Encyclopedia Astronautica
Insat


Insat (Indian National Satellite System) was a multipurpose satellite system for telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology and search and rescue services.

Commissioned in 1983, Insat was the largest domestic communication system in the Asia-Pacific Region, and was a joint venture of the Indian Department of Space (DOS), Department of Telecommunications, India Meteorological Department, All India Radio and Doordarshan. As of 2004 the Insat space segment consisted of: Insat-1D, last of the Insat-1 series launched in 1990; three ISRO-built satellites, Insat-2A launched in July 1992, Insat-2B launched in July 1993 and Insat-2C launched on December 7, 1995; Insat-2DT acquired from Arabsat; Insat-2E launched on April 3,1999; Insat-3B launched on March 22nd 2000; Insat-3C launched on January 24th 2002; Insat-3A launched on April 10th 2003; Insat-3E launched on September 28th 2003; and Gsat-2 and Gsat-3. As of mid-2004 ISRO leased eleven 36 MHz equivalent units of C-band capacity on board Insat-2E to Intelsat.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Insat 1 Indian communications satellite. 5 launches, 1981.06.19 (Apple) to 1990.06.12 (Insat-1D; Insat 1D). Experimental communications satellite. More...
  • Insat 2 Indian communications satellite. 5 launches, 1992.07.09 (Insat-2A) to 1999.04.02 (Insat 2E). More...
  • Insat 3 Indian communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2000.03.21. The multipurpose satellite design provided telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorological and search and rescue services. More...
  • GSat Indian communications satellite bus. First launch 2001.04.18. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Ariane 1 French orbital launch vehicle. First version of the Ariane launch vehicle. More...
  • Delta 3910/PAM American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P + 1 x Star 48B More...
  • Shuttle American winged orbital launch vehicle. The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. More...
  • Ariane 3 French orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x PAP solid rocket boosters + Ariane 2 core. More...
  • Ariane 44L French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 liquid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Delta 4925-8 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor /MB-3 + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing) More...
  • Ariane 42P French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 solid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Ariane 42L French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 liquid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Ariane 5G French orbital launch vehicle. Initial version of the Ariane 5, a bit too large for the main commercial geosynchronous communications satellite payloads. More...
  • GSLV Indian mixed-propulsion orbital launch vehicle for geosynchronous satellites using a Lox/LH2 upper stage developed from Russian technology. More...
  • Ariane 5ECA French orbital launch vehicle, first version of the evolved Ariane 5. The solid booster motors propellant load was increased by 2.43 tonnes and the case was welded, for a weight saving in dry mass of 1.9 tonnes. The core was powered by an improved Vulcain 2 engine. The oxygen-rich cycle of the engine allowed the oxygen bulkhead to be moved within the stage, resulting in a 15.2 tonne increase in propellant in the core. A new Lox/LH2 upper stage, using the HM7B engine and oxygen tank from the Ariane 4 series, replaced the storable propellant EPS stage of earlier models. The result was an increase in payload to geoscynchronous transfer orbit from 6 tonnes to 10.5 tonnes. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • ISRO Indian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Indian Space Research Organization, India. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...
  • Sriharikota India's primary space launch center, located on the east coast of the peninsula with a firing sector over the Bay of Bengal. In use from 1971 to present. More...

Insat Chronology


1981 June 19 - . 12:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L03.
  • Apple - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 1. Completed Operations Date: 1983-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 12545 . COSPAR: 1981-057B. Apogee: 35,945 km (22,335 mi). Perigee: 35,752 km (22,215 mi). Inclination: 10.0000 deg. Period: 1,439.30 min. Experimental communications satellite. Geosynchronous altitude, longitude 10 deg East. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 102 deg E in 1981-1982 As of 31 August 2001 located at 42.73 deg W drifting at 0.834 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 39.31E drifting at 0.875W degrees per day.

1982 April 10 - . 06:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3910/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3910/PAM 647/D161.
  • Insat 1A - . Mass: 1,152 kg (2,539 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 1. Completed Operations Date: 1982-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 13129 . COSPAR: 1982-031A. Apogee: 35,829 km (22,263 mi). Perigee: 35,734 km (22,204 mi). Inclination: 13.3000 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min. Also carried transponders for domestic communications. Operational multipurpose satellite for telecommunications, meteorological, imaging and data relay, radio and television programme distribution and direct television broadcasting for community reception. Geosynchronous orbit longitude 74 E. A/AC.105/INF.391 was reissued as ST/SG/SER.E/79. Also registered by the United States as 1982-31A in ST/SG/SER.E/67, with category C and orbital parameters 1416.7 min, 35032 x 35783 km x 0.5 deg. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 73 deg E in 1982 As of 29 August 2001 located at 82.99 deg E drifting at 0.337 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 39.55E drifting at 0.205W degrees per day.

