Encyclopedia Astronautica
ESRO


European agency overseeing development of spacecraft. European Space Research Organisation, Europe.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • ESRO European technology satellite. 5 launches, 1967.05.30 (ESRO 2A) to 1972.11.22 (ESRO 4). The ESRO series were small Scout-launched probes of near-earth space. More...
  • HEOS European earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1968.12.05 (HEOS 1) and 1972.01.31 (HEOS 2). Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite; examined magnetic fields outside of Earth's magnetosphere. More...
  • TD-1A European technology satellite. One launch, 1972.03.12. Sixth satellite of ESRO. More...

See also
  • Agency Agencies or institutions overseeing design, development, construction, or operation of space-related systems. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kiruna The sounding rocket launch site at Kiruna was officially opened in September 1966 under the auspices of ESRO (European Space Research Organisation). When ESA was created in 1972 and replaced ESRO, Kiruna came under the management of the Swedish Space Corporation, a state-owned limited liability company under the Swedish Ministry of Industry. The 'Esrange' is located 45 km from the town of Kiruna and has seven permanent pads able to launch the largest sounding rockets, including the Black Brant 9, Skylark 12, and Castor 4B-boosted vehicles. More...

ESRO Chronology


1964 July 6 - . 19:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S01/1.
  • MPE Ba-7 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1964 July 8 - . 19:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S01/2.
  • MPE Ba-8 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1964 October 29 - . 23:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure.
  • ESRO C02 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1965 March 31 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark-7 S03/1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S03 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 45 km (27 mi).

1965 April 3 - . 12:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark-7 S03/2.
  • ESRO S03 / 2 (SE5) Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1965 August 10 - . 23:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S05/1.
  • Ultraviolet photometer Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1965 September 30 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S04/1 (SEO8).
  • MPE Ba-12 / Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1965 October 2 - . 04:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S04/2 (SEO9).
  • MPE Ba-13 / Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1965 December 7 - . 03:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure.
  • ESRO C07 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1965 December 11 - . 04:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure.
  • ESRO C07 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1965 December 14 - . 12:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-6.
  • ESRO C06 / 1 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1966 February 4 - . 23:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-16.
  • ESRO C15 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1966 February 11 - . 02:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-15. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO C15 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1966 February 22 - . 18:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-13.
  • ESRO C14 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1966 February 23 - . 23:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-14.
  • ESRO C14 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1966 March 9 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-12.
  • ESRO C13 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1966 March 10 - . 22:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-11.
  • ESRO C13 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1966 May 15 - . 05:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Nissaki-Karystos. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-5.
  • ESRO C06 / 2 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1966 May 15 - . 09:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Nissaki-Karystos. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas AE001.
  • ESRO A23 / 1 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 08:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Complex: Koroni LP2. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas AE002. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO A23 / 2 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 09:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Nissaki-Karystos. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas A003.
  • ESRO A23 / 3 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 99 km (61 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Nissaki-Karystos. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-19.
  • ESRO C22 / 1 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 09:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Complex: Koroni LP2. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas A004.
  • ESRO A23 / 4 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 102 km (63 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Complex: Koroni LP2. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas A005. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO A23 / 5 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 7.00 km (4.30 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Complex: Koroni LP2. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas A006.
  • ESRO A23 / 6 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-20.
  • ESRO C22 / 2 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1966 June 16 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S17/1.
  • MPE Barium release Aeronomy / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1966 June 18 - . 02:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S17/2.
  • MPE Barium release Aeronomy / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1966 June 20 - . 19:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S08/1.
  • ESRO S08 / 1 (SK7) Aeronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1966 June 27 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Blandine. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique AGI. LV Configuration: Veronique AGI AGI/60.
  • FU-154 recovery test - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 123 km (76 mi). Summary: FU154 Technology (recovery) mission..

1966 June 28 - . 02:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S08/2.
  • ESRO S08 / 2 (SK8) Aeronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi).

