Encyclopedia Astronautica
PRC


Chinese Ministry of Astronautics, Beijing, China.

Location: Beijing.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Agency Agencies or institutions overseeing design, development, construction, or operation of space-related systems. More...

Associated Programs
  • Intelsat Intelsat operated the world's first commercial communications satellite. It has provided the scheduled transoceanic television and voice and data communications service ever since. More...

PRC Chronology


1960 September 1 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: The rocket was built in the Soviet Union but used Chinese propellants. This launch took place just a month after all Soviet experts were withdrawn from China..

1960 November 5 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: First launch of all-Chinese version of Russian R-2, model 1059. Radio guidance was used. Nie Rongzhen is present to observe the event..

1960 December 1 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1960 December 1 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Two further launches are made from Jiuquan..

1962 March 21 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2. FAILURE: Failure of guidance and engine mounting. Impacted after 69 seconds of flight.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). First DF-2 launch attempt. The rocket impacted the earth after only 69 seconds of flight. Fundamental design errors were discovered in calculating flexing of the rocket in flight, placement of the guidance system, and engine mounting. The missile was completely redesigned for reduced thrust.

1964 June 29 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: This followed a two-year complete redesign and test program following the first launch failure in 1962. The reduced-thrust missile had a range of 1050 km with a 1550 kg warhead, barely enough to reach Japan..

1964 July 9 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1964 July 11 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

November 1965 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2A.
  • First successful test of DF-2A. - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: First launch of redesigned DF-2. The flight demonstrated a 20% improvement in range for the same 1500 kg payload, and replaced the radio guidance of the DF-2 with an autonoumous gyroscopic system..

1966 October 27 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2A.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). DF-2A launched with a 1290 kg, 12 kt warhead from Jiuquan flew over a range of 800 km to Lop Nor, where the warhead successfully exploded. The Ninth Academy was responsible for development of the nuclear package. Tsien protégé Guo Yonghuai was the liaison between the Fifth and Ninth Academies for the development.

1971 September 10 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Research and Development Suborbital Flight.

1972 August 10 - . 00:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701-02.
  • Shiyan Peizhong - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: Research and Development Suborbital Flight.

1973 September 18 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701-03. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • JSSW 1 - . Payload: JSSW 1. Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Spacecraft: JSSW. COSPAR: F730918A.

1974 July 14 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701-04. FAILURE: Vehicle lost attitude stability and destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: G.
  • JSSW 2 - . Payload: JSSW 2. Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Spacecraft: JSSW. COSPAR: F740714A.

1974 November 5 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2A. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2A CZ2A-1 (3). FAILURE: Cable carrying pitch rate gyro signal disconnected.. Failed Stage: G.
  • FSW-0 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. A. Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Decay Date: 1974-11-05 . COSPAR: F741105A.

1976 November 10 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701-08. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • JSSW 6 - . Payload: JSSW 6. Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Spacecraft: JSSW. COSPAR: F761110A.

1977 September 14 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701(II)-01.
  • DDDS test - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1978 April 15 - . 16:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701(II)-02.
  • DDDS test - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1979 January 7 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan..

1979 July 15 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan..

1979 July 28 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 XCZ-1-02. FAILURE: Second stage failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • SJ-1 - . Payload: Shi Jian 1. Mass: 221 kg (487 lb). Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Spacecraft: SJ. COSPAR: F790728A. Summary: The SJ-1 was similar in appearance to the American Telstar and conducted communications technology tests..

1979 August 21 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan on 2 August..

1979 September 4 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan..

1979 November 26 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan on 15 October..

1980 May 18 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 May 21 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 December 7 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan..

1982 April 30 - . Launch Site: Yellow Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 35.0 N x 125.0 E. Launch Platform: HULU?. Launch Vehicle: JL-1. LV Configuration: JL-1 CSS-NX-3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1982 October 12 - . Launch Site: Yellow Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 35.0 N x 125.0 E. Launch Platform: GOLF-C. Launch Vehicle: JL-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1985 May 1 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1985 September 28 - . Launch Site: Yellow Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 35.0 N x 125.0 E. Launch Platform: XIA. Launch Vehicle: JL-1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1987 September 1 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1988? - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: DF-15. Launch Vehicle: DF-15.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1988 September 27 - . Launch Site: Yellow Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 35.0 N x 125.0 E. Launch Platform: XIA. Launch Vehicle: JL-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1988 December 19 - . Launch Site: Haikou. Launch Vehicle: Zhinui. LV Configuration: Zhinui ZN-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 December 20 - . Launch Site: Haikou. Launch Vehicle: Zhinui. LV Configuration: Zhinui ZN-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 December 22 - . Launch Site: Haikou. Launch Vehicle: Zhinui. LV Configuration: Zhinui ZN-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1988 December 24 - . Launch Site: Haikou. Launch Vehicle: Zhinui. LV Configuration: Zhinui ZN-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1990 July 16 - . 00:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2E. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2E CZ2E-1 (23).
  • HS-601 Model - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. COSPAR: 1990-059xx. Summary: First launch of new Chinese launch vehicle..