1983 August 30 - . 06:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-8.
  • Insat-1B; Insat 1B - . Payload: Insat 1B. Mass: 1,152 kg (2,539 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 1. Completed Operations Date: 1993-08-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 14318 . COSPAR: 1983-089B. Apogee: 35,824 km (22,259 mi). Perigee: 35,811 km (22,251 mi). Inclination: 3.6000 deg. Period: 1,437.70 min. Released from STS 8 8/31/83; also carried transponders for domestic communications. Operational multipurpose satellite for telecommunications, meteorological imaging and data relay, radio and television programme distribution and direct television broadcasting for community reception. Geostationary longitude 74.0 +/ - 0.1 deg E. Deployment from US Space Transportation System flight no 8, orbiter Challenger, on 31 Aug 1983. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 74 deg E in 1983-1992; 93 deg E in 1992-1993 As of 26 August 2001 located at 125.27 deg E drifting at 0.152 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 80.35E drifting at 0.392E degrees per day.

1988 July 21 - . 23:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V24.
  • Insat-1C; Insat 1C - . Payload: Insat 1C. Mass: 1,190 kg (2,620 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 1. Completed Operations Date: 1989-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19330 . COSPAR: 1988-063A. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 9.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 93.5 deg E; also performed communications tasks. Operational multipurpose satellite for telecommunications, meteorological imaging and data relay, radio and television programme distribution and direct television broadcasting for community reception. Geosynchronous orbit longitude 93.5 +/- 0.1 deg east. Launch vehicle Ariane 3 launch vehicle of Arianespace, 24th flight of Ariane and 9th flight of the Ariane 3 version. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1988-1989 As of 4 September 2001 located at 58.51 deg E drifting at 0.073 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 80.89E drifting at 0.154W degrees per day.

1990 June 12 - . 05:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 4925-8. LV Configuration: Delta 4925-8 D196.
  • Insat-1D; Insat 1D - . Payload: Insat 1D. Mass: 1,190 kg (2,620 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 1. USAF Sat Cat: 20643 . COSPAR: 1990-051A. Apogee: 35,851 km (22,276 mi). Perigee: 35,729 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 3.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Also performed Indian domestic communications tasks; 83.1 E. Operational multi-purpose satellite for telecommunications, meteorological imaging and data relay, radio and television programme distribution and direct television broadcasting for community reception. Orbital position 83 deg E. Also registered as 1990-5 1A in ST/SG/SER.E/250 by the United States, with category B and orbital parameters 1426.3 min, 35768 x 35811 km x 0.2 deg. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 83 deg E in 1990-1999; 74 deg E in 1999-2000 As of 5 September 2001 located at 73.85 deg E drifting at 0.000 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 71.63E drifting at 0.039E degrees per day.

1992 July 9 - . 22:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V51.
  • Insat-2A - . Payload: Insat 2A. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 22027 . COSPAR: 1992-041A. Apogee: 35,839 km (22,269 mi). Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 4.1000 deg. Period: 1,437.50 min. Stationed at 74 deg E; also performed communications functions. INSAT-2A is a multi-purpose satellite, and it will provide the following services: Domestic long-distance telecommunications, meteorological earth observation and data collection services, direct satellite TV broadcasting to community TV receivers in rura l and remote areas, radio and TV progamme distribution, and Satellite Aided Search and Rescue services. Geostationary longitude 74 +/0 0.1 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 74 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 48.18 deg E drifting at 0.010 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 5 located at 25.76W drifting at 0.201W degrees per day.

1993 July 22 - . 22:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V58.
  • Insat-2B - . Payload: Insat 2B. Mass: 1,931 kg (4,257 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 22724 . COSPAR: 1993-048B. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 93.5 deg E; also acted as communications platform; carried search and rescue package. INSAT-2B is a multi-purpose satellite, and it will provide the following services: Domestic long range communications, meteorological Earth observation and data collection service, Direct satellite TV broadcasting to community TV recievers in rural and re mote areas, Radio and TV programme distribution, satellite aided search and rescue services. Inclination will be reduced to 0.1 deg and maintained. Geostationary longitude 93.5 +/- 0.1 deg E. Launch on Arianespace flight 58. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 93.47 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 63.82W drifting at 1.099W degrees per day.

1995 December 6 - . 23:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V81.
  • Insat 2C - . Payload: Insat 2C. Mass: 2,050 kg (4,510 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 23731 . COSPAR: 1995-067B. Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: 24 transponders. Stationed at 92.5 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 93.60 deg E drifting at 0.019 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 165.25W drifting at 1.757W degrees per day..

