Encyclopedia Astronautica
Temp-2S



temp2smw.jpg
Temp-2S
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. World's first operational mobile ICBM. Deployed in greaty secrecy in 1976-1987 contrary to the terms of the SALT-2 Treaty.

The Temp-2S mobile, solid propellant ICBM was a joint development project of Nadiradze's NII-1 MOP and Yuzhnoye. A decree of 6 March 1966 started development work. Earlier studies of the Temp-S2.M configuration had grown to a launch mass of 37 tonnes. But Boris Zhukov at NII-125 had designed a radical new glass-fibre solid motor case that could withstand temperatures of 3000 deg C and promised further weight savings. Nadiradze's own studies showed a minimum launch mass of 40.5 tonnes, with a pause of 10 seconds between first stage burnout and second stage ignition providing the minimum launch mass.

Two mobile launcher variants were studied. The 82SCP2 tracked vehicle by Leningrad LKZ was based on the T-10 tank chassis. The MAZ-547 wheeled transport by Minsk Auto Works was Nadiradze's preference. The decision was made on 10 July 1969 to proceed with an upgraded version of the MAZ-547, which could carry 40.7 tonnes in lieu of the standard vehicle's 32 tonnes. Flight trials of only the first stage of the missile were conducted in 1971. The all-up missile was tested from Plesetsk in 35 launches from 14 March 1972 to December 1974.

Production was undertaken by the Votkinsk Mechanical Factory from 1971, with Vladimir Sadovnikov taking over engineering responsibility for the missile from 1974. The first two rocket regiments became operational at Plesetsk on 21 February 1976. A total of seven regiments were formed, each with six mobile launchers, with 36-40 launchers available at any one time. This was all done in complete secrecy since SALT-2 Treaty discussions were focussing on prohibiting development or deployment of mobile ICBM's. Officially the Temp-2S launchers 'did not exist'. They were kept in garages in Plesetsk, and only left these shelters on manoeuvres when US reconnaissance satellites were not overhead. On 18 June 1979 the Soviet delegation signed a protocol to the SALT-2 Treaty that definitively prohibited development of mobile ICBM's and listed only fixed ICBM launchers. Nevertheless the deception could be maintained since the first two stages of the missile were the basis for the Pioner IRBM, which used a similar mobile launcher. However US intelligence sources were not fooled, and already claimed a year prior to the SALT-2 signing that between 50 and 100 Temp-2S launchers were operational at Plesetsk. This was ignored by the Carter team but became a major example of the deceptions of the 'Evil Empire' during the Reagan presidency. It was only in 1985 during START-1 negotiations that the Soviet delegation 'came clean' about the existence of the Temp-2S, dubbing it the 'RS-14' in negotiations with the Americans.

The retirement of the Temp-2S began in 1986. By then the mobile launchers had covered thoursands of kilometres of taiga in mobile deployments.

The Temp-2S consisted of three solid propellant stages and a low-thrust liquid propellant payload bus for warhead velocity trim and dispensing of countermeasures. Each solid stage of the Temp-2S used a dual propellant charge, a main cylindrical charge protecting the motor walls during the entire burn, and a smaller cross-section front-end charge. The first stage used 'grid' aerodynamic rudders for stability, augmented by thrust vectoring through use of wolfram being injected into the nozzle. The upper stages were guided by injection of 'hexogene' gas into the nozzle, which behaved like concentrated aluminium oxide. A problem during development was how to counter rolling of the rocket during ascent. Each stage used a single exhaust nozzle, unlike the 1960's era Soviet solid rockets which used four gimballed exhaust nozzles.

The Pilyugin guidance system used a high reliability digital computer. The system was updated by an optical data link just prior to first stage ignition. The avionics were in a pressurised equipment bay to protect them during the high-acceleration launch. PO Barrikada built the production launcher under the supervision of Georgi Sergeyev.

Success Rate: 100.00%. Launch data is: incomplete. Standard warhead: 540 kg (1,190 lb). Maximum range: 10,500 km (6,500 mi). Number Standard Warheads: 1. Warhead yield: 650 KT. CEP: 1.64 km (1.01 mi). Alternate warhead: 940 kg (2,070 lb). Maximum range with alternate warhead: 3,500 km (2,100 mi). Number Alternate Warheads: 1. Alternate warhead yield: 1,500 KT. Alternate warhead CEP: 0.45 km (0.27 mi). Boost Propulsion: Solid rocket. Initial Operational Capability: 1977. Total Production Built: 70.

AKA: RS-14; SS-16; 15Zh42; Sinner; Temp-2S.
Status: Retired 1988.
Gross mass: 44,200 kg (97,400 lb).
Payload: 540 kg (1,190 lb).
Height: 18.51 m (60.72 ft).
Diameter: 1.79 m (5.87 ft).
Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).
First Launch: 1972.03.14.
Last Launch: 1976.01.01.
Number: 15 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Nadiradze Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Nadiradze, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Pervov, Mikhail, Raketnoye Oruzhiye RVSN, Violanta, Moscow, 1999..
  • Karpenko, A V, Utkin, A F and Popov,A D, Otechestvenniye strategischeskiye raketnoye kompleks, Sankt-Peterburg: Nevskii bastion; Gangut 1999..

Associated Launch Sites
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

Associated Stages
  • Temp-2S-3 Solid rocket stage. 245.00 kN (55,078 lbf) thrust. Mass 8,700 kg (19,180 lb). More...

Temp-2S Chronology


1972 March 14 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC157. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Mobile launcher test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 April 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 June 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1972 September 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 May 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 June 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 July 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 August 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 December 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 February 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 December 12 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 December 12 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Temp-2S.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

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