Encyclopedia Astronautica
Start-1



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Start-1
Credit: © Mark Wade
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ICBM-Derived LVs
The range of launch vehicles derived from decommissioned ballistic missiles offered for sale by Russia after the cold war.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle based on decommissioned ICBM's. Launched from mobile transporter. Liftoff mass 47 tonnes.

LEO Payload: 632 kg (1,393 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 52.00 degrees. Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb) to a 407 km 51.6 deg orbit. Launch Price $: 9.000 million in 1999 dollars.

Stage Data - Start-1

  • Stage 1. 1 x Start-1. Gross Mass: 26,000 kg (57,000 lb). Empty Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust (vac): 980.000 kN (220,310 lbf). Isp: 263 sec. Burn time: 60 sec. Isp(sl): 238 sec. Diameter: 1.61 m (5.28 ft). Span: 1.61 m (5.28 ft). Length: 8.50 m (27.80 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: MIHT-1. Status: In Production. Comments: All estimated.
  • Stage 2. 1 x Start-2. Gross Mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Empty Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust (vac): 490.000 kN (110,150 lbf). Isp: 280 sec. Burn time: 64 sec. Isp(sl): 220 sec. Diameter: 1.55 m (5.08 ft). Span: 1.55 m (5.08 ft). Length: 6.00 m (19.60 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: MIHT-2. Status: In Production. Comments: All estimated except stage gross mass.
  • Stage 3. 1 x Start-3. Gross Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Empty Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust (vac): 245.000 kN (55,078 lbf). Isp: 280 sec. Burn time: 56 sec. Isp(sl): 220 sec. Diameter: 1.50 m (4.90 ft). Span: 1.50 m (4.90 ft). Length: 3.00 m (9.80 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: MIHT-3. Status: In Production. Comments: All estimated.
  • Stage 4. 1 x Start-4. Gross Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Empty Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust (vac): 9.800 kN (2,203 lbf). Isp: 295 sec. Burn time: 207 sec. Isp(sl): 0.0000 sec. Diameter: 1.40 m (4.50 ft). Span: 1.40 m (4.50 ft). Length: 2.50 m (8.20 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: MIHT-4. Status: In Production. Comments: All estimated.

AKA: Topol; RT-2PM; SL-18; 15Zh58; L-1.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 47,200 kg (104,000 lb).
Payload: 632 kg (1,393 lb).
Height: 22.70 m (74.40 ft).
Diameter: 1.61 m (5.28 ft).
Thrust: 887.40 kN (199,495 lbf).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
First Launch: 1993.03.25.
Last Launch: 2006.04.25.
Number: 5 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Start Russian communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.03.25. Experimental satellite carried on test flight of the Start-1 carrier rocket, a new booster based on SS-25 ICBM. More...
  • Ofeq 3 Israeli military surveillance satellite. 4 launches, 1995.04.05 (Ofeq-3) to 2006.04.25 (EROS-B). Ofeq 3 was Israel's second-generation imaging surveillance satellite. More...
  • Zeya Russian earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1997.03.04. The Zeya satellite was used for navigation and geodesy tests from a sun-synchronous orbit. More...
  • Early Bird American civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1997.12.24 (Early Bird) and 2000.11.20 (QuickBird 1). Civilian earth resources / intelligence photo-imaging program. More...
  • Odin Swedish infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 2001.02.20. Odin was a Swedish dual disciplinary (astrophysics and atmospheric science) spacecraft. The 250 kg, 340 W spacecraft had a pointing accuracy of 15 arcsec and a data storage capacity of 100 MB. More...

Associated Engines
  • MIHT-1 MIHT solid rocket engine. 980.6 kN. Start-1. In production. Used in Start-1. Estimated values. Isp=263s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MIHT-2 solid rocket engine. 490.3 kN. Start-2. In production. Used in Start-2. Estimated values. Isp=280s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MIHT-3 MIHT solid rocket engine. 245.2 kN. Start-3. In production. Used in Start-3. Estimated values. Isp=280s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MIHT-4 MIHT solid rocket engine. 9.8 kN. Start-4. In production. Used in Start-4. Estimated values. Isp=295s. First flight 1993. More...