1966 July 8 - . 19:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S18/1.
  • ESRO S18 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1966 July 13 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S18/2.
  • ESRO S18 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi).

1966 July 20 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Belier I.
  • ESRO B12 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1966 July 25 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Belier I.
  • ESRO B12 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1966 November 19 - . 23:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure.
  • ESRO C21 / 1 Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 123 km (76 mi).

1966 November 26 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S11/2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S11 / 2 (SK16) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1966 November 29 - . 01:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-8.
  • ESRO C9 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1966 November 30 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-7.
  • ESRO C9 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 147 km (91 mi).

1967 February 4 - . 23:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-22.
  • ESRO C21 / 2 Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 126 km (78 mi).

1967 February 16 - . 07:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-9.
  • ESRO C10 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1967 February 22 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-10.
  • ESRO C10 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1967 April 19 - . 16:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-24/1.
  • ESRO C24/1 test - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 123 km (76 mi).

1967 May 22 - . 00:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S11/1.
  • ESRO S11 / 1 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1967 May 25 - . 23:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S05/2.
  • ESRO S05 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1967 May 30 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. LV Configuration: Scout B S152C. FAILURE: Third stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • ESRO 2A - . Payload: Iris 1. Mass: 74 kg (163 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1967-05-29 . COSPAR: F670530A.

1967 July 31 - . 00:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-30.
  • ESRO C20 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1967 July 31 - . 00:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-31.
  • ESRO C32 / 1 Meteorite mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1967 September 27 - . 13:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S26/1.
  • ESRO S26 / 1 Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1967 October 4 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1. LV Configuration: Dragon DE-35.
  • ESRO D34 / 1 Solar x-ray / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi).

1967 October 4 - . 13:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S19/1.
  • ESRO S19 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1967 October 7 - . 10:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1. LV Configuration: Dragon DE-30.
  • ESRO D30 / 1 Solar x-ray / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi).

1967 October 7 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S26/2.
  • ESRO S26 / 2 Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1967 October 10 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1. LV Configuration: Dragon DE-36. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO D34 / 2 Solar x-ray / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1967 October 10 - . 14:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S19/2.
  • ESRO S19 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1967 November 24 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-36. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO C13 / P Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1967 November 26 - . 20:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-17.
  • ESRO C31 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1967 December 6 - . 21:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-2.
  • ESRO C31 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1968 February 1 - . 05:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-34.
  • ESRO C36 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1968 February 4 - . 05:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-35.
  • ESRO C36 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1968 March 6 - . 21:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-37.
  • ESRO C14 / P Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1968 March 26 - . 23:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S16/1.
  • ESRO S16 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1968 May 8 - . 11:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-46.
  • ESRO C33 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1968 May 14 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Belier III. LV Configuration: Belier III 306.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO; CNES. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1968 May 15 - . 11:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-47.
  • ESRO C33 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1968 May 17 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. LV Configuration: Scout B S161C.
  • ESRO 2B - . Payload: IRIS. Mass: 75 kg (165 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1971-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 3233 . COSPAR: 1968-041A. Apogee: 1,085 km (674 mi). Perigee: 334 km (207 mi). Inclination: 97.2000 deg. Period: 99.00 min.

1968 May 20 - . 15:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1. LV Configuration: Centaure 1 CE-38.
  • ESRO C42 / 1 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1968 May 22 - . 16:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1. LV Configuration: Dragon D-31. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO D30 / 2 Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1968 June 7 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1. LV Configuration: Centaure 1 CE-44.
  • ESRO C42 / 2 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1968 June 8 - . 21:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-32.
  • ESRO C32 / 2 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1968 July 30 - . 22:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-31.
  • ESRO C20 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1968 August 12 - . 12:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas 2. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas 2 AE007.
  • ESRO A50 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 96 km (59 mi).

