Pack-age (ASP), Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Heat Pipe Performance (HPP) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), Commercial Materials ITA Experiment (CMIX), Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE).
  • USMP-1 Fwd - . Payload: MPESS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22194 . COSPAR: 1992-070xx. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.
  • USMP-1 Aft - . Payload: MPESS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22194 . COSPAR: 1992-070xx. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.
  • CTA - . Payload: Columbia F13 / Lageos 2 [Iris] / CTA. Mass: 82 kg (180 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: CSA. Program: STS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CTA. Decay Date: 1992-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22214 . COSPAR: 1992-070C. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Canadian Target Assembly; deployed from STS-52 10/22/92. .

1992 November 1 - .
1992 November 8 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Columbia OMDP-1 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: Columbia. Shuttle Columbia begins its OMDP-1 Orbiter Maintenance Down Period at the Palmdale, returning to service in 1995 for the STS-73 mission. These are undertaken every 10 to 12 shuttle missions. Modifications made included a complete mid-life refurbishment, corrosion control on the wing leading edge spar, and implementation of 96 Master Change Requests.

1992 December 2 - . 13:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-53.
  • STS-53 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bluford; Cabana; Clifford; Voss; Walker, Dave. Payload: Discovery F15 / USA-89. Mass: 11,868 kg (26,164 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford; Cabana; Clifford; Voss; Walker, Dave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-53. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.31 days. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 365 km (226 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Manned five crew. Deployed classified military satellite USA 89. The ODERACS payload was unable to be deployed because of payload equipment malfunction. Payloads: Department of Defense (DOD)1; Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); Orbital Debris Radar Calibration System (ODERACS); Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); Cloud Logic To Optimize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS) 1A; Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Equipment (FARE); Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HER-CULES); Microencapsulation in Space (MIS)-1; Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME) III; Spare Tissue Loss (STL); Visual Function Tester (VFT)2.
  • ODERACS F - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086xx. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.
  • ODERACS A - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086xx. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.
  • ODERACS C - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086xx. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.
  • ODERACS E - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086xx. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.
  • ODERACS B - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086xx. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.
  • ODERACS D - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22259 . COSPAR: 1992-086xx. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 317 km (196 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.

1992 December 9 - .
1993 January 13 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-54.
  • STS-54 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Casper; Harbaugh; Helms; McMonagle; Runco. Payload: Endeavour F03 / TDRS 6 [IUS]. Mass: 21,156 kg (46,640 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Casper; Harbaugh; Helms; McMonagle; Runco. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-54. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 5.98 days. Decay Date: 1993-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 22313 . COSPAR: 1993-003A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 302 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRSS 6. Payloads: Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-F/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS); Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer (DXS); Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX); Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) A; Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE) 02; Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE).
  • TDRS 6 - . Payload: TDRS F. Mass: 2,530 kg (5,570 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 22314 . COSPAR: 1993-003B. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. NASA communications; deployed from STS-54 1/13/93. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 150 deg W in 1993; 138 deg W in 1993; 46 deg W in 1994-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 46.99 deg W drifting at 0.017 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 173.51W drifting at 0.006E degrees per day.

1993 January 17 - .
  • EVA STS-54-1 - . Crew: Harbaugh; Runco. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.18 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Harbaugh; Runco. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-54. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Summary: Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity..

1993 January 19 - .
1993 March 22 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Columbia Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-55. Spacecraft: Columbia. The countdown for Columbia's launch was halted by on-board computers at T-3 seconds following a problem with purge pressure readings in the oxidizer preburner on main engine #2 Columbia's three main engines were replaced on the launch pad, and the flight was rescheduled behind Discovery's launch on STS-56. Columbia finally launched on April 26, 1993.

1993 April 8 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-56.
  • STS-56 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Cameron; Cockrell; Foale; Ochoa; Oswald. Payload: Discovery F16 / Spartan 201-F1 / Atlas-2. Mass: 7,441 kg (16,404 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cameron; Cockrell; Foale; Ochoa; Oswald. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-56. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 9.26 days. Decay Date: 1993-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 22621 . COSPAR: 1993-023A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Manned five crew. Carried Atlas-2; deployed and retrieved Spartan 201. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 2, Shuttle Solar Backscat-ter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) A, Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201 (Solar Wind Generation Experi-ment), Solar Ultraviolet Experiment (SUVE), Commercial Material Dispersion Apparatus (CMIX), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting, and Environmental System (HER-CULES), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Space Tissue Loss (STL), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME) III.
  • SPTN-SFSS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1993-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 22621 . COSPAR: 1993-023xx. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.
  • Atlas-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1993-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 22621 . COSPAR: 1993-023xx. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.
  • Spartan 201 - . Mass: 1,289 kg (2,841 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1993-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22623 . COSPAR: 1993-023B. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Studied solar corona and galaxy; deployed from STS-56 4/11/93; Shuttle Point Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy; retrieved 4/13/93..

1993 April 26 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-55.
  • STS-55 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Harris; Henricks; Nagel; Precourt; Ross; Schlegel; Walter. Payload: Columbia F14/USS/Spacelab D-2 LM. Mass: 12,185 kg (26,863 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Harris; Henricks; Nagel; Precourt; Ross; Schlegel; Walter. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-55. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 9.99 days. Decay Date: 1993-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 22640 . COSPAR: 1993-027A. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 304 km (188 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. Summary: Manned seven crew. Carried German Spacelab-D2. Payloads: Spacelab D-2 with long module, unique support structure (USS), and Reaction Kinetics in Glass Melts (RKGM) getaway special, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II..
  • USS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. COSPAR: 1993-027xx.

1993 June 21 - . 13:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-57.
  • STS-57 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Currie; Duffy; Grabe; Low; Voss, Janice; Wisoff. Payload: Endeavour F04 / GBA-5. Mass: 8,931 kg (19,689 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Currie; Duffy; Grabe; Low; Voss, Janice; Wisoff. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-57. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 9.99 days. Decay Date: 1993-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22684 . COSPAR: 1993-037A. Apogee: 471 km (292 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Manned six crew. Carried Spacehab 1; retrieved Eureca-1 spacecraft. Payloads: Spacehab 01, retrieval of European Retriev-able Carrier (EURECA) Satellite, Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT), Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload (CONCAP)-IV, Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), GAS bridge assembly with 12 getaway special payloads.
  • GBA-5 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1993-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22684 . COSPAR: 1993-037xx. Apogee: 472 km (293 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.
  • Spacehab SH-01 - . Payload: Spacehab 1. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1993-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22684 . COSPAR: 1993-037xx. Apogee: 472 km (293 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.
  • SHOOT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1993-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22684 . COSPAR: 1993-037xx. Apogee: 472 km (293 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.

1993 June 25 - .
  • EVA STS-57-1 - . Crew: Low; Wisoff. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.24 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low; Wisoff. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-57. Spacecraft: Endeavour; HST. Summary: Latched Eureca antenna. Conducted tests to refine procedures for servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope and construction of the International Space Station.

1993 August 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Discovery Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-51. Spacecraft: Discovery. The countdown for Discovery's third launch attempt ended at the T-3 second mark when on-board computers detected the failure of one of four sensors in main engine #2 which monitor the flow of hydrogen fuel to the engine. All of Discovery's main engines were ordered replaced on the launch pad, delaying the Shuttle's fourth launch attempt until September 12, 1993.

1993 September 12 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-51.
  • STS-51 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bursch; Culbertson; Newman; Readdy; Walz. Payload: Discovery F17 / ACTS [TOS-21H] / Orfeus-SPAS 01. Mass: 19,360 kg (42,680 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bursch; Culbertson; Newman; Readdy; Walz. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 9.84 days. Decay Date: 1993-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 22795 . COSPAR: 1993-058A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Deployed and retrieved Orfeus-SPAS. During the EVA conducted tests in support of the Hubble Space Telescope first servicing mission and future EVAs, including Space Station assembly and maintenance. First night landing at KSC. Payloads: Advanced Communication Technology Sat-ellite (ACTS)/Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS), Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer—Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) with Remote IMAX Camera System (RICS), Limited Duration Space Environ-ment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE) (Beam Configuration C), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG Block II), Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectroscopy-A (HRSGS-A), Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), Investigation into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equip-ment (RME-III), Air Force Maui Optical Site Cal-ibration Test (AMOS), IMAX In-Cabin Camera.

1993 September 16 - . 08:40 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-51-1 - . Crew: Walz; Newman. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.30 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walz; Newman. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51. Spacecraft: Discovery. Summary: Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity..

1993 September 22 - .
1993 October 18 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-58.
  • STS-58 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Blaha; Fettman; Lucid; McArthur; Searfoss; Seddon; Wolf. Payload: Columbia F15 / EDO. Mass: 10,517 kg (23,186 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Blaha; Fettman; Lucid; McArthur; Searfoss; Seddon; Wolf. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-58. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 14.01 days. Decay Date: 1993-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22869 . COSPAR: 1993-065A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Biological, microgravity experiments aboard Spacelab 2. Payloads: Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS) 2, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II..
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1993-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22869 . COSPAR: 1993-065xx. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi). Perigee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.90 min.

1993 December 2 - . 09:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-61.
  • STS-61 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Akers; Bowersox; Covey; Hoffman; Musgrave; Nicollier; Thornton. Payload: Endeavour F05 / FSS. Mass: 8,011 kg (17,661 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Akers; Bowersox; Covey; Hoffman; Musgrave; Nicollier; Thornton. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 10.83 days. Decay Date: 1993-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22917 . COSPAR: 1993-075A. Apogee: 576 km (357 mi). Perigee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Manned seven crew. Hubble repair mission. Conducted the most EVAs (5) on a Space Shuttle Flight to that date. Payloads: Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission (SM) 1, IMAX Camera, IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS).
  • SAC - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1993-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22917 . COSPAR: 1993-075xx. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi). Perigee: 592 km (367 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.60 min.
  • FSS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1993-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22917 . COSPAR: 1993-075xx. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi). Perigee: 592 km (367 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.60 min.
  • ORUC - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1993-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22917 . COSPAR: 1993-075xx. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi). Perigee: 592 km (367 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.60 min.

