Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz



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Korolev/Kurchatov
Architects of the Soviet nuclear deterrent.
Credit: RKK Energia
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R-7
Credit: © Mark Wade
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R-7 test console
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Vostok
Vostok launch vehicle at Kaluga
Credit: © Mark Wade
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R-7 forward view
R-7 forward compartment
Credit: © Mark Wade
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RKK Energia
Main entrance (security check) of RKK Energia complex. Vostok rocket looms in background.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz LV
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz Plesetsk
Credit: TsSKB
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Soyuz Plesetsk
Credit: TsSKB
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Soyuz Plesetsk
Credit: TsSKB
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Soyuz LV
Credit: TsSKB
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R-7 launch complex 1
Model of R-7 launch complex 1
Credit: © Mark Wade
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RD-0110 Engine
Soyuz 11A511 Stage 2 engine displayed at Tsiolkovskiy Museum in Kaluga.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz pad 1
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz Shrouds
Comparison of payload shroud and launch escape system development over the life of the Soyuz/Salyut/Mir program.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Progress launch
Early Progress launches used the Soyuz shroud. Although the launch escape tour was retained to maintain the proven aerodynamics, the escape motors and grid stabilizers on the side of the shroud were deleted.
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LC1 Detail
Launch Complex 1 booster release arm counterweights.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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LC1 Detail
Launch Complex 1 elevator access.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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LC1 flame pit
Close-up of flame pit of Launch Complex 1.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Flame pit of LC1
Flame pit of Launch Complex 1.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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LC1 Detail
Launch vehicle base access platforms at Launch Complex 1.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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LC1 Detail
Launch Complex 1 with propellant cars, horizontal booster transporter.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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LC1 Detail
Launch Complex 1 booster release arm counterweights.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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LC1 Detail
Launch Complex 1 booster strap-on access arm. Note stars indicating number of successful launches.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz-2 LV
Credit: TsSKB
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Kliper
Prospective Kliper launch vehicles: from left: Angara 3A, Zenit-2SLB, Onega/Soyuz-3
Credit: © Mark Wade
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R-7 vs Proton
R-7 / Proton LVs Cutaway
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Block L rocket stage
Block L Molniya 8K78M
Credit: © Mark Wade
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R-7 Sputnik
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Vostok LV
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Vostok LV
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Molniya LV
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch.

Development of the R-7 began under research project N-3 "Development requirements for a liquid rocket with a range of 5,000 to 10,000 km and a warhead of 1 to 10 tonnes". The research project was authorised in a decree of 4 December 1950. The study was headed by Korolev's NII-88 but involved a wide range of other Soviet research institutes:

  • OKB-456 - Glushko - Engines
  • NII-885 - Ryazanskiy, Pilyugin - Guidance
  • NII-3 - Shebanin / GSKB Spetsmash - Launch facility
  • KB-11 - Nuclear warhead
  • NII-4 - Sokolov - Launch pad development
  • TSIAM - Svishchev
  • TsAGI - Dorognitsin, Struminskiy - aerodynamics
  • NII-6 - Sukhikh
  • NII-125 - Zhukov
  • NII-137 - Kostrov
  • NII-504 - Karpov
  • NII-10 - Kuznetsov - gyro platform
  • NII-49 - Charin
  • Mathematics Institute - Steklov and Keldysh

The research program tackled a range of difficult problems to achieve a rocket with the following new technologies:

  • Engines of 200 to 300 tonnes thrust, burning Lox/Kerosene propellant in place of the Lox/Alcohol used in rockets derived from German work, with a vacuum specific impulse of 325 seconds
  • Nuclear payload reduction to the 3 to 5 tonne range
  • Autonomous inertial and radio guidance systems
  • Heat shield and re-entry vehicle development to enable the warhead to survive re-entry into the atmosphere at 6 to 7 km/sec
  • Parametric studies to determine the optimum rocket configuration

Following completion of this basic research, work was focused in the successor project N-1, "Theoretical experimental research for a two stage ballistic rocket with a range of 7,000 to 8,000 km". Work on the N-1 was authorised by a decree of 13 February 1953. The objective was to create a draft project for a two stage ICBM with a range of 8,000 km, a warhead mass of 3,000 kg, and a gross lift-off mass of 170 tonnes.

Work was well underway when the requirements were suddenly altered on 3 October 1953. The total warhead mass was increased to 5,500 kg, with the net mass of only the nuclear device itself being 3,000 kg. The rocket designed to that point would have a range of only 5,500 km with such a warhead. A meeting was called of the Chief Designers in January 1954 to discuss how to handle the problem. Several weight saving measures were used. The single engines per module were replaced by small diameter engines of reduced length; the propellant tanks were laid out to minimise mass; a unique launch pad design was accepted that suspended the rocket above the flame pit and shielded it from cross winds, which allowed a lighter structure.

Another technical challenge were the small vernier rockets used to pitch the rocket. These had to have a high specific impulse, gimbal 45 degrees, and deliver a thrust of 2.5 tonnes. Glushko could not deliver an engine with these characteristics, so Melnikov of OKB-1 was assigned the task of designing the engines in-house. The engine that resulted met the requirements and was the technological basis for later rocket engines developed within OKB-1 (the Lox/Kerosene upper stage engines for the Molniya, N1, and Proton boosters).

By February 1954 the stage was reached where a final design was possible. A government declaration of 20 May 1954 authorised development of the two stage R-7 / 8K71 intercontinental ballistic missile. This was followed by a decree of 28 June 1954 'On plans N/R for space research'. Implementation came via a Ministry of Defence decree of 6 July 1954 calling on all industry organisations to work together and assigning the project the highest national priority. The draft project, using much material generated for the T-1 project, was completed in July 1954.

