Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz M



ruslvdw.jpg
Rus LV
Credit: TsSKB
Rus project was to result in first major propulsion upgrade to R-7 family in forty years, using first stage engines derived from those developed for Zenit second stage to boost performance. It would have permitted launches from Plesetsk with same or greater payload than launch of standard Soyuz-U from Baikonur, permitting move of more launch operations back onto Russian territory. Instead the more modest Soyuz ST / Soyuz FG upgrades were made.

LEO Payload: 7,900 kg (17,400 lb) to a 200 km orbit. Payload: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb) to a GTO in 1985 dollars. Flyaway Unit Cost $: 3.000 million.

Stage Data - Soyuz M

  • Stage 0. 4 x Soyuz M-0. Gross Mass: 42,200 kg (93,000 lb). Empty Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust (vac): 872.000 kN (196,033 lbf). Isp: 336 sec. Burn time: 145 sec. Isp(sl): 298 sec. Diameter: 2.68 m (8.79 ft). Span: 2.68 m (8.79 ft). Length: 20.00 m (65.00 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-120K. Status: In production.
  • Stage 1. 1 x Soyuz M-1. Gross Mass: 100,500 kg (221,500 lb). Empty Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust (vac): 872.000 kN (196,033 lbf). Isp: 336 sec. Burn time: 310 sec. Isp(sl): 298 sec. Diameter: 2.95 m (9.67 ft). Span: 2.95 m (9.67 ft). Length: 28.00 m (91.00 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-120K. Status: In production.
  • Stage 2. 1 x Soyuz 11A511U-2. Gross Mass: 25,200 kg (55,500 lb). Empty Mass: 2,355 kg (5,191 lb). Thrust (vac): 298.100 kN (67,016 lbf). Isp: 330 sec. Burn time: 250 sec. Diameter: 2.66 m (8.72 ft). Span: 2.66 m (8.72 ft). Length: 6.74 m (22.11 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-0110. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 3. 1 x Soyuz M-3. Gross Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Empty Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust (vac): 20.000 kN (4,496 lbf). Isp: 360 sec. Burn time: 700 sec. Isp(sl): 0.0000 sec. Diameter: 2.40 m (7.80 ft). Span: 2.40 m (7.80 ft). Length: 2.70 m (8.80 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-161-1. Status: In production. Comments: Empty mass estimated. Multiple restart engine.

AKA: Rus; 11A511M.
Status: Development ended 2000.
Gross mass: 309,180 kg (681,620 lb).
Payload: 7,900 kg (17,400 lb).
Height: 45.00 m (147.00 ft).
Diameter: 2.95 m (9.67 ft).
Thrust: 4,334.30 kN (974,389 lbf).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Obzor Russian earth resources radar satellite. Study 1992. The Arsenal Design Bureau proposed converting its military ocean reconnaissance spacecraft bus (EORSAT) into a civil remote sensing platform. More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-0110 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 297.9 kN. Soyuz 11A511, Molniya-M 8K78M. Precursor RD-0107 used in 11A57 Voskhod stage 2. Modified to increase reliability. Isp=326s. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-0124 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 294.3 kN. In development. Isp=359s. Engine to succeed RD-0110 in second stage of Soyuz. Used staged combustion; chamber pressure increased from 70 to 160 bar, specific impulse from 326 to 359 seconds First flight 2001. More...
  • RD-120K Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 873 kN. Soyuz M stage 1, 2. Proposed for X-34. Isp=336s. Sea-level variant of RD-120. As of 1996 RD-120 prototype with 1.8 m diameter had been built, development time estimated for three years. More...
  • RD-161P Glushko H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. 24.5 kN. Soyuz M stage 3 (block LM). Developed 1993-. Two thrust levels. Minimum 1500 kgf. Proposed for use on Soyuz M-3. Version for H2O2 fuel, concentration 96-98%. Isp=319s. More...

See also
  • R-7 The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2011. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Stages
  • Soyuz M-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,200/3,000 kg. Thrust 872.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz M-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,000 kg. Thrust 872.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. Proposed improved version. Not developed. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz M-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 20.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 360 seconds. Empty mass estimated. Multiple restart engine. More...

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