1993 December 5 - . 03:44 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-61-1 - . Crew: Hoffman; Musgrave. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.33 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoffman; Musgrave. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61. Spacecraft: Endeavour; HST. Summary: Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1 - gyroscope replacement..

1993 December 6 - . 03:29 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-61-2 - . Crew: Thornton; Akers. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thornton; Akers. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61. Spacecraft: Endeavour; HST. Summary: Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1 - solar array replacement..

1993 December 7 - . 03:35 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-61-3 - . Crew: Hoffman; Musgrave. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoffman; Musgrave. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61. Spacecraft: Endeavour; HST. Summary: Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1 - WFPC-P installation..

1993 December 8 - . 03:13 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-61-4 - . Crew: Thornton; Akers. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thornton; Akers. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61. Spacecraft: Endeavour; HST. Summary: Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1 - COSTAR installation..

1993 December 9 - . 03:30 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-61-5 - . Crew: Hoffman; Musgrave. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.31 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoffman; Musgrave. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61. Spacecraft: Endeavour; HST. Summary: Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1 - solar array drive replacement..

1994 February 3 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-60.
  • STS-60 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bolden; Chang-Diaz; Davis; Krikalyov; Reightler; Sega. Backup Crew: Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Discovery F18 / GBA-6. Mass: 13,006 kg (28,673 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden; Chang-Diaz; Davis; Krikalyov; Reightler; Sega; Titov, Vladimir. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-60. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.30 days. Decay Date: 1994-02-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 348 km (216 mi). Inclination: 56.4000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Deployed ODERACS A-F, Bremsat, carried Wake Shield Facility. Payloads: Wake Shield Facility (WSF) 1 and SPACEHAB 02. Getaway special bridge assembly experiments: Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL), Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS), University of Bremen Satellite (BREMSAT), G-514, G-071, and G-536. Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II; Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).
  • Spacehab SH-02 - . Payload: Spacehab 2. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1994-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
  • Wake Shield Facility - . Payload: WSF. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
  • GBA-6 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.

1994 March 4 - . 13:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-62.
  • STS-62 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Allen, Andy; Casper; Gemar; Ivins; Thuot. Payload: Columbia F16 / USMP-2 / OAST-2. Mass: 8,870 kg (19,550 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen, Andy; Casper; Gemar; Ivins; Thuot. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-62. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 13.97 days. Decay Date: 1994-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 23025 . COSPAR: 1994-015A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Carried USMP-2, OAST-2, SAMPIE, TES, EISG. Payloads: United States Microgravity Payload (USMP) 2, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) 2, Dexterous End Effector (DEE), Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), Limited-Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Auroral Photography Experiment Phase B (APE-B), Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test, Bioreactor Demonstration System A.
  • USMP-2 Fwd - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23025 . COSPAR: 1994-015xx. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.
  • USMP-2 Aft - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23025 . COSPAR: 1994-015xx. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.
  • OAST-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23025 . COSPAR: 1994-015xx. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23025 . COSPAR: 1994-015xx. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.

1994 March 18 - .
1994 April 9 - . 11:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-59.
  • STS-59 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Apt; Chilton; Clifford; Godwin; Gutierrez; Jones. Payload: Endeavour F06 / MAPS. Mass: 12,490 kg (27,530 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt; Chilton; Clifford; Godwin; Gutierrez; Jones. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-59. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 11.24 days. Decay Date: 1994-04-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 23042 . COSPAR: 1994-020A. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Carried SIR-C SAR radar. Payloads: Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) 1; Consortium for Materials Development in Space Com-plex Autonomous Payload (CONCAP) IV; three getaway special (GAS) payloads; Space Tissue Loss (STL) A, B; Visual Function Tester (VFT) 4; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II.
  • SRL-1 - . Payload: SRL PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23042 . COSPAR: 1994-020xx. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.
  • MAPS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23042 . COSPAR: 1994-020xx. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

1994 April 20 - .
1994 July 8 - . 16:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-65.
  • STS-65 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Cabana; Chiao; Halsell; Hieb; Mukai; Thomas; Walz. Backup Crew: Favier. Payload: Columbia F17 / EDO. Mass: 10,811 kg (23,834 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cabana; Chiao; Halsell; Hieb; Mukai; Thomas; Walz; Favier. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-65. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 14.75 days. Decay Date: 1994-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 23173 . COSPAR: 1994-039A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Carried IML-2; microgravity, biology experiments. Payloads: International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) 2, Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX).
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 23173 . COSPAR: 1994-039xx. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.40 min.

1994 August 18 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Endeavour Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-68. Spacecraft: Endeavour. The countdown for Endeavour's first launch attempt ended 1.9 seconds before liftoff when on-board computers detected higher than acceptable readings in one channel of a sensor monitoring the discharge temperature of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump in main engine #3. A test firing of the engine at the Stennis Space Center in Mississippi on September 2nd confirmed that a slight drift in a fuel flow meter in the engine caused a slight increase in the turbopump's temperature. The test firing also confirmed a slightly slower start for main engine #3 during the pad abort, which could have contributed to the higher temperatures. After Endeavour was brought back to the Vehicle Assembly Building to be outfitted with three replacement engines, NASA managers set October 2nd as the date for Endeavour's second launch attempt.

1994 September 9 - . 22:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-64.
  • STS-64 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Hammond; Helms; Lee; Linenger; Meade; Richards. Payload: Discovery F19 / Spartan / LITE. Mass: 9,260 kg (20,410 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hammond; Helms; Lee; Linenger; Meade; Richards. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-64. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 10.95 days. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23251 . COSPAR: 1994-059A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Payloads: Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201-II, Robot-Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX), getaway special (GAS) bridge assembly with ten GAS experiments, Trajectory Control Sensor (TCS), Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) III, Radiation Monitoring Experiment (RME) III, Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.
  • LITE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23251 . COSPAR: 1994-059xx. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.
  • GBA-7 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23251 . COSPAR: 1994-059xx. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.
  • Spartan 201 - . Mass: 1,288 kg (2,839 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23253 . COSPAR: 1994-059B. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 252 km (156 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.68 min. Summary: Deployed from STS-64 9/13/94; retrieved 9/15/94; solar studies..

1994 September 16 - . 14:42 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-64-1 - . Crew: Lee; Meade. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lee; Meade. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-64. Spacecraft: Discovery. Summary: Tested SAFER emergency manoeuvring backpack..

1994 September 20 - .
1994 September 30 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-68.
  • STS-68 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Baker, Mike; Bursch; Jones; Smith, Steven; Wilcutt; Wisoff. Payload: Endeavour F07 / SRL-2. Mass: 12,510 kg (27,570 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Baker, Mike; Bursch; Jones; Smith, Steven; Wilcutt; Wisoff. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-68. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 11.24 days. Decay Date: 1994-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23285 . COSPAR: 1994-062A. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Carried SIR-C SAR. Landed at Edwards Air Force Base on October 11. Payloads: Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) 2, five Getaway Special payloads, Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX) 5, Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) 01, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG).
  • MAPS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23285 . COSPAR: 1994-062xx. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.
  • SRL-2 - . Payload: SRL PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23285 . COSPAR: 1994-062xx. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

1994 October 11 - .
1994 November 3 - . 16:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-66.
  • STS-66 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Brown; Clervoy; McMonagle; Ochoa; Parazynski; Tanner. Payload: Atlantis F13 / Atlas-3. Mass: 10,544 kg (23,245 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Clervoy; McMonagle; Ochoa; Parazynski; Tanner. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-66. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 10.94 days. Decay Date: 1994-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 23340 . COSPAR: 1994-073A. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Carried Atlas-3 laboratory; deployed and retrieved CRISTA-SPAS. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 3, Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmo-sphere (CRISTA)-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) 1, Experiment of the Sun for Complement-ing the ATLAS Payload for Education (ESCAPE) II, Inter-Mars Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (ITEPC), Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) A, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE/NIH-R), Protein Crystal Growth (PCG-TES and PCG-STES), Space Tissue Loss (STL/NIH-C-A), Shuttle Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), Heat Pipe Performance (HPP).
  • Atlas-3 - . Payload: Atlas-3 PLT/Igloo. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1994-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 23340 . COSPAR: 1994-073xx. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

1995 February 3 - . 05:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-63.
  • Spartan 204 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1995-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23470 . COSPAR: 1995-004B. Apogee: 389 km (241 mi). Perigee: 388 km (241 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Summary: Retrievable payload to observe galactic dust in far UV; deployed from STS 63 2/7/95, retrieved 2/9/95..

1995 February 9 - . 11:56 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-63-1 - . Crew: Foale; Harris. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.19 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Foale; Harris. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-63. Spacecraft: Discovery. Summary: Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity..

1995 March 2 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-67.
  • STS-67 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Durrance; Gregory, William; Grunsfeld; Jernigan; Lawrence; Oswald; Parise. Payload: Endeavour F08 / ASTRO-2 Fwd. Mass: 13,116 kg (28,915 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Durrance; Gregory, William; Grunsfeld; Jernigan; Lawrence; Oswald; Parise. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-67. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 16.63 days. Decay Date: 1995-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23500 . COSPAR: 1995-007A. Apogee: 305 km (189 mi). Perigee: 305 km (189 mi). Inclination: 28.4500 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Carried Astro 2 astronomy payload with 3 UV telescopes.(attached to Endeavour).Payloads: Ultraviolet Astronomy (ASTRO) 2; Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE); Protein Crystal Growth—Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) 03; Protein Crystal Growth—Single-Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) 02; Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Minilab/Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc. Experiments (CMIX) 03; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II; two getaway special experiments.
  • ASTRO-2 Aft - . Payload: ASTRO-2 PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1995-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23500 . COSPAR: 1995-007xx. Apogee: 363 km (225 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1995-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23500 . COSPAR: 1995-007xx. Apogee: 363 km (225 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.
  • ASTRO-2 Fwd - . Payload: ASTRO-2 PLT + Igloo. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1995-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23500 . COSPAR: 1995-007xx. Apogee: 363 km (225 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.