The vehicle in the draft project used the 'packet' layout with a hammerhead core stage surrounded by four shorter booster stages. At ignition, the four booster stages ignited. If full thrust was achieved, the core was then ignited and the booster rose on the thrust of all five stages. The rocket could boost the 5500 kg warhead to 7.9 km/s and 8,000 km range, with a maximum miss distance of plus or minus 10 km. The warhead was the German 'sharp point': a 16 degree cone, 7.27 m long, mounted atop a cylindrical interstage section. The rocket had a gross lift-off mass of 280 tonnes, and an empty mass of 27 tonnes. The first stage burned out at 2,170 m/s and the second stage at 6,385 m/s. Thrust at lift-off was 403.4 tonnes. The R-7 incorporated ingenious solutions in ground handling of the large rocket. The rocket would be assembled horizontally, rolled out to the pad, then raised to the vertical position and quickly fuelled.

The expert commission deemed the decree requirements to be fulfilled and recommended construction of the rocket with minor changes in the development plan. The government authorised the construction phase in a decree of 20 November 1954. The design was frozen by Korolev on 11 March 1955 and drawing release and parts fabrication began. By 20 March 1956 a decree set forth the impending three stage development test plan:

  • Two lots of prototype rockets for stand tests and one lot for flight tests
  • Following completion of the prototype test series, incorporate necessary changes into next lot of rockets
  • Final lot of rockets representing production configuration flight tested to verify changes

It turned out that the biggest problem was development of the vernier rockets for the first stage. Glushko was uncooperative and special test stands had to be build to test the integrated propulsion system.

In the first half of 1956 work began in earnest at 36 factories with the objective of making the first test flight by the end of the year. The first article completed was a full scale mock-up consisting of the core and one booster stage. Two Block A and B stages were delivered for stand tests, but incomplete factory test equipment held up the start. At that point it seemed impossible that a flight would be made within the year.

By the second half of 1956 solutions had been found to the outstanding problems. Serial production of rockets had begun. The Progress Aviation Factory in Samara, V Ya Litvinov manager, had been selected to fabricate detailed parts but final assembly of the prototype rockets was carried out at Factory 88 in Kaliningrad. Over time the factory at Samara would be organised as the Third Filial of OKB-1 and take over first production, and then engineering, of future R-7 derivatives. In 1974 it became the TsKB, a separate entity.

R-7 systems were developed in the following research program:

  • The radio guidance system was flight tested on R-5R modifications of the R-5 IRBM. Launches on 31 May and 15 June 1956 proved the system.
  • The R-7's propellant utilisation system, velocity integrator, stabilisation system, Tral telemetry system, and Fakel control system were tested in two phases of 5 flights each of the M5RD modification of the R-5. Five Phase 1 flights took place from 16 February to 23 March 1956, followed by five Phase 2 flights from 20 July to 18 August 1956.
  • The unique Tyulpan launch concept - suspension of the rocket from its 'shoulders' over the flame pit - was tested at a huge mock-up, 19 m in diameter, at the LMZ Leningrad Metal Foundry Factory. The rig also allowed hydraulics test of a mock-up booster with water in the tanks (protected by an anti-corrosion agent). The increasingly elaborated mock-up allowed the interface between the suspension arms and the rocket to be worked out in detail. Simulated launches allowed the separation of the vehicles and the umbilicals to be worked out, as well as the zero-shock launch concept (there were no hold-down clamps - once thrust built up, the rocket rose, and the suspension arms rotate away on counter-weights). LMZ also used the mock-up to develop ground handling, horizontal assembly, and installation protocols for the launch vehicle. The methods worked out in that summer remained in continuous use until well into the 21st Century.
  • Rocket engine stand test were conducted at Filial 2 of NII-88 from July 1956 to March 1957. These included determining the best arrangement of engines and their components to minimise thermal and vibration effects. Also conducted were liquid oxygen / liquid nitrogen loading, control systems and vernier tests.
  • Five test stand firings using three complete booster stages, were conducted on 15 August, 1 September, 24 September, 11 October, and 3 December 1956
  • Three test stand firing using two core stages were conducted on 27 December 1956 and 10 and 26 January 1957.
  • Two test stand firing were conducted using the complete rocket with four booster stages and the core stage. Ground test article s/n 2S was fired on 20 February 1957 and flight article s/n 4SL was fired on 30 March 1957.
  • Ground test article s/n 5N was delivered to Baikonur in December 1956 for facilities verification tests, including ground handling, transport, assembly, erection, and propellant loading.
  • The first flight article M1-5 was delivered to Baikonur in March 1957. The launch commission met on 10 April and certain questions were raised regarding the flight readiness due to test stand and ground test adequacy. Once these were resolved M1-5 was cleared for flight, and the first launch took place on 15 May 1957.

Test flights of the first lot of 12 prototype missiles was completed on January 30, 1958. By that time the Soviet Union had used the R-7 to demonstrate the first full-range ICBM and orbit the first two artificial satellites of the earth.

In its intended military mission, the R-7 was quickly overtaken by technological improvements. These allowed the Soviet Union to build missiles using 'zero warning launch' storable propellants and smaller nuclear warheads (Yangel's R-16 and R-36, Chelomei's UR-100). Deployment of the R-7 was very limited, and its service life extended only from 1960 to 1966. Only one dedicated ICBM pad was built at Baikonur, and six to eight in the Angara complex at Plesetsk. By 1966 they were all converted to space launch use and the military service life of the rocket was over.

But as a space launcher, the R-7, with upper stages, became the most successful in history. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with a success rate of 97.5% for production models.

Failures: 99. Success Rate: 94.30%. First Fail Date: 1957-05-15. Last Fail Date: 2005-06-21. Launch data is: continuing.

