Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz 11A511U2



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Soyuz 11A511U2
Soyuz 11A511U2 - COSPAR 1988-048
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Soyuz LV
Credit: © Mark Wade
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RD-0110 Engine
Soyuz 11A511 Stage 2 engine displayed at Tsiolkovskiy Museum in Kaluga.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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R-7 aft end
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz pad 1
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz Shrouds
Comparison of payload shroud and launch escape system development over the life of the Soyuz/Salyut/Mir program.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz LV
Credit: NASA
Russian orbital launch vehicle. Soyuz 11A511U2 used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') in first stage for launch of premium reconnaisance satellite and manned payloads requiring just a bit more payload than the standard 11A511 could offer. Further use of the 11A511U2 abandoned in 1996 due to Sintin production stoppage. Later Soyuz spacecraft launched on standard Soyuz, with reduced payload and rendezvous with Mir in lower orbit accepted.

LEO Payload: 7,050 kg (15,540 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 51.60 degrees. Failures: 2. Success Rate: 97.83%. First Fail Date: 1988-07-09. Last Fail Date: 1988-11-11.

Stage Data - Soyuz 11A511U2

  • Stage 0. 4 x Soyuz 11A511U2-0. Gross Mass: 42,810 kg (94,370 lb). Empty Mass: 3,550 kg (7,820 lb). Thrust (vac): 996.300 kN (223,977 lbf). Isp: 314 sec. Burn time: 118 sec. Isp(sl): 257 sec. Diameter: 2.68 m (8.79 ft). Span: 2.68 m (8.79 ft). Length: 19.60 m (64.30 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-107-11D511P. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 1. 1 x Soyuz 11A511U2-1. Gross Mass: 101,160 kg (223,010 lb). Empty Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Thrust (vac): 1,011.000 kN (227,281 lbf). Isp: 319 sec. Burn time: 286 sec. Isp(sl): 252 sec. Diameter: 2.95 m (9.67 ft). Span: 2.95 m (9.67 ft). Length: 27.80 m (91.20 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-108-11D512P. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 2. 1 x Soyuz 11A511U2-2. Gross Mass: 25,400 kg (55,900 lb). Empty Mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Thrust (vac): 298.100 kN (67,016 lbf). Isp: 330 sec. Burn time: 250 sec. Isp(sl): 0.0000 sec. Diameter: 2.66 m (8.72 ft). Span: 2.66 m (8.72 ft). Length: 6.74 m (22.11 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-0110. Status: In Production.

AKA: Soyuz; SL-4; 11A511U2; Sapwood; A-2.
Status: Retired 1995.
Gross mass: 297,800 kg (656,500 lb).
Payload: 7,050 kg (15,540 lb).
Height: 34.54 m (113.32 ft).
Diameter: 2.95 m (9.67 ft).
Thrust: 4,060.65 kN (912,870 lbf).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
First Launch: 1982.12.23.
Last Launch: 1995.09.03.
Number: 92 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Zenit-6U Russian military surveillance satellite. 95 launches, 1976.11.24 (Cosmos 867) to 1984.06.19 (Cosmos 1573). A universal variant of the Zenit spacecraft, used in two altitude ranges, for both observation and high resolution missions. More...
  • Progress Russian logistics spacecraft. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Progress took the basic Soyuz 7K-T manned ferry designed for the Salyut space station and modified it for unmanned space station resupply. More...
  • Soyuz T Russian manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Soyuz T had a long gestation, beginning as the Soyuz VI military orbital complex Soyuz in 1967. More...
  • Yantar-4KS1 Russian military electro-optical surveillance satellite. Operational, first launched 1982.12.28. More...
  • Foton Russian materials science satellite. 15 launches, 1985.04.16 (Cosmos 1645 / Foton 1) to 2007.09.14 (Foton M-2). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for zero-gravity materials processing tests. 400 W available to operate experiments. More...
  • Soyuz TM Russian manned spacecraft. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). More...
  • Orlets-1 Russian military surveillance satellite. 8 launches, 1989.07.18 (Cosmos 2031) to 2006.09.14 (Cosmos 2423). Multi-purpose satellite, designed for both close-look and survey missions, equipped with a panoramic camera, equipped with 8 film return capsules. More...
  • Progress M Russian logistics spacecraft. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Progress M was an upgraded version of the original Progress. New service module and rendezvous and docking systems were adopted from Soyuz T. More...
  • Gamma Russian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1990.07.11. The Gamma USSR/France gamma/x-ray astronomical telescope spacecraft was derived from the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an unusually long gestation. More...
  • Mak Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.17 (Mak 1) and 1992.10.27 (Mak 2). Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere. More...
  • Znamya Russian . One launch, 1992.10.27. Reflector mirror, deployed from Progress M-15 after separation from Mir space station. More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-0110 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 297.9 kN. Soyuz 11A511, Molniya-M 8K78M. Precursor RD-0107 used in 11A57 Voskhod stage 2. Modified to increase reliability. Isp=326s. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-108-11D512P Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1011 kN. Soyuz 11A511U2-1. Out of production. Isp=319s. A 1-2 second specific impulse increase was made possible by the use of synthetic fuel Sintin and a modified mixing head. First flight 1982. More...
  • RD-107-11D511P Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 996.4 kN. Soyuz 11A511U2-0. Out of production. OKB Glushko. Used on 11A511U2 Stage 0. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=314s. First flight 1982. More...

See also
  • R-7 The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2011. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...
  • Orlets Sixth-generation reconnaisance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft is deorbited. More...
  • Salyut 7 Due to cancellation of the Almaz military station, and delays in the Mir project, the decision was taken in the late 1970's to fly the back-up to DOS-5 / Salyut 6. This was launched as Salyut 7 in 1982. The opportunity was still taken to fly 'guest cosmonauts' from friendly countries on short visits to the stations, although emphasis was placed on military experiments. Salyut 7 was able to conduct significant military experiments thanks to the greatly increased volume and payload of the TKS modules diverted from the Almaz programme that docked with the station. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

Associated Stages
  • Soyuz 11A511U2-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,160/6,500 kg. Thrust 1,011.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 319 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,400/2,400 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,810/3,550 kg. Thrust 996.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds. More...

Soyuz 11A511U2 Chronology


1975 June 5 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz 11A511U2 authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 178 'On development of the 11A511U2 launch vehicle' was issued..

1982 December 23 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1425 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-01-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 13739 . COSPAR: 1982-119A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1984 January 26 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1533 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1984-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 14666 . COSPAR: 1984-006A. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1984 March 7 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1542 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1984-03-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 14793 . COSPAR: 1984-025A. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi). Perigee: 223 km (138 mi). Inclination: 70.3000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1984 April 15 - . 08:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 20 - . Payload: Progress s/n 121. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 21.68 days. Completed Operations Date: 1984-05-07 00:32:58 . Decay Date: 1984-05-07 00:32:58 . USAF Sat Cat: 14932 . COSPAR: 1984-038A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Transport of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. First launch of Progress by Soyuz-U2 launch vehicle. Docked with Salyut 7 on 17 Apr 1984 09:22:00 GMT. Undocked on 6 May 1984 17:46:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 May 1984 00:32:51 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.33 days. Total docked time 19.35 days.