1995 July 13 - . 13:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-70.
  • STS-70 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Currie; Henricks; Kregel; Thomas; Weber. Payload: Discovery F21 / TDRS 7 [IUS]. Mass: 20,159 kg (44,442 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Currie; Henricks; Kregel; Thomas; Weber. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-70. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.93 days. Decay Date: 1995-07-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 23612 . COSPAR: 1995-035A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 257 km (159 mi). Inclination: 28.4500 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Deployed TDRS 7. Payloads: Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) G/ Inertial Upper Stage (IUS); Bioreactor Demon-stration System (BDS) B; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC); Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG); Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HER-CULES); Microcapsules in Space (MIS) B; Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE)/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Rodents (R); Radiation Monitoring Experiment (RME) III; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II; Space Tissue Loss (STL)/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Cells (C); Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST); Visual Function Tester (VFT) 4; Window Experiment (WINDEX).
  • TDRS 7 - . Payload: TDRS G. Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 23613 . COSPAR: 1995-035B. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 5.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. NASA communications; deployed from STS-70 on 7/13/95. Stationed at 149.8 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 150 deg W in 1995-1996; 171 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 171.48 deg W drifting at 0.017 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 150.85W drifting at 0.002E degrees per day.

1995 July 22 - .
1995 September 7 - . 15:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-69.
  • STS-69 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Cockrell; Gernhardt; Newman; Voss; Walker, Dave. Payload: Endeavour F09 / Spartan / WSF. Mass: 11,499 kg (25,350 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cockrell; Gernhardt; Newman; Voss; Walker, Dave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-69. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 10.85 days. Decay Date: 1995-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23667 . COSPAR: 1995-048A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 321 km (199 mi). Inclination: 28.4500 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 201, WSF 2. Payloads: Wake Shield Facility (WSF) 2; Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for As-tronomy (SPARTAN) 201; International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH)1; Inter-Mars Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (ITEPC); Extravehicular Activity Development Flight Test (EDFT) 2; Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL) 2/ getaway special (GAS) bridge assembly with five GAS payloads; Auroral Photography Experiment (APE) B; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC); Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Configuration A; Electrolysis Perfor-mance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS); Space Tissue Loss (STL)/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Cells (C); Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX).
  • IEH-1 - . Payload: IEH-1/HH-M. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1995-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23667 . COSPAR: 1995-048xx. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 339 km (210 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.40 min.
  • GBA-8/CAPL - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1995-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23667 . COSPAR: 1995-048xx. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 339 km (210 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.40 min.
  • Spartan 201 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1995-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23668 . COSPAR: 1995-048B. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Summary: Released by STS-69 9/8/95; retrieved 9/10/95; examined solar corona..

1995 September 16 - . 08:20 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-69-1 - . Crew: Voss; Gernhardt. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Voss; Gernhardt. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-69. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Summary: Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity..

1995 September 18 - .
1995 September 27 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Discovery OMDP-2 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: Discovery. During this overhaul 96 Master Change Requests are made, including installation of the Orbiter Docking System for space station operations, installation of the EDO cargo pallet, and repair and update of the thermal protection system. Discovery is returned to service in July 1996.

1995 October 20 - . 13:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-73.
  • STS-73 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Bowersox; Coleman; Leslie; Lopez-Alegria; Rominger; Sacco; Thornton. Payload: Columbia F18 / Spacelab LM / EDO. Mass: 15,250 kg (33,620 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bowersox; Coleman; Leslie; Lopez-Alegria; Rominger; Sacco; Thornton. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-73. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.91 days. Decay Date: 1995-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 23688 . COSPAR: 1995-056A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 241 km (149 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Carried USML-2 for microgravity experiments (attached to Columbia). Payloads: United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) 2, Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE)..
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1995-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 23688 . COSPAR: 1995-056xx. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.

1996 January 11 - . 09:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-72.
  • STS-72 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Barry; Chiao; Duffy; Jett; Scott, Winston; Wakata. Payload: Endeavour F10 / OAST / FSU. Mass: 6,510 kg (14,350 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Barry; Chiao; Duffy; Jett; Scott, Winston; Wakata. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-72. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 8.92 days. Decay Date: 1996-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23762 . COSPAR: 1996-001A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 302 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Summary: Deployed and retrieved OAST Flyer; retrieved SFU Space Flyer Unit. Beside the two satellite retrievals, the mission included two spacewalks..
  • SLA-1/GAS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1996-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23762 . COSPAR: 1996-001xx. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 302 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

1996 January 15 - . 05:35 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-72-1 - . Crew: Chiao; Barry. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.26 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Chiao; Barry. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-72. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Summary: Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity..

1996 January 17 - . 05:40 GMT - .
1996 January 20 - .
1996 February 22 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-75.
  • STS-75 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Allen, Andy; Chang-Diaz; Cheli; Guidoni; Hoffman; Horowitz; Nicollier. Payload: Columbia F19 / USMP-3 Aft. Mass: 10,592 kg (23,351 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen, Andy; Chang-Diaz; Cheli; Guidoni; Hoffman; Horowitz; Nicollier. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-75. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.74 days. Decay Date: 1996-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 23801 . COSPAR: 1996-012A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Carried TSS-1R tether satellite; satellite tether broke during deployment, making TSS-1R an unintentional free flyer

    Payloads: Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Reflight (1R); Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) (part of United States Microgravity Payload 3); USMP-3; Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) 09, Block IV; Middeck Glovebox Experiment (MGBX) (part of USMP-3). During the deployment of TSS, the tether broke and the satellite was lost.

  • TSS-1R MPESS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1996-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 23801 . COSPAR: 1996-012xx. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.
  • TSS-1R Deployer - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1996-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 23801 . COSPAR: 1996-012xx. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.
  • USMP-3 Aft - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1996-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 23801 . COSPAR: 1996-012xx. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1996-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 23801 . COSPAR: 1996-012xx. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.
  • TSS-1 - . Payload: TSS-1R. Nation: Italy. Agency: ASI. Program: STS. Class: Technology. Type: Tether technology satellite. Spacecraft: TSS. Decay Date: 1996-03-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 23805 . COSPAR: 1996-012B. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 88.10 min. Summary: LEO. Tether deployment test; 20 km long tether; satellite unintentionally deployed when tether broke 2/25/96 Reentered Mar 19..
  • USMP-3 Fwd - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1996-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 23801 . COSPAR: 1996-012xx. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.

1996 March 9 - .
1996 May 19 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-77.
  • STS-77 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Brown; Bursch; Casper; Garneau; Runco; Thomas, Andrew. Payload: Endeavour F11 / GBA-9. Mass: 12,233 kg (26,969 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Bursch; Casper; Garneau; Runco; Thomas, Andrew. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-77. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 10.03 days. Decay Date: 1996-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23870 . COSPAR: 1996-032A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 2; deployed PAMS-STU; carried Spacehab module. Payloads: Shuttle Pointed Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE); Technology Experiments Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS) 01 (includes Vented Tank Resupply Experiment (VTRE), Global Positioning System (GPS) Attitude and Navigation Experiment (GANE) (RME 1316), Liquid Metal Test Experiment (LMTE) and Passive Aerodynami-cally Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite (PAMS) Satellite Test Unit (STU); SPACEHAB-4; Brilliant Eyes Ten-Kelvin Sorption Cryocooler Experiment (BETSCE); 12 getaway specials attached to a GAS bridge assembly (GAS 056, 063, 142, 144, 163, 200, 490, 564, 565, 703, 741 and the Reduced-Fill Tank Pressure Control Experiment (RFTPCE); Aquatic Research Facility (ARF) 01; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) 07, Block III.
  • Spacehab 4 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1996-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23870 . COSPAR: 1996-032xx. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.10 min.
  • Spartan 207 - . Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1996-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23871 . COSPAR: 1996-032B. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 278 km (172 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: LEO. Deployed from STS 77 on 5/20/96; retrieved 5/21/96; deployed IAEsatellite during free flight..
  • TEAMS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1996-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23870 . COSPAR: 1996-032xx. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.10 min.
  • GBA-9 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1996-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23870 . COSPAR: 1996-032xx. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.10 min.

1996 June 20 - . 14:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-78.
  • STS-78 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Brady; Favier; Helms; Henricks; Kregel; Linnehan; Thirsk. Payload: Columbia F20 / EDO. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brady; Favier; Helms; Henricks; Kregel; Linnehan; Thirsk. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-78. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 16.91 days. Decay Date: 1996-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 23931 . COSPAR: 1996-036A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Columbia carried Terence T Henricks, Kevin R Kregel, Susan J Helms, Richard M Linnehan, Charles E Brady, Jr, Jean-Jacques Favier, and Robert Brent Thirsk to orbit. Main payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab for conducting human biological and microgravity experiments. Columbia landed safely at Kennedy Space Center on July 7.
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1996-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 23931 . COSPAR: 1996-036xx. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.

1996 August 6 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Endeavour OMDP-1 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Summary: Shuttle Endeavour undergoes its OMDP-1 Orbiter Maintenance Down Period at Palmdale, returning to service on 4 April 1997. These overhauls are undertaken every 10 to 12 shuttle missions..

1996 November 19 - . 19:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-80.
  • STS-80 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Cockrell; Rominger; Musgrave; Jernigan; Jones. Payload: Columbia F21 / Orfeus / WSF. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cockrell; Rominger; Musgrave; Jernigan; Jones. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-80. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 17.66 days. Decay Date: 1996-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24660 . COSPAR: 1996-065A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 318 km (197 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Mission STS-80 carried the Orfeus astronomy satellite, the Wake Shield Facility, and spacewalk equipment. The Orfeus satellite was deployed on November 20. It carried an ultraviolet telescope and spectrographs. Wake Shield Facility was deployed on November 22 and retrieved on November 26 . On 1996 Nov 29, crewmembers Tamara Jernigan and Thomas Jones were to conduct the first of several planned EVAs. However the shuttle's exit hatch would not open and NASA cancelled this and the other planned spacewalks of the mission. On December 4 at the astronauts retrieved the Orfeus satellite using the RMS arm. Reentry attempts on Dec 5 and Dec 6 were called off due to bad weather. Columbia finally landed at 11:49 GMT December 7 on Runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center, making STS-80 the longest shuttle mission to that date .
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1996-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24660 . COSPAR: 1996-065xx. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 318 km (197 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.