Status: Active.
First Launch: 1957.05.15.
Last Launch: 2008.12.02.
Number: 1727 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Zenit Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1956. Work began on the original Zenit spy satellite on 30 January 1956. After the success of Sputnik Sergei Korolev advocated that manned spaceflight should have first priority. More...
  • VKA Myasishchev 1957 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1957. The VKA (aero-space vehicle) was a 1957 Myasishchev design - a diminutive single-crew star-shaped spaceplane that could be launched by Korolev's R-7 ICBM. More...
  • Sputnik 1 Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1957.10.04. Tikhonravov's 1.4 metric ton ISZ satellite was to have been launched by the new R-7 ICBM as the Soviet Union's first satellite, during the International Geophysical Year. More...
  • Sputnik 3 Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1958.04.27 (Sputnik failure) to 1958.05.15 (Sputnik 3). In July 1956 OKB-1 completed the draft project for the first earth satellite, designated ISZ (Artificial Earth Satellite). More...
  • Luna E-1 Russian lunar impact probe. 4 launches, 1958.09.23 (Luna failure) to 1959.01.02 (Luna 1). The first spacecraft to achieve escape velocity and the first to reach the Moon. The spacecraft was sphere-shaped. Five antennae extended from one hemisphere. More...
  • Sever Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Sever was the original OKB-1 design for a manned spacecraft to replace the Vostok. It was designed to tackle such problems as maneuvering in orbit, rendezvous and docking, and testing of lifting re-entry vehicles. More...
  • PKA Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1959. In 1957, in response to the USAF Dynasoar project, Soviet aviation bureaus were tasked with producing draft project designs for a manned spaceplane. More...
  • Luna E-1A Russian lunar impact probe. 2 launches, 1959.06.18 (Luna) to 1959.09.12 (Luna 2). First probe to impact lunar surface. Delivered a pennant to the surface of the Moon and conducted research during flight to the Moon. More...
  • Luna E-3 Russian lunar flyby probe. 3 launches, 1959.10.04 (Luna 3) to 1960.04.19 (Luna). The E-3 was designed to loop around the moon and photograph the Moon's far side. More...
  • Vostok Russian manned spacecraft. 13 launches, 1960.05.15 (Korabl-Sputnik 1) to 1963.06.16 (Vostok 6). First manned spacecraft. Derivatives were still in use in the 21st Century for military surveillance, earth resources, mapping, and biological missions. More...
  • VKA-23 Design 1 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1960. Myasishchev single-pilot winged spacecraft of 1960, sized for launch to orbit by Korolev's Vostok booster. More...
  • VKA-23 Design 2 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Following the very critical review of the first M-48 spaceplane design by the expert commission, Myasishchev went back to the drawing board. More...
  • Mars 1M Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1960.10.10 (Mars probe 1M s/n 1 failure.) to 1960.10.14 (Mars probe 1M s/n 2 failure.). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. More...
  • Venera 1VA Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1961.02.12 (Sputnik 7) to (Venera 1). The 1VA probe, the first spacecraft sent towards Venus, consisted of a cylindrical body topped by a dome, totaling 2 meters in height. More...
  • Zenit-2 Russian military surveillance satellite. 81 launches, 1961.12.11 (Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 1) to 1970.05.12 (Cosmos 344). The Zenit-2 was a derivative of the manned Vostok, and the Soviet Union's first spy satellite. More...
  • Oscar International series of amateur radio communications satellites. Operational, first launch 1961.12.12. Launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • Soyuz A Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1962. The 7K Soyuz spacecraft was initially designed for rendezvous and docking operations in near earth orbit, leading to piloted circumlunar flight. More...
  • Soyuz B Russian space tug. Study 1962. In the definitive December 1962 Soyuz draft project, the Soyuz B (9K) rocket acceleration block would be launched into a 225 km orbit by a Soyuz 11A511 booster. More...
  • Soyuz V Russian logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1964. In the definitive December 1962 Soyuz draft project, the Soyuz B (9K) rocket acceleration block would be launched into a 225 km orbit by a Soyuz 11A511 booster. More...
  • Vostok-Zh Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1961. The Vostok-Zh (or Vostok-7) maneuverable manned satellite was piloted by a single 'cosmonaut assemblyman'. More...
  • L1-1962 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1962. Early design that would lead to Soyuz. A Vostok-Zh manned tug would assemble rocket stages in orbit. It would then return, and a Soyuz L1 would dock with the rocket stack and be propelled toward the moon. More...
  • Mars 2MV-1 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1962.08.25 (Sputnik 19) to 1962.09.01 (Sputnik 20). More...
  • Mars 2MV-4 Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1962.10.24 (Sputnik 22) to 1962.11.01 (Mars 1). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. More...
  • Mars 2MV-3 Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1962.11.04, Sputnik 24. Mars probe intended to make a soft landing on Mars. More...
  • Soyuz R Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1966. A military reconnaissance version of Soyuz, developed by Kozlov at Samara from 1963-1966. It was to consist of an the 11F71 small orbital station and the 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK manned ferry. More...
  • Soyuz P Russian manned combat spacecraft. Study 1963. In December 1962 Sergei Korolev released his draft project for a versatile manned spacecraft to follow Vostok. The Soyuz A was primarily designed for manned circumlunar flight. More...
  • Luna E-6 Russian lunar lander. 12 launches, 1963.01.04 (Sputnik 25) to 1966.01.31 (Luna 9). E-6 probes were designed by Korolev's OKB-1 with the objective of making the first soft landing on the moon and beaming back pictures of the surface. More...
  • L2-1963 Russian lunar rover. Study 1963. The L2 was a project to land a remote-controlled self-propelled rover on the surface of the moon. It was described in a 23 September 1963 letter setting out the space exploration plan for 1965 to 1975. More...
  • Polyot Russian military anti-satellite system. 2 launches, 1963.11.01 (Polet 1; Polyot 1) to 1964.04.12 (Polet 2; Polyot 2). First prototype model of Chelomei's ASAT, used in an interceptor control and propulsion test. More...
  • Venera 3MV-1A Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1963.11.11 (Cosmos 21) to 1964.02.19 (3MV-1A). More...
  • Zenit-4 Russian military surveillance satellite. 76 launches, 1963.11.16 (Cosmos 22) to 1970.08.07 (Cosmos 355). Zenit-4 was the second Soviet photo-reconnaissance satellite, providing high-resolution imagery to complement the area coverage of the Zenit-2. More...
  • Elektron-A Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.01.30 (Elektron 1) to 1964.07.11 (Elektron 3). The Elektron mission was one of the earliest Soviet satellites to be authorized following the initial Sputnik series. More...
  • Elektron-B Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.01.30 (Elektron 2) to 1964.07.11 (Elektron 4). The Elektron mission was one of the earliest Soviet satellites to be authorized following the initial Sputnik series. More...
  • Venera 3MV-1 Russian Venus probe. 3 launches, 1964.02.19 (3MV-1 No. 2 SA) to 1964.04.02 (Zond 1). More...
  • Molniya-1 Russian military communications satellite. 37 launches, 1964.06.04 (Molniya-1 s/n 2 Failure) to 1975.09.02 (Molniya 1-31). This was the first Soviet communications satellite, using the twelve-hour elliptical orbit later dubbed a 'Molniya orbit'. More...
  • Meteor Russian earth weather satellite. 11 launches, 1964.08.28 (Cosmos 44) to 1969.02.01 (Meteor). The first Soviet weather satellite. Development began with a decree of 30 October 1960. More...