1984 May 14 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1552 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 173.00 days. Decay Date: 1984-11-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 14971 . COSPAR: 1984-045A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1984 July 17 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz T-12 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov; Savitskaya; Volk. Backup Crew: Ivanova; Savinykh; Vasyutin. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 18L. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov; Savitskaya; Volk; Ivanova; Savinykh; Vasyutin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EP-4; Salyut 7 EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 11.80 days. Decay Date: 1984-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 15119 . COSPAR: 1984-073A. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Docked with Salyut 7. Transported a crew comprising ship's commander V A Dzhanibekov, flight engineer S E Savitskaya and cosmonaut-research I P Volk to the Salyut-7 orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments..

1985 March 25 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1643 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 207.00 days. Decay Date: 1985-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 15634 . COSPAR: 1985-026A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1985 June 6 - . 06:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 002.
  • Soyuz T-13 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov; Savinykh. Backup Crew: Aleksandrov; Popov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 19L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov; Savinykh; Aleksandrov; Popov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-4-1a; Salyut 7 EO-4-1b. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 112.13 days. Decay Date: 1985-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 15804 . COSPAR: 1985-043A. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Docked with Salyut 7. Delivered to the Salyut-7 orbital station a crew consisting of flight commander V A Dzhanibekov and flight engineer V P Savinykh to carry out emergency repairs to inert Salyut 7 station and to conduct scientific and technical research and experiments.

1985 September 17 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 007.
1986 February 7 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1731 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 238.00 days. Decay Date: 1986-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 16589 . COSPAR: 1986-013A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1986 March 13 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 012.
  • Soyuz T-15 - . Call Sign: Mayak (Beacon ). Crew: Kizim; Solovyov, Vladimir. Backup Crew: Aleksandrov; Viktorenko. Payload: Soyuz T 11F732 s/n 21L. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kizim; Solovyov, Vladimir; Aleksandrov; Viktorenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 125.00 days. Decay Date: 1986-07-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 16643 . COSPAR: 1986-022A. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Mir Main Expedition EO-01. Epic repair mission. The crew, consisting of ship's commander L D Kizim and flight engineer V A Solovyov first docked with the Mir orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments. Mir then maneuvered 17 April to match Salyut 7's orbit at 4000 km separation, then again on 4 May to catch up. After six weeks aboard Mir, Soyuz T-15 undocked on 5 May, then rendezvoused and manually docked with the inoperative Salyut 7 station. This was the only flight in history by a single spacecraft between two space stations. The Salyut-7 station was found to be ice bound and without electrical power. The crew repaired the station, regaining power, heat, and environmental control. The also removed experimental results left behind by last crew. Soyuz T-15 undocked Salyut 7 on 25 June, and redocked with Mir on 26 June, delivering 400 kg of scientific material from Salyut 7, including a multichannel spectrometer. Following further work aboard Mir, the crew landed on July 16, 1986 at 12:34 GMT. No crew ever revisited Salyut 7; it made an uncontrolled reentry over Argentina.

1986 March 19 - . 10:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 25 - . Payload: Progress s/n 134. Mass: 7,270 kg (16,020 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 32.61 days. Completed Operations Date: 1986-04-21 00:48:05 . Decay Date: 1986-04-21 00:48:05 . USAF Sat Cat: 16645 . COSPAR: 1986-023A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel transporting sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Mir on 21 Mar 1986 11:16:02 GMT. Undocked on 20 Apr 1986 19:24:08 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 21 Apr 1986 00:48:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.27 days. Total docked time 30.34 days.

1986 April 23 - . 19:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 26 - . Payload: Progress s/n 136. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 60.83 days. Completed Operations Date: 1986-06-23 15:40:56 . Decay Date: 1986-06-23 15:40:56 . USAF Sat Cat: 16687 . COSPAR: 1986-032A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Rendezvoused with Mir on 25 April, but problem with Mir's radio communication system delays docking until the next day. Docked with Mir on 26 Apr 1986 21:26:06 GMT. Undocked on 22 Jun 1986 18:25:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Jun 1986 15:41:01 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.96 days. Total docked time 56.87 days.

1986 May 21 - . 08:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-1 - . Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 51. Mass: 7,070 kg (15,580 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 8.93 days. Decay Date: 1986-05-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 16722 . COSPAR: 1986-035A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Test of new Soyuz vehicle. Recovered May 30, 1986 6:49 GMT. Unmanned test of Soyuz TM. Docked with Mir May 23 1987. Undocked 29 May.
    Officially: Comprehensive experimental testing of spacecraft in independent flight and jointly with the Mir orbital station.

1986 August 6 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1770 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 180.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 16897 . COSPAR: 1986-060A. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi). Perigee: 234 km (145 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1986 December 26 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1810 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 259.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 17262 . COSPAR: 1986-102A. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi). Perigee: 224 km (139 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1987 January 16 - . 06:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 27 - . Payload: Progress s/n 135. Mass: 7,230 kg (15,930 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 40.42 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-02-26 07:04:37 . Decay Date: 1987-02-26 07:04:37 . USAF Sat Cat: 17299 . COSPAR: 1987-005A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Mir; raised Mir's orbit. Transported sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 18 Jan 1987 07:26:50 GMT. Undocked on 23 Feb 1987 11:29:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 25 Feb 1987 16:05:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.25 days. Total docked time 36.17 days.

1987 February 5 - . 21:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-2 - . Call Sign: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula). Crew: Laveykin; Romanenko. Backup Crew: Serebrov; Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 52. Mass: 7,100 kg (15,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Laveykin; Romanenko; Serebrov; Titov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 174.14 days. Decay Date: 1987-07-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 17482 . COSPAR: 1987-013A. Apogee: 365 km (226 mi). Perigee: 341 km (211 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Summary: Mir Expedition EO-02. Docked with Mir 7 February 1987. Carried Yuri Romanenko, Aleksander Laveykin to Mir; returned Laveykin, crew of Soyuz TM-3 to Earth..

1987 March 3 - . 11:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 28 - . Payload: Progress s/n 137. Mass: 7,246 kg (15,974 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 24.69 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-03-28 03:48:55 . Decay Date: 1987-03-28 03:48:55 . USAF Sat Cat: 17564 . COSPAR: 1987-023A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Orbit of station at time of rendezvous was 344 X 369 km, 51. 62 deg. Docked with Mir on 5 Mar 1987 12:42:36 GMT. Undocked on 26 Mar 1987 05:06:48 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 28 Mar 1987 03:49:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.01 days. Total docked time 20.68 days.