1996 December 7 - .
1997 February 11 - . 08:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-82.
  • STS-82 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bowersox; Horowitz; Lee; Tanner; Hawley; Harbaugh; Smith, Steven. Payload: Discovery F22 / SAC. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bowersox; Horowitz; Lee; Tanner; Hawley; Harbaugh; Smith, Steven. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: North American. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-82. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 9.98 days. Decay Date: 1997-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 24719 . COSPAR: 1997-004A. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min. After a spectacular night launch, the Shuttle completed its rendezvous with Hubble Space Telescope on February 13. Over the next four days five spacewalks were undertaken to renovate Hubble.

    The Hubble Space Telescope was released back into orbit at 06:41 GMT on February 19. Discovery landed on Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center at 08:32 GMT on February 21.

  • External Airlock - . Payload: EAL. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 24719 . COSPAR: 1997-004xx. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.
  • SAC - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 24719 . COSPAR: 1997-004xx. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.
  • FSS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 24719 . COSPAR: 1997-004xx. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.
  • ORUC - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 24719 . COSPAR: 1997-004xx. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.

1997 February 14 - . 04:34 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-82-1 - . Crew: Lee; Smith, Steven. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lee; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-82. Spacecraft: Discovery; HST. Summary: Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 2 - NICMOS installation..

1997 February 15 - . 03:25 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-82-2 - . Crew: Harbaugh; Tanner. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.31 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Harbaugh; Tanner. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-82. Spacecraft: Discovery; HST. Summary: Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 2 - Guidance sensor replacement..

1997 February 16 - . 02:53 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-82-3 - . Crew: Lee; Smith, Steven. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.30 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lee; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-82. Spacecraft: Discovery; HST. Summary: Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 2 - Data interface unit replacement..

1997 February 17 - . 03:45 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-82-4 - . Crew: Harbaugh; Tanner. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Harbaugh; Tanner. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-82. Spacecraft: Discovery; HST. Summary: Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 2 - Solar array drive replacement..

1997 February 18 - . 03:15 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-82-5 - . Crew: Lee; Smith, Steven. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.22 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lee; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-82. Spacecraft: Discovery; HST. Summary: Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 2 - Insulation blanket repair..

1997 April 4 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-83.
  • STS-83 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Halsell; Kilrain; Voss, Janice; Gernhardt; Crouch; Linteris; Thomas. Backup Crew: Coleman. Payload: Columbia F22 / Spacelab LM Unit 1 / EDO. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Halsell; Kilrain; Voss, Janice; Gernhardt; Crouch; Linteris; Thomas; Coleman. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-83. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 3.97 days. Decay Date: 1997-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 24755 . COSPAR: 1997-013A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. The launch of STS-83, the first Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission, was postponed for a day to replace some insulation around a water coolant line in Columbia's payload bay. Liftoff was further delayed 20 minutes due to anomalous oxygen readings in the orbiter's payload bay. STS-83 was cut short due to a problem with one of the three fuel cells that provide electricity and water to Columbia (flight rules required that all three must be operating). At 14:30 GMT on April 6 the crew were ordered to begin a Minimum Duration Flight (MDF). On April 8 the OMS engines ignited at 17:30 GMT for the deorbit burn, and Columbia landed on Runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center at 18:33 GMT.

    With delays in International Space Station construction leaving ample room in the shuttle schedule, NASA made the unique decision to leave the equipment installed in Columbia and refly this mission with the same crew later in 1997 as STS-94.

  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 24755 . COSPAR: 1997-013xx. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.

1997 July 1 - . 18:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-94.
  • STS-94 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Halsell; Kilrain; Voss, Janice; Gernhardt; Thomas; Crouch; Linteris. Payload: Columbia F23 / Spacelab LM Unit 1 / EDO. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Halsell; Kilrain; Voss, Janice; Gernhardt; Thomas; Crouch; Linteris. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Bremen. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-94. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.70 days. Decay Date: 1997-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 24849 . COSPAR: 1997-032A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 296 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. STS-94 was the reflight, with the same equipment and crew, of the curtailed STS-83 mission. Cargo Bay Payloads:

    • MSL-1: The Microgravity Science Laboratory included the first test of the International Space Station’s EXPRESS Rack. MSL-1 also contained numerous other experiment payloads to test materials and combustion processes in zero gravity.
    • CRYOFD: The Cryogenic Flexible Diode (CRYOFD) heat pipe was a Hitchhiker payload.
    • OARE: The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment was a self-calibrating instrument that monitored extremely small accelerations and vibrations experienced during orbit of the Shuttle.
    In-Cabin Payloads: SAREX, MSX

    The mission this time went for its full two week duration and the crew completed the full list of experiments. The deorbit burn was on July 17, 1997 at 09:44 GMT and Columbia landed on KSC's Runway 33 at 10:46:34 GMT.

  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 24849 . COSPAR: 1997-032xx. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 296 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.

1997 July 17 - .
1997 August 7 - . 14:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-85.
  • STS-85 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Brown; Rominger; Davis; Curbeam; Robinson; Tryggvason. Payload: Discovery F23 / CRISTA-SPAS-2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Rominger; Davis; Curbeam; Robinson; Tryggvason. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: North American. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-85. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 11.85 days. Decay Date: 1997-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 24889 . COSPAR: 1997-039A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 249 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Deployed and retrieved the CRISTA-SPAS-2 (the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2) designed to study Earth's middle atmosphere. The CRISTA-SPAS-2 was making its second flight on the Space Shuttle and represented the fourth mission in a cooperative venture between the German Space Agency (DARA) and NASA.

    CRISTA-SPAS was deployed by the RMS arm at 22:27 GMT on August 7 and was recaptured by Discovery's RMS arm at 15:14 GMT on August 16. Because of unfavorable weather conditions at the primary shuttle landing site at the Kennedy Space Center, Discovery was waved off for its scheduled August 18 landing. STS-85 landed the next day, at Kennedy Space Center at 11:08 GMT.

  • TAS-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 24889 . COSPAR: 1997-039xx. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 249 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.
  • IEH-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 24889 . COSPAR: 1997-039xx. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 249 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.
  • MFD - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 24889 . COSPAR: 1997-039xx. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 249 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.

1997 November 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Atlantis OMDP-2 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Summary: Atlantis is overhauled at Palmdale, returning to service in mid-1998. This was the last OMDP accomplished at Palmdale; future work would be done at the Kennedy Space Center..

1997 November 19 - . 19:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-87.
  • STS-87 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Kregel; Lindsey; Chawla; Scott, Winston; Doi; Kadenyuk. Payload: Columbia F24 / Spartan / USMP-4 Aft. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kregel; Lindsey; Chawla; Scott, Winston; Doi; Kadenyuk. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: North American. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-87. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.69 days. Decay Date: 1997-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 25061 . COSPAR: 1997-073A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 273 km (169 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. OV-102 Columbia was launched on a microgravity science mission. Spartan 201 was released a day late on November 21. However the satellite did not start its automatic orientation maneuver because the crew failed to send it the correct commands prior to release.

    Spartan was recaptured by hand, during a spacewalk by Takao Doi and Winston Scott on November 25. Tests of space station tools went well, but the free-flying Sprint camera subsatellite was not deployed due to lack of time.

    NASA decided not to redeploy Spartan on this mission. During an EVA on Dec 3, Doi and Scott carried out more tests of the Space Station crane. They also deployed the AERCam/Sprint 'football' remote-controlled camera for a free flight in the payload bay.

    Columbia landed on December 5, with a deorbit burn at 11:21 GMT. Touchdown was at 12:20 GMT at Kennedy Space Center.

  • USMP-4 Forward - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 25061 . COSPAR: 1997-073xx. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 273 km (169 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.
  • USMP-4 Aft - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 25061 . COSPAR: 1997-073xx. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 273 km (169 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1997-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 25061 . COSPAR: 1997-073xx. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 273 km (169 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.
  • Spartan 201 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1997-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 25062 . COSPAR: 1997-073B. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 278 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: Retrieved by OV-102 Nov 25.

1997 November 25 - . 00:02 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-87-1 - . Crew: Scott, Winston; Doi. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.32 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Scott, Winston; Doi. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-87. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Retrieved Spartan free-flier. Tested EVA tools and techniques..

1997 December 3 - . 09:09 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-87-2 - . Crew: Scott, Winston; Doi. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.21 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Scott, Winston; Doi. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-87. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity..

1998 April 17 - . 18:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-90.
  • STS-90 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Searfoss; Altman; Linnehan; Hire; Williams, Dave; Buckey; Pawelczyk. Backup Crew: Mukai; Dunlap. Payload: Columbia F25 / Spacelab LM Eurolab. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Searfoss; Altman; Linnehan; Hire; Williams, Dave; Buckey; Pawelczyk; Mukai; Dunlap. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Bremen. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-90. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.91 days. Decay Date: 1998-05-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 25297 . COSPAR: 1998-022A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Columbia rolled out to pad 39B on March 23. Payloads:

    • Spacelab transfer tunnel
    • Spacelab Long Module, with Neurolab experiments for the following life science studies:

      • Chronic Recording of Otolith Nerves in Microgravity
      • Development of the Aortic Baroreflex under Conditions of Microgravity
      • Neural-Thyroid Interaction on Skeletal Isomyosin Expression in OG
      • Spatial Orientation of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex and Velocity Storage
      • Autonomic Neuroplasticity in Weightlessness

    • Extended Duration Orbiter pallet
    • Two Get Away Special beams with canisters G-197, G-467, G-772 (Colorado's COLLIDE experiment, which collided small particles into each other to simulate the formation of planets and rings).

    The Neurolab mission was managed by NASA-Johnson at Houston, unlike earlier Spacelab flights which were NASA-Marshall/Huntsville's responsibility. Landed at Kennedy Space Center May 3 1998.