  • Voskhod Russian manned spacecraft. 5 launches, 1964.10.06 (Cosmos 47) to 1966.02.22 (Cosmos 110). More...
  • Mars 3MV-4A Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1964.11.30 (Zond 2) to 1965.07.18 (Zond 3). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Elaboration of station systems and scientific research in interplanetary space. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-TK Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1966. To deliver crews to the Soyuz R 11F71 station Kozlov developed the transport spacecraft 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK. More...
  • Soyuz PPK Russian manned combat spacecraft. Study 1964. The Soyuz 7K-PPK (pilotiruemiy korabl-perekhvatchik, manned interceptor spacecraft) was a revised version of the Soyuz P manned satellite inspection spacecraft. More...
  • Soyuz VI Russian manned combat spacecraft. Cancelled 1965. To determine the usefulness of manned military space flight, two projects were pursued in the second half of the 1960's. More...
  • Venera 3MV-4 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1965.11.12 (Venera 2) to 1965.11.23 (Cosmos 96). Carried a TV system and scientific instruments. More...
  • Venera 3MV-3 Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1965.11.16, Venera 3. The mission of this spacecraft was to land on the Venusian surface. More...
  • US-A Russian military naval surveillance radar satellite. 38 launches, 1965.12.28 (Cosmos 102) to 1988.03.14 (Cosmos 1932). The US-A (later known as RLS) was a nuclear powered RORSAT (Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite). More...
  • Luna E-6S Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1966.03.01 (Cosmos 111) to 1966.03.31 (Luna 10). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK Tether Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1965. Korolev was always interested in application of artificial gravity for large space stations and interplanetary craft. He sought to test this in orbit from the early days of the Vostok program. More...
  • Luna E-6LF Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1966.08.24 (Luna 11) to 1966.10.22 (Luna 12). Photographed lunar surface and orbital space environment in preparation for manned missions. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK Russian manned spacecraft. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Development of a three-manned orbital version of the Soyuz, the 7K-OK was approved in December 1963. More...
  • Luna E-6M Russian lunar lander. One launch, 1966.12.21, Luna 13. Modernized version of the E-6 with the ALS lander mass increased from 84 kg to 150 kg. Conducted further scientific investigation of the moon and circumlunar space. More...
  • Luna E-6LS Russian lunar orbiter. 3 launches, 1967.05.17 (Cosmos 159) to 1968.04.07 (Luna 14). The E-6LS was a radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. More...
  • Venera 1V (V-67) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1967.06.12 (Venera 4) to 1967.06.17 (Cosmos 167). Venus probe with the announced mission of direct atmospheric studies. More...
  • Soyuz OB-VI Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1970. In December 1967 OKB-1 chief designer Mishin managed to have Kozlov's Soyuz VI project killed. In its place he proposed to build a manned military station based on his own Soyuz 7K-OK design. More...
  • Zenit-2M Russian military surveillance satellite. 101 launches, 1968.03.21 (Cosmos 208) to 1979.08.17 (Cosmos 1122). Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975. More...
  • Nauka Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 45 launches, 1968.03.21 (Nauka) to 1979.08.17 (Cosmos 1122 Nauka). The Nauka containers were flown as piggy-back payloads aboard Zenit reconnaissance satellites. They served a dual purpose. More...
  • Zenit-4M Russian military surveillance satellite. 61 launches, 1968.10.31 (Cosmos 251) to 1974.07.25 (Cosmos 667). Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975. More...
  • Yantar-1 Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1968. Survey reconnaissance satellite project of KB Yuzhnoye worked on 1964-1967. More...
  • Yantar-2 Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1968. High resolution reconnaissance satellite project worked on by KB Yuzhnoye 1964-1967. Was to have been derived from Soyuz-R manned spacecraft. More...
  • Venera 2V (V-69) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1969.01.05 (Venera 6) to 1969.01.10 (Venera 6). Spacecraft was very similar to Venera 4 / 1V (V-67) although the descent module was of a stronger design. More...
  • Aelita Russian infrared astronomy satellite. Cancelled 1982. The Aelita infrared astronomical telescope spacecraft was derived from the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an unusually long gestation. More...
  • Meteor M 11F614 Russian earth weather satellite. 25 launches, 1969.03.26 (Meteor 1-01) to 1977.04.05 (Meteor 1-27). Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. More...
  • Meteor M 11F614 Russian earth weather satellite. 25 launches, 1969.03.26 (Meteor 1-01) to 1977.04.05 (Meteor 1-27). Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. More...
  • Soyuz Kontakt Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1974. Modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft to test in earth orbit the Kontakt rendezvous and docking system. More...
  • Zenit-4MK Russian military surveillance satellite. 80 launches, 1969.12.23 (Cosmos 317) to 1977.06.22 (Cosmos 920). Modernized high resolution version of the Zenit-4M satellite that went into service in 1972. Maneuverable; (two-tone telemetry). More...
  • Yantar-3KF Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1969. Survey reconnaissance satellite system studied in 1969. Not put into production. More...
  • Venera 3V (V-70) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1970.08.17 (Venera 7) to 1970.08.22 (Cosmos 359). Venus lander intended to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. More...
  • LK Russian manned lunar lander. 3 launches, 1970.11.24 (Cosmos 379) to 1971.08.12 (Cosmos 434). The LK ('Lunniy korabl' - lunar craft) was the Soviet lunar lander - the Russian counterpart of the American LM Lunar Module. More...
  • Tselina-D Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 77 launches, 1970.12.18 (Cosmos 389) to 1994.05.25 (Tselina-D). The Tselina D was the detailed observation portion of the two-satellite Tselina ELINT satellite system. More...
  • Yantar-1KF Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1970. Survey reconnaissance satellite project worked on by Kozlov from 1967, succeeding Yantar-1. To be launched on Soyuz 11A511M launch vehicle. More...
  • Soyuz 7KT-OK Russian manned spacecraft. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). This was a modification of Soyuz 7K-OK with a lightweight docking system and a crew transfer tunnel. More...
  • Molniya-2 Russian communications satellite. 20 launches, 1971.11.24 (Molniya 2-01) to 2005.06.21 (Molniya 2-17). Molniya-2 was the elliptical orbit component of the Soviet YeSSS communications satellite system. More...
  • Zenit-4MT Russian military surveillance satellite. 23 launches, 1971.12.27 (Cosmos 470) to 1982.08.03 (Cosmos 1398). Special version of Zenit developed for topographical photography. This was developed by OKB-1 Filial 1 based on the Zenit-4M. More...
  • Venera 3V (V-72) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1972.03.27 (Venera 8) to 1972.03.31 (Cosmos 482). Venus atmospheric probe; instrumentation included temperature, pressure, and light sensors as well as radio transmitters. More...
  • SRET French technology satellite. 2 launches, 1972.04.04 (SRET 1) and 1975.06.05 (SRET 2). Test satellite. More...
  • Energia Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1972.04.07 (Intercosmos 6) to 1978.07.02 (Cosmos 1026). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space. More...