1991 January 22 - . Launch Site: Haikou. Launch Vehicle: Zhinui. LV Configuration: Zhinui ZN-3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1992 April 29 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1992 May 1 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21. FAILURE: Failure.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1992 October 6 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-13 (29).
  • Freja - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: PRC. Spacecraft: Freja. USAF Sat Cat: 22161 . COSPAR: 1992-064xx. Apogee: 1,782 km (1,107 mi). Perigee: 521 km (323 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 108.40 min.

1993? - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1995 - . Launch Site: South China. LV Family: DF-15. Launch Vehicle: DF-15.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1995 January 25 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2E. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2E CZ2E-5 (37). FAILURE: Shortcomings in the guidance system lead to the vehicle not anticipating the true effects of horizontal wind-shear once the mountains surrounding the launch site were cleared. This caused the nose fairing to collapse and the spacecraft to be destroyed.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Apstar 2 - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. Decay Date: 1995-01-25 . COSPAR: F950125A. Because the Apstar failure happened a few seconds later than Optus, the consequences were catastrophic. The vehicle was destroyed, and the falling wreckage landed on a village down-range of the launch site, killing at least 20 and perhaps as many as 120 people.

1995 May 29 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: CZ-1. Launch Vehicle: CZ-1D.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1995 July 1 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1995 November 10 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 January 10 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 February 14 - . 19:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3B. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3B CZ3B-1 (40). FAILURE: Guidance failure resulted in launch vehicle crashing 22 seconds after launch, killing or injuring 59 people.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Intelsat 708 - . Nation: International. Agency: PRC. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. COSPAR: F960214A. First attempted launch of a new version in the Long March family. Began to experience an anomaly in attitude about 2 seconds after launch, pitching down and yawing to the right. It augured in nose down at T+22 seconds and exploded violently, utterly destroying the launcher and its payload. The Chief-Designer of the launch vehicle organised an analysis team on the same day of the accident. Interpretation and analysis of the telemetered data indicated that the crash was caused by a change in the inertial reference. The explosion killed six and injured 57. Two of the killed were senior engineers with CASC.

1996 December 28 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 November 1 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: CZ-1. Launch Vehicle: CZ-1D.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 August 2 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 November 4 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 December 16 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2002 January 3 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: CZ-1. Launch Vehicle: CZ-1D. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failure..
  • CZ-1 Missile Technology Test - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Chinese People's Liberation Army test launch with dummy warhead. Suborbital - failure. Delayed from early November 2001..

2002 July 1 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21. LV Configuration: DF-21 Decoy test.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2002 November 23 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2002 December 1 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21. LV Configuration: DF-21 Decoy test.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2004 Q1 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2004 July 1 - . Launch Site: Yellow Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 35.0 N x 125.0 E. Launch Platform: XIA?. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: JL-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Julang-2 - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

2005 June 12 - . Launch Site: Yellow Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 35.0 N x 125.0 E. Launch Platform: XIA?. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: JL-2.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2005 July 7 - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Vehicle: DF-21. LV Configuration: DF-21 ASAT 1.
  • ASAT - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 850 km (520 mi).

2006 February 6 - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Vehicle: DF-21. LV Configuration: DF-21 ASAT 2.
  • ASAT - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 850 km (520 mi).

2006 September 4 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • DF-31 test - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2007 January 11 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. LV Family: DF-21. Launch Vehicle: DF-21. LV Configuration: DF-21 ASAT 3.
  • Chinese ASAT destroys FY-1C target satellite. - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 850 km (520 mi). The FY-1C satellite, launched on 10 May 1999, was presumably well past the end of its operational life. It was destroyed in a test of a Chinese ASAT weapon at an altitude of 850 km, 4 degrees west of Xichang. Launch vehicle was unknown, but a version of the DF-21 IRBM would be sufficient to reach that altitude. Reportedly the flight had been preceded by one to three earlier tests that were either failures or just aimed at a point in space. The program was apparently very secret, and the Chinese foreign ministry was caught by surprise by the test and the storm of international condemnation that followed. The FY-1C was blown into over 200 pieces of debris, adding immediately by 10% to the population of space junk that threatens lower-altitude satellites.

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