1987 April 16 - . 06:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1836 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 230.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 17876 . COSPAR: 1987-033A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 236 km (146 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1987 April 21 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 29 - . Payload: Progress s/n 127. Mass: 7,100 kg (15,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 19.72 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-05-11 08:27:43 . Decay Date: 1987-05-11 08:27:43 . USAF Sat Cat: 17878 . COSPAR: 1987-034A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Deorbited May 11, 1987. Docked with Mir at 343 X 363 1705 23 April at rear port of Kvant. Undocked May 11 03:10. Deorbited28 May 02:59 .
    Officially: Transporting sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 23 Apr 1987 17:04:51 GMT. Undocked on 11 May 1987 03:10:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 11 May 1987 08:28:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 17.42 days.

1987 May 19 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 30 - . Payload: Progress s/n 128. Mass: 7,249 kg (15,981 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 61.07 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-07-19 05:41:50 . Decay Date: 1987-07-19 05:41:50 . USAF Sat Cat: 17999 . COSPAR: 1987-044A. Apogee: 365 km (226 mi). Perigee: 341 km (211 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Rendezvoused with Mir/Kvant in its orbit of 343 X 366 km, 51. 6 deg. Docked with the station on 21 May 1987 05:50:38 GMT. Undocked on 19 Jul 1987 00:19:51 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Jul 1987 05:42:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 58.77 days.

1987 July 22 - . 01:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-3 - . Call Sign: Vityaz (Knight ). Crew: Aleksandrov; Faris; Viktorenko. Backup Crew: Munir; Savinykh; Solovyov. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 53. Mass: 7,100 kg (15,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aleksandrov; Faris; Viktorenko; Munir; Savinykh; Solovyov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-3; Mir EP-1; Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 160.30 days. Decay Date: 1987-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 18222 . COSPAR: 1987-063A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 297 km (184 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Manned three crew. Transported to the Mir orbital space station a Soviet-Syrian crew comprising cosmonauts A S Viktorenko, A P Aleksandrov and M A Faris to conduct joint research and experiments with cosmonauts Y Romanenko and A Laveykin. Maneuvered from initial 231 X 217 km orbit to Mir's 311 X 359 km orbit. Docked with rear Mir port at 3:30 GMT 24 July. Undocked with rear port 30 July and docked to forward port.

1987 August 3 - . 20:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 31 - . Payload: Progress s/n 138. Mass: 7,212 kg (15,899 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-3; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 50.18 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-09-24 01:01:49 . Decay Date: 1987-09-24 01:01:49 . USAF Sat Cat: 18283 . COSPAR: 1987-066A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Rendezvous transfer orbits 187 X 250 km, 51. 64 deg; 266 X 314 km; 309 X 360 km. Docked with Mir on 5 Aug 1987 22:27:35 GMT. Refueled Mir propellants tanks on 15/16 Sept. Undocked on 21 Sep 1987 23:57:41 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Sep 1987 01:02:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.12 days. Total docked time 47.06 days.

1987 September 11 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1881 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 201.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 18343 . COSPAR: 1987-076A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 228 km (141 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1987 September 23 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 32 - . Payload: Progress s/n 139. Mass: 7,035 kg (15,509 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-3; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 55.98 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-11-19 23:19:51 . Decay Date: 1987-11-19 23:19:51 . USAF Sat Cat: 18376 . COSPAR: 1987-082A. Apogee: 355 km (220 mi). Perigee: 295 km (183 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered 850 kg propellants, 315 kg food, 2,000 kg total. Docked with Mir on 26 Sep 1987 01:08:15 GMT. Undocked on 10 Nov 1987 04:09:10 GMT. Redocked from 2,500 m on 10 Nov 1987 05:47 GMT. Undocked again 17 Nov 1998 19:25 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Nov 1987 00:58:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.17 days. Total docked time 52.82 days.

1987 November 20 - . 23:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 33 - . Payload: Progress s/n 140. Mass: 6,895 kg (15,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-3; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 28.58 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-12-20 13:36:48 . Decay Date: 1987-12-20 13:36:48 . USAF Sat Cat: 18568 . COSPAR: 1987-094A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 326 km (202 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Space station orbit at rendezvous was 326 km x 343 km. Docked on 23 Nov 1987 01:39:13 GMT. Undocked on 19 Dec 1987 08:15:46 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Dec 1987 13:37:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 26.28 days.

1987 December 21 - . 11:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
1988 January 20 - . 22:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 34 - . Payload: Progress s/n 142. Mass: 7,078 kg (15,604 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 43.36 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-03-05 07:29:36 . Decay Date: 1988-03-05 07:29:36 . USAF Sat Cat: 18795 . COSPAR: 1988-003A. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 329 km (204 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Summary: Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked on 23 Jan 1988 00:09:09 GMT. Undocked on 4 Mar 1988 03:40:09 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 4 Mar 1988 07:29:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.21 days. Total docked time 41.15 days..

1988 March 23 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 35 - . Payload: Progress s/n 143. Mass: 7,037 kg (15,513 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 42.41 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-05-06 06:56:07 . Decay Date: 1988-05-06 06:56:07 . USAF Sat Cat: 18992 . COSPAR: 1988-024A. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked on 25 Mar 1988 22:21:35 GMT. Undocked on 5 May 1988 01:36:03 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 May 1988 06:56:19 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.28 days. Total docked time 40.14 days..

1988 March 30 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1936 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 49.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 19015 . COSPAR: 1988-027A. Apogee: 266 km (165 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1988 May 13 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 36 - . Payload: Progress s/n 144. Mass: 7,077 kg (15,602 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 23.87 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-06-05 21:18:15 . Decay Date: 1988-06-05 21:18:15 . USAF Sat Cat: 19117 . COSPAR: 1988-038A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Rendezvous transfer orbits 185x246 km, 51. 66 deg; 223x334 km; 331x357 km. Docked with Mir on 15 May 1988 02:13:26 GMT. Undocked on 5 Jun 1988 11:11:55 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 Jun 1988 21:18:40 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.49 days. Total docked time 21.37 days.

1988 June 7 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-5 - . Call Sign: Rodnik (Spring - water spring). Crew: Aleksandrov, Aleksandr; Savinykh; Solovyov. Backup Crew: Lyakhov; Serebrov; Stoyanov. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 55. Mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aleksandrov, Aleksandr; Savinykh; Solovyov; Lyakhov; Serebrov; Stoyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EP-2; Mir EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 91.45 days. Decay Date: 1988-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 19204 . COSPAR: 1988-048A. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Transported to the Mir orbital station a Soviet/Bulgarian crew comprising cosmonauts A Y Solovyev, V P Savinykh and A P Aleksandrov (Bulgaria) to conduct joint research and experiments with cosmonauts V G Titov and M K Manarov. Interim orbit 343 x 282 km. Maneuvered to Mir's 355 x 349 km orbit. Docked 15:57 GMT 9 June to Mir's aft port. Moved to forward port 18 June.