See also
  • Topol Containerised all-solid propellant Nadiradze ICBM designed for launch from mobile and silo launchers. Replaced UR-100/UR-100NU in silos. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Nadiradze Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Nadiradze, Russia. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
  • Svobodniy Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1994, equipped with 90 light ICBM (UR-100) silos. The number of operational silos declined to 60 by 1993. The break-up of the Soviet Union left the main Russian cosmodrome on foreign territory (Baikonur, in Kazakhstan). The Northern Cosmodrome at Plesetsk did not have facilities for large launch vehicles and was not suited for support of launches into lower-inclination orbits. Therefore Svobodniy Cosmodrome, located 7,777 km east of Moscow, was established as the Second State Space Trials Launch Centre (GIK-2) on 2 February 1996. More...

Associated Stages
  • MIHT-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 245.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All estimated More...
  • MIHT-4 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,000/300 kg. Thrust 9.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. All estimated More...
  • Start-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 26,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 980.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. All estimated More...
  • Start-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,000/1,500 kg. Thrust 490.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All estimated except stage gross mass More...

Start-1 Chronology


1993 March 25 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC158. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1.
  • Start-1 - . Payload: EKA-1. Mass: 260 kg (570 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Start. USAF Sat Cat: 22561 . COSPAR: 1993-014A. Apogee: 964 km (599 mi). Perigee: 681 km (423 mi). Inclination: 75.8000 deg. Period: 101.40 min. Summary: Test flight of new booster based on SS-25 ICBM. Full-scale mock-up (actual weight) for the flight-design testing of the Start-1 carrier rocket. Experimental satellite launched by a Start-1 carrier rocket from the Plesetsk launch site. .

1997 December 24 - . 13:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Svobodniy. Launch Complex: Svobodniy LC5. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1.
  • Early Bird - . Payload: EarlyBird. Nation: USA. Agency: DigitalGlobe. Manufacturer: McLean. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Early Bird. Decay Date: 2000-07-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 25123 . COSPAR: 1997-085A. Apogee: 488 km (303 mi). Perigee: 479 km (297 mi). Inclination: 97.3000 deg. Period: 94.10 min.

2000 December 5 - . Launch Site: Svobodniy. Launch Complex: Svobodniy LC5. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1.
  • EROS A1 - . Mass: 240 kg (520 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ImageSat. Manufacturer: IAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. USAF Sat Cat: 26631 . COSPAR: 2000-079A. Apogee: 542 km (336 mi). Perigee: 533 km (331 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 95.40 min. Launch delayed from November 28. The Israeli commercial imaging satellite EROS A1 was owned by ImageSat (an Israeli-led company registered in the Netherlands Antilles) and built by IAI using the Ofeq-3 design. EROS A1 was placed in a sun-synchronous orbit together with the DS 5th stage. The 250 kg (dry mass) triaxially stabilized spacecraft carried a black and white high resolution (1.8 m) CCD camera, to obtain images (with terrain width of 12.6 km) of locations chosen by Israeli military or world-wide commercial clients, and downlink them at one of the 14 ground stations.

2001 February 20 - . 08:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Svobodniy. Launch Complex: Svobodniy LC5. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1.
  • Odin - . Mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: ZAO. Manufacturer: SSC. Class: Astronomy. Type: Infrared astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Odin. USAF Sat Cat: 26702 . COSPAR: 2001-007A. Apogee: 580 km (360 mi). Perigee: 573 km (356 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 96.20 min. Sweden's Odin scientific satellite carried a submillimeter wave astronomy instrument and a radiometer for atmospheric studies. The 1.1-meter reflector fed 500 GHz and 119 GHz radiometers and was used to study galactic molecular clouds, complementing NASA's SWAS satellite. The Odin satellite was designed and built by the Swedish Space Corporation (Svenska Rymdbolaget or Rymdaktiebolaget). SSC does most of its satellite design and construction in-house, although Saab made the antenna and carried out satellite final assembly. SSC was a goverment-owned company and a contractor for the Rymdstyrelsen (Swedish National Space Board).

2006 April 25 - . 16:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Svobodniy. Launch Complex: Svobodniy LC5. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1. LV Configuration: Start-1 No. 441.
  • EROS-B - . Mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ImageSat. Manufacturer: IAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. USAF Sat Cat: 29079 . COSPAR: 2006-014A. Apogee: 514 km (319 mi). Perigee: 505 km (313 mi). Inclination: 97.3000 deg. Period: 94.80 min. Summary: Combined civilian/military imaging satellite operated by an Israeli company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. Its capability was demonstrated when, within days of launch, sharp photographs of people and motor vehicles on a Syrian dam were released..

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