Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz ST



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Soyuz-2 LV
Credit: TsSKB
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Soyuz-2 LV
Credit: TsSKB
Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern digital avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Can be used with either Ikar or Fregat upper stages. The 'FG' was the military version.

Also known as the Soyuz 2, it was a modernisation of the Soyuz launcher that increased general performance. The basic launch vehicle design remained the same. Changes were limited to:

  • The first and second stage engines featured improved performance with new injectors and mixture ratio.
  • The third stage engine performance was increased.
  • The launch vehicle was equipped with a new control system allowing in-flight orbital plane change (whereas all earlier R-7 derived vehicles flew a fixed trajectory, with the launch table rotated before launch to the appropriate azimuth).
  • A new digital telemetry system provided for launch vehicle monitoring.
  • A new, larger-diameter fairing (3.65 meters in diameter) was used.

The standard fourth stage was the Fregat orbital module.

LEO Payload: 7,800 kg (17,100 lb) to a 240 km orbit at 51.80 degrees. Launch Price $: 40.000 million in 1999 dollars.

Stage Data - Soyuz ST

  • Stage 0. 4 x Soyuz ST-0. Gross Mass: 44,400 kg (97,800 lb). Empty Mass: 3,810 kg (8,390 lb). Thrust (vac): 1,021.097 kN (229,552 lbf). Isp: 310 sec. Burn time: 120 sec. Isp(sl): 264 sec. Diameter: 2.68 m (8.79 ft). Span: 2.68 m (8.79 ft). Length: 19.60 m (64.30 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-117. Status: In production. Comments: Gross mass includes 1190 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 280 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion.
  • Stage 1. 1 x Soyuz ST-1. Gross Mass: 105,400 kg (232,300 lb). Empty Mass: 6,875 kg (15,156 lb). Thrust (vac): 999.601 kN (224,719 lbf). Isp: 311 sec. Burn time: 286 sec. Isp(sl): 245 sec. Diameter: 2.95 m (9.67 ft). Span: 2.95 m (9.67 ft). Length: 27.80 m (91.20 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-118. Status: In production. Comments: Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion.
  • Stage 2. 1 x Soyuz ST-2. Gross Mass: 25,200 kg (55,500 lb). Empty Mass: 2,355 kg (5,191 lb). Thrust (vac): 294.000 kN (66,093 lbf). Isp: 359 sec. Burn time: 300 sec. Diameter: 2.66 m (8.72 ft). Span: 2.66 m (8.72 ft). Length: 6.74 m (22.11 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-0124. Status: In production.

AKA: Soyuz-2-1A; Soyuz 2; SL-4; Soyuz FG; Sapwood; A-2.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 310,000 kg (680,000 lb).
Payload: 7,800 kg (17,100 lb).
Height: 43.40 m (142.30 ft).
Diameter: 2.95 m (9.67 ft).
Thrust: 4,144.70 kN (931,766 lbf).
Apogee: 240 km (140 mi).
First Launch: 2004.11.08.
Last Launch: 2006.12.24.
Number: 3 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Metop European earth weather satellite. One launch, 2006.10.19. MetOp was Europe's first polar-orbiting satellite dedicated to operational meteorology. More...
  • Meridian Russian new-generation military 12-hour elliptical orbit communications satellite designed to replace the Molniya series. Operational, first launch 2006.12.24. More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-0124 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 294.3 kN. In development. Isp=359s. Engine to succeed RD-0110 in second stage of Soyuz. Used staged combustion; chamber pressure increased from 70 to 160 bar, specific impulse from 326 to 359 seconds First flight 2001. More...
  • RD-117 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1021.097 kN. Soyuz ST stage 1. In production. Update of RD-107. Little performance change from RD-107, changes may mainly relate to use of all-Russian components. Isp=310s. First flown 2001. More...
  • RD-118 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 999.601 kN. In production. Isp=311s. Update of RD-107, used in Soyuz ST launcher. Little performance change from RD-107, changes may mainly relate to use of all-Russian components. First flight 2001. More...

See also
  • R-7 The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2011. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

Associated Stages
  • Soyuz ST-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 44,400/3,810 kg. Thrust 1,021.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Gross mass includes 1190 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 280 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. More...
  • Soyuz ST-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,400/6,875 kg. Thrust 999.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. More...
  • Soyuz ST-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 359 seconds. More...

Soyuz ST Chronology


2004 November 8 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz ST.
  • Soyuz 2 flight test. - . Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. First flight test of a modernized version of the Soyuz ST equipped with a digital control system. Suborbital launch; carried an obsolete Zenit-8 reconnaisance satellite as a mass model and impacted in the Pacific Ocean. Launch delayed from October 15 and 29, November 6.

2006 October 19 - . 16:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz ST. LV Configuration: Soyuz-2-1A/Fregat Zh15000-003/ST16.
  • Metop-A - . Mass: 4,093 kg (9,023 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: RKA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Metop. USAF Sat Cat: 29499 . COSPAR: 2006-044A. Apogee: 817 km (507 mi). Perigee: 817 km (507 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.00 min. European polar weather satellite equipped with high-resolution visible and infrared cameras, a microwave sounder, ozone monitors, a GPS atmospheric sounding device, a wind scatterometer, and a search and rescue package. First launch of the Soyuz 2 version of the venerable Soyuz launch vehicle. The main change in this first version of the new booster was a digital control system. Problems with this system delayed the launch repeatedly.

2006 December 24 - . 08:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz ST. LV Configuration: Soyuz-2-1A/Fregat 76033135.
  • Meridian 1 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Meridian. USAF Sat Cat: 29668 . COSPAR: 2006-061A. Apogee: 39,093 km (24,291 mi). Perigee: 1,264 km (785 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Launch rescheduled twice due to Soyuz 2 software problems. The Meridian satellite was designed to provide communication between vessels and airplanes involved in ice surveillance in the North Sea area, and coastal stations on the ground, as well as to expand a network of satellite communications in the northern regions of Siberia and the Russian Far East.

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