1997 June 3 - . 23:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V97.
  • Insat 2D - . Payload: Insat 2D. Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. Completed Operations Date: 1997-10-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 24820 . COSPAR: 1997-027B. Apogee: 35,859 km (22,281 mi). Perigee: 35,713 km (22,190 mi). Inclination: 0.4000 deg. Period: 1,374.20 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 74.1E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 72 deg E in 1997 As of 2 September 2001 located at 85.52 deg W drifting at 16.266 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 49.88W drifting at 16.261E degrees per day..

1999 April 2 - . 22:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. LV Configuration: Ariane 42P-3 V117.
  • Insat 2E - . Payload: Insat 2E. Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 25666 . COSPAR: 1999-016A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. ISRO's Insat 2E was placed in geostationary transfer orbit. The Indian-built satellite carried a C and S band communications package. Stationed at 83 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 83 deg E in 1999. As of 3 September 2001 located at 82.90 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.93E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.

2000 March 21 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V128 (505).
  • Insat 3B - . Mass: 2,778 kg (6,124 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 26108 . COSPAR: 2000-016B. Apogee: 35,987 km (22,361 mi). Perigee: 35,931 km (22,326 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,444.90 min. Replaced the lost Insat 2D and carried a pure telecommunications payload of C, Ku and S band transponders. Stationed at 83 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 73 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 83.07 deg E drifting at 0.014 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 82.94E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.

2001 April 18 - . 10:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-D1.
  • GSAT-1 - . Payload: GramSat. Mass: 1,530 kg (3,370 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gsat. USAF Sat Cat: 26745 . COSPAR: 2001-015A. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 33,825 km (21,017 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,387.00 min. Experimental Rural Communications satellite. Launch delayed following pad abort on March 28. First launch of the Indian GSLV launch vehicle. GSat 1 was an Indian, 1500 kg scaled-dow) test model of a future geosynchronous communications spacecraft with a 440 N ISRO liquid apogee motor, and S-band and C-band ommunications transponders, similar to the Insat-2 satellites. The motor for the cryogenic, hydrogen-oxygen upper stage had been purchased from Russia but the design had never flown in space before. The stage cut off without providing the required delta-V - preliminary analysis revealed a shortfall of 0.5% in the thrust. An attempt was made to reach a usable orbit using the station-keeping motor of the GSAT satellite itself. After a series of burns, GSat 1 ran out of propellant - 10 kg more fuel would have been required to reach a stationary orbit. In the end, the parameters of the drifting (about 13 deg/day) orbit were period 23 hours, apogee 35,665 km, perigee 33,806 km, and inclination 0.99 deg. The fully functional transponders and transmitters on board were deactivated on instructions of the International Telecommunications Union. As of 4 September 2001 located at 54.88 deg E drifting at 13.212 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 50.16W drifting at 12.778E degrees per day.

2002 January 23 - . 23:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L. LV Configuration: Ariane 42L-3 V147.
  • Insat 3C - . Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 27298 . COSPAR: 2002-002A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Communications satellite. Launch delayed from January 16. The Ariane placed Insat 3C into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. The Indian communications satellite had a mass of 1050 kg empty, 2750 kg fuelled. It carried 30 C-band and two S-band transponders. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 73.96E drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.

2003 April 9 - . 22:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V160 (514) Cities of Bordeaux/Colleferro.
  • Insat 3A - . Mass: 2,958 kg (6,521 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 27714 . COSPAR: 2003-013A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Return to flight of Ariane 5G after grounded following Ariane 5EC-A failure. Launch delayed from February 24, April 8, 2003. Satellite also had meteorological instruments. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 93.48E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day..

2003 May 8 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-D2.
  • GSAT-2 - . Payload: GramSat. Mass: 1,825 kg (4,023 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gsat. USAF Sat Cat: 27807 . COSPAR: 2003-018A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Experimental Rural Communications. Launch delayed from original target of late 2001, then October 2002, then February 2003. The satellite carried four C-band transponders, two Ku-band transponders and a Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) payload operating in S-band and C-band for forward link and return link respectively. GSAT-2 also carried four piggyback experimental payloads: Total Radiation Dose Monitor (TRDM), Surface Charge Monitor (SCM), Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) and Coherent Radio Beacon Experiment (CRABEX). As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 47.97E drifting at 0.005E degrees per day.