1988 July 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
1988 July 18 - . 21:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 37 - . Payload: Progress s/n 145. Mass: 7,065 kg (15,575 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 24.69 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-08-13 13:45:31 . Decay Date: 1988-08-13 13:45:31 . USAF Sat Cat: 19322 . COSPAR: 1988-061A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Rendezvous transfer orbits 187x256 km, 51. 62 deg; 235 x 319 km; 343 x 347 km. Docked with Mir on 20 Jul 1988 22:33:40 GMT. Refuelling operations on 7,8, and 9 August 1998. Undocked on 12 Aug 1988 08:31:54 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 12 Aug 1988 13:45:40 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.27 days. Total docked time 22.42 days.

1988 August 29 - . 04:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-6 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Crew: Lyakhov; Mohmand; Polyakov. Backup Crew: Arzamazov; Berezovoi; Masum. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 56. Mass: 7,070 kg (15,580 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lyakhov; Mohmand; Polyakov; Arzamazov; Berezovoi; Masum. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EP-3; Mir LD-2; Mir EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 114.23 days. Decay Date: 1988-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 19443 . COSPAR: 1988-075A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Transported to the Mir orbital station a Soviet-Afghan crew comprising the cosmonauts V A Lyakhov, V V Polyakov and A A Momand (Afghanistan) to conduct joint research and experiments with the cosmonauts V G Titov and M K Manarov. Returned Manarov, Titov (Soyuz TM-4), Chretien (Soyuz TM-7) to Earth. Initial orbit 195 X 228 km at 51. 57 deg. Maneuvered to a 235 x 259 km orbit, then docked with Mir at 05:41 GMT on 31 August at its 339 x 366 km orbit. Moved from aft to forward port 8 Sept 88.

1988 September 9 - . 23:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 38 - . Payload: Progress s/n 146. Mass: 7,027 kg (15,491 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir LD-2; Mir EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 74.81 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-11-24 19:07:18 . Decay Date: 1988-11-24 19:07:18 . USAF Sat Cat: 19486 . COSPAR: 1988-083A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. During launch first test of Buran ejection seat was made during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Rendezvous orbits 186 X 246 km, 51. 63 deg; 234 X 332 km, 337 X 363 km. Docked with Mir on 12 Sep 1988 01:22:28 GMT. Delivered 2,000 kg supplies including 300 kg of food. Refuelled Mir. Undocked on 23 Nov 1988 12:12:46 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Nov 1988 19:06:58 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.36 days. Total docked time 72.45 days.

1988 November 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
1988 November 26 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-7 - . Call Sign: Donbass (Donbass - River Don basin). Crew: Chretien; Krikalyov; Volkov, Aleksandr. Backup Crew: Serebrov; Tognini; Viktorenko. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 57. Mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chretien; Krikalyov; Volkov, Aleksandr; Serebrov; Tognini; Viktorenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-4; Mir Aragatz; Mir LD-2; Mir EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 151.47 days. Decay Date: 1989-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 19660 . COSPAR: 1988-104A. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Mir Expedition EO-04. Carried Alexander Volkov, Sergei Krikalev, Jean-Loup Chretien to Mir; returned Volkov, Krikalev to Earth. Initial Orbit: 194 X 235 km. Thereafter maneuvered to rendezvous orbit 256 X 291 km before docking with Mir in 337 X 369 km at 17:16 GMT 28 November.

1988 December 25 - . 04:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 39 - . Payload: Progress s/n 147. Mass: 7,015 kg (15,465 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-4; Mir LD-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 44.40 days. Completed Operations Date: 1989-02-07 13:49:23 . Decay Date: 1989-02-07 13:49:23 . USAF Sat Cat: 19728 . COSPAR: 1988-114A. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Made second test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Rendezvous orbits 187 X 237 km, 51.63 deg; 236 X 338 km; 325 X 353 km at Mir. Delivered 1,300 kg cargo. Docked with Mir on 27 Dec 1988 05:35:10 GMT. Undocked on 7 Feb 1989 06:45:34 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 Feb 1989 13:49:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 42.05 days.

1989 February 10 - . 08:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 40 - . Payload: Progress s/n 148. Mass: 7,022 kg (15,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-4; Mir LD-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 22.71 days. Completed Operations Date: 1989-03-05 01:59:08 . Decay Date: 1989-03-05 01:59:08 . USAF Sat Cat: 19783 . COSPAR: 1989-008A. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Conducted third test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Docked with Mir on 12 Feb 1989 10:29:38 GMT. Undocked on 3 Mar 1989 01:45:52 GMT. Unfurled experimental space mirror petal structure on undocking. Destroyed in reentry on 5 Mar 1989 01:59:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.08 days. Total docked time 18.64 days.

1989 March 16 - . 18:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 41 - . Payload: Progress s/n 149. Mass: 6,995 kg (15,421 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-4; Mir LD-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 39.72 days. Completed Operations Date: 1989-04-25 12:11:45 . Decay Date: 1989-04-25 12:11:45 . USAF Sat Cat: 19895 . COSPAR: 1989-023A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Conducted fourth test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Delivered Bulgarian Spektr 256 spectrometer, power supplies for failed equipment. Docked with Mir on 18 Mar 1989 20:50:46 GMT. Between April 9 and 17 boosted Mir into a 373 X 416 km storage orbit after the decision was made to delay remanning the station. However these maneuvers resulted in the spacecraft running out of fuel. Undocked on 21 Apr 1989 01:46:15 GMT. Destroyed in uncontrolled decay of orbit on 25 Apr 1989 12:12:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 6.52 days. Total docked time 33.21 days.

1989 March 23 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2007 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 180.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 19900 . COSPAR: 1989-024A. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Perigee: 224 km (139 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1989 July 18 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2031 - . Payload: Orlets-1 no. 1. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Orlets. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Orlets-1. Duration: 44.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 20136 . COSPAR: 1989-056A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 50.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: First launch of Orlets-1 long duration film return military reconnaissance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft was deorbited..

1989 August 23 - . 03:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 T15000-037.
  • Progress M-1 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 201. Mass: 7,270 kg (16,020 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-5. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 100.34 days. Completed Operations Date: 1989-12-01 11:21:28 . Decay Date: 1989-12-01 11:21:28 . USAF Sat Cat: 20191 . COSPAR: 1989-066A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Unmanned supply vehicle to Mir; first flight of new vehicle design. Tested on-board systems under different conditions and delivered expendable materials and sundry cargo to the Mir manned space station. Docked with Mir on 25 Aug 1989 05:19:02 GMT. Undocked on 1 Dec 1989 09:02:23 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 1 Dec 1989 11:21:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.19 days. Total docked time 98.16 days.

1989 September 5 - . 21:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-8 - . Call Sign: Vityaz (Knight ). Crew: Serebrov; Viktorenko. Backup Crew: Balandin; Solovyov. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 58. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Serebrov; Viktorenko; Balandin; Solovyov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-5. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 166.29 days. Decay Date: 1990-02-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 20218 . COSPAR: 1989-071A. Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Perigee: 390 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Manned two crew. Mir Expedition EO-05. Docked with Mir 8 September. Transported to the Mir orbital station a team consisting of A S Viktorenko, commander of the spacecraft, and A A Serebrov, on-board engineer, to carry out scientific and technological research and experiments. Flight cost 80 million rubles. Expected return 25 million rubles net profit.