1998 October 24 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. Launch Pad: SLC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7326-9.5. LV Configuration: Delta 7326-9.5 D261.
  • SEDSAT 1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: Boeing. Manufacturer: SEDS. Program: STS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SEDSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 25509 . COSPAR: 1998-061B. Apogee: 1,050 km (650 mi). Perigee: 544 km (338 mi). Inclination: 31.4000 deg. Period: 100.80 min. Following separation of the third stage and the primary Deep Space 1 payload, the Delta second stage manoeuvred from its 185 km parking orbit to a 174 km x 2744 km x 28.5 degree orbit. It then released the SEDSAT micro-satellite, built by the Huntsville, Alabama chapter of SEDS (the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space). SEDSAT has two amateur radio transponders and an earth imaging camera.

1998 October 29 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 02 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Curbeam; Glenn; Mukai; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Summary: The crew of Discovery sailed through an opening day in orbit this afternoon, staying ahead of schedule for the most part as they prepared the spacecraft and a slate of more than 80 experiments for nine days in orbit.. Additional Details: here....

1998 October 29 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 01 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Duque; Glenn; Lindsey; Mukai; Parazynski; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. The Shuttle Discovery blasted off into a cloudless sky today at 1:19 p.m. Central time from the Kennedy Space Center to kick off a planned nine-day scientific research mission and to return John Glenn to space, 36 years, 8 months and nine days after he became the first American to orbit the Earth. Additional Details: here....

1998 October 29 - . 19:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-95.
  • STS-95 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Brown; Lindsey; Robinson; Parazynski; Duque; Mukai; Glenn. Payload: Discovery F25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Lindsey; Robinson; Parazynski; Duque; Mukai; Glenn. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Douglas. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-95. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.91 days. Decay Date: 1998-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 25519 . COSPAR: 1998-064A. Apogee: 557 km (346 mi). Perigee: 536 km (333 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 95.60 min. The flight of STS-95 provoked more publicity for NASA than any other flight in years, due to the presence of ex-astronaut Senator John Glenn on the crew, which also included the first Spanish astronaut, Pedro Duque. The US Navy PANSAT student satellite was deployed on Oct 30 into a 550 km x 561 x 28.5 degree orbit. The Spartan 201 satellite was deployed from Discovery on November 1 and retrieved on November 3. Spartan 201 was on its fifth mission to observe the solar corona. The data on this mission would be used to recalibrate the SOHO satellite which recently resumed observation of the Sun following loss of control. Discovery landed at 17:03:31 GMT November 7 on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center.
  • Spartan 201 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1998-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 25521 . COSPAR: 1998-064C. Apogee: 560 km (340 mi). Perigee: 549 km (341 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 95.74 min. Summary: Retrieved by Discovery November 3 1998..
  • Spacehab - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Douglas. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1981-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 25519 . COSPAR: 1998-064xx. Apogee: 560 km (340 mi). Perigee: 550 km (340 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 95.75 min.

1998 October 30 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 03 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Duque; Glenn; Lindsey; Mukai; Parazynski; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Summary: Discovery's astronauts will spend their first full day in space supporting wide-ranging activities, from releasing a small communications satellite to studying the behavior of materials at an atomic level.. Additional Details: here....

1998 October 30 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 04 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Glenn; Lindsey; Parazynski; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Summary: Discovery's crew moved through a steady pace of experiments during the Shuttle's first full day in orbit, releasing a miniature telecommunications satellite and conducting a variety of medical and material research.. Additional Details: here....

1998 October 31 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 05 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Duque; Glenn; Mukai; Parazynski. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Summary: Medical investigations will begin in earnest today as Discovery's crew moves forward with research comparing the changes the human body goes through when making trips into orbit with the changes that occur as part of the natural aging process on Earth.. Additional Details: here....

1998 October 31 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 06 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Glenn; Parazynski; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Summary: Discovery's crew spent much of the last half of today in preparation for tomorrow's planned release of the Spartan solar science satellite, checking out the tools and equipment that will be used during the release and separation from the satellite.. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 1 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 07 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Glenn; Lindsey; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Chris Rice's "Hallelujahs" awakened Discovery's seven astronauts at 6:35 a.m. Central time today to begin their fourth day of science activities. The song was requested by pilot Steve Lindsey's wife, Diane. Today's primary activity will be deployment at 1:03 p.m. CST this afternoon of the Spartan solar physics satellite, which will fly free of Discovery for two days studying the outer layers of the sun's atmosphere. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 1 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Glenn; Mukai; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Discovery's crew released a second satellite today, a telescope package that will fly free of the Shuttle for two days to study the sun and the solar wind, research that may help scientists better understand a phenomenon that sometimes can cause widespread disruptions of communications and power supplies on Earth. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 2 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 09 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Duque; Glenn; Husband; Lindsey; Mukai; Parazynski; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Discovery's astronauts were awakened at 6 a.m. Central time this morning by Andy Williams' rendition of the 1962 Academy Award winning song, "Moon River." Annie Glenn requested the song as a tribute to the longstanding friendship between Williams and her husband, Payload Specialist John Glenn. The seven crew members are looking forward to some free time today, following yesterday's successful deployment of the Spartan solar physics satellite, which will study the outer layers of the sun's atmosphere until it is retrieved by Discovery tomorrow. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 2 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 10 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Glenn; Lindsey; Mukai; Parazynski. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Summary: Discovery's crew took a few hours break from the continuous pace of research activity on board today, a standard rest period for the crew that is planned during longer shuttle flights.. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 3 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 11 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Duque; Glenn; Lindsey; Mukai; Parazynski; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Discovery's astronauts began the second half of their flight at 5:25 a.m. Central time this morning to the sounds of Stevie Ray Vaughn's "If the House is A-Rockin," in honor of Mission Specialist Steve Robinson. Robinson is known as "Stevie Ray Robinson" by the other members of the astronaut band known as "Max Q". After enjoying a break in their schedule yesterday, the crew is focusing its attention on this afternoon's retrieval of the Spartan solar physics satellite, which has spent the past two days studying the outer layers of the sun's atmosphere. Retrieval is set for 2:45 p.m. Central time. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 3 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 12 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Duque; Glenn; Lindsey; Mukai; Parazynski; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. The SPARTAN satellite was captured and returned to its berth this afternoon, successfully completing its two-day solar science mission. SPARTAN Mission Manager Craig Toohey congratulated the crew and flight control team on their performance in executing the mission exactly as planned. Toohey said that 30 percent of the science data already had been linked to the ground and the remainder would be off-loaded at landing. SPARTAN Scientist Dr. Richard Fisher noted that investigators were pleased to have the satellite in orbit near a solar maximum cycle and that its instruments had captured sought-after data on a solar mass ejection event. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 4 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 13 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Duque; Glenn; Lindsey; Mukai; Parazynski; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Music from Japan awakened Discovery's astronauts at 4:50 a.m. Central time this morning. "Wakaki Chi," a cheering song from Keio University where Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai received her medical degree, was played in recognition of the phone call she will receive at 2:55 p.m. from Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi and Minister of State for Science and Technology, Yutaka Takeyama. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 4 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 14 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Duque; Glenn; Lindsey; Mukai; Parazynski; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. The seventh day in orbit for Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member astronaut crew was packed with ongoing science operations. Early in the day, Mission Specialist Steve Robinson, assisted by Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, tested the Orbiter Space Vision System. OSVS uses special markings on Spartan and the shuttle cargo bay to provide an alignment aid for the arm's operator using shuttle television images. This was its final on-orbit test before going into operational use on the next Space Shuttle flight in December as an aid in using the arm to join together the first two modules of the International Space Station. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 5 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 16 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Duque; Glenn; Lindsey; Mukai; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Summary: Some of the 80-plus experiments aboard Discovery were being wrapped up today as the end of the STS-95 mission approaches. Others will continue through Friday afternoon, the final full day on orbit.. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 5 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 15 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Duque; Glenn; Lindsey; Mukai; Parazynski; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Summary: The Moody Blues awakened Discovery's seven astronauts at 4:15 a.m. Central time this morning for their eighth day of on-orbit science activities. The song, "I Know You're Out There Somewhere," was chosen by Commander Curt Brown's family.. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 6 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 18 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Lindsey; Ross. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Summary: Discovery's seven-member crew Friday packed up and prepared for the trip home Saturday with a landing planned for mid-day at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 6 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 17 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Glenn; Lindsey. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Discovery's astronauts were awakened at 3:40 a.m. Central time this morning to begin their final full day in orbit and make preparations to assure that Discovery is ready for entry and landing. Today's wake-up song was "Voyage into Space," an original composition written for John Glenn by composer and pianist Peter Nero, a long-time friend of the Glenns. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 7 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 20 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Duque; Glenn; Lindsey; Mukai; Parazynski; Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Discovery's astronauts glided to a smooth landing at the Kennedy Space Center today to wrap up a nine-day, 3.6 million mile mission which marked the return of John Glenn to orbit and saw the crew members successfully conduct more than 80 scientific experiments. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 7 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 19 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Duque; Ross. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. The seven astronauts aboard Space Shuttle Discovery were awakened at 3:09 a.m. this morning to make final preparations for their return to Earth later this morning. "La Cucaracha," a well-known Spanish song, was played for Mission Specialist Pedro Duque at the request of his wife, Consuelo. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 7 - .
1999 July 23 - .
  • STS-93 Mission Status Report # 03 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ashby; Coleman; Hawley; Tognini; Collins, Eileen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-93. Chandra was deployed from Columbia a little more than seven hours into the flight at 6:47 a.m. CDT. Thanks to a pair of burns by its inertial upper stage (IUS), the third of NASA's four great observatories is now on its way to an elliptical orbit that will support five years of observations into the X-ray mysteries of the universe. Additional Details: here....

1999 July 23 - .
  • STS-93 Mission Status Report # 02 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins, Eileen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-93. A little more than seven hours after Columbia and its five astronauts were launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Chandra was spring-ejected from a cradle in the shuttle's cargo bay at 6:47 a.m. Central time, as Columbia flew over the Indonesian Island chain. Commander Eileen Collins, the first female Shuttle Commander, maneuvered Columbia to a safe distance away from the telescope as an internal timer counted down to the first of a two-phase ignition of the solid-fuel Inertial Upper Stage. Additional Details: here....

