Encyclopedia Astronautica

Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical takeoff, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, Lox/Kerosene/LH2 tripropellant rocket engine powered vehicle. 550 tonne gross liftoff mass and 1000 tonne versions studied. Analogous to NASA's Shuttle-2 and RKK Energia's VKS.

For the 550 tonne version, dry mass of the launch vehicle would have to be 67,700 kg, with payload 7,500 kg / 1.4 percent of the growth. Payload could therefore be zero depending on the uncertainties in weight growth of the design during development. As in other vertically-launched SSTO designs, this was considered too great a risk, and the air-launched MAKS was selected instead. Velocity loss during ascent estimated at 1619 m/s compared to 1168 m/s for MAKS (payload 3.1% of gross).

Status: Study 1988.
Gross mass: 550,000 kg (1,210,000 lb).
Payload: 7,500 kg (16,500 lb).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

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Associated Countries
See also
  • VKS RKK Energia's proposed solution to the Soviet government's MVKS requirement for a single-stage-to-orbit reusable aerospaceplane system was this 700-metric-ton, turboramjet/rocket mised propulsion design. Work began in 1986 but abandoned when the Soviet Union collapsed. More...
  • VTOVL The concept of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit Vertical Take-Off Vertical Landing (VTOVL) launch vehicle that would reenter and return to its launch site for turnaround and relaunch was first proposed by Philip Bono in the 1960's. The appealing simplicity of the concept has been offset by the technological risk in developing it. The problem with any single-stage-to-orbit concept is that if the empty weight of the final vehicle has been underestimated it will not be able to deliver any payload to orbit, or even reach orbit. Since weight growth of up to 20% is not unknown in aerospace projects, this is a very real threat which has made both NASA and private investors reluctant to invest the billions of dollars it would take to develop a full-scale flight vehicle. More...
  • Winged In the beginning, nobody (except Jules Verne) thought anybody would be travelling to space and back in ballistic cannon balls. The only proper way for a space voyager to return to earth was at the controls of a real winged airplane. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Molniya Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Molniya Design Bureau, Russia. More...

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