1968 August 25 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas 2. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas 2 AE008.
  • ESRO A50 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 109 km (67 mi).

1968 October 3 - . 20:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. LV Configuration: Scout B S167C.
  • ESRO 1A - . Payload: Aurorae. Mass: 81 kg (178 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1970-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3459 . COSPAR: 1968-084A. Apogee: 1,538 km (955 mi). Perigee: 258 km (160 mi). Inclination: 93.8000 deg. Period: 103.00 min. Summary: Aurora, polar ionosphere investigations. .

1968 October 7 - . 21:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 ESRO S47/1.
  • Ultraviolet telescope Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi).

1968 October 8 - . 11:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-48.
  • ESRO C35 / 1 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1968 October 15 - . 16:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-39.
  • ESRO C45 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1968 November 1 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-50.
  • ESRO C45 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1968 November 1 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas. LV Configuration: Sidewinder-Arcas NASA 15.24II. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Arcas VI PCA Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1968 November 22 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC ESRO S41/1.
  • Solar BCS Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1968 November 25 - . 00:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 ESRO S43/1.
  • ESRO S43 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1968 December 3 - . 20:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 ESRO S27/1.
  • Ultraviolet telescope Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1968 December 5 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta E1. LV Configuration: Thor Delta E1 481/D61.
  • HEOS 1 - . Payload: HEOS A1. Mass: 108 kg (238 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: HEOS. Decay Date: 1975-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3595 . COSPAR: 1968-109A. Apogee: 202,780 km (126,000 mi). Perigee: 20,020 km (12,430 mi). Inclination: 60.5000 deg. Period: 6,704.30 min. Summary: Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite; examined magnetic fields outside of Earth's magnetosphere. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1969 February 25 - . 14:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 3 (R127) Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1969 February 25 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE.
  • ESRO C49 / 1 (R3) Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1969 February 25 - . 21:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO A40 / 4 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1969 February 25 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE.
  • ESRO C49 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1969 March 15 - . 20:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S43/2.
  • ESRO S43 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1969 March 15 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C52/1.
  • ESRO C52 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1969 April 13 - . 08:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 7 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 51 km (31 mi).

1969 April 13 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 5 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1969 April 14 - . 17:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 2 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1969 April 14 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C39/1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO C39 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1969 April 14 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 6 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1969 April 15 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C39/2.
  • ESRO C39 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 134 km (83 mi).

1969 June 5 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C35/2.
  • ESRO C35 / 2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1969 July 5 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S38/1.
  • ESRO S38 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1969 July 6 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S64/1.
  • ESRO S64 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi).

1969 July 11 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S38/2.
  • ESRO S38 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1969 July 13 - . 19:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S64/2.
  • ESRO S64 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi).

1969 August 11 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C51/1.
  • ESRO C51 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 112 km (69 mi).

1969 August 14 - . 02:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C58/1.
  • ESRO C58 / 1 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 112 km (69 mi).

1969 October 1 - . 22:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. LV Configuration: Scout B S172C. FAILURE: Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • ESRO 1B - . Payload: Boreas. Mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1969-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4114 . COSPAR: 1969-083A. Apogee: 378 km (234 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 85.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Ionospheric and auroral investigations; lower than planned orbit. Fourth satellite of ESRO. Also registered by the United States in A/AC.105/INF.220 as United States space object 1969-83A, with category B and orbital parameters 90.6 min, 280 x 339 km x 85.1 deg.

1969 October 5 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S29/1.
  • ESRO S29 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1969 October 10 - . 20:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C52/2.
  • ESRO C52 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1969 October 17 - . 22:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S29/2.
  • ESRO S29 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1969 October 24 - . 05:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S68/1.
  • ESRO S68 / 1 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1969 November 10 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S46/1.
  • ESRO S46 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1969 November 27 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C62/1.
  • ESRO C62 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1969 November 27 - . 06:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C62/2.
  • ESRO C62 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1970 January 24 - . 14:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S56A/1.
  • ESRO S56A / 1 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 February 4 - . 05:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C57/1.
  • ESRO C57 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1970 February 6 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 AC S44/1.
  • ESRO S44 / 1 Stellar ultraviolet Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1970 February 10 - . 14:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S72. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S72 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC; ESRO. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi).