  • Prognoz Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 10 launches, 1972.04.14 (Prognoz 1) to 1985.04.26 (Intercosmos 23). This spacecraft, built by Lavochkin, was launched from 1972 for study of geomagnetic fields, radiation, and solar physics. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T Russian manned spacecraft. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). More...
  • Oko Russian military early warning satellite. 86 launches, 1972.09.19 (Cosmos 520) to 2010.09.30. Work on the Soviet Union's first infrared ICBM launch detection satellite began in 1967 as the USK - space system to observe rocket launches. More...
  • Bion Russian biology satellite. 11 launches, 1973.10.31 (Cosmos 605) to 1996.12.24 (Bion No. 11). Bion was developed for biological studies of the effects of radiation. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-TM Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). The Soyuz 7K-T as modified for the docking with Apollo. More...
  • Yantar-2K Russian military surveillance satellite. 30 launches, 1974.05.23 (Yantar-2K failure.) to 1983.06.28 (Cosmos 1471). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T/A9 Russian manned spacecraft. 8 launches, 1974.05.27 (Cosmos 656) to 1978.06.27 (Soyuz 30). Version of 7K-T for flights to Almaz. Known difference with the basic 7K-T included systems for remote control of the Almaz station and a revised parachute system. More...
  • Meteor-Priroda Russian earth land resources satellite. 5 launches, 1974.07.09 (Meteor 1-18) to 1981.07.10 (Meteor 1-31). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-S Russian manned spacecraft. 3 launches, 1974.08.06 (Cosmos 670) to 1976.11.29 (Cosmos 869). The Soyuz 7K-S had its genesis in military Soyuz designs of the 1960's. More...
  • Molniya-3 Russian communications satellite. 55 launches, 1974.11.21 (Molniya 3-01) to 2003.06.19 (Molniya 3-53). Development of the Molniya-2M communications satellite, later called Molniya-3, began in 1972. Flight trials began in November 1974. More...
  • Meteor-2 Russian earth weather satellite. 22 launches, 1975.07.11 (Meteor 2-01) to 1993.08.31 (Meteor 2-21). Successor to the Meteor-1 weather satellite. The Meteor-2 had a longer design operational life (one year vs. More...
  • Zenit-4MKT Russian military surveillance satellite. 27 launches, 1975.09.25 (Cosmos 771) to 1985.09.06 (Cosmos 1681). The Zenit-4MKT / Fram was an adaptation of the recoverable Vostok spacecraft for reconnaissance/remote sensing missions. More...
  • Molniya-1T Russian military communications satellite. 63 launches, 1976.01.22 (Molniya) to 2004.02.18 (Molniya-1T). This was a modernized Molniya-1 communications satellite with the 'Beta' retransmitter which began flight tests in 1970. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-MF6 Russian manned spacecraft. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Soyuz 7K-T modified with installation of East German MF6 multispectral camera. Used for a unique solo Soyuz earth resources mission. More...
  • Zenit-6U Russian military surveillance satellite. 95 launches, 1976.11.24 (Cosmos 867) to 1984.06.19 (Cosmos 1573). A universal variant of the Zenit spacecraft, used in two altitude ranges, for both observation and high resolution missions. More...
  • Yantar-6KS Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1977. Electro-optical imaging operational high resolution version of Yantar studied in 1969. More...
  • Yantar-6K Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1977. Extremely high resolution version of Yantar studied in 1969. A draft project was completed in May 1977, but the decision was made to keep the basic Yantar-2K satellite bus instead. More...
  • Zenit-4MKM Russian military surveillance satellite. 39 launches, 1977.07.12 (Cosmos 927) to 1980.10.10 (Cosmos 1214). A further modification of the Zenit-4MK, accepted for military service in 1976, entered service in 1978. More...
  • Progress Russian logistics spacecraft. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Progress took the basic Soyuz 7K-T manned ferry designed for the Salyut space station and modified it for unmanned space station resupply. More...
  • Soyuz T Russian manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Soyuz T had a long gestation, beginning as the Soyuz VI military orbital complex Soyuz in 1967. More...
  • Magion Czech earth magnetosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1978.10.24 (Magion 1) to 1996.08.29 (Magion 5). The Czechoslovak satellite MAGION researched the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth. More...
  • Astrofizika Russian earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1978.12.23, Cosmos 1066. Based on the Meteor-1 bus but carried special optical instruments for the observation of lasers on Earth. More...
  • Yantar-4K1 Russian film-return military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 1979.04.27. Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The high resolution Yantar-4K provided that capability, while still capable of being launched by the existing Soyuz-U launch vehicle. Lifetime was 45 days. Two small capsules could return film an an interim basis before the main spacecraft with film returned to earth. More...
  • KRT-10 Soviet . One launch, 1979.06.28. 10 m diameter radio telescope. Attached to Salyut 6 docking hatch and deployed after separation of Progress from Mir. More...
  • Resurs F1-17F41 Russian earth land resources satellite. 29 launches, 1979.09.05 (Cosmos 1127) to 1986.05.28 (Cosmos 1746). The 17F41 was the first of 4 models of the Resurs-F to fly. More...
  • Resurs-OE Russian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1980.06.18 (Meteor 1-30) to 1983.07.24 (Cosmos 1484). Modified Meteor; prototype for Resurs-O1. More...
  • Yantar-2K-M Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1980. Planned upgrade of Yantar-2K. Not put into production. More...
  • Yantar-1KFT Russian military surveillance satellite. 21 launches, 1981.02.18 (Cosmos 1246) to 2005.09.02 (Cosmos 2415). Version of the Yantar photo satellite for topographic mapping on behalf of the Red Army. More...
  • Iskra Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 3 launches, 1981.07.10 (Iskra) to 1982.11.18 (Iskra 3). Launched from Salyut 7 airlock. Conduct of experiments in the field of amateur radio communications. More...
  • IK-B-1300 Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1981.08.07, Intercosmos 22. Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300. Comprehensive investigation of physical processes in the earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere. More...
  • Astrozond Soviet earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1982.09.18. More...
  • Yantar-4KS1 Russian military electro-optical surveillance satellite. Operational, first launched 1982.12.28. More...
  • Efir Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1984.03.10 (Cosmos 1543) to 1985.12.27 (Cosmos 1713). Science. Adaptation of the Vostok spacecraft. More...
  • Zenit-8 Russian military surveillance satellite. 101 launches, 1984.06.11 (Cosmos 1571) to 1994.06.07 (Cosmos 2281). More...
  • Foton Russian materials science satellite. 15 launches, 1985.04.16 (Cosmos 1645 / Foton 1) to 2007.09.14 (Foton M-2). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for zero-gravity materials processing tests. 400 W available to operate experiments. More...
  • Resurs-O1 Russian earth land resources satellite. 4 launches, 1985.10.03 (Cosmos 1689) to 1998.07.10 (Resurs-O1 No. 4). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. More...
  • Soyuz TM Russian manned spacecraft. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). More...
  • Resurs F1-14F40 Russian earth land resources satellite. 7 launches, 1986.07.16 (Cosmos 1762) to 1988.02.18 (Cosmos 1920). The Resurs-F earth resource satellite was based on the recoverable Zenit-4 spy satellite. More...
  • Resurs F2 Russian earth land resources satellite. 11 launches, 1987.12.26 (Cosmos 1906) to 1995.09.26 (Resurs F2 N.10). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for remote sensing. More...