1989 November 17 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2049 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 214.00 days. Decay Date: 1990-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 20320 . COSPAR: 1989-088A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 232 km (144 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1989 December 20 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 T15000-039?.
  • Progress M-2 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 202. Mass: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-5. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 51.18 days. Completed Operations Date: 1990-02-09 07:56:10 . Decay Date: 1990-02-09 07:56:10 . USAF Sat Cat: 20373 . COSPAR: 1989-099A. Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Perigee: 390 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; carried US microgravity payload. Delivered various cargoes to the Mir orbital station, including scientific apparatus produced in the United States of America and intended, pursuant to a commercial agreement, for the conduct of experiments on space biotechnology. Docked with Mir on 22 Dec 1989 05:41:21 GMT. Undocked on 9 Feb 1990 02:33:07 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 9 Feb 1990 07:56:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.31 days. Total docked time 48.87 days.

1990 February 11 - . 06:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-9 - . Call Sign: Rodnik (Spring - water spring). Crew: Balandin; Solovyov. Backup Crew: Manakov; Strekalov. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 60. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Balandin; Solovyov; Manakov; Strekalov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-5; Mir EO-6. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 179.05 days. Decay Date: 1990-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 20494 . COSPAR: 1990-014A. Apogee: 387 km (240 mi). Perigee: 373 km (231 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Manned two crew. Mir Expedition EO-06. Docked with Mir. Transported to the Mir orbital station a crew comprising the cosmonauts A Y Solovyov and A N Balandin to conduct an extensive programme of geophysical and astrophysical research, experiments on biology and biotechnology and work on space materials science.

1990 February 28 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 T15000-040.
  • Progress M-3 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 203. Mass: 7,249 kg (15,981 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-6. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 58.07 days. Completed Operations Date: 1990-04-29 00:52:03 . Decay Date: 1990-04-29 00:52:03 . USAF Sat Cat: 20513 . COSPAR: 1990-020A. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 3 Mar 1990 01:04:32 GMT. Undocked on 27 Apr 1990 20:24:43 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 28 Apr 1990 00:52:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.26 days. Total docked time 55.81 days..

1990 April 11 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Foton 6 - . Payload: Foton s/n 6L. Mass: 6,200 kg (13,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft: Foton. Duration: 15.17 days. Decay Date: 1990-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 20566 . COSPAR: 1990-032A. Apogee: 374 km (232 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. 250 orbits. In addition to Russian materials science experiments, Foton 6 carried out the French Gezon experiment using the Russian Zona-4M electric furnace (Foton spacecraft have also flown the Zona 1, Zona 4, Splav 2, and Konstanta 2 electric furnaces as well as the Kashtan electrophoresis unit). Foton 6, which also carried the European Biopan life sciences experiments, was successfully recovered on the 15th day.

1990 May 5 - . 20:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 T15000-041.
  • Progress 42 - . Payload: Progress s/n 150. Mass: 7,011 kg (15,456 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-6. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 21.66 days. Completed Operations Date: 1990-05-28 12:27:29 . Decay Date: 1990-05-28 12:27:29 . USAF Sat Cat: 20602 . COSPAR: 1990-041A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; last of original design Progress spacecraft. Conducted fifth and final test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Docked with Mir on 7 May 1990 22:45:03 GMT. Undocked on 27 May 1990 07:08:58 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 27 May 1990 12:27:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.31 days. Total docked time 19.35 days.

1990 July 11 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Gamma - . Payload: Gamma s/n 1L. Mass: 7,350 kg (16,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Gamma. Duration: 1,388.41 days. Decay Date: 1992-02-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 20683 . COSPAR: 1990-058A. Apogee: 387 km (240 mi). Perigee: 382 km (237 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Spacecraft mission was research in the field of high-energy (gamma/x-ray) astrophysics conducted jointly with France and Poland. The satellite was based on the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an extremely long gestation - conceived in 1965, authorised in 1976, scheduled originally for launch in 1984, but further severe technical delays resulted in a 1990 launch.

1990 August 1 - . 09:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-10 - . Call Sign: Vulkan (Volcano ). Crew: Manakov; Strekalov. Backup Crew: Afanasyev; Manarov. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 61A. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Manakov; Strekalov; Afanasyev; Manarov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-7; Mir EO-6. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 130.86 days. Decay Date: 1990-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 20722 . COSPAR: 1990-067A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-07. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station the crew consisting of the cosmonauts G M Manakov and G M Strekalov for the purpose of carrying out a programme of geophysical and astrophysical research, biological and biotechnological experiments, and work on space-materials science.

1990 August 15 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 T15000-042.
  • Progress M-4 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 204. Mass: 7,294 kg (16,080 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-7. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 36.32 days. Completed Operations Date: 1990-09-20 11:43:08 . Decay Date: 1990-09-20 11:43:08 . USAF Sat Cat: 20752 . COSPAR: 1990-072A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered cables for rewiring operations and equipment for Soyuz TM-11 Japanese journalist flight. Docked with Mir on 17 Aug 1990 05:26:13 GMT. Undocked on 17 Sep 1990 12:42:43 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Sep 1990 11:42:49 GMT. Total free-flight time 5.02 days. Total docked time 31.30 days.

1990 September 27 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 T15000-044.
  • Progress M-5 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 206. Mass: 7,320 kg (16,130 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-7. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 62.02 days. Completed Operations Date: 1990-11-28 10:59:23 . Decay Date: 1990-11-28 10:59:23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20824 . COSPAR: 1990-085A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Included first Progress recoverable capsule for return of 150 kg of payload to earth. Docked with Mir on 29 Sep 1990 12:26:50 GMT. Undocked on 28 Nov 1990 06:15:46 GMT. After deorbit burn, capsule separated for reentry with an expected landing in Kazakhstan at 28 Nov 1990 11:04:05 GMT. However the recoverable capsule's beacon signal was never received after reentry. All experimental data and materials in capsule lost. Total free-flight time 2.28 days. Total docked time 59.74 days.
  • VBK Raduga - . Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-7. Spacecraft: Progress M. Decay Date: 1990-11-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 20824 . COSPAR: 1990-085xx. Apogee: 406 km (252 mi). Perigee: 361 km (224 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

1990 October 1 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2101 - . Payload: Orlets-1 no. 2. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Orlets. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Orlets-1. Duration: 60.00 days. Decay Date: 1990-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 20828 . COSPAR: 1990-087A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 162 km (100 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Long duration film return military reconnaissance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft was deorbited..