1970 February 14 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S66/2.
  • ESRO S66 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 February 23 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C37/1.
  • ESRO C37 / 1 MPE Ba Ionosphere / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 February 24 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S70/1.
  • ESRO S70 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi).

1970 February 25 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S61/1.
  • ESRO S61 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1970 February 26 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S61/2.
  • ESRO S61 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1970 April 2 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S66/1.
  • ESRO S66 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1970 April 3 - . 01:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C57/2.
  • ESRO C57 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1970 April 4 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S28/1.
  • ESRO S28 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1970 June 7 - . 07:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C48/1.
  • ESRO C48 / 1 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1970 June 22 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S68/2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S68 / 2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1970 July 3 - . 19:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S63/2.
  • ESRO S63 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 July 8 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S63/1.
  • ESRO S63 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 July 23 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S56A/2.
  • ESRO S56A / 2 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1970 July 24 - . 03:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S65/1.
  • ESRO S65 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1970 July 27 - . 04:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S65/2.
  • ESRO S65 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1970 August 9 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C58/2.
  • ESRO C58 / 2 Ionosphere / meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1970 August 10 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C51/2.
  • ESRO C51 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1970 August 19 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C48/2.
  • ESRO C48 / 2 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1970 October 16 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S53. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S53 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC; ESRO. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1970 October 19 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S58. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S58 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC; ESRO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 October 27 - . 20:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S67/1.
  • ESRO S67 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi).

1970 October 29 - . 21:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S67/2.
  • ESRO S67 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi).

1970 December 6 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S69.
  • ESRO S69 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1971 January 8 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/1.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1971 January 15 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1971 January 17 - . 14:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C37/2.
  • ESRO C37 / 2 MPE Ba Ionosphere / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1971 January 17 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/3.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 3 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1971 January 19 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/4.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 4 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 15:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/5.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 5 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1971 January 23 - . 15:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/6.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 6 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1971 January 25 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C60/1.
  • ESRO C60 / 1 Chemical release / particles mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1971 January 25 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/7.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 7 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1971 January 26 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C60/2.
  • ESRO C60 / 2 Chemical release / particles mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1971 January 26 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel ESRO P40/1.
  • ESRO P40 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1971 January 27 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/8.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 8 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 47 km (29 mi).

1971 January 27 - . 23:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C78/1.
  • ESRO C78 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1971 January 28 - . 18:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S46/2.
  • ESRO S46 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi).

1971 January 29 - . 17:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/9.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 9 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1971 January 31 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/10.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 10 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1971 February 3 - . 18:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/11.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 11 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1971 February 6 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S80/1.
  • ESRO S80 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1971 February 6 - . 23:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S80/2.
  • ESRO S80 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi).

1971 February 7 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S80/3.
  • ESRO S80 / 3 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1971 February 8 - . 20:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/12.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 12 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 48 km (29 mi).

1971 February 9 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/13.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 13 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1971 February 11 - . 17:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/14.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 14 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1971 February 12 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/15.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 15 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1971 February 22 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S85. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S85 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC; ESRO. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1971 February 26 - . 10:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S54. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S54 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1971 March 2 - . 21:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S16/2.
  • ESRO S16 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1971 March 11 - . 08:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S55.
  • ESRO S55 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1971 March 15 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S87/1.
  • ESRO S87 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1971 March 24 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S87/2.
  • ESRO S87 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1971 March 25 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S56B/1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S56B / 1 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet / x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1971 May 14 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S56B/2.
  • ESRO S56B / 2 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet / x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1971 July 2 - . 10:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S73.
  • ESRO S73 Solar X-ray/Zodiacal mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1971 July 30 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Micon. Launch Vehicle: Zenit. LV Configuration: Zenit-C Zenit-Cuckoo. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO Z82 / 1 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 July 30 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Zenit. LV Configuration: Zenit Zenit-Cuckoo.
  • ESRO Z82/1 - . Nation: Italy. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 26 km (16 mi).