2003 September 27 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V162.
  • Insat 3E - . Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 27951 . COSPAR: 2003-043E. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.0900 deg. Period: 1,436.06 min. The 440 Newton Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) took the satellite from its Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) of 649 km perigee and 36,000 km apogee with an orbital inclination of 7 deg. The LAM was fired for a total duration of 121 minutes in three phases on September 29, September 30 and October 1. A total velocity of 1460 m/sec was added by LAM at apogee. INSAT-3E had 1592 kg propellant at the time of its injection into GTO by Ariane-5 launch vehicle on September 28. After orbit raising operations, it had 510 kg of propellant remaining that is sufficient to arrest the drift and park it at its orbital slot as well as maintain the satellite in its orbit and controlling its orientation during its design life of more than 12 years. After the completion of the third apogee motor firing, the Solar Arrays and Antennae of INSAT-3E were deployed. The Sun tracking solar array of INSAT-3E had a total area of 29.6 sq m and it is designed to generate 2.9 kW (BoL) of power in orbit. The satellite had two deployable antennas and one fixed antenna. The satellite was expected to reach its final orbital slot of 55 deg E and be put into operation by November 2003. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 54.97E drifting at 0.001W degrees per day.

2004 September 20 - . 10:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-F01.
  • GSAT-3 / Edusat - . Payload: GramSat. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gsat. USAF Sat Cat: 28417 . COSPAR: 2004-036A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Gsat-3 / Edusat was the first Indian satellite built exclusively for the educational sector. It was mainly intended to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system for India. Edusat was launched into a geosynchronous transfer orbit by its launch vehicle. Edusat was to reach geostationary orbit by firing, in stages, its on board Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM). In geostationary orbit the satellite was to be co-located with Kalpana-1 and Insat-3C satellites at 74 deg East longitude.

    Compared to earlier satellites in the Insat series, Edusat used several new technologies. The spacecraft was built around the I-2K standardised spacecraft bus. It had a multiple spot beam antenna with a 1.2 m reflector to direct Ku band spot beams, a dual core bent heat pipe for thermal control, high efficiency multi-junction solar cells and an improved thruster configuration for optimised propellant use for orbit and orientation maintenance. The satellite used radiatively cooled Ku-band Travelling Wave Tube Amplifiers and a dielectrically loaded C-band demultiplexer for its communication payloads. Edusat carried five Ku-band transponders providing spot beams, one Ku-band transponder providing a national beam and six Extended C-band transponders with a national coverage beam. It was to join the Insat system that already provided more than 130 transponders in C-band, Extended C-band and Ku-band for a variety of telecommunication and television services.

    First operational flight of launch vehicle. Launch delayed from July, August and September 10. Dry mass 820 kg. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 73.92E drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.


2005 December 21 - . 22:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5GS. LV Configuration: Ariane 5GS V169 (525).
  • Insat 4A - . Mass: 3,081 kg (6,792 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 28911 . COSPAR: 2005-049A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Delayed from late July 2005. Launch delayed from August 23, October, November 14 and 30, December 8, 16 and 20. Dry mass 1385 kg. The satellite was equipped with Ku-band and C-band transponders and would join other Insats in providing telecommunications and television services to the Indian subcontinent. After three engine burns the satellite reached geostationary altitude over the Indian Ocean at 04:30 GMT on 26 December, then deployed its solar arrays. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 83.00E drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.

2006 July 10 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLP. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-F02. FAILURE: One of the liquid-fueled strap-on motors failed to develop thrust. By 40 seconds after launch the GSLV had veered outside of the launch corridor and the destruct signal was sent.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Insat 4C - . Mass: 2,168 kg (4,779 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. COSPAR: F20060710.

2007 March 11 - . 22:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA. LV Configuration: Ariane 5ECA V175 (535).
  • Insat 4B - . Mass: 3,035 kg (6,691 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 30793 . COSPAR: 2007-007A. Apogee: 35,808 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,766 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: ISRO communications satellite with C and Ku band channels, and a dry mass of 1335 kg.

2007 September 2 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLP. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-F04.
  • Insat 4CR - . Mass: 2,130 kg (4,690 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 32050 . COSPAR: 2007-037A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,221 km (21,885 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 421.80 min. Summary: Ku-band television satellite..

2010 December 25 - . 10:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLP. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV s/n F06. FAILURE: Destroyed at T+60 seconds after guidance commands from on-board computer to steering system of strapon boosters were cut off.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Gsat 5P - . Payload: I-2K. Mass: 2,310 kg (5,090 lb). Nation: India. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. COSPAR: 2010-F04. Summary: Vehicle reached only 15 km. First use of stretched cryogenic third state. Gsat-5P communications satellite destroyed..

2011 May 20 - . 20:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • Gsat 8 - . Payload: Insat-3000. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: India. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. COSPAR: 2011-022A. Apogee: 35,816 km (22,254 mi). Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Communications satellite with a GAGAN navigation payload..

2011 July 15 - . 11:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV XL.
  • Gsat 12 - . Payload: I-1K. Mass: 1,410 kg (3,100 lb). Nation: India. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 37746 . COSPAR: 2011-034A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Communications satellite; used on-board propellant to reach geosynchronous position..

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