1990 December 2 - . 08:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-11 - . Call Sign: Derbent (Derbent - Russian city). Crew: Afanasyev; Akiyama; Manarov. Backup Crew: Artsebarsky; Kikuchi; Krikalyov. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 61. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Afanasyev; Akiyama; Manarov; Artsebarsky; Kikuchi; Krikalyov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-8; Mir Kosmoreporter; Mir EO-7. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 175.08 days. Decay Date: 1991-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 20981 . COSPAR: 1990-107A. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi). Perigee: 367 km (228 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-08. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station the international crew consisting of the cosmonauts V M Afanasyev, M Kh Manarov, and T Akiyami (Japan) for the purpose of carrying out joint work with the cosmonauts G M Manakov and G M Strekalov. Launched jointly with the private Japanese company TBS. The Japanese television network ended up paying $ 28 million for the first commercial flight to Mir to put Akiyama, the first journalist in space aboard Soyuz TM-11. Akiyama made daily television broadcasts.

1990 December 21 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2113 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 172.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 21026 . COSPAR: 1990-113A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 225 km (139 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1991 January 14 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 T15000-045.
  • Progress M-6 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 205. Mass: 7,125 kg (15,707 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-8. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 60.14 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-03-15 18:06:59 . Decay Date: 1991-03-15 18:06:59 . USAF Sat Cat: 21053 . COSPAR: 1991-002A. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered new life support equipment to replace life-expired equipment aboard. Docked with Mir on 16 Jan 1991 16:35:25 GMT. Undocked on 15 Mar 1991 12:46:41 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 15 Mar 1991 18:07:26 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 57.84 days.

1991 March 19 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 R15000-049.
  • Progress M-7 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 208. Mass: 7,307 kg (16,109 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-8. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 49.18 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-05-07 17:21:50 . Decay Date: 1991-05-07 17:21:50 . USAF Sat Cat: 21188 . COSPAR: 1991-020A. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Attempted to dock with Mir on 21 March 1998 14:28 GMT, but missed the station by 500 m. Docking attempted again on 23 March but at 50 meters the docking was aborted; the Progress missed hitting the station by five meters. Thereafter it was placed in a station-keeping co-orbit with Mir while the problem was diagnosed. Finally docked with Mir on 28 Mar 1991 12:02:28 GMT. On 12 and 14 Apr 1998 two burns of the engine of Progress M-7 raised the station's orbit from a 360 x 377 km orbit to a 370 x 382 km orbit. Undocked on 6 May 1991 22:59:36 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 May 1991 17:20:05 GMT. Total free-flight time 9.72 days. Total docked time 39.46 days.

1991 May 18 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-12 - . Call Sign: Ozon (Ozone ). Crew: Artsebarsky; Krikalyov; Sharman. Backup Crew: Kaleri; Mace; Volkov, Aleksandr. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 62. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Artsebarsky; Krikalyov; Sharman; Kaleri; Mace; Volkov, Aleksandr. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-9; Mir LD-3; Mir Juno; Mir EO-8. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 144.64 days. Decay Date: 1991-10-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 21311 . COSPAR: 1991-034A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 389 km (241 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-09. Carried Anatoli Artsebarski, Sergei Krikalev, Helen Sharman to Mir; returned Artsebarski, crew of Soyuz TM 8 to Earth. Second commercial flight with paying British passenger. Sponsoring British consortium was not quite able to come up with money, however. Flight continued at Soviet expense with very limited UK experiments.

1991 May 30 - . 08:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 R15000-050.
  • Progress M-8 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 207. Mass: 7,296 kg (16,084 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-9; Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 77.95 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-08-16 07:02:29 . Decay Date: 1991-08-16 07:02:29 . USAF Sat Cat: 21395 . COSPAR: 1991-038A. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 390 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Summary: Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 1 Jun 1991 09:44:37 GMT. Undocked on 15 Aug 1991 22:16:59 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 16 Aug 1991 06:56:32 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.43 days. Total docked time 75.52 days..
  • Naduvaniy gazovoy ballon - . Payload: Balloon subsatellite. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-9; Mir LD-3. Decay Date: 1991-08-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 21661 . COSPAR: 1986-017FJ. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.34 min.

1991 July 10 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2153 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 247.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-03-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 21560 . COSPAR: 1991-049A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1991 August 20 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 G15000-047.
  • Progress M-9 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 210. Mass: 7,311 kg (16,117 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-9; Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 40.39 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-10-01 08:24:38 . Decay Date: 1991-10-01 08:24:38 . USAF Sat Cat: 21662 . COSPAR: 1991-057A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; carried reentry capsule for return of 150 kg of experiment results. Docked with Mir on 23 Aug 1991 00:54:17 GMT. Undocked on 30 Sep 1991 01:53:00 GMT. 350 kg return capsule detached from the Propess' orbital module at an altitude of 110 to 130 km. The capsule underwent a ballistic descent to 15 km, followed by a parachute descent from there to surface. The capsule's beacon began transmitting at 4.5 km. Landed in Kazakhstan on 30 Sep 1991 08:16:24 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 38.04 days.

1991 October 2 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-13 - . Call Sign: Donbass (Donbass - River Don basin). Crew: Aubakirov; Viehboeck; Volkov, Aleksandr. Backup Crew: Lothaller; Musabayev; Viktorenko. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 63. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aubakirov; Viehboeck; Volkov, Aleksandr; Lothaller; Musabayev; Viktorenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-10; Mir Austromir; Mir EO-9; Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 175.12 days. Decay Date: 1992-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 21735 . COSPAR: 1991-069A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned three crew. Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-10. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station an international crew comprising the cosmonauts A Volkov (USSR), T Aubakirov (USSR) and F. Viehbock (Austria), to conduct joint scientific and technical research with the cosmonauts A. Artsebarsky and S Krikalev. Austria paid $ 7 million for mission. Kazakh cosmonaut added at last minute.

1991 October 9 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2163 - . Payload: Orlets-1 no. 3. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Orlets. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Orlets-1. Duration: 58.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 21741 . COSPAR: 1991-071A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Long duration film return military reconnaissance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft was deorbited..

1991 October 17 - . 00:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 15000-055.
  • Progress M-10 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 211. Mass: 7,306 kg (16,106 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-10; Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 95.50 days. Completed Operations Date: 1992-01-20 12:03:05 . Decay Date: 1992-01-20 12:03:05 . USAF Sat Cat: 21746 . COSPAR: 1991-073A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. First attempted to dock with Mir on 19 October 1991. The docking was automatically aborted at a distance of 150 m from the station. Successfully docked with the forward port of Mir on on 21 Oct 1991 03:40:50 GMT. Unloading began next day. Undocked on 20 Jan 1992 07:13:44 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Jan 1992 12:03:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.35 days. Total docked time 91.15 days.
  • VBK Raduga - . Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-10; Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Progress M. Decay Date: 1992-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 21746 . COSPAR: 1991-073xx. Apogee: 378 km (234 mi). Perigee: 376 km (233 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.10 min.

1992 January 25 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 R15000-058.
  • Progress M-11 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 212. Mass: 7,320 kg (16,130 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-10; Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 48.33 days. Completed Operations Date: 1992-03-13 13:13:31 . Decay Date: 1992-03-13 13:13:31 . USAF Sat Cat: 21851 . COSPAR: 1992-004A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 27 Jan 1992 09:30:43 GMT. Undocked on 13 Mar 1992 08:43:40 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 13 Mar 1992 15:47:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.36 days. Total docked time 45.97 days..