1999 July 23 - .
  • STS-93 Mission Status Report # 01 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ashby; Coleman; Hawley; Jett; Tognini; Collins, Eileen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-93. The Space Shuttle Columbia blasted off late Thursday night (early Friday morning, Eastern time) to carry five astronauts to orbit for the long-awaited deployment of Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which will unveil previously invisible mysteries of the universe. Additional Details: here....

1999 July 23 - . 04:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-93.
  • STS-93 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Collins, Eileen; Ashby; Hawley; Coleman; Tognini. Payload: Columbia F26 / Chandra. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins, Eileen; Ashby; Hawley; Coleman; Tognini. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: North American. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-93. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 4.95 days. Decay Date: 1999-07-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 25866 . COSPAR: 1999-040A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 260 km (160 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. STS-93 was first rolled out to pad 39B on June 7 1999. The Chandra/IUS-27 vehicle was placed in the payload canister on June 19. The first launch attempt was on July 20, but controllers aborted the launch at T-6 seconds, just before main engine ignition, due to a data spike in hydrogen pressure data. This was determined to be due to a faulty sensor and a second attempt was on July 22. A lightning storm prevented launch during the 46 minute window, and the launch was again scrubbed. Finally the vehicle lifted off the pad on July 23, but five seconds after launch a short in an electrical bus brought down two of the three main engine controllers. Backup controllers took over, but a further failure on the backup controller bus would have resulted in engine shutdown and the first ever attempt at an RTLS (Return To Launch Site) abort. To further complicate matters engine 3 (SSME 2019) had a hydrogen leak throughout the ascent, causing the engine to run hot. Controllers sweated as temperatures neared redline. The hot engine’s controller compensated as programmed by using additional liquid oxygen propellant. The final result was that the shuttle ran out of gas - main engine cut-off (MECO) was at 04:39 GMT, putting Columbia into a 78 km x 276 km x 28.5 degree transfer orbit. Columbia was 1,700 kg short of oxygen propellant and 5 meters/sec slower than planned. The OMS-2 engine burn at 05:12 GMT circularised the orbit 10 km lower than planned.

    The orbiter payload bay contained only the Chandra spacecraft, the IUS, and the IUS tilt tableTthe following payloads were carried in the shuttle’s cabin: STL-B (Space Tissue Loss), CCM (Cell culture module), SAREX-II (Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment), EarthKam, PGIM (Plant Growth Investigations in Microgravity), CGBA (Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus), MEMS (Micro-electric Mechanical System), and BRIC (Biological Research in Canisters) and SWUIS (the Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System, an 0.18-m UV telescope to be used for airglow and planetary observations); GOSAMR (the Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research experiment) and LFSAH, the Lightweight Flexible Solar Array Hinge. MSX and SIMPLEX experiments were also to be carried out.

    Chandra/IUS-27 was deployed from Columbia at 11:47 GMT July 23. Flight duration was limited; this was the heaviest shuttle (122,534 kg) and heaviest payload (19,736 kg) to that date. Columbia landed at 03:20 GMT on July 28 on runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center. Post-flight inspection found the presence of holes in the cooling lines on the nozzle of SSME 2019 (engine 3) which caused a hydrogen leak. A loose repair pin in the engine broke free and caused the failure. The cause of the short was found to be chaffed wiring inside the shuttle. The entire fleet was grounded for inspection and replacement of wiring as necessary.


1999 July 24 - .
  • STS-93 Mission Status Report # 05 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ashby; Coleman; Hawley; Tognini; Collins, Eileen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-93. Summary: Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini were awakened at 5:31 p.m. CDT with the song "Brave New Girls," performed by Teresa.. Additional Details: here....

1999 July 24 - .
  • STS-93 Mission Status Report # 04 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ashby; Coleman; Hawley; Tognini; Collins, Eileen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-93. Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini worked on experiments involving everything from astronomy to biomedicine to plant growth as the shuttle continued to orbit the Earth every 90 minutes in excellent shape. Additional Details: here....

1999 July 25 - .
  • STS-93 Mission Status Report # 07 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ashby; Coleman; Hawley; Tognini; Collins, Eileen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-93. Summary: The five astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia began their fourth flight day at 4:31 p.m. CDT, preparing to make additional celestial observations through the shuttle's windows and continue work with a variety of experiments.. Additional Details: here....

1999 July 25 - .
  • STS-93 Mission Status Report # 06 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ashby; Coleman; Hawley; Tognini; Collins, Eileen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-93. Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini conducted experiments ranging from astronomical observations with an ultraviolet telescope to cell culture studies. Investigations also included testing new materials which may one day be used to fabricate sturdier solar arrays. Additional Details: here....

1999 July 26 - .
  • STS-93 Mission Status Report # 08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ashby; Coleman; Hawley; Tognini; Collins, Eileen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-93. Summary: Columbia's astronauts entered the homestretch of their mission this morning, conducting additional experiments in the Shuttle's middeck area as they began preparations for their scheduled return to Earth late Tuesday night.. Additional Details: here....

1999 July 26 - .
  • STS-93 Mission Status Report # 09 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ashby; Coleman; Hawley; Tognini; Collins, Eileen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-93. Summary: Columbia's crew began packing up experiments today and preparing to return to Earth tomorrow with a touchdown planned on the Kennedy Space Center's shuttle runway in Florida at 10:20 p.m. CDT.. Additional Details: here....

1999 July 27 - .
  • STS-93 Mission Status Report # 10 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ashby; Coleman; Hawley; Ross; Tognini; Collins, Eileen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-93. Summary: Columbia's astronauts tested their ship's systems and packed up their gear, ready for a nighttime homecoming late tonight at the Kennedy Space Center to wrap up their five-day mission.. Additional Details: here....

1999 July 27 - .
  • STS-93 Mission Status Report # 11 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ashby; Barry; Coleman; Hawley; Ross; Tognini; Collins, Eileen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-93. Columbia's astronauts made final preparations Tuesday evening to come home after a successful five-day flight. Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini were awakened at 2:31 p.m. CDT Tuesday to "A Little Traveling Music" by Barry Manilow, requested by Hawley's wife Eileen, and "The Air Force Song," played for Collins and Coleman. Additional Details: here....

1999 July 27 - .
  • STS-93 Mission Status Report # 12 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ashby; Coleman; Hawley; Tognini; Collins, Eileen. Program: STS. Flight: STS-93. Summary: Columbia's astronauts glided to a smooth landing tonight at the Kennedy Space Center, wrapping up their five-day mission to deploy the Chandra X-Ray Observatory.. Additional Details: here....

1999 July 28 - .
1999 December 19 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #01 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Clervoy; Foale; Grunsfeld; Kelly, Scott; Nicollier; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Summary: In the final launch attempt available this year, Discovery and its seven astronauts blasted off tonight on the last human space flight of the 20th century to refurbish the Hubble Space Telescope.. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 20 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #02 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Clervoy; Foale; Grunsfeld; Kelly, Scott; Nicollier; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Trailing the Hubble Space Telescope by about 3,700 nautical miles and closing, the seven Discovery astronauts were awakened at 9:50 a.m. CST today to the sounds of Bachman-Turner Overdrive's "Taking Care of Business." The wake-up call from Mission Control began the crew's first full day in orbit. Discovery is closing on the telescope at a rate of about 340 nautical miles with each hour and a half long orbit of Earth. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 20 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #03 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Clervoy; Foale; Kelly; Kelly, Mark; Kelly, Scott. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. The seven members of the STS-103 crew of Discovery completed a day of preparation Monday for a Tuesday capture of the Hubble Space Telescope. During three days of space walks, Hubble's capability to conduct astronomical observations will be restored and some of its equipment upgraded. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 20 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-103.
  • STS-103 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Brown; Kelly, Scott; Smith, Steven; Grunsfeld; Foale; Nicollier; Clervoy. Payload: Discovery F27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Kelly, Scott; Smith, Steven; Grunsfeld; Foale; Nicollier; Clervoy. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: North American. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-103. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.97 days. Decay Date: 1999-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 25996 . COSPAR: 1999-069A. Apogee: 609 km (378 mi). Perigee: 563 km (349 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission SM-3A, delayed repeatedly by technical problems with the shuttle fleet after the near-disastrous previous launch. Finally launched after the last possible day to avoid Y2K computer problems; one spacewalk was cancelled so that the shuttle could return by December 28. Hubble was in a 591 km x 610 km x 28.5 deg orbit at launch. After separation of the external tank ET-101 the Orbiter was in a 56 km x 587 km x 28.5 deg transfer orbit. The OMS 2 burn at 0134 UTC raised the orbit to 313 km x 582 km. The payload bay contained:

    • Bay 1-2: External airlock/ODS
    • Bay 7-8: ORU Carrier (Spacelab pallet). Carried Hubble replacement spares arranged as follows: COPE protective enclosure with three RSU gyros, a new solid state recorder, and an S-band transmitter; LOPE enclosure with an HST-486 computer and voltage improvement kit; ASIPE enclosure with a spare HST-486 and spare RSU; FSIPE enclosure with a replacement FGS-2 fine guidance sensor; and NPE enclosure with New Outer Blanket Layer insulation.
    • Bay 11: Flight Servicing System (FSS). Contained the BAPS (Berthing and Positioning System) used to dock with the aft end of the Hubble Space Telescope.
    • Bay 8: APC carrier with foot restraint
    • Bay 12: APC carrier with HST foot retstraint

    Hubble was grabbed by the shuttle's robot arm at 0034 UTC on December 22. Following completion of repairs HST was released on December 25 at 2303 UTC. The deorbit burn at 2248 UTC on Dec 27 placed the orbiter in a 50 km x 616 km descent orbit. Discovery landed on runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center at 0001 UTC on December 28.