  • IRS Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. Operational, first launch 1988.03.17. Remote sensing of the Earth for natural resources management applications. More...
  • Resurs F1-14F43 Russian earth land resources satellite. 18 launches, 1988.05.31 (Cosmos 1951) to 1993.08.24 (Resurs F-19). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. More...
  • Pion Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1989.05.25 (Pion) to 1992.08.19 (Pion 2). Deployed from Resurs F1, which carried two passive separable "Pion" probes to investigate upper atmospheric density. More...
  • Orlets-1 Russian military surveillance satellite. 8 launches, 1989.07.18 (Cosmos 2031) to 2006.09.14 (Cosmos 2423). Multi-purpose satellite, designed for both close-look and survey missions, equipped with a panoramic camera, equipped with 8 film return capsules. More...
  • Progress M Russian logistics spacecraft. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Progress M was an upgraded version of the original Progress. New service module and rendezvous and docking systems were adopted from Soyuz T. More...
  • Gamma Russian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1990.07.11. The Gamma USSR/France gamma/x-ray astronomical telescope spacecraft was derived from the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an unusually long gestation. More...
  • Mak Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.17 (Mak 1) and 1992.10.27 (Mak 2). Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere. More...
  • Znamya Russian . One launch, 1992.10.27. Reflector mirror, deployed from Progress M-15 after separation from Mir space station. More...
  • Obzor Russian earth resources radar satellite. Study 1992. The Arsenal Design Bureau proposed converting its military ocean reconnaissance spacecraft bus (EORSAT) into a civil remote sensing platform. More...
  • GFZ-1 German earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1995.04.19 (GFZ-1) and 1998.07.10 (WESTPAC). GFZ-1 was a geodetic satellite designed to improve the current knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. More...
  • Prognoz-M Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1995.08.02 (Interbol 1) to 1996.08.29 (Interbol 2). Interbol was originally an Intercosmos project with a launch planned for the late 1980's. More...
  • Radarsat Canadian earth resources radar satellite. Two launches, 1995.11.04 (Radarsat) and 2007.12.14 (Radarsat). Canada's Radarsat was a radar satellite featuring variable resolution, and different view angles at a number of preset positions. More...
  • Skipper Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1995.12.28. Aerobraking investigation; satellite provided by Russia, instruments by Utah State University; solar array shorted immediately following deployment and ended mission. More...
  • AMOS Israeli communications satellite. 3 launches, 1996.05.16 (AMOS) to 2008.04.28 (Amos-2). 7 Ku-band transponders. Israeli indigenous communications satellite program. More...
  • MuSat Argentinan earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.08.29, Microsat. MuSat-1 Victor was the first Argentine-built satellite. More...
  • Inspector German logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1997.10.05, X-Mir Inspector. Robotic spacecraft designed for free flight and camera inspection of the exterior of the Space Shuttle or International Space Station. More...
  • PS Model Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 2 launches, 1997.10.05 (Sputnik-40) to 1998.10.25 (Spoutnik-41). Two subscale models of Sputnik 1, were built by students for hand-launch from Mir on fortieth anniversary of Sputnik 1. More...
  • Mirka German re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1997.10.09. German miniature re-entry vehicle attached to exterior of Russian Resurs satellite. After release from Resurs landed in Kazakhstan Oct 23. More...
  • YES European tether technology satellite. 2 launches, 1997.10.30 (YES) and 2007.09.14 (YES). Young Engineers Satellite sponsored by the European Space Tech. More...
  • Star bus American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 1997.11.12 (Cakrawarta 1). The Orbital Star bus was designed for reliable and robust performance in a variety of LEO and GEO missions. More...
  • Resurs F1M Russian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1997.11.17 (Resurs F-1M) to 1999.09.28 (Resurs F-1M). Variant of the Resurs-F recoverable earth resources satellite. See Resurs F1-17F40 for a full technical description. More...
  • Globalstar American communications satellite. 72 launches, 1998.02.14 (Globalstar FM1) to 2007.10.20 (Globalstar D). The Globalstar constellation was a Medium Earth Orbit system for mobile voice and data communications. More...
  • MiniSat-400 British technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.21 (UoSAT-12) to 2005.12.28 (Giove-A). Basic Surrey Minisat bus. More...
  • Progress M1 Russian logistics spacecraft. 11 launches, 2000.02.01 (Progress M1-1) to 2004.01.29 (Progress M1-11). Progress M1 was a modified version of the Progress M resupply spacecraft capable of delivering more propellant than the basic model to the ISS or Mir. More...
  • IRDT Russian manned rescue spacecraft. First launch 2000.02.08. Inflatable re-entry and descent technology vehicle designed to return payloads from space to the earth or another planet. Tested three times, with only one partially successful recovery. More...
  • Cluster 2 European earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 2000.07.16 (Samba) to 2000.08.09 (Tango). More...
  • Progress M-SO Russian docking and airlock module for the International Space Station. First launch 2001.09.14. Delivered to the station by the Progress service module, which was jettisoned after docking. More...
  • ISS Pirs Russian manned space station module. One launch, 2001.09.14. Russian docking and airlock module for the International Space Station. The Stikovochniy Otsek No. 1 (SO1, Docking Module 1), article 240GK No. More...
  • Kolibri Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2002.03.19. Kolibri was a joint Russian-Australian educational project to allow school children to monitor low frequency waves and particle fluxes in low orbit. More...
  • Soyuz TMA Russian three-crew manned spacecraft. Operational, first launch 2002.10.30. Designed for use as a lifeboat for the International Space Station. After the retirement of the US shuttle in 2011, Soyuz TMA was the only conveying crews to the ISS. Except for the Chinese Shenzhou, it became mankind's sole means of access to space. More...
  • Mars Express European Mars orbiter. One launch, 2003.06.02. The European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter, designed to be built more quickly than any other comparable planetary mission, was a resounding success. More...
  • Kliper Russian manned spaceplane. Study 2004. The Kliper manned spacecraft replacement for Soyuz was first announced at a Moscow news conference on 17 February 2004. More...
  • Nanosputnik Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2005.02.28. Nanosatellite delivered by Progress M-52 to the International Space Station. 30 cm long, it was released from during a spacewalk on 28 March 2005. More...
  • Venus Express European Venus probe. One launch, 2005.11.09. European Union probe to Venus, with the primary mission of studying the atmosphere and space environment of the planet. More...
  • Metop European earth weather satellite. One launch, 2006.10.19. MetOp was Europe's first polar-orbiting satellite dedicated to operational meteorology. More...
  • Meridian Russian new-generation military 12-hour elliptical orbit communications satellite designed to replace the Molniya series. Operational, first launch 2006.12.24. More...
  • Corot French visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 2006.12.27. More...
  • Galileo Navsat European navigation satellite. One launch, 2008.04.26, GIOVE B. Galileo was to be Europe's own global navigation satellite system, providing a highly accurate, guaranteed global positioning service under civilian control. More...

