Encyclopedia Astronautica
Storm


wstorm2.jpg
American target missile. Two-stage Orbital Sciences vehicle used as targets in THAAD anti-ballistic missile tests. Consisted of a Sergeant first stage and Minuteman third stage as second stage. Twelve were launched January 1992 - December 1995.

Failures: 1. Success Rate: 91.67%. First Fail Date: 1992-06-16. Last Fail Date: 1992-06-16. Launch data is: complete.

Historical Essay © Andreas Parsch

Orbital Sciences Storm I - Storm II

Storm is the name of a family of ground-launched target vehicles, which are built by Orbital Sciences Corp. (OSC) for tests of theater anti-ballistic missiles. The Storm vehicles are also referred to as BTTV (Ballistic Tactical Target Vehicle) or MTTV (Maneuvering Tactical Target Vehicle) rockets, depending on the characteristics of the actual reentry vehicle carried.

Storm I

Storm I is a two-stage solid-propellant rocket consisting of a Sergeant booster stage and an M57A1 upper stage (a third stage of a retired LGM-30 Minuteman ICBM). A total of twelve Storm I rockets have been launched between January 1992 and December 1995, either for vehicle validation or to to provide targets for THAAD (Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense) flight tests.

Storm II

The Storm II is a single-stage rocket using the SR19-AJ-1 second stage of retired LGM-30F Minuteman II ICBMs. It is normally flown as an MTTV, and as such uses the maneuvering reentry vehicles of discarded MGM-31 Pershing II missiles. The Storm II was first fired on 29 January 1997. It is equipped with a GPS-INS guidance and control system to achieve accurate flight paths, and can launch payloads weighing between 900 kg and 4260 kg (2000-9400 lb). At the time of this writing at least six Storm II rockets have been launched to provide targets for tests of the PAC-3 missile.

Specifications Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!

Data for Storm II (with Pershing II RV):

Length 10 m (33 ft)
Diameter 1.32 m (4 ft 4 in)
Weight (max. payload) 11340 kg (25000 lb)
Propulsion Aerojet SR19-AJ-1 solid-fueled rocket; 268 kN (60300 lb)

Status: Retired 1995.
Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
Diameter: 0.79 m (2.59 ft).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
First Launch: 1992.01.17.
Last Launch: 1995.12.13.
Number: 12 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • OSC American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Orbital Sciences Corporation, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • White Sands White Sands Missile Range occupies an area 160 x 65 km in the Tularosa Basin of southern New Mexico, across the Sacramento Mountain range from Roswell. In the 1930's, Robert Goddard, after surveying weather conditions and population densities, had selected Roswell for his pioneering rocket tests. White Sands, a true desert area, was even more unpopulated than Roswell. German advances in rocketry during World War II impelled the US Army to begin programs to exploit this technology. The White Sands Proving Ground was established for testing German and American long-range rockets on 9 July 1945. Seven days later the first atomic bomb was exploded at Trinity Site, near the north boundary of the range. The first launch of a Tiny Tim rocket was on 26 September 1945. On 11 October a Tiny Tim boosted a WAC Corporal rocket from the tower. This was the first use of Launch Complex 33, later to be used for V-2, Nike, Viking, Corporal, Lance and Multiple Launch Rocket System testing. More...
  • White Sands SULF Storm launch complex. The SULF complex was located at the northwest end of the range and was equipped with a blockhouse, ordnance assembly building, three launchers, and a 30-m long environmental shelter. This complex was used to launch anti-ballistic missile targets (generally composed of surplus Minuteman ICBM motors) and to launch technology demonstrations or unique science and engineering payloads into sub-orbital trajectories. More...
  • White Sands LC36 Terrier, Redstone, Nike, Little Joe II, Honest John, Black Brant, Storm, Aries, Apollo LES launch complex. Originally designated Army Launch Area 2, LC36 was later a LC36 was a NASA facility that supported tests of the Apollo Launch Escape System. It was also used to launch NASA sounding rocket missions. The complex included a blockhouse, launch control equipment, and launchers with environmental shelters. These launchers included:
    • An 11-m rail with 3600 kg capacity
    • A 15-m rail with 11,000 kg capacity
    • A 50-m tower with 3600 kg capacity
    • A 1.2-m diameter stool with 23,000 kg capacity
    • A 9-m rail with 7000 kg capacity.
    More...

Associated Stages
  • Hera-2 Solid rocket stage. 76.00 kN (17,085 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,900 kg (4,189 lb). More...
  • Sergeant Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42/21 kg. Thrust 6.66 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 235 seconds. More...

Storm Chronology


1992 January 17 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. Launch Vehicle: Storm. LV Configuration: Storm S1.
  • BTTV-1 Validation test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1992 June 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. Launch Vehicle: Storm. LV Configuration: Storm S2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • BTTV-2 Validation test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1993 February 5 - . 16:24 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. Launch Vehicle: Storm. LV Configuration: Storm S3.
  • BTTV-3 Validation test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1993 October 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. Launch Vehicle: Storm.
  • BTTV-4 PAC-2 Target Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1993 October 26 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Vehicle: Storm.
  • BTTV-5 ERINT Mutimode Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1993 November 30 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Vehicle: Storm.
  • BTTV-6 ERINT GTF-2 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1993 December 17 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. Launch Vehicle: Storm.
  • MTTV-1 ERINT Demo Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1994 February 15 - . 16:18 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. Launch Vehicle: Storm.
  • BTTV-7 ERINT GTF-3 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1995 February 7 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. Launch Vehicle: Storm. LV Configuration: Storm S9.
  • BTTV-8 THAAD Demo Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1995 August 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Vehicle: Storm. LV Configuration: Storm S10?.
  • MTTV MTD-1(GPS test) Target mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1995 October 13 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. Launch Vehicle: Storm. LV Configuration: Storm S11.
  • BTTV-9 THAAD Target Target mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1995 December 13 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. Launch Vehicle: Storm.
  • BTTV-10 THAAD Target Target mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

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