1999 December 21 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #05 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Clervoy; Grunsfeld; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Summary: After a 30-orbit chase, Discovery astronauts completed a successful rendezvous Tuesday evening with the Hubble Space Telescope, grappling it with the robotic arm and latching it into the orbiter's cargo bay.. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 21 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #04 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Clervoy; Kelly, Scott; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Discovery is on track for its rendezvous with the Hubble Space Telescope this afternoon, culminating in the planned capture of the 12.5-ton observatory at 6:41 p.m. CST. In recognition of today's activities, the seven astronauts aboard Discovery were awakened at 9:20 a.m. today to the song "Rendezvous" by Bruce Springsteen. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 22 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #06 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Clervoy; Foale; Grunsfeld; Nicollier; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Summary: With the Hubble Space Telescope securely latched in the payload bay, the astronauts board Discovery today will turn their attention to the primary objective of their flight -- restoring the capability of the 12.5-ton telescope to observe the universe.. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 22 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #07 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Foale; Grunsfeld; Nicollier; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Discovery astronauts completed the two highest priority tasks of their Hubble Space Telescope servicing Wednesday with a space walk that was the second longest in history. Astronauts Steve Smith and John Grunsfeld installed six new gyroscopes and six Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kits in the telescope during their 8 hour, 15 minute spacewalk. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 23 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Foale; Grunsfeld; Nicollier; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Summary: Discovery's seven-member crew began work early today, preparing for a busy day on orbit, including a second spacewalk and a final check of hardware installed on the Hubble Space Telescope during yesterday's spacewalk.. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 23 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #09 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Foale; Grunsfeld; Nicollier; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. The Hubble Space Telescope received a new advanced computer Thursday from space-walking Discovery astronauts Mike Foale and Claude Nicollier. Their 8-hour, 10-minute space walk, the third longest in history, also saw replacement of a 550-pound fine guidance sensor. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 23 - . 18:54 GMT - .
1999 December 24 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #10 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Grunsfeld; Smith, Steven; Wolf. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Summary: The Hubble Space Telescope is scheduled to receive its final upgrades today as astronauts Steve Smith and John Grunsfeld perform the last of three planned space walks to refurbish the orbiting observatory.. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 24 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #11 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Grunsfeld; Ross; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Discovery astronauts completed their third and final space walk Friday evening, replacing a failed radio transmitter and installing a new solid state recorder. After the successful completion of those tasks, Lead Flight Director Linda Ham announced Friday evening that the STS-103 mission had met all criteria for complete success. Discovery astronauts are scheduled to release Hubble a little before 5 p.m. CST on Christmas Day. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 24 - . 19:06 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-103-2 - . Crew: Foale; Nicollier. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.34 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Foale; Nicollier. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-103. Spacecraft: Discovery; HST. Summary: Installed in the Hubble space telescope a new 486/25 mhz computer and replaced Fine Guidance Sensor FGS-2..

1999 December 25 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #13 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Clervoy; Foale; Grunsfeld; Nicollier; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Summary: Discovery's astronauts delivered a Christmas present to the world today, putting the Hubble Space Telescope back in service after 24 hours and 33 minutes of repairs and upgrades that make the orbital observatory more capable than ever.. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 25 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #12 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Clervoy; Foale; Grunsfeld; Nicollier; Smith, Steven. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Summary: Christmas Day onboard the Shuttle Discovery began with seasons greetings for Commander Curt Brown, as the crew awoke to Bing Crosby's "I'll Be Home for Christmas.". Additional Details: here....

1999 December 25 - . 19:17 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-103-3 - . Crew: Smith, Steven; Grunsfeld. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.33 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Smith, Steven; Grunsfeld. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-103. Spacecraft: Discovery; HST. Summary: Completed part of the installation of new insulation to the Hubble space telescope. The rest was deferred to the next servicing mission..

1999 December 26 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #14 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Kelly; Kelly, Mark; Kelly, Scott. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Summary: With their primary mission objectives successfully completed, Discovery's astronauts today begin preparing their spacecraft for its scheduled return to Earth Monday, checking out the flight control system and reaction control jets that support re-entry.. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 26 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #15 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Kelly, Scott; Ross. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Summary: Following the successful deployment of the Hubble Space Telescope yesterday, the seven man crew aboard Space Shuttle Discovery turned its attention today to preparing for the return to Kennedy Space Center late tomorrow afternoon.. Additional Details: here....

1999 December 27 - .
1999 December 27 - .
  • STS-103 Mission Status Report #16 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown; Clervoy; Ross. Program: STS. Flight: STS-103. Summary: With promising weather forecast for the Kennedy Space Center, preparations are under way to bring the seven-member crew of Discovery home following a successful mission to refurbish and repair the Hubble Space Telescope.. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 11 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #02 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Tani; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Summary: Space shuttle astronauts deployed the longest rigid structure ever built in space today and continued work to check out the equipment they will use to produce unrivaled three-dimensional images of the Earth's surface.. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 11 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #01 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Summary: With six astronauts on board, Endeavour sped to orbit under cloudless skies from the Kennedy Space Center today to begin the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, the first human space flight of the 21st century.. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 11 - . 17:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-99.
  • STS-99 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Kregel; Gorie; Kavandi; Voss, Janice; Mohri; Thiele. Payload: Endeavour F14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kregel; Gorie; Kavandi; Voss, Janice; Mohri; Thiele. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-99. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 11.23 days. Decay Date: 2000-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 26088 . COSPAR: 2000-010A. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. On an extremely successful mission the space shuttle Endeavour deployed the 61 metre long STRM mast. This was a side-looking radar that digitally mapped with unprecedented accuracy the entire land surface of the Earth between latitudes 60 deg N and 54 deg S. Sponsors of the flight included the US National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), NASA, and the German and Italian space agencies. Some of the NIMA data would remain classified for exclusive use by the US Department of Defense.

2000 February 12 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #04 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. By the time members of Endeavour's Red Team had reached lunchtime on this first full day in space for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, the radar antennas in the payload bay and at the end of a 200-foot mast had mapped about 1.7 million square miles (4.5 million square kilometers) of the Earth's surface, or the equivalent of about half the area of the United States. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 12 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #03 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Ross; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Endeavour astronauts began mapping operations on the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which will provide maps of the Earth unprecedented in accuracy and uniformity. The first swath was begun as the orbiter crossed over southern Asia and continued until Endeavour flew over the continent's eastern coast and moved over the northern Pacific Ocean. The mapping will continue through the mission until the antenna mast is retracted before landing. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 13 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #05 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kavandi; Kregel; Thiele. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. The first "flycast maneuver" trim burn was completed without a hitch by members of the Endeavour crew early Sunday. A little later, the Payload Operations Center reported that the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission had successfully mapped 7.64 million square miles as of very early Sunday morning. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 13 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #06 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Tani; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission's mapping operation continues to run smoothly, with about 17.7 million square miles of the Earth's surface having been mapped by 7 p.m. Central time. Scientists also reported that 38 percent of landmasses had been mapped thus far in the flight. Despite a problem with a small nitrogen thruster on the end of the 200-foot-long mast, both the C-band and X-band radars continue to perform as expected, and the thruster problem has had no impact on mapping operations. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 14 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #07 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Endeavour crewmembers successfully completed their second "flycast maneuver" trim burn early Monday, as the spacecraft continued to gather data that will greatly improve our topographical knowledge of the Earth's surface. Scientists already have expressed delight with low-resolution "quick look" data, which revealed features not shown on today's best maps. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 14 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. "As excited as a kid on Christmas day" is how Shuttle Radar Topography Mission project engineer Ed Caro described his reaction to the progress of the radar-mapping mission thus far. Operations onboard Endeavour continued without interruption, even without the availability of a small nitrogen thruster on the end of the extended boom. By midday, about 24 million square miles had been mapped once, and 9 million square miles twice. That's more than half the planned coverage for the mission. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 15 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #09 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Summary: Endeavour astronauts had completed mapping well over half the targeted Earth land surface by early Tuesday, and scientists continued to express delight at the quality of information they were seeing.. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 15 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #10 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. New radar images of Brazil, South Africa and the South Island of New Zealand were unveiled this afternoon by elated scientists of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. "This snapshot of Earth will be used for decades to come," said deputy project scientist Dr. Tom Farr. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 16 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #12 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Mohri; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. With growing confidence that fuel-saving measures onboard Endeavour will permit the radar mapping mission to run its full duration, flight controllers and crew members today marked the mission's mid-way point. "We're almost there," stated Milt Heflin, NASA's Deputy Chief Flight Director. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 16 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #11 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Optimism in orbit and in Mission Control that Endeavour will have enough propellant and power to complete its planned mapping of more than 70 percent of the Earth's surface continues to increase. Mission Control also told the astronauts that the EarthKAM aboard Endeavour has successfully transmitted its 1,000th image for middle school students. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 17 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #14 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Hadfield; Kavandi; Mohri; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Propellant conservation measures have paid off and Endeavour's crew was notified this morning that the mapping operations will continue for the full nine days as planned prior to launch. "That's great news," replied Pilot Dom Gorie. "They're getting some fantastic data on this mission." Additional Details: here....

2000 February 17 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #13 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Masses of data that will result in topographical maps far better than any now available continue to flow into high-rate recorders as Endeavour enters the second half of its Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Efforts to conserve propellant and power continue to pay off, with officials gaining more confidence that the entire nine days, nine hours of mapping operations will be completed. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 18 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #16 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hadfield; Kregel. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Mission managers late this afternoon announced a nine-hour extension to the data-taking portion of the mission. That means that mapping of the Earth now will continue until about 6 a.m. Monday. Astronaut Chris Hadfield in Mission Control relayed the good news shortly before 4 p.m. to Commander Kevin Kregel and the rest of Endeavour's crew. "That's super news," Kregel replied. "I'm sure the folks at the Jet Propulsion Lab and NIMA are really ecstatic about that." Additional Details: here....