See also
  • R-7 The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2011. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • van den Berg, Chris, MIRnews (Internet Newsletter), 1993-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Ertel , Ivan D; Morse , Mary Louise; et al, The Apollo Spacecraft Chronology Vol I - IV NASA SP-4009, NASA, 1966-1974. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Emme, Eugene M, Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the Exploration of Space 1915-1960, NASA, 1961. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Semenov, Yuri P Editor, Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya 'Energia' imeni S P Koroleva, Moscow, Russia, 1996.
  • Johnson, Nicholas L, The Soviet Reach for the Moon, Cosmos Books, Washington, DC, 1994.
  • Baker, David, The History of Manned Spaceflight, Crown, New York, 1981.
  • Clark, Philip, The Soviet Manned Space Program, Salamander Books, London, 1988.
  • Furniss, Tim, Manned Spaceflight Log, Jane's, London, 1986.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J,, International Reference to Space Launch Systems Second Edition, AIAA, Washington DC, 1991 (succeeded by 2000 edition).
  • Oberg, James, Red Star in Orbit, Random House, New York, 1981.
  • Turnill, Reginald,, The Observer's Spaceflight Directory, Frederick Warne, London, 1978.
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  • Sorokin, Vladislav, "'Yantarnaya istoriya'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 17, page 57.
  • Article on early Baikonur chronology.
  • Harvey, Brian, "Some Details on Project Zenith (1957 Onwards)", Spaceflight, 1993, Volume 35, page 382.
  • Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.
  • Agapov, V, "Zapuski kosmicheskikh apparatov 'Zenit-2'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1996, Issue 10, page 65.
  • Agapov, V, "K zapusku pervovo ISZ serii 'DS'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 6.
  • "K voprosy o sputnikakh 'Oko'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 15, page 45.
  • "Neudachniy pusk KA 'Kometa'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1996, Issue 6, page 32.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • "Apparati TsSKB dlya issledobanniya prirodnikh resursov Zemli", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1996, Issue 6, page 40.
  • "'Bion' nuzhen lyudyam", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1996, Issue 6, page 35.
  • "Rossiya. V Polyote 'Kosmos-2343'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 10, page 35.
  • "Proizveden zapusk KA 'Resurs O1' No 3", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1994, Issue 22, page 46.
  • "AUOSi prodolzhayut rabotu", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1995, Issue 21, page 43.
  • "Na Mars!", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1996, Issue 20, page 53.
  • Lantratov, K., "'Zvezda' Dmitriya Kozlova", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issues 3 to 6 (four part article).
  • Vick, Charles P, "KB Photon Releases 'Rus' Modified Soyuz-TM Booster Details", Spaceflight, 1993, Volume 35, page 370.
  • Clark, P S, "Soviet Spacecraft Masses for Earth Orbital Programmes", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 1985, Volume 38, page 19.
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  • Varfolomyev, Timothy, "Soviet Rocketry that Conquered Space - Part 2", Spaceflight, 1996, Volume 38, page 48.
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Soyuz Chronology