1992 March 17 - . 10:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-14 - . Call Sign: Vityaz (Knight ). Crew: Flade; Kaleri; Viktorenko. Backup Crew: Avdeyev; Ewald; Solovyov. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 64. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Flade; Kaleri; Viktorenko; Avdeyev; Ewald; Solovyov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-11; Mir 92; Mir EO-10; Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 145.59 days. Decay Date: 1992-08-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 21908 . COSPAR: 1992-014A. Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Perigee: 373 km (231 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Summary: Mir Expedition EO-11. Joint flight with Germany. Docked at the Kvant rear port at 12:33 GMT on March 19..

1992 April 8 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2183 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 314.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 21928 . COSPAR: 1992-018A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 237 km (147 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1992 April 19 - . 21:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 R15000-059.
  • Progress M-12 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 213. Mass: 7,320 kg (16,130 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-11. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 69.11 days. Decay Date: 1992-06-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 21946 . COSPAR: 1992-022A. Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Perigee: 373 km (231 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Summary: Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 21 Apr 1992 23:21:59 GMT. Undocked on 27 Jun 1992 21:34:44 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 28 Jun 1992 00:02:51 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.18 days. Total docked time 66.93 days..

1992 June 30 - . 16:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 15000-062.
  • Progress M-13 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 214. Mass: 7,320 kg (16,130 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-11. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 23.64 days. Completed Operations Date: 1992-07-24 08:08:22 . Decay Date: 1992-07-24 08:08:22 . USAF Sat Cat: 22004 . COSPAR: 1992-035A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. An initial docking attempt on 2 Jul 1992 was a failure. Docked with Mir on 4 Jul 1992 16:55:13 GMT. Undocked on 24 Jul 1992 04:14:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 24 Jul 1992 08:03:35 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.17 days. Total docked time 19.47 days. It was docked to Mir for only a few weeks, since on 26 Jul the Soyuz TM-15 was to be launched with a replacement crew and would need to use the same docking port.

1992 July 27 - . 06:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-15 - . Call Sign: Rodnik (Spring - water spring). Crew: Avdeyev; Solovyov; Tognini. Backup Crew: Haignere; Manakov; Polishchuk. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 65. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avdeyev; Solovyov; Tognini; Haignere; Manakov; Polishchuk. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-12; Mir Antares; Mir EO-11. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 188.90 days. Decay Date: 1993-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22054 . COSPAR: 1992-046A. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Mir Expedition EO-12. Russian astronauts Solovyov and Avdeev and French astronaut Tognini were inserted into an initial 190 x 200 km orbit inclined 51.6 deg. Later on July 27 they maneuvered to a 223 x 343 km orbit, and on July 28 docked with Mir in its 405 x 410 km orbit.

1992 August 15 - . 22:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 U15000-064.
  • Progress M-14 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 209. Mass: 7,176 kg (15,820 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 67.04 days. Completed Operations Date: 1992-10-22 23:12:40 . Decay Date: 1992-10-22 23:12:40 . USAF Sat Cat: 22090 . COSPAR: 1992-055A. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Progress M-38 was specially modified to carry the first VDU (Vynosnaya Dvigatel'naya Ustanovka, External Engine Unit) propulsion unit. The VDU was mounted externally on a special structure between the cargo module and the service module, replacing the OKD fuel section present on normal Progress vehicles. The crew spacewalked to extract the VDU from Progress and place it on the end of the Sofora boom extending from the Kvant module. The VDU was used to provide attitude control capability for the Mir station. Docked with Mir on 18 Aug 1992 00:20:48 GMT. Undocked on 21 Oct 1992 16:46:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 21 Oct 1992 23:12:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 64.68 days.

1992 October 27 - . 17:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 15000-061.
  • Progress M-15 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 215. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 102.56 days. Completed Operations Date: 1993-02-07 06:54:51 . Decay Date: 1993-02-07 06:54:51 . USAF Sat Cat: 22203 . COSPAR: 1992-071A. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 29 Oct 1992 19:05:51 GMT. Undocked on 4 Feb 1993 00:44:53 GMT. After completion of the Znamya and autonomous operation experiments, destroyed in reentry on 7 Feb 1993 06:43:20 GMT. Total free-flight time 5.32 days. Total docked time 97.24 days.
  • Mak 2 - . Payload: Mak. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Mak. Decay Date: 1993-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22225 . COSPAR: 1986-017GX. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. Summary: Deployed from MIR on 11/20/92. Launched from Mir airlock. Conduct of experiments to study physical processes in the Earth's ionosphere. Small satellite launched from the Mir station. .
  • Znamya-2 - . Payload: Znamya-2. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Znamya. Decay Date: 1993-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 22449 . COSPAR: 1992-071C. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 389 km (241 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.38 min. Summary: Reflector mirror, deployed from Progress M-15 after separation from Mir space station..

1992 December 9 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2223 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 372.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 22260 . COSPAR: 1992-087A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 238 km (147 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1992 December 22 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2225 - . Payload: Orlets-1 no. 4. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Orlets. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Orlets-1. Duration: 58.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-02-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 22280 . COSPAR: 1992-091A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Long duration film return military reconnaissance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft was deorbited..

1993 January 24 - . 05:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-16 - . Call Sign: Vulkan (Volcano ). Crew: Manakov; Polishchuk. Backup Crew: Serebrov; Tsibliyev. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 101. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Manakov; Polishchuk; Serebrov; Tsibliyev. Agency: RAKA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-13; Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 179.03 days. Decay Date: 1993-07-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 22319 . COSPAR: 1993-005A. Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Perigee: 393 km (244 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Manned two crew. Mir Expedition EO-13. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station a crew of the thirteenth main expedition comprising the cosmonauts G M Manakov and A F Poleschuk.The Soyuz carried the APAS androgynous docking system instead of the usual probe system.

1993 February 21 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 U15000-068.
  • Progress M-16 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 216. Mass: 7,338 kg (16,177 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-13. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 33.65 days. Completed Operations Date: 1993-03-27 10:05:12 . Decay Date: 1993-03-27 10:05:12 . USAF Sat Cat: 22530 . COSPAR: 1993-012A. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 23 Feb 1993 20:17:57 GMT. Undocked on 26 Mar 1993 06:50:00 GMT. Redocked with Mir on 1993-03-26 07:06:03 GMT. Final undocking on 1993-03-27 04:21:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 27 Mar 1993 10:25:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.33 days. Total docked time 31.32 days.

1993 March 31 - . 03:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 N15000-069.
  • Progress M-17 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 217. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-13. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 337.00 days. Completed Operations Date: 1994-03-03 03:29:47 . Decay Date: 1994-03-03 03:29:47 . USAF Sat Cat: 22588 . COSPAR: 1993-019A. Apogee: 365 km (226 mi). Perigee: 362 km (224 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Conducted docked and undocked longevity spacecraft longevity tests. Docked with Mir on 1 Apr 1993 05:16:18 GMT. Undocked on 11 Aug 1993 15:36:42 GMT. Destroyed in reentry over the South Atlantic on 3 Mar 1994 03:28:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 204.56 days. Total docked time 132.43 days.