2000 February 18 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #15 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. With unprecedented detail of well over half of the world's terrain already safely stored aboard, Endeavour's crew continued mapping the Earth uninterrupted this morning, marching toward more than nine full days of radar observations thanks to successful fuel conservation measures. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 19 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #18 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kregel; Mohri; Thiele. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Following yesterday's decision by mission managers to extend mapping operations, Endeavour's astronauts are set to continue collecting data until 5:44 a.m. Central time Monday. At that point preparations will begin to stow the 200-foot-long mast for the remainder of the mission. This 9-hour extension allows for almost 100 percent of the planned coverage of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 19 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #17 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. The EarthKAM, a digital camera mounted at an overhead window on Endeavour's flight deck, continues its record setting pace. A little after 4 a.m. CST Saturday flight controllers reported it had sent down more than 2,018 images, the combined total of the four previous flights on which it had flown. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 20 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #20 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Earth radar mapping continues smoothly on its last full day with Endeavour's crew scheduled to wrap up operations early Monday morning at 5:53 Central Time. As of noon today, 99 percent, or about 47 million square miles of the target area had been mapped once. More than 87 percent of the target area - nearly 42 million square miles - has been mapped twice. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 20 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #19 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Ross; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Endeavour's astronauts are looking forward to using one more small bonus in mapping operations time. They were given an additional 10 minutes, bringing the total to nine days, 18 hours and 10 minutes. The additional minutes have been added to allow one more mapping pass across Australia, rather than turning off the radar just as the spacecraft approaches the nation's coastline. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 21 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #21 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Endeavour's astronauts finished their successful Shuttle Radar Topography Mission mapping operations early Monday, then retracted the system's 200-foot mast into its payload bay canister. The mast, the longest rigid structure ever deployed in space, supported the external antenna structure during more than 222 hours of data gathering that mapped almost 100 percent of all planned sites around the world. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 21 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #22 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Ross; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Summary: With mapping operations complete and Endeavour's radar mapping hardware stowed, astronauts today conducted checks of various flight control surfaces and thruster jets in preparation for tomorrow's return to Earth.. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 22 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #23 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Endeavour's crew is preparing for a return home today, working toward a touchdown at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 3:50 p.m. CST, the first of three landing opportunities. A second opportunity to land in Florida is available with a touchdown at 5:22 p.m. CST. Endeavour also may land at Edwards Air Force Base, California, with a touchdown at 6:48 p.m. CST. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 22 - .
  • STS-99 Mission Status Report #24 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gorie; Kavandi; Kregel; Mohri; Ross; Thiele; Voss, Janice. Program: STS. Flight: STS-99. Summary: The six astronauts aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour glided to a smooth landing at the Kennedy Space Center at sunset today, wrapping up their 11-day radar mapping mission, the first human space flight of the 21st century.. Additional Details: here....

2000 February 22 - .
2000 June 30 - . 12:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. LV Configuration: Atlas IIA AC-139.
  • TDRS 8 - . Payload: TDRS-H. Mass: 3,180 kg (7,010 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 26388 . COSPAR: 2000-034A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 5.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from June 29. First Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, using a Hughes HS 601 satellite bus. It included an S-band phased array antenna and two Ku/Ka band reflectors 4.6 meters in diameter. The satellite was launched into a a 167 x 577 km x 28.3 deg parking orbit at 13:05 GMT. The Centaur upper stage made a second burn at 13:21 GMT, releasing the satellite into a subsynchronous transfer orbit of 237 x 27,666 km x 27.0 deg. The satellite's own Primex/Marquardt R4D liquid apogee engine would be used to maneuver the satellite into its final geosynchronous orbit. Stationed at 151 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 150 deg W in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 149.99 deg W drifting at 0.014 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 145.38E drifting at 3.007W degrees per day.

2002 March 1 - . 11:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-109.
  • STS-109 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Altman; Carey; Currie; Grunsfeld; Linnehan; Newman; Massimino. Payload: Columbia F27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Altman; Carey; Currie; Grunsfeld; Linnehan; Newman; Massimino. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-109. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 10.92 days. Decay Date: 2002-03-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 27388 . COSPAR: 2002-010A. Apogee: 578 km (359 mi). Perigee: 486 km (301 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Hubble Servicing Mission 3B. STS-109 main engine cutoff came at 1130 UTC with Columbia in a 55 x 574 km x 28.5 deg transfer orbit. The OMS-2 burn at about 1207 UTC raised perigee to about 195 km. There was a problem with a freon cooling loop on the Orbiter, but it wasn't quite bad enough to affect the mission. The Hubble Space Telescope closed its aperture door on March 2 in preparation for the rendezvous. Columbia got within 100m of HST by 0852 UTC on March 3 and grappled it with the RMS at 0931 UTC. HST was berthed on the FSS in Columbia's payload bay by 1032 UTC.

    In the course of five spacewalks, the crew installed new equipment on HST. This was the first flight of Columbia since the launch of Chandra in 1999 following refurbishment. In the first two spacewalks, two new solar arrays were installed, and the two old arrays stowed on the RAC carrier. The RWA-1R reaction wheel assembly on the MULE carrier replaced the faltering RWA-1 in the telescope. The third spacewalk was the most difficult, as HST was entirely powered down while astronauts replaced its power controller unit, not designed for on-orbit replacement. On the fourth spacewalk the astronauts removed the European FOC camera, aboard HST since launch in 1990, and replaced it with the new ACS (Advanced Camera for Surveys). They also installed the CASH wire harness, part of the aft shroud cooling system. On the final spacewalk, the astronauts installed the NCS (NICMOS cooling system) cryocooler in the aft shround and the associated NCS radiator on the telescope's exterior. The NICMOS infrared camera had been idle since its original thermal control system failed. With the removal of FOC, the COSTAR device (which deployed contact lenses for the original instruments) became obsolete, since the newer instruments made the corrections to the incorrect HST mirror internally. Cargo manifest:

    • Middeck:4 EMU spacesuits - 480 kg
    • Bay 4: RAC (Rigid Array Carrier) - 2393 kg. The RAC carried the two folded SA-III rigid solar arrays which replaced the SA-II roll-up arrays. It calso carried the DBA2 diode box assembly which controlled the arrays, and a wire harness and containers associated with the NICMOS cooling system.
    • Bay 7-8: SAC (Second Axial Carrier) - 2517 kg. The SAC was a specially designed pallet that flew on the first two Hubble SM flights, STS-61 and STS-82. On this flight it carried the ACS camera up (and the FOS camera down) as well as the NCS cryocooler, the PCU-R power controller, the CASH wire harness, and the thermal covers used in the PCU replacement.
    • Bay 11: FSS (Flight Support System) - 2111 kg. The FSS first flew on STS 41-C (the Solar Max Repair) and was reused for each of the HST SM flights. It carried the BAPS Berthing and Positioning System, which was the docking ring for HST. Stowed on the FSS were a support post for BAPS and a cover for the HST low gain antenna.
    • Bay 12: MULE (Multi-Use Lightweight Equipment Carrier) - 1409 kg. The MULE carried the NCS radiator, the NCS electronics support module, and the RWA-1R reaction wheel unit. MULE first flew on STS-48 carrying the UARS satellite, and then on STS-95 carrying the HOST payload which tested out the NCS.
    • Sill: RMS arm No 201 - 410 kg

2002 March 8 - . 22:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. LV Configuration: Atlas IIA AC-143.
  • TDRS 9 - . Payload: TDRS-I. Mass: 3,192 kg (7,037 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 27389 . COSPAR: 2002-011A. Apogee: 35,811 km (22,251 mi). Perigee: 35,758 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 8.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Launch delayed from October 31, November 13 and 26, 2001 and February 6 due to contract dispute with Boeing over performance of earlier satellites of the series. The Centaur upper stage entered a 167 x 578 km parking orbit and then placed the payload into a 247 x 29135 km x 27.1 deg subsynchronous transfer orbit. NASA's TDRS-I (TDRS-9) data relay satellite used a Boeing BSS-601 bus and was to provide S, Ku and Ka band communications for the Shuttle and International Space Station. After launch a problem developed with the fuel supply from one of the satellite's four propellant tanks. The tanks were paired, so losing one tank cuts the propellant supply in half. A test burn of the General Dynamics R-4D apogee motor raised the orbit to 433 x 29146 km x 26.4 deg on March 11 and a larger perigee burn raised the apogee to geostationary altitude, 429 x 35800 km, on March 13. A further burn on March 19, raised the orbit to 3521 x 35789 km and lowered the inclination to 21.4 deg. A burn on March 25 raised the orbit further to 8383 x 35811 km and lowered inclination to 17.4 deg. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 62.04W drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.

2002 December 5 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. LV Configuration: Atlas IIA AC-144.
  • TDRS 10 - . Payload: TDRS-J. Mass: 3,190 kg (7,030 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 27566 . COSPAR: 2002-055A. Apogee: 35,804 km (22,247 mi). Perigee: 35,765 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 7.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Delayed from October 29, November 21 and 23. The third and final Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite satellite separated from the Centaur upper stage 30 minutes after launch. This completed the $800 million, three satellite contract. Last launch of the Atlas 2A booster. Flight delayed from October 29, November 21 and 23. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 40.92W drifting at 0.012E degrees per day.

2003 January 16 - . 15:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-107.
  • STS-107 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Husband; McCool; Anderson; Chawla; Brown, David; Clark; Ramon. Payload: Columbia F28 / Spacehab. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Husband; McCool; Anderson; Chawla; Brown, David; Clark; Ramon. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-107. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.94 days. Decay Date: 2003-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 27647 . COSPAR: 2003-003A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 263 km (163 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: The last solo shuttle earth orbit mission ended in tragedy when the shuttle Columbia disintegrated during re-entry at an altitude of 63.15 km and a speed of Mach 18. Launch delayed from May 23, June 27, July 11 and 19, November 29, 2002..

2003 February 1 - .
  • Loss of STS-107 - . Return Crew: Husband; McCool; Anderson; Chawla; Brown, David; Clark; Ramon. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Husband; McCool; Anderson; Chawla; Brown, David; Clark; Ramon. Program: STS. Flight: STS-107. The shuttle Columbia disintegrated over Texas during re-entry at an altitude of 63.15 km and a speed of Mach 18. All hands aboard were lost. The loss grounded the shuttle fleet pending a failure investigation and left the crew of Bowersox, Pettit and Budarin aboard the International Space Station with a Soyuz emergency return vehicle but without means of major station resupply.

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