1964 Duing the year - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz.
  • Development of Soyuz-R and Soyuz-P begun. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz R; Soyuz P; Soyuz PPK; Soyuz 7K-TK. KB Kozlov began active development of the military applied versions of the Soyuz. A new version of the R-7 launch vehicle, the 11A514, was put into development to support launch of the Soyuz-P, now designated the 7K-PPK (pilotiruemovo korablya-perekhvatchika, manned interceptor spacecraft). The Soyuz-R would include the small orbital station 11F71 with photo-reconnaissance and ELINT equipment. To dock with the 11F71 station Kuibishev developed the transport spacecraft 11F72 7K-TK. This version of the Soyuz was equipped with rendezvous, docking, and transition equipment, including an airlock, that allowed the two cosmonauts to enter the station without using EVA. The launch vehicle for the 7K-TK would be the 11A511, known today as the Soyuz.

1966 April 22 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz.
  • Waiting on Voskhod - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tereshkova; Popovich. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3. The search for the cause of the Molniya booster failure continues. A high oscillation vibration problem with the engine that has cropped up twice (but only on the test stand) has been cleared of responsibility. Tereshkova is going on a tour of Sweden. The cosmonauts' wives are preparing a letter denouncing Popovich for shutting down his wife's career and his abuse of her. Throughout the period April to May Kamanin is preoccupied with his wife, who is extremely ill in the hospital.

1966 May 12 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz.
  • Voskhod 3 State Commission - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Voronin; Tsybin; Shabarov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Chief Designer A A Golubev from OKB-154 Voronezh discusses the failure of his engines on the third stage of the Molniya launch on 27 March. He points out that the third stage has operated successfully in 500 stand trials and over 100 flights. It is true there have been seven instances of high-frequency oscillations in test stand runs of the engines, going back to the time of Tereshkova's flight, but these are felt to be due to the test stand propellant feed set-up and would not occur in flight engines. Despite no definite cause having been found for the third stage failure on 27 March, he guarantees his engines ready for flight. Other commission members question his optimism, but finally his guarantee is accepted, dependent on a thorough quality assurance review and certification by military officials responsible for control of the production processes at the factory. Voronin certifies the ECS system for an 18 day flight. Tsybin certifies the readiness of the spacecraft, and Shabarov the readiness of the booster at the launch centre. The absence of Korolev's presence is sorely felt, especially in handling the opposition of Smirnov and Pashkov to the flight. Nevertheless, the order is given for final preparations to proceed, with launch set for 22-28 May. However the confidence of the commission members in standing up to Smirnov is tenuous, and it is clear that any delay into June or July will kill the flight.

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