1971 July 31 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C59/1.
  • ESRO C59/1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1971 August 1 - . 00:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C59/2.
  • ESRO C59/2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1971 September 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S47/2.
  • ESRO S47 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 October 12 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S81.
  • ESRO S81 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC; ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 October 20 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S89.
  • ESRO S89 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 November 16 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 AC S44/2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S44 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1971 November 22 - . 20:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2A. LV Configuration: Centaure 2A CE-67.
  • ESRO C78 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1971 November 25 - . 17:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S70/2.
  • ESRO S70/2 Ionosphere/VLF Radio mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1971 December 14 - . 12:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S82.
  • ESRO S82/2 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1972 January 21 - . 19:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C76/1.
  • ESRO C76/1 Particles/Auroral mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1972 January 22 - . 00:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C76/2.
  • ESRO C76/2 Particles/Auroral mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi).

1972 January 31 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta L. LV Configuration: Thor Delta L 564/D87.
  • HEOS 2 - . Payload: HEOS A2. Mass: 123 kg (271 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: HEOS. Decay Date: 1974-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5814 . COSPAR: 1972-005A. Apogee: 240,164 km (149,230 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 89.9000 deg. Period: 7,477.10 min. Summary: Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite; particles and fields data. Fifth satellite of ESRO. Also registered as US object 1972-05A in A/AC.105/INF.248 with orbit 7835.4 min, 439 x 248160 km x 90.2 deg, category B. .

1972 February 28 - . 05:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S84.
  • ESRO S84 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi).

1972 February 28 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S90.
  • ESRO S90 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi).

1972 March 2 - . 22:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 4. LV Configuration: Skylark 4 S77/1.
  • ESRO S77 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi).

1972 March 12 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta N. LV Configuration: Thor Delta N 573/D88.
  • TD-1A; Thor Delta 1A - . Payload: TD 1A. Mass: 472 kg (1,040 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: TD-1A. Decay Date: 1980-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5879 . COSPAR: 1972-014A. Apogee: 550 km (340 mi). Perigee: 523 km (324 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 95.40 min. Summary: Sixth satellite of ESRO. Also registered as US object 1972-14A in A/AC.105/INF.255 with orbit 95.3 min, 525 x 548 km x 97.5 deg, category B. .

1972 March 24 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S75/1.
  • ESRO S75 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1972 March 30 - . 01:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 4. LV Configuration: Skylark 4 S75/2.
  • ESRO S75 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi).

1972 June 25 - . 14:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S91.
  • ESRO S91 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi).

1972 September 24 - . 21:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 4. LV Configuration: Skylark 4 S77/2.
  • ESRO S77 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi).

1972 October 13 - . 00:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S105.
  • ESRO S105 Auroral mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 207 km (128 mi).

1972 November 2 - . 06:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 6 AC S95.
  • ESRO S95 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC; ESRO. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1972 November 20 - . 04:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S94.
  • ESRO S94 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1972 November 22 - . 00:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1-F S185C.
  • ESRO 4 - . Mass: 114 kg (251 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1974-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 6285 . COSPAR: 1972-092A. Apogee: 1,173 km (728 mi). Perigee: 245 km (152 mi). Inclination: 91.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Summary: Polar ionosphere investigations. Seventh ESRO satellite. Mass 115 kg. Also registered by the United States as 1972-92A, in A/AC.105/INF.267, with orbital parameters 98.8 min, 244 x 1160 km x 91.1 deg, category B. .

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