1993 May 22 - . 06:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress M-18 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 218. Mass: 7,348 kg (16,199 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-13. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 43.44 days. Completed Operations Date: 1993-07-04 17:14:25 . Decay Date: 1993-07-04 17:14:25 . USAF Sat Cat: 22666 . COSPAR: 1993-034A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Last launch using Soyuz-U2 launch vehicle. Docked with Mir's front port on 24 May 1993 08:24:44 GMT. In addition to other supplies, carried repair equipment for a spacewalk device damaged a month before. Undocked on 3 Jul 1993 15:58:16 GMT, with Soyuz TM-17 docking at the same port only minutes later at 17:45 GMT. Meanwhile, Progress M-17 remained docked to the Kvant rear port on a longevity test. Progress M-18 was destroyed in reentry on 4 Jul 1993 17:13:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.12 days. Total docked time 40.31 days.

1993 July 1 - . 14:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-17 - . Call Sign: Sirius (Sirius ). Crew: Haignere; Serebrov; Tsibliyev. Backup Crew: Afanasyev; Andre-Deshays; Usachyov. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 66. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Haignere; Serebrov; Tsibliyev; Afanasyev; Andre-Deshays; Usachyov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-14; Mir Altair; Mir EO-13. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 196.74 days. Decay Date: 1994-02-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 22704 . COSPAR: 1993-043A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 388 km (241 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Mir Expedition EO-14. Carried Vasili Tsibliyev, Alexander Serebrov, Jean-Pierre Haignere to Mir; returned Serebrov, Tsibliyev to Earth. Progress M-18 undocked from Mir's front port at around 17:25 GMT on July 3, and Soyuz TM-17 docked at the same port only 20 minutes later at 17:45 GMT.

1993 September 7 - . 13:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2262 - . Payload: Orlets-1 no. 5. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Orlets. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Orlets-1. Duration: 102.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 22789 . COSPAR: 1993-057A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Long duration film return military reconnaissance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft was deorbited. First launch that demonstrated doubled operational life..

1993 November 5 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2267 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 418.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 22904 . COSPAR: 1993-071A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 228 km (141 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1994 January 8 - . 10:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-18 - . Call Sign: Derbent (Derbent - Russian city). Crew: Afanasyev; Polyakov; Usachyov. Backup Crew: Arzamazov; Malenchenko; Strekalov. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 67. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev; Polyakov; Usachyov; Arzamazov; Malenchenko; Strekalov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-15; Mir EO-14; Mir LD-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 182.02 days. Decay Date: 1994-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 22957 . COSPAR: 1994-001A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 244 km (151 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: Mir Expedition EO-15. Docked at the Kvant module on January 10 at 11:15 GMT. Transported to the Mir orbital station of a crew comprising the cosmonauts V M Afanasev, Y V Usachev, and V V Polyakov for the fifteenth main expedition..

1994 April 28 - . 17:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2280 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 316.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 23095 . COSPAR: 1994-025A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1994 July 1 - . 12:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-19 - . Call Sign: Agat (Agate ). Crew: Malenchenko; Musabayev. Backup Crew: Dezhurov; Strekalov. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 68. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Malenchenko; Musabayev; Dezhurov; Strekalov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-16; Mir EO-15; Mir LD-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 125.95 days. Decay Date: 1994-11-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 23139 . COSPAR: 1994-036A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.49 min. Summary: Mir Expedition EO-16. Soyuz TM-19 docked at the rear port of the Kvant module (vacated by Progress M-23 on July 2) at 13:55:01 GMT on July 3..

1994 October 3 - . 22:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-20 - . Call Sign: Vityaz (Knight ). Crew: Kondakova; Merbold; Viktorenko. Backup Crew: Budarin; Reiter; Solovyov. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 69. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kondakova; Merbold; Viktorenko; Budarin; Reiter; Solovyov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-17; Mir Euromir 94; Mir EO-16; Mir LD-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 169.22 days. Decay Date: 1995-03-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 23288 . COSPAR: 1994-063A. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Perigee: 392 km (243 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.43 min. Mir Expedition EO-17. Docked at the Mir forward port at 00:28 on 1994 October 6. The Mir crew of Viktorenko, Kondakova and Polyakov boarded Soyuz TM-20 on January 11, and undocked from Mir's front port at 09:00 GMT. The spacecraft withdrew to about two hundred metres from Mir and then redocked in a test of the automatic Kurs system, which had failed in Progress M-24's attempted docking. Redocking came at 09:25 GMT.

1994 December 29 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2305 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 354.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23453 . COSPAR: 1994-088A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1995 March 14 - . 06:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-21 - . Call Sign: Uragan (Hurricane ). Crew: Dezhurov; Strekalov; Thagard. Backup Crew: Avdeyev; Dunbar; Gidzenko. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 70. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dezhurov; Strekalov; Thagard; Avdeyev; Dunbar; Gidzenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-18; Mir EO-17; Mir LD-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 181.03 days. Decay Date: 1995-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23519 . COSPAR: 1995-010A. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 392 km (243 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. Mir Expedition EO-18. Soyuz TM-21 carried the EO-18 Mir crew and American Norman Thagard. Thagard was the first American to be launched in a Soyuz. Soyuz docked with Mir at 07:45:26 GMT on March 16 . On July 4 Soyuz TM-21 undocked and backed off to a distance of 100 m from Mir. The US space shuttle Atlantis, with the EO-18 crew aboard, then undocked and began a flyaround at a distance of 210 m, while the EO-19 crew aboard Soyuz took pictures before redocking with the station. Soyuz TM-21 again undocked with the EO-19 crew on September 11 from the Kvant rear port on Mir and landed at 50 deg 41'N 68 deg 15'E, 108 km northeast of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan, at 06:52:40 GMT .

1995 September 3 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-22 - . Call Sign: Uran (Uranus ). Crew: Avdeyev; Gidzenko; Reiter. Backup Crew: Duque; Kaleri; Korzun. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 71. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avdeyev; Gidzenko; Reiter; Duque; Kaleri; Korzun. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-20; Mir EO-19. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 179.07 days. Decay Date: 1996-02-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23665 . COSPAR: 1995-047A. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. Mir Expedition EO-20. Crew commander was Yuriy Pavlovich Gidzenko of the Russian Air Force. Flight engineer was Sergey Vasilyevich Avdeev of RKK Energiya, and cosmonaut-researcher was Thomas Reiter of the European Space Agency. Soyuz TM-22 docked with Mir's front (-X) port at 10:29:54 GMT on September 5 and the hatch was opened at 11:01:23.

1996 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz 11A511U2 booster abandoned due to Sintin production stoppage - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Soyuz 11A511U2 used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') in the first stage for launch of premium reconnaisance satellite and manned payloads requiring just a bit more payload than the standard 11A511..

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