Encyclopedia Astronautica
Apstar


Asia-Pacific communications.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • HS 376 American communications satellite. 56 launches, 1980.11.15 (SBS 1) to 2003.09.27 (E-Bird). Mass 654 kg at beginning-of-life in geosynchronous orbit. Spin stabilized at 50 rpm by 4 hydrazine thrusters with 136 kg propellant. More...
  • FS-1300 American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 1989.06.05. More...
  • HS 601 American communications satellite bus. First launch 1990.01.09. 3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimbaled momentum bias wheels. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • CZ-3 Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 3 was a three-stage launch vehicle designed for delivery of satellites of 1,500 kg mass into geosynchronous transfer orbit. The first and second stages were based on the CZ-2C, and designed and manufactured by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology. The majority of the technology and flight hardware used in the CZ-3 had been qualified and proven on the CZ-2C. The third stage, manufactured by CALT, was equipped with an LOX/LH2 cryogenic engine. Long March 3 was also capable of placing spacecraft into an elliptical or circular low earth orbit and sun synchronous orbit. More...
  • CZ-2E Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-2E added four liquid rocket booster strap-ons to the basic CZ-2 core to achieve a low earth orbit payload capability approaching the Russian Proton, US Titan, or European Ariane rockets. The Long March 2E had a maximum payload capability of 9,500 kg to low earth orbit. More...
  • CZ-3B Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 3B was the most powerful Long March launch vehicle. It could inject a 5,000 kg payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit. The CZ-3B was developed on the basis of the CZ-3A, but had enlarged propellant tanks, larger fairing, and four boosters strapped onto the core stage. The CZ-3B boosters were identical to those of the CZ-3A. More...
  • Zenit-3SL Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. From the beginning of the program a Zenit-3 version was proposed for geosynchronous launches using the N1/Proton Block D third stage. This had the potential of replacing the Proton in the role of geosynchronous launcher. It was considered for launch from Australia / Cape York in the 1980's. Finally a joint US-Norwegian-Ukraininan-Russian consortium was formed to launch the three stage commercial Zenit from the Odyssey floating launch platform in the Pacific Ocean. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • PRC Chinese Ministry of Astronautics, Beijing, China. More...
  • APT Chinese agency. APT Satellite Company (Asia Pacific Telecom), Hong Kong, China. More...
  • Palo Alto American manufacturer of rockets. Palo Alto, Palo Alto, California, USA. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Xichang China's launch site for geosynchronous orbit launches. Xichang Satellite Launch Centre is situated in Xichang, Sichuan Province, south-western China. The launch pad is at 102.0 degrees East and 28.2 degrees North. The head office of the launch centre is located in Xichang City, about 65 kilometers away. Xichang Airport is 50 km away. A dedicated railway and highway lead directly to the launch site. More...
  • Kiritimati Kiritimati (Christmas Island) in the Pacific Ocean was originally selected by Von Braun in his Collier magazine series of the early 1950's as an ideal equatorial launch site. A half century later, Boeing Sea Launch used an offshore location for orbital launches. The launch platform was a seagoing converted Norwegian offshore oil rig. Between missions it was berthed in Long Beach, California. It was towed to a location off Kiritimati for launches of the Ukrainian Zenit-3 launch vehicle. More...

Apstar Chronology


1994 July 21 - . 10:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-9 (34).
  • Apstar 1 - . Mass: 1,383 kg (3,048 lb). Nation: China. Agency: APT. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23185 . COSPAR: 1994-043A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.12 min. Summary: Asia-Pacific communications. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 138 deg E in 1994-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 138.04 deg E drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 141.96E drifting at 0.002W degrees per day..

1995 January 25 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2E. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2E CZ2E-5 (37). FAILURE: Shortcomings in the guidance system lead to the vehicle not anticipating the true effects of horizontal wind-shear once the mountains surrounding the launch site were cleared. This caused the nose fairing to collapse and the spacecraft to be destroyed.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Apstar 2 - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. Decay Date: 1995-01-25 . COSPAR: F950125A. Because the Apstar failure happened a few seconds later than Optus, the consequences were catastrophic. The vehicle was destroyed, and the falling wreckage landed on a village down-range of the launch site, killing at least 20 and perhaps as many as 120 people.

1996 July 3 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-10 (41).
  • Apstar 1A - . Mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Nation: China. Agency: APT. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23943 . COSPAR: 1996-039A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: 24 C-band transponders; Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 134 deg E in 1996-1999. As of 6 September 2001 located at 134.02 deg E drifting at 0.013 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 129.99E drifting at 0.007E degrees per day..

1997 October 16 - . 19:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3B. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3B CZ3B-3 (48).
  • Apstar 2R - . Nation: China. Agency: APT. Manufacturer: Palo Alto. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 25010 . COSPAR: 1997-062A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 76.5E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 76 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 76.48 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 76.46E drifting at 0.002W degrees per day..

2004 June 29 - . 03:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiritimati. Launch Pad: 0.0 N x 154.0 W. Launch Platform: ODYSSEY. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SL. LV Configuration: Zenit-3SL 11. FAILURE: Partial failure - upper stage left satellite stranded in useless orbit.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Apstar 5 - . Payload: Apstar 1R, Telstar 18, LS-1300. Mass: 4,640 kg (10,220 lb). Nation: China. Agency: APT. Manufacturer: Palo Alto. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 28364 . COSPAR: 2004-024A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Delayed from November 2003, April 28 2004. Partial failure (upper stage). As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 138.01E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day..

2005 April 12 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3B. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3B CZ3B (84).
  • APSTAR 6 - . Payload: Apstar 5B / Spacebus 4000C2. Mass: 4,680 kg (10,310 lb). Nation: China. Agency: APT. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 28638 . COSPAR: 2005-012A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0200 deg. Period: 1,436.09 min. Summary: Delayed from November, December 4, 2004. Ku and C band transponders. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 133.99E drifting at 0.013